Export Of Grapes From India To UK

1. CONCEPTUAL FRAMWORK 1.1 INTRO DUCTION
Today India is the second largest producer of the fruits (45.5 Million tons) and Vegetables (90.8 Million tons ) in the world ,contributing 10.23%and 14.45%of the total world production of fruits and vegetables respectively .India has made a fairly good progress on horticulture Map of world with total annual production of The horticulture crops touching over 149 million tons India has been bestowed with wide range of climate and physio-geographical conditions and as such is most suitable for growing various kinds of horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers , nuts , spices and plantation crops. With the focused attention given to horticulture, there has been spectacular change in terms of adoption of new technologies, production and availability of horticulture products. Fruits and vegetables constitute around 10 per cent of the total agriculture production of the country. This sector offers enormous potential for export. According to FAO, the export of fruits from India in 2003-04 US $166 million and that of vegetables US $ 205 million .India’s export of fruits and vegetables is more concentrated towards Asian region. Asian region accounted for 75% of total fruits and vegetable export 2003-04.The export to European and American market is very less due to imposition of stringent quality measures. But in the last 3-4 year the export of fruits and vegetable Europe has been increasing with the adoption of Good Agriculture practices (GAP) by Indian farmer. Also the APEADA is taking active role in establishing many quality testing laboratories and adequate documentation protocol across the country to boost the export of perishables. Maharashtra is the one of the largest state in the production of fruits and vegetable contributing nineteen percent of the total fruit production in the country. The state produces around nine million tones of fruits having productivity of 16 MT per hectare of, which is fairly good when compared to country’s average Of 12 MT. it grows commodities like grapes, pomegranate, mango, sapota , oranges, lime, strawberry, jackfruits etc in large quantity .The state holds prestigious position in vegetable production contributing 5% of the production and stands 7 in the country. Total production of vegetables in Maharashtra is approximately 5 million tones. Because of close proximity to Mumbai port and metropolitan market .the state enjoys the comparative advantage in export as well as long distance

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557

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Export Of Grapes From India To UK In certain commodities the state has occupied unique and prestigious position , e.g. mango ,pomegranate, grapes , onion. Highly perishable nature of his fruits and vegetable make their marketing system more costly and complex. Timely and procurement of fruits and vegetable in bulk is of immense importance for exporters. Transportation plays an important role in fruits and vegetable marketing. The exporter has to meet the specific qualitative and quantitative requirements of the importer. The packaging, residue testing, documentation and phyto sanitary certification has to be met in order To export. So establishing an efficient backward linkage is must for exporting fruits and vegetables. 1.1.1 PROPOSED PLAN FOR MAHARASHTRA • • During very first season (2008-09) 350 Containers of Grapes were to European Nations from Nashik District alone. .Other exports from Nashik District are Pomegranate, Onion, and Banana etc.

1.1.2 History The domestication of purple grapes originated in what is now southern Turkey. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the innovation of alcoholic drinks such as wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production. Later, the growing of grapes spread to Europe, North Africa, and eventually North America. Native purple grapes belonging to the Vitis genus proliferated in the wild across North America, and were a part of the diet of many North American Native Americans, but were considered by European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. The first Old World Vitis vinifera purple grapes were cultivated in California where Spain had established a series of monasteries along the coasts to supply their navies with oranges to prevent scurvy and convert natives. Grapes have always had a part in history. There are old greek troughs and coffins in the Getty Villa, and they show cherubs in tubs of grapes, making wine.

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557

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Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.1.2.1 Description Grapes grow in clusters of 6 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins which are responsible for the color of purple grapes.Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines. 1.1.2.2 Market Scenario Nasik district is the largest producer and export of Grapes in Maharashtra. The main growing are Dindori , Nasik ,Niphad, Pimpalgaon –Basvant and Chandwad. Export of grapes from nasik stands at 7613.63 MT during 2003-04. Usually very little quantity of export quality grapes comes to APMCs. Export grapes are usually Procured at the fare gate. Traders and exports go directly to farms 20-25 days before harvest and they fix a procurement price based on the grade. 1.1.2.3 Period of price fluctuation: Generally the price of grape depends on the production, harvesting period and demands in market of other part of India. Low price: Nov to Dec with the average price around Rs.7 to 9/kg Peak price: April-May with average price around Rs.12 to 15/kg In this market some variety always fetch good price. A general price for varieties can be given below: 1.1.2.3.1 Sangli: It is second largest grapes growing and exporting district in Maharastra. Export quality grapes won’t come to here. So exporters and traders go directly to farmer’s orchard. The important growing regions are Malegaon, Miraj, Nimni, Savlaj and Tasgaon. Nearly 250-300 containers of grapes will be exported this year from Sangli district alone. During last year (200809) the farm gate procurement price of export quality grapes fluctuated with the time like this. February end’s 35-40 /kg March15-30: Rs 50 / kg March 30 onwards Rs 60-65/kg

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557

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Cultivated grapes are believed to have been introduced into the north of India by the Persian invaders in 1300 AD. Rest is from other varieties. Famous Indian medicine scholars. a Moorish traveller who visited Daulatabad in 1430 AD.3 Grape A grape is the non-climacteric fruit. Sangli. juice. Madurai. the Nizam of Hyderabad in the early part of the 20th century. Kautilya in his ‘Arthashastra’ written in the fourth century BC mentioned the type of land suitable for grape cultivation.PIGDAMBER. jelly.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.2. written during 1356-1220 BC. and Baramati and from regions of Kolhapur surrounding Sangli.3. Grapes are also used in some kinds of confectionery. Salem and Hyderabad.NEAR RAU.1.0731. botanically a true berry.4064557 -4- . grape cultivation spread to different parts of the country. Sasruta and Charaka in their medical treatises entitled ‘Sasruta Samhita’ and ‘Charaka Samhita’. The prices of some important varieties are given below.) Tel. Bengal. Daulatabad. and into Hyderabad province by HEH.Grapes arrival is from Solapur.4072636. Grapes can be eaten raw or used for making jam. 1.B. Native spp. and Southern Indian states. respectively. Fax -0731. grape seed extracts.(M. In this market grape price depends on variety of grape. Distribution is mainly to Bihar. raisins. Orisa. Indigenous varieties known as ‘Rangspay’.P. ROAD. reported to have seen flourishing vineyards in south India. Nearly 80% of the production is Thompson seedless and 10-15% is Sharad and flame seedless. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. From Delhi.1. from where they were introduced into the south (Daulatabad in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra) during the historic event of changing the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad by King Mohammed-bin-Tughlak.DISTRICT –INDORE. resembling Vitis lanata and Vitis palmata grow wild in the northwestern Himalayan foothills. and grape seed oil. Grape cultivation is one of the most remunerative farming enterprises in India. There are many Bihar and Bengal traders operating in this market. Ibn Batuta. that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grape was also introduced in the south into Salem and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu by the Christian missionaries around 1832 AD. ‘Shonltu White’ and ‘Shonltu Red’ are grown in Himachal Pradesh even today.2 Solapur Market: Solapur is also very big market for grapes . wine. mentioned the medicinal properties of grapes. vinegar.

Traceability system is maintained for the product tracking. used for jams and wine.) Tel.S. white.4064557 -5- . Native to the Eastern United States and Canada. and north to Quebec. a wild vine of North America. unseeded. the muscadines.1. however. sometimes used for wine.PIGDAMBER. Vitis riparia. Fax -0731. Vitis amurensis. Native to the entire Eastern U. large and small berries. the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. 1. Indian grapes come in varied characteristics namely coloured. sometimes used for winemaking and for jam.P.DISTRICT –INDORE. Indian grapes are successfully grown at and above 250 mean sea level.Extensive Residue Monitoring plan for monitoring the pesticide residues in grapes is implemented for consumer safety. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: • Vitis labrusca.NEAR RAU.B. Modern packhouse facility with automatic forced air system for precooling is available in all the commercial production areas. hot and dry climate is ideal. • • • INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.3. the most important Asian species.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Grape (Vitis vinifera) is grown from temperate to warm regions. seeded. Vitis rotundifolia.(M. the North American table and grape juice grapevines (including the concord cultivar).1 Grapevines Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera.0731.4072636. ROAD. Native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico.

Fax -0731.1 Source: http://en.3.4064557 -6- .org/wiki/Grape According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).2 Distribution and production Fig 1.) Tel. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural". 75.1. The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year.P.wikipedia.(M. The following table of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes for wine making: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4072636. and 2% as dried fruit.NEAR RAU.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.0731. ROAD.B.DISTRICT –INDORE.866 square kilometres of the world are dedicated to grapes.PIGDAMBER. 27% as fresh fruit. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine.

Export Of Grapes From India To UK

Table 1.1 Country Spain France Italy Turkey United States Iran Romania Portugal Argentina Australia Lebanon Area dedicated 11,750 km2 8,640 km2 8,270 km2 8,120 km2 4,150 km2 2,860 km2 2,480 km2 2,160 km2 2,080 km2 1,642 km2 1,122 km2

Top Ten Grapes Producers – 8 October 2009 Country Italy People's Republic of China United States France Spain Table:1.2 Turkey Iran Argentina Chile India World Production (Tonnes) 8,519,418 6,787,081 6,384,090 6,044,900 5,995,300 3,612,781 3,000,000 2,900,000 2,350,000 1,667,700 67,221,000 Footnote F F F F F F F F F F A

No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAOSTAT 2007, * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557

- Source: Food And Agricultural Organization7of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division

Export Of Grapes From India To UK Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grape There's no reliable statistics that breaks down grape production by variety. It is, however, believed that the most widely planted variety is Sultana, also known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 sq.km. (880,000 acres) dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Grenache, Tempranillo, and Chardonnay. 1.1.3.3 Table and wine grapes Commercially cultivated grapes can usually be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw (table grapes) or used to make wine (wine grapes). While almost all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera, table and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit (see below) with relatively thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller, usually seeded, and have relatively thick skins (a desirable characteristic in winemaking, since much of the aroma in wine comes from the skin). Wine grapes also tend to be very sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is approximately 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is usually around 15% sugar by weight. 1.1.3.4 Seedless grapes Seedlessness is a highly desirable subjective quality in table grape selection, and seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is, however, an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are currently more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Reliance and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of north-eastern United States and southern Ontario.

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557

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Export Of Grapes From India To UK An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical content of grape seeds (see Health claims, below). 1.1.3.5 Raisins, currants and sultanas In most of Europe, dried grapes are referred to as "raisins" or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "Dried vine fruit" in official documents. A raisin is any dried grape. While raisin is a French loanword, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; grappe (from which the English grape is derived) refers to the bunch (as in une grappe de raisins). A currant is a dried Zante Black Corinth grape, the name being a corruption of the French raisin de Corinthe (Corinth grape). Currant has also come to refer to the blackcurrant and redcurrant, two berries unrelated to grapes. A sultana was originally a raisin made from a specific type of grape of Turkish origin, but the word is now applied to raisins made from common grapes and chemically treated to resemble the traditional sultana. 1.1.4 PRESENT STATUS OF GRAPE CULTIVATION IN THE COUNTRY Grape is grown under a variety of soil and climatic conditions in three distinct agro-climatic zones, namely, sub-tropical, hot tropical and mild tropical climatic regions in India. 1.1.4.1 Sub-tropical Region: This region covers the northwestern plains corresponding to 28° and 32° N latitude including Delhi; Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh; Hissar and Jind districts of Haryana; and Bhatinda, Ferozpur, Gurdaspur and Ludhiana districts of Punjab. Vines undergo dormancy and bud break starts in the first week of March while the rains arrive in the first week of June, and therefore, only 90-95 days are available from the initiation of growth to harvest. Consequently, ‘Perlette’ is the only early ripening variety grown in this region. Rain damage is a

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557

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Maximum temperatures in a year seldom exceed 36°C. while the minimum is about 12°C.1.(M. Muscat Hamburg). Maximum and minimum temperature is 42°C and 8°C. Principal varieties are Bangalore Blue (Syn. 1.B.4072636. ROAD.4064557 . Sonaka). Belgaum. Solapur. two crops are harvested in a year. respectively. Bagalkot. Sharad Seedless and Flame Seedless are the varieties grown in this region. Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh and Coimbatore.2 Hot Tropical Region: This region covers Nashik.NEAR RAU. Hyderabad. Fax -0731. 1.) Tel. This is the major viticulture region accounting for 70 percent of the area under grapes in the country. Thompson Seedless and its clones (Tas-A-Ganesh. and Madurai and Theni districts of Tamil Nadu fall in this region. Anab-e-Shahi. and Bijapur. Single pruning and a single harvest is the accepted practice here. Ranga Reddy. Thompson Seedless is grown only with limited success. Vinifera varieties susceptible to mildew suffer losses due to unprecedented rains during flowering and fruit set in both hot and mild tropical regions. The major problems in this region are soil and water salinity and drought. Sangli. Pune.DISTRICT –INDORE. Latur and Osmanabad districts of Maharashtra.3 Mild Tropical Region: An area covered by 10° and 15° N latitude including Bangalore and Kolar districts of Karnataka.4. Area and production of different varieties of grapes in India is as follows: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4. Satara.10 - .0731.PIGDAMBER. Gulabi (Syn.Export Of Grapes From India To UK problem with Thompson Seedless in this region. Except for Thompson Seedless. Berry growth is impaired and in certain locations pink blush sometimes develops on green berries due to temperatures that drop to a low of 8°C.P. Anantapur and Medak districts of Andhra Pradesh. Mahbubnagar.1. Isabella). and Bhokri. Gulberga districts of northern Karnataka lying between 15° and 20° N latitude. Vines do not undergo dormancy and double pruning and a single harvest is the general practice in this region. Anab-e-Shahi.

org/docrep/003/x6897e/x6897e06.000 180.000 34.PIGDAMBER. and 10.) Tel.P. Pinot Noir and Uni Blanc are crushed to process into wine.3 Variety Anab-e-Shahi (white. Cabernet Sauvignon. About 120. seedless) Thomson Seedless and its mutants (white.0731.000 10.(M.4072636.000 30.11 - . Fax -0731. seeded) Bangalore Blue Syn.000 1. the ‘Dogridge’ rootstock is being employed to combat soil and water salinity problems.5 PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL Vines are raised on their own roots in India. Muscat Hamburg (purple.B. namely.htm Area (ha) 3. Chardonnay. 1.000 Production (t) 135.000 550. seedless) Sharad Seedless .Export Of Grapes From India To UK Table 1. Isabella (black.000 22. seeded) Flame Seedless (red. rootstocks are not employed.000 Approximately 85 percent of the total production.NEAR RAU. Tas-A-Ganesh. Due to the non-prevalence of Phylloxera or nematodes.500 500 500 1.000 tonnes of Thompson Seedless and its mutants.4064557 .500 1. Chenin Blanc. ROAD. seeded) Bhokri (white.DISTRICT –INDORE. is consumed fresh.000 tonnes of Bangalore Blue.000 15. irrespective of the variety.000 20.000 4. Merlot.000 60. seedless) Total Source:http://www. seedless) Gulabi Syn.000.000 tonnes of Bangalore Blue are crushed to make juice.fao.1. but in recent years. seeded) Perlette (white. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Some 20. Sonaka and Manik Chaman are dried for raisins.000 1.A mutant of Kishmish Chorni (black.

The desired scion variety is then grafted/budded on the rootstocks in the field by wedge grafting/chip budding. ROAD. sulphate of potash and micro-nutrients.2 Raising on Rootstocks Hardwood cuttings of the ‘Dogridge’ rootstock are subjected to rooting. Land within a plot is levelled perfectly to have a gradient of less than 1 percent in any direction to ensure uniform discharge of water through the emitters of drip irrigation systems. The basal parts of cuttings are then dipped in a 2.000 ppm strong IBA solution for five minutes before planting. Cuttings of 4 nodes each with a thickness of 8 to 10 mm are made from the selected canes.1 Land Preparation and Vine Establishment The land is tilled and laid into plots of 120 m x 180 m separated by 3 m wide roads. 1.1 Multiplication on Own Roots Grapes are multiplied exclusively by the rooting of hardwood cuttings. 50 kg of cattle INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B.5. Trenches of 75 cm width. Fax -0731. single superphosphate. It is also a practice to plant the cuttings in situ when three to four cuttings prepared and treated as above are planted at each spot in the main field.3 Establishment Of Vineyards 1.12 - .5.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.PIGDAMBER.1.1. Wedge grafting is more common and the best time for the operation is September-October.5. No Government agency is involved in the multiplication and supply of rooted cuttings. preferably in polybags of 15 x 25 cm.1 percent is a practice to safeguard the cuttings against termite damage. Soil drenching with chlorophyriphos 0.) Tel. Growers themselves obtain the hardwood cuttings from elite vineyards and raise their own nurseries. cattle manure.4064557 . Rooted cuttings of this rootstock are planted in the main field during February-March. Well matured canes obtained in September/October are selected.4072636. while June-July is the suitable time for chip budding.DISTRICT –INDORE.5. They are closed with topsoil.(M. up to a height of 45 cm after 15 days exposure to sun.3.1. Usually. 1. The fresh cuttings are soaked in running water for 24 hours to leach out the water-soluble rooting inhibitors.0731.1.NEAR RAU. 75 cm depth and 118 m length in a north-south direction with a gap of 3 m between trenches are opened with heavy machinery.P. The remaining gap is filled with a mixture of soil.

13 - .(M. 1.3.2 Planting Season The best season for planting the rooted cuttings of cultivated varieties in the main field is September-October whereas for rootstocks it is February-March. the trellis looks like a telephone pole and wires and hence the name.5 kg of superphosphate. Fax -0731. bower was a very popular system of training in the past.Export Of Grapes From India To UK manure. Bower System: Owing to the high productive potential.0731.DISTRICT –INDORE.4 CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF VINEYARDS 1.PIGDAMBER.5.3.1. this system is not popular.4064557 .5. This system is followed for moderately vigorous varieties like Thompson Seedless and other seedless cultivars in about 25-30 percent of the vineyard area in Maharashtra.1. Yields in this system are less than the bower. Telephone System: T-trellis is used in this system of training. 0.5 kg of sulphate of potash and 50 g each of ZnSO 4 and FeSO4 are added to the soil for every running meter length of the trench.NEAR RAU.1.5. 2.4. ROAD. In very hot and dry places. 1. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Telephone and Flat Roof Gable systems. With three top wires and ‘T’ shaped supports.3 Spacing Spacing generally varies with the varieties and soil fertility. It is highly suited for vigorous varieties like Anab-e-Shahi.1.5. 1.4072636.) Tel. For vigorous varieties it is 6 m x 3 m or 4 m x 3 m and 3 m x 3 m or 3 m x 2 m for less vigorous varieties.P.B. sunburn of the berries and of the arms are experienced in summer. But in varieties like Thompson Seedless and Tas-A-Ganesh where vine vigour and excessive foliage density affects the productivity adversely. but the most popular are Bower. Bangalore Blue and Gulabi.1 Training of Vines Many training systems are in vogue in India.

DISTRICT –INDORE. 1. 1. vines are pruned only once in December and the crop is harvested once.4072636. five crops are harvested every two years. Half of the canes are pruned to renewal spurs and the rest to fruiting canes (3-4 nodes for Perlette). P2O5 and K2O per hectare is followed in light sandy soils.) Tel. The annual dose is fixed based on the petiole analysis carried out at 45 days after spur pruning. In the sub-tropical region. The clusters hang within the reach of the worker of an average height. ROAD. Fax -0731. vines are pruned twice but only one crop is harvested. In the mild tropical region.1. The bunches are protected from direct sunlight and well exposed to sprays of pesticides.0731. pruning is done at any time of the year.NEAR RAU.2 Pruning of Vines Three distinct pruning practices are in vogue in relation to cropping in the three grape growing regions of the country. This system is particularly followed for vigorous vines (vines grafted on rootstocks).4064557 . A standard dose of 500:500:1000 kg of N.14 - .PIGDAMBER. which are fairly resistant to rain damage and in which fruit bud differentiation is not impaired by cloudy weather and rains. vines are pruned twice and the crop is harvested twice. All canes in a vine are pruned back to single node spurs in March-May to develop canes and the canes are forward pruned in October-November for fruiting.B.(M. While 40 percent of the annual dose is given through organic sources.4.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Flat Roof Gable System: Combining the advantage of bower and the extended Y systems and eliminating their disadvantages. There is no scope to prune earlier than October and later than November due to unfavourable weather conditions.4. an inter-connected Y trellis forming a flat roof gable is being adopted. As a result. the usage of organic manure has assumed high importance in India. Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.P. this system is gaining popularity among the growers in Maharashtra. 60 percent is given as inorganic INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. In varieties like Gulabi and Bangalore Blue.5. while 660:880:660 kg are applied for heavy clay soils.5.3 Application of Manure and Fertilizers As vineyard soils are either sandy loams or heavy clays. The number of nodes retained on a cane varies with the variety and cane thickness. Owing to these advantages. In hot tropical regions.1.

0 kg/ha or paraquat at about 7. weeds are manually hoed and removed.Export Of Grapes From India To UK fertilizer. ROAD.05 percent.05 percent or malathion at 0. 50 percent of P2O5 and 33 percent 1. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Thrips are effectively controlled by spraying phosphamidon at 0. flea beetles.05 percent. mealy bugs and leaf hoppers.4.1.4.NEAR RAU. Calcium ammonium nitrate is usually not used.05 percent. 1. Fax -0731.6 Pests and their Management The important pests of grapes in India are.) Tel. Water is applied at different rates at different stages of vine growth and berry development. quinolphos at 0. particularly in heavy clay soils.4 Weeding Weeds between the rows of vines are removed mechanically by tractor drawn implements. Recently application of soluble fertilizers through drip irrigation is picking up.5 Supplementary Irrigation Since grapes are grown in areas where the evapotranspiration exceeds the precipitation. 40 percent of N.P. carbaryl at 0.8 as the crop factor. Flea beetles: The adult beetles scrape the sprouting buds and eat them up completely after each pruning. irrigation is essential. Water requirement is calculated based on the pan evaporation using 0.05 percent are sprayed from the fourth day until the emergence of leaves.5.5 kg/ha is sprayed in fully grown vineyards. Thrips: Thrips attack the ovaries of flowers and newly set berries and suck sap from them.B. mainly glyphosate at about 2.125 percent. Sulphate of potash is the only source of potash used in place of muriate.4. while the rest is irrigated by drip systems.4064557 . Prophylactic sprays of insecticides against thrips are given once in five days from the initiation of bloom to berry set. phosalone at 0. Damaged buds fail to sprout.5.15 - . Less than 10 percent of the vineyard areas are surface irrigated.1 percent or phosalone at 0. Such berries are not suitable for marketing. 1. Sometimes the post-emergent weedicides.5.(M. Within the rows.4072636.15 percent. Scab formation on the berry surface is also due to thrip damage to the ovaries/young berries.DISTRICT –INDORE.PIGDAMBER.0731. The affected berries develop a corky layer and become brown on maturity. thrips.1. dichlorvas at 0. Insecticides like carbaryl at 0.1.

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.1 percent only is effective on the adults. downy mildew.4064557 . Carbaryl at 0. Yield losses can be up to 50 percent due to mealy bug damage. The adults and young nymphs of hoppers suck sap exclusively from the lower side of the leaves. ii) Spray only dichlorvas at 0.) Tel.1 percent.000 per hectare when the berries start softening.DISTRICT –INDORE.7 Diseases and their Management The important grape diseases are anthracnose. Anthracnose is prevalent in all grape growing regions of the country.2 percent or tridemorph at 0.05 percent are sprayed to control this pest.25 percent or carbendazim at 0.04 percent.B.0731. ROAD. iii) Release cryptolaemus montrozieri beetles at 8. flowers and young berries. It is better to release a mixed population of grubs and adults rather than only adults.4. copper oxychloride at 0. They excrete honey on leaves and berries and sooty mold develops on the honey.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Mealy Bugs: Mealy bugs are the most serious and problematic pests of grapes in India. Leaf hoppers: This pest has assumed serious proportions in all grape growing regions of India in recent years.15 percent. The disease is characterized by small light brown or greyish black lesions on tender shoots.8 percent.PIGDAMBER. young leaves.1. powdery mildew and bacterial leaf spot.4072636.(M. Nymphs and adults suck sap from the tender shoots resulting in crinkling and stunting of the new shoots. Mealy bug infected bunches are unfit for marketing.05 percent is more effective on the nymphs while tridemorph at 0. 1.1 percent mixed with neem oil 0. Bordeaux mixture at 0. Alternaria is also becoming a serious pathogen. phosalone at 0. In recent years.05 percent and phosalone at 0.05 percent or quinalphos at 0.5.16 - . Fax -0731. A mixture of quinalphos at 0. fenitrothion at 0.P. Mealy bugs are hard-to-kill insects and the package of practices for their control in India is as follows: i) Avoid spraying broad-spectrum insecticides particularly synthetic pyrethroids.000-10.1 percent are used to control this disease.NEAR RAU.

shoots and berries.5. Properly neutralized Bordeaux mixture at 1 percent. Bacteria infects leaves. Fax -0731. Entire clusters decay. especially along the main and lateral veins. while Bordeaux mixture at 0.1. uneven ripening and post-harvest berry drop. Mostly these spots coalesce and form larger patches.1. The disease is characterized by the presence of white powdery (ash like) coating in patches on both sides of the leaves. Salinity injury is common in Maharashtra and north Karnataka.07 percent.05 percent). A wide range of fungicides. but also attacks the flower clusters and young fruits. Powdery mildew is prevalent in all the grape growing regions. Triademifon (Bayleton at 0.(M. Mancozeb at 0. The disease mainly appears on the leaves.2 percent) or Phosethyl-Al (aliettle at 0.B. Calaxin at 0. Severely infected leaves give a blighted appearance. namely.4. shot berries. Karathane EC at 0.04 percent.025 percent) are used to control this disease. 1. Powdery mildew is controlled easily by wettable Sulphur formulations.PIGDAMBER. water berries.) Tel.15 percent is used to check its spread.4.5.P. blossom-end rot.4064557 . berry cracking and rotting.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Downy mildew is the most devastating disease of grapes in the tropical region of the country. pink berry syndrome.4072636. copper oxychloride at 0.NEAR RAU. ROAD.2 percent.9 Quality Improvement INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. metalaxyl (Ridomil Mz at 0. The losses are very high when it attacks the clusters before fruit set.0731.8 percent or copper oxychloride at 0. 1.2 percent. It is next in importance to downy mildew in its devastating severity.2 percent) are used against this disease. Myclobutanil (Systhane at 0. young shoots and immature berries. The symptoms appear as minute water soaked spots on the lower surface of the leaves.17 - .1 percent) and Penconazol (Topas at 0. Other physiological disorders are cane immaturity.DISTRICT –INDORE.8 Physiological Disorders Physiological disorders associated with high temperature and low atmospheric humidity in the hot tropical region are dead arm and trunk splitting. The eco-physiological disorders are ‘coulure’. cluster tip wilting. Streptocyclin at 500 ppm is used as a prophylactic spray. dry and drop down.

1. one or more varieties are always available at any given time of the year. while girdling will ensure a TSS content of 20°B. Irrespective of the number of clusters. Grape is harvested almost all the year round. Production of Loose Clusters: Pre-bloom GA sprays of 10 ppm and 15 ppm are given respectively on the 11th to 14th day after bud break for cluster elongation. When berry diameter is to be increased to more than 16 mm. Period of harvest and yield of different varieties is given below.Increasing the TSS Content: Berry thinning and cluster thinning to maintain adequate leaf/fruit ratio (5 cm2). Fax -0731. Clusters are dipped in GA solution of 40-50 ppm concentration once at 3-4 mm size of the berries and again at 7-8 mm size. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.1.B. only the apical two or three shoots are retained.P. individual shoot length is encouraged rather than the total canopy size for preventing sunburn of the berries. If not all the varieties. ROAD.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Shoot and Cluster Thinning: Only one or two clusters are retained per cane depending upon the density of the latter.) Tel. berry size and crispiness are increased by girdling. Rachides of the clusters are trimmed to retain 8-10.6 HARVESTING AND YIELDS Approximately one million tonnes of grapes are harvested annually in India. In addition to the treatment with growth regulators.PIGDAMBER. Girdling is done at 4-5 mm diameter of the berries.0731.DISTRICT –INDORE. Increasing Berry Size: Manual means are used to supplement chemical thinning to ensure adequate berry thinning and improve the quality of grapes.NEAR RAU.(M.5 mm. In vines trained to the flat roof gable. Approximately 90-120 berries are retained per cluster depending upon the number of leaves available to nourish it at 8-10 berries per every leaf depending on its size.4072636. The width and depth of girdling are 1-1.18 - . depending on the number of leaves available per cluster. Clusters are dipped in GA solution of 30-40 ppm when 10-20 percent of the flowers open in each cluster for berry thinning.4064557 . clusters are dipped in a mixture of 10 ppm BA + 25 ppm GA or 2 ppm CPPU + 25 ppm GA or 1 ppm brassinosteroid + 25 ppm GA instead of GA alone at these two stages.

fao. but the cold storage facilities are inadequate. the major proportion of produce.NEAR RAU. mainly of Anab-e-Shahi. The productivity of grapes in India is very high.B. market gluts and fall of prices of grapes in March-April are common. Fax -0731. is harvested during March-April from the hot tropical region. June-December November-December. November- Anab-e-Shahi Bangalore Blue 40 Bhokri 30 Gulabi 30 Perlette 40 Thompson Seedless and other seedless 25 varieties December January-March.) Tel.(M.P.7. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. However. 1. which contributes more than 70 percent of the total harvest. ROAD.4072636.PIGDAMBER. Thompson Seedless and its clones. July.DISTRICT –INDORE. quality of grapes is usually poor as a result of high yields. and more than 70 percent of the total production is harvested in March-April.1. Therefore. Yields as high as 100 t/ha in Anab-e-Shahi and 75 t/ha in Thompson Seedless were recorded in this region. MARKETING More than 80 percent of the total production is consumed as table grapes in India.4 Variety Yield (t/ha) Period of Harvest Average Potential 45 90 60 50 50 50 50 February-May. particularly in the Hyderabad region.19 - . June-December June January-April Source:http://www.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Table 1. June-July January-March.htm However.org/docrep/003/x6897e/x6897e06.0731.4064557 .

Grower Exporters. The rest of the produce is marketed within the country.(M.000 hectares due to the following constraints.000 t) of fresh grapes are exported to the Middle East and European countries.0731.1. Fax -0731.P. b) Technologies to achieve high productivity are currently available.5 percent (22. 1. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. 2. the area under grapes is confined to only 34. ROAD. Grapes are exported through three different agencies viz. d) Technologies to produce export quality grapes and quality raisins are available.20 - . b) High recurring costs in vineyard management. 1. a) Heavy initial investment for establishing a vineyard.1.DISTRICT –INDORE. c) Narrow variety base and lack of diversity in utilization of the germplasm available in grape growing countries. a) Sustaining productivity and minimizing risks in grape cultivation is possible because of the availability of a variety of agro-climatic regions suitable for grape cultivation for table.1 CONSTRAINTS IN GRAPE PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT Although grape cultivation is considered as highly remunerative.4072636. These agencies have established their own facilities for pre-cooling and cold storage in the vicinity of major production sites. c) Scope for double cropping in certain regions and harvesting round the year in certain varieties is practically feasible.. Growers’ Cooperatives and the Trader exporters.4064557 .Export Of Grapes From India To UK Approximately. with an average yield of 30 t/ha.PIGDAMBER. POTENTIAL FOR GRAPE PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT India has the distinction of achieving the highest productivity in grapes in the world.8. raisin and wine grapes.8.NEAR RAU.B.) Tel.

B.Export Of Grapes From India To UK d) High risk of losing the crop due to unprecedented changes in weather.DISTRICT –INDORE.4072636. Maharashtra is the focal point for conducting and coordinating the research activities on grapes throughout the country. ROAD. b) Provide research support to sustain the productivity of grapes under adverse situations. f) Short period available for ripening in the north.1. h) Wine is not a popular drink at present.0731.21 - .PIGDAMBER. e) Soil and water salinity in Maharashtra and drought in the hot tropical areas. Fax -0731.NEAR RAU. i) Marketing problems in table grapes. The National Research Centre for Grapes (ICAR) located at Pune. g) Very low proportion of export quality grapes.4064557 .P.) Tel. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.9 GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND PLANS FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF GRAPES The Government of India is supporting the grape industry of the country in the following ways: a) Encourage and support the farmers for establishing the vineyards and installing drip irrigation systems by providing soft loans and subsidies.(M. c) Promote and support the export of fresh grapes by training the growers and providing soft loans and subsidies for pre-cooling and cold storage facilities. 1. Research on grapes is carried out by the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) Institutes and State Agricultural Universities at different centres under the All India Coordinated Research Project on Grapes.

a significant volume of research indicates moderate consumption. Protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol. resveratrol) mainly in the grape skin provide other suspected health benefits.22 - .1. nitric oxide (endothelium-derived relaxing factor) • • Although adoption of wine consumption is not recommended by some health authorities.2 Resveratrol Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol (a polyphenol antioxidant). Fax -0731. surprisingly the incidence of heart disease remains low in France. degenerative nerve disease.10.4072636.g. researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat.4064557 . viral infections and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men.1. polyphenols (e.1 French Paradox Comparing diets among Western countries.P. including reduced platelet aggregation and vasodilation.10 Health claims 1. a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure Increased production of the vasodilator hormone.) Tel. Apart from potential benefits of alcohol itself.10.NEAR RAU.. 1. In laboratory studies. have been positively linked to inhibiting any cancer. reducing susceptibility to vascular damage Decreased activity of angiotensin.B. a phenomenon named the French Paradox and thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine. heart disease.PIGDAMBER.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.0731.DISTRICT –INDORE. ROAD. Emerging evidence is that wine polyphenols like resveratrol provide physiological benefit whereas alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system. such as: • Alteration of molecular mechanisms in blood vessels. resveratrol bears a significant transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. may confer health benefits.(M.1.

PIGDAMBER. 1. among which the most advanced is a one year dietary regimen in a Phase III study of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease.B.4072636. primarily in their skins and seeds which. resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties.1.4064557 .10. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets. Synthesized by many plants.wikipedia.) Tel.3 Anthocyanins and other phenolics( fig 1. Fax -0731.DISTRICT –INDORE.Export Of Grapes From India To UK of calorie restriction in heart.NEAR RAU.Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.1) Source: http://en.P. have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp.0731.23 - .(M. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging. and prevent age-related heart failure.org/wiki/Grape INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. ROAD. skeletal muscle and brain. Resveratrol is the subject of several human clinical trials. Resveratrol is found in wide amounts among grape varieties. in muscadine grapes.

and only red wine is fermented with skins. heart failure and other disorders of oxidative stress. and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics.) Tel. and cultivation practices or exposure to diseases. including cancer. a white wine contains lower phenolic contents because it is fermented after removal of skins.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Anthocyanins tend to be the main polyphenolics in purple grapes whereas flavan-3-ols (e.Ordinary non-muscadine red wine contains between 0.8 mg/L. syringetin 3-O-galactoside. depending on the grape variety.1. Wines produced from muscadine grapes may contain more than 40 mg/L. allowing the wine to absorb the resveratrol. It is these anthocyanins that are attracting the efforts of scientists to define their properties for human health. laricitrin and laricitrin 3-O-galactoside are also found in purple grape but absent in white grape 1.4 Seed constituents Since the 1980s.10.4072636.g. ellagic acid. polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Total phenolic content. By contrast. soil composition.B.24 - . kaempferol.(M..0731. these seed constituents display inhibitory activities against several experimental disease models. is higher in purple varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in purple grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin. Phenolic content of grape skin varies with cultivar.NEAR RAU. biochemical and medical studies have demonstrated significant antioxidant properties of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Together with tannins. an index of dietary antioxidant strength. climate.P. ROAD. geographic origin. In muscadine skins. myricetin. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content. an exceptional phenolic content. Contrary to previous results. quercetin.4064557 .DISTRICT –INDORE. catechins) are the more abundant phenolic in white varieties. because it is fermented with the skins. The flavonols syringetin. Red wine offers health benefits more so than white because many beneficial compounds are present in grape skin. Fax -0731. ellagic acid and not resveratrol is the major phenolic in muscadine grapes. such as fungal infections. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.PIGDAMBER.2 and 5.

4072636. loss of physical performance and mental acuity during aging and hypertension in humans. In the Northern Hemisphere.25 - . platelet aggregation and other risk factors of atherosclerosis.1. vine disease and pests in facilitating or impeding the vines progression from bud break.0731. oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.5 Concord grape juice Commercial juice products from Concord grapes have been applied in medical research studies.11 Annual growth cycle of grapevines The annual growth cycle of grapevines is the process that takes place in the vineyard each year.) Tel.B. vine training and the use of agrochemicals. flowering.P. the start of this cycle is signaled by a "bleeding" of the vine.10. showing potential benefits against the onset stage of cancer. 1. If the vine had been pruned during the winter. Viticulturalists and vineyard managers monitor the effect of climate. veraison. From a winemaking perspective.1.PIGDAMBER. and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. Fax -0731. The amount of time spent at each stage of the growth cycle depends on a number of factors-most notably the type of climate (warm or cool) and the characteristics of the grape variety. phytosterols.4064557 . each step in the process plays a vital role in the development of grapes with ideal characteristics for making wine. irrigation. Grape seed oil is notable for its high contents of tocopherols (vitamin E). The stages of the annual growth cycle usually become observable within the first year of a vine's life. 1. This bleeding occurs when the INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.NEAR RAU. ROAD. 1.1.DISTRICT –INDORE. harvesting. leaf fall and dormancyreacting if need be with the use of viticultural practices like canopy management.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Grape seed oil from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and skincare products for many perceived health benefits.11. this stage begins around March while in the Southern Hemisphere it begins around September when daily temperatures begin to surpass 10 °C (50 °F). fruit set. beginning with bud break in the spring and culminating in leaf fall in autumn followed by winter dormancy.(M.1 Bud break The grape starts its annual growth cycle in the spring with bud break.

P.) Tel. Eventually the shoots sprout tiny leaves that can begin the process of photosynthesis. Fax -0731.B.4064557 . The energy to facilitate this growth comes from reserves of carbohydrate stored in roots and wood of the vine from the last growth cycle. ROAD. the flowers start to grow in size INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. after about 4 weeks the growth of the shoots starts to rapidly accelerate with the shoots growing in length an average of 3 cm (1 in) a day. Tiny buds on the vine start to swell and eventually shoots begin to grow from the buds. the young shoots are very vulnerable to frost damage with vineyard managers going to great lengths protect the fragile shoots should temperature dramatically drop below freezing. 40-80 days after bud break the process of flowering begins with small flower clusters appearing on the tips of the young shoots looking like buttons.(M. A few weeks after the initial clusters appears. During winter dormancy they turn brown until the spring when the vine begins the process of bud break and the first sign of green in the vineyard emerges in the form of tiny shoots.PIGDAMBER. This is a potential viticultural hazard in places like the Margaret River region of Western Australia where warm currents from the Indian Ocean can coax Chardonnay vines to prematurely bud in the midwinter month of July. minerals and sugars. In temperate climates. Inside the buds contain usually three primordial shoots. some early budding varieties (such as Chardonnay) can be at risk of premature bud break.4072636. where temperatures can reach above 10 °C (50 °F) in mid-winter. After bud break.26 - . hormones.11.1.[ 1. up from the root system of the vine and it is expelled from the cuts (or "wounds") left over from pruning the vine. These buds appear in the summer of previous growth cycle green and covered in scales. During this period a single vine can "bleed" up to 5 litres (1.3 gallons) of water. Flowering occurs when average daily temperatures stay between 15–20 °C (59–68 °F) which in the Northern Hemisphere wine regions is generally around May and for the Southern Hemisphere regions around November.DISTRICT –INDORE.NEAR RAU. This can include setting up heaters or wind circulators in the vineyard to keep cold air from settling on the vines. containing a low concentration of organic acids. In warm climates. producing the energy to accelerate growth.0731.Export Of Grapes From India To UK soil begins to warm and osmotic forces pushes water.2 Flowering Depending on temperatures. Buds are the small part of the vine that rest between the vine's stem and the petiole (leaf stem).

[1] This stage is very critical for wine production since it determines the potential crop yield.B.PIGDAMBER.11. But cross-pollination between vine species is possible as in the cases of the origins of several grape varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon (a cross pollination of Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon blanc) and Petite Sirah (a cross of Syrah and Peloursin). In the Northern Hemisphere.P. with the unfertilized flowers eventually falling off the vine. Coulure occurs when there is an imbalance of carbohydrate levels in the vine tissues and some berries fail to set or simply fall off the bunch.27 - . wind & rain) can severely affect the flowering process. Most Vitis vinifera grape vines are hermaphroditic. containing 1-4 seeds.3 Fruit set The stage of fruit set follows flowering almost immediately. Millerandage occurs when some fertilized flowers do not form seeds but only small berry clusters. with both male stamens and female ovaries.It is during this stage of flowering that the pollination and fertilization of the grapevine takes place with the resulting product being a grape berry.(M.NEAR RAU.1. causing many flowers not to be fertilize and produce a group. high temperatures and water stress having the potential of severely reducing the amount flowers that get fertilized. encapsulating the seed. liberating the pollen from the anthers of the stamen. Wind and insects generally play only a small role in aiding pollination. Detrimental weather (cold.4064557 . 1. It is during this time when the buds that will become next years crops begin to form.DISTRICT –INDORE. The percentage of fertilized flowers averages around 30 but can get as high as 60 or be much lower. During the process of fertilization. Climate and the health of the vine play an important role with low humidity. Not every flower on the vine gets fertilized. when the fertilized flower begins to develop a seed and grape berry to protect the seed. being able to self-pollinate. Varieties like Grenache and Malbec are prone to this abnormal fruit set. with the process being mostly self contained within the vine.Export Of Grapes From India To UK with individual flowers becoming observable.4072636. Fax -0731. Grape berry size depends on the number of seeds so berries with no seeds will be significantly INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. this normally takes place in May and in the Southern Hemisphere in November.0731. ROAD.) Tel. Shortly after the calyptra is shed. At the beginning of the flowering process the only part that is visible is the fused cap of petals known as the calyptra. the pollen fertilizes the ovary which produces seeds as the flower begins the transformation into a grape berry.

which houses its seedling offspring.NEAR RAU. the berries start to soften as they build up sugars. such as fanleaf. In a process known as engustment. This can be caused by vine disease. ROAD. During this stage the colors of the grape take form-red/black or yellow/green depending on the grape varieties. limited water stress and canopy management that creates a high "leaf to fruit" ratio can encourage veraison. Fax -0731. They begin to grow to about half their final size when they enter the stage of veraison. undergo veraison first with the berries and clusters closer to the trunk and under the canopy shade undergoing it last. on the outer extents of the canopy. For the production of high quality wine.4 Veraison Following fruit set. Conversely.) Tel.Export Of Grapes From India To UK smaller than berries containing seeds.B. During this period the cane of the vine starts to ripen as well changing from green and INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Within six days of the start of veraison. On one cluster there maybe berries of various sizes which can create problems during winemaking due to the varying "skin to pulp" ratio among the grapes. Typically the berries and clusters that are most exposed to warmth. 1.11.PIGDAMBER.28 - . so that they may have a better chance of survival.P. They have very little sugar and are high in organic acids. or by a boron deficiency in the vine. This color changing is due to the chlorophyll in the berry skin being replaced by anthocyanins (red wine grapes) and carotenoids (white wine grapes). it is considered ideal to have an earlier veraison.4064557 . Gewürztraminer and the Chardonnay clones IA and Mendoza are both prone to millerandage.0731. In the Northern Hemisphere this will be around the end of July and into August and between the end of January into February for the Southern Hemisphere. the berries begin to grow dramatically as they accumulate glucose and fructose and acids begin to fall.DISTRICT –INDORE. This is because the vine is biologically programmed to channel all its energies and resources into the berries. the grape berries are green and hard to the touch. The onset of veraison does not occur uniformly among all berries. This stage signals the beginning of the ripening process and normally takes places around 40-50 days after fruit set.(M.4072636. very vigorous wines with lots of leaf shading for photosynthesis and water supply will delay the start of veraison due to the vines energies being directed towards continued shoot growth of new buds. There are some factors in the vineyards that can control the onset of veraison.1.

DISTRICT –INDORE.12 List of grape varieties This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes.5 After harvest In the vineyard. The threat of detrimental weather and vine diseases (such as grey rot) can also play a role in the time table. the vines continues the process of photosynthesis. In the Northern Hemisphere this is generally between September and October while in the Southern Hemisphere it is generally between February and April. As the grape ripens on the vines. or eating as a table grape. sugars and pH increase as acids (such as malic acid) decrease.P. Fax -0731. sultana). Following the first frost the leaves begin to fall as the vine starts to enter its winter dormancy period. the antepenultimate event is the harvest in which the grapes are removed from the vine and transported to the winery to begin the wine making process. At that point the chlorophyll in the leaves begin to break down and the leaves change color from green to yellow.29 - . The following spring.NEAR RAU.PIGDAMBER. Tannins and other phenolics also develop which can affect the flavors and aromas in the resulting wine. The time of harvest depends on a variety of factors-most notably the subjective determination of ripeness.1. Following the harvest. ROAD. fresh or dried (raisin. 1.B.1. because they are propagated by cuttings and may have unstable reproductive properties.11. 1. The vines begins to divert some of its energy production into its reserves in preparation for its next growth cycle. It will continue doing this until an appropriate level of reserves have been stored.) Tel.0731. the cycle begins again. The balance of all these factors contributes to when a winemaker or vineyard manager decides that it is time to harvest. However. Varieties: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. currant.4072636. the term variety has become so entrenched in viticulture that any change to usage of the term cultivar is unlikely.(M. creating carbohydrate reserves to store in the vine's roots and trunks.4064557 . whether used for wine.Export Of Grapes From India To UK springing to brown and hard. The term "grape varieties" actually refers to cultivars rather than botanical varieties according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants.

US.P. Germany. They can be grouped under following 4 categories based on colour and seeds. China. ROAD. The total production of grapes in India is 1.PIGDAMBER.1. Pusa Seedless.83 crores. Argentina etc.30 - . Gulabi (Muscat) Beauty Seedless and Sharad Seedless Anab-e-Shahi.4072636. Dilkhush (clone of Anab-e-Shahi) Perlette.30% of the total area.DISTRICT –INDORE.) Tel.B. Thompson Seedless. Sonaka and Manik Chaman INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Spain. 1.14 India Facts and Figures : Grape is one of the important fruit covering an area of 60. Thompson Seedless is the ruling grape variety occupying 55% of the area with its clones.1. Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.15 Major Export Destinations (2007-08) : Netherlands.2 thousand hectares occupying 1.13 Areas of Cultivation : Major grape-growing states are Maharashtra. However. Karnataka. Maharashta ranks first in terms of production accounting for more than 75% of total production and highest productivity in the country. Haryana.5 Source: http://en. France. Bangladesh.Export Of Grapes From India To UK More than 20 varieties are under cultivation in India. UK.NEAR RAU. western Uttar Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh. Bangalore Blue.1.0731. Tamil Nadu.546 thousand MT. and its clones Tas-A-Ganesh. 1.org/wiki/Grape Currently. Fax -0731.4064557 .wikipedia. UAE.(M. and the north-western region covering Punjab. 1. only a dozen are commercially grown. The total grape export from India during the year 2007-08 season was 96963 MT worth Rs 317.1. Bangalore Blue occupies approximately 15% of the total area while Anab-e-Shahi and Dilkhush (15%).16 Major Competitor: Italy. 1.1. Sharad Seedless (5%). Coloured seeded Coloured seedless White seeded White seedless Table. Perlette (5%) and Gulabi and Bhokri together (5%).

Fax -0731.31 - .DISTRICT –INDORE.(M.4072636.B.17 COUNTRY PROFILE United Kingdom INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.1.4064557 .0731.) Tel. ROAD.P.1.NEAR RAU.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.PIGDAMBER.

)--males 76. Leeds. Church of Scotland (Presbyterian). Major languages: English.1Geography Area: 243. 12% waste or urban. Welsh. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Sheffield.) Tel. 1% inland water. 10% forests and woodland.0 years. Muslim. km.17. Irish Gaelic.): 0.0731. Land use: 25% arable.org/wiki/Grape PROFILE 1. partly common law and practice.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Fig. Other cities--Birmingham. partly statutes. females 81.3 Government Type: Constitutional monarchy. Life expectancy (2009 est.. 19% other. Adjective--British.wikipedia. (93. weather is subject to frequent changes but to few extremes of temperature.1. 1. industry--18.000. Work force (2009. Bristol. Health: Infant mortality rate (2009 est.5 yrs.NEAR RAU.): 62. Belfast.1.7%. Attendance--nearly 100%. 7% forested.. Manchester.17. West Indian. total 79.000 sq. Terrain: 30% arable. ROAD. mi.). 50% meadow and pasture. Population (2010 est. 31. agriculture--1.4%. Bradford.17. Fax -0731. South Asian. slightly smaller than Oregon.25 million): Services--80.B. – 1. Constitution: Unwritten.1. Climate: Generally mild and temperate.P.2 million.2 People Nationality: Noun--Briton(s).2%.(M. 46% meadows and pastures.6 yrs. Glasgow.1. Cities: Capital--London (metropolitan pop. Roman Catholic.PIGDAMBER. Scottish Gaelic.)--4.32 - . Annual population growth rate (2010 est.85/1. 1. Liverpool. Literacy--99%.000 sq.4%. Major ethnic groups: British. Irish. Edinburgh.DISTRICT –INDORE.1. Major religions: Church of England (Anglican). about 7.4064557 .1.2 Source: http://en. Education: Years compulsory--12.4072636.56 million).

8% of GDP). fuels. and Northern Ireland Assembly. electronics.1. tin.B.4064557 . Northern Ireland (municipalities. Alliance Party.4 Economy GDP (at current market prices. textiles. British National Party. natural gas.1. 1.. UK Independence Party. House of Lords. Fax -0731.PIGDAMBER. European Union.8%. tobacco. Major markets--U. Suffrage: British subjects and citizens of other Commonwealth countries and the Irish Republic resident in the U.1. Annual growth rate (2009): -4. fuels. chalk. 2009): $35. Welsh Assembly. also. Per capita GDP (at current market prices. iron ore. chemicals. clay. Green Party. food. Social Democratic and Labour Party. salt.(M.3 billion: manufactured goods. Industry: Types--steel. Services (75% of GDP): Types--financial. and China. machinery. Wales--Plaid Cymru (Party of Wales). cattle.. in Scotland--Scottish National Party. transport. Democratic Unionist Party. oilseed. Progressive Unionist Party.. 1. at 18. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. appellate courts. Major suppliers--U.K.6 billion: manufactured goods.33 - . Natural resources: Coal.17. Imports of goods and services--$473.) Tel. Subdivisions: Scotland. fish. counties. silica. county courts. limestone.5 HISTORY The Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC and most of Britain's subsequent incorporation into the Roman Empire stimulated development and brought more active contacts with the rest of Europe.184 trillion. Agriculture (1.DISTRICT –INDORE. 2009): $2. Supreme Court. Judicial--magistrates' courts. Scottish Parliament.17. Labour. European Union.4072636. oil. Liberal Democrats. House of Lords.NEAR RAU. chemicals. hotels. Northern Ireland--Ulster Unionist Party. high courts. motor vehicles and aircraft. Political parties: Conservative.S. foodstuffs.334. sheep. distribution. Wales.1. business. vegetables. Trade (2009): Exports of goods and services--$351. communication.2% of GDP): Products--cereals.S. gypsum. lead. construction (23.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Branches: Executive--monarch (head of state). potatoes. heavy engineering and metal manufacturing.P. prime minister (head of government). and parliamentary constituencies). poultry. Sinn Fein. ROAD.0731. beverages. Legislative--bicameral Parliament: House of Commons. cabinet.

NEAR RAU. The United Kingdom has been a member of the European Community (now European Union) since 1973. and the Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems).B. who is expected to be in place by September 2010. administrative. the country again was exposed to invasion--including the pivotal incursions of the Angles. first under Prime Minister Tony Blair and then under his successor.1. In the United Nations. and representative government. certain institutions. For the first time since 1974. lost its majority in the House of Commons in the May 6. Gordon Brown resigned as Labour leader on May 11. when it became clear that Labour would be unable to form a government. Prime Minister Gordon Brown resigned. and David Cameron became the new Prime Minister.1. Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg became the Deputy Prime Minister. who placed third in number of seats won. 1. and the Labour Party forms the opposition. ROAD.DISTRICT –INDORE. Gordon Brown.1. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.7 DEFENSE AND FOREIGN RELATIONS The United Kingdom is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and is one of NATO's major European maritime.34 - .0731. distinctive and distinguished university education.PIGDAMBER.) Tel.1. air. Fax -0731. the United Kingdom is a permanent member of the Security Council. however.4072636. The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition has a 78-seat majority in the House of Commons. Among these are a political. Cameron subsequently announced a formal coalition with the Liberal Democrats. could develop. On May 11.K. Saxons. 2010 election. Norman rule effectively ensured Britain's safety from further intrusions.17.17. The U. 1. held the Presidency of the G-8 during 2005. and land powers. it ranks third among NATO countries in total defense expenditure. which remain characteristic of Britain. which would ensure Liberal Democrat support for a Conservative-led government in exchange for five Liberal Democrat cabinet seats and policy compromises. and economic center in London. who won the most seats. As part of the coalition deal. no party was able to win a full majority in the Commons.Export Of Grapes From India To UK As Rome's strength declined.(M. a separate but established church.6 POLITICAL CONDITIONS The Labour government that had been in power since 1997. a system of common law. cultural.P. it held the EU Presidency from July to December 2005. prompting an election for a new Labour leader. and Jutes in the fifth and sixth centuries AD--up to the Norman conquest in 1066.4064557 . which led to several days of intense negotiations between the Conservatives (Tories).

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4072636.4 million) to Afghan reconstruction--the second-largest donor after the United States. was the United States' main coalition partner in Operation Iraqi Freedom.Export Of Grapes From India To UK The British Armed Forces are charged with protecting the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. which includes 6. The United Kingdom stood shoulder to shoulder with the United States following the September 11. The U.NEAR RAU.P.(M.000 as of May 6.0731. In addition.DISTRICT –INDORE.200 personnel. where they are on the front line in the war against continued Taliban operations.000 personnel.4064557 .S. promoting Britain's wider security interests. and supporting international peacekeeping efforts. after U. U. along with the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. The 37. ROAD. and its military forces are.35 - .K. forces are primarily based in the Helmand region. The British Army. Fax -0731.000 Royal Marine commandos. force in Afghanistan stood at 10.B. with 42. its combat forces withdrew from Iraq in July 2009. which consists of four Trident missile submarines. The U.K.K. the U. Approximately 9% of the British Armed Forces is female. 2010. are active and regular participants in NATO and other coalition operations. forces. 2001 terrorist attacks in the U..000-member Royal Navy. the secondlargest contingent of the coalition force in Afghanistan.) Tel.K. and 4% of British forces represent ethnic minorities. the Royal Air Force. consisting of approximately 99. has contributed more than £510 million (approximately $723.S. is in charge of the United Kingdom's independent strategic nuclear arm.PIGDAMBER.

1. ROAD.17.8 OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of India 1.1.36 - .166.DISTRICT –INDORE.4072636.222.1.(M.17.9 CAPITAL: New Delhi 1.1.Export Of Grapes From India To UK COUNTRY PROFILE INDIA source: http://en.4064557 .720 Sq Mi) INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.17.1.1.0731.P.692 Sq Km (1.org/wiki/Grape 1.) Tel.11 AREA: 3.1.10 SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Multiparty Federal Republic 1. Fax -0731.PIGDAMBER.B.17.NEAR RAU.wikipedia.

(1.624. China.37 - . Betwa.17.4064557 .841. but generally can be divided into the following ethnic groups. (3. Nagpur 1. Kanpur 1. The southern region is separated from the IndoGangetic Plain by a mass of mountain ranges and plateaux on the Indian or Deccan Peninsula.17.925. It is the second largest country in Asia and the territory also includes the Andaman.13 LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: India is located on the Indian sub-continent in South Asia. Yamuna. Narbada and Tapti. Cauvery.1. Godavari. The rivers of India are generally divided into the Himalayan and peninsula rivers.DISTRICT –INDORE. Myanmar and Bangladesh to the east. Bangalore 3. Land Use. (4.) Tel. Lucknow 1. (2.NEAR RAU.) The desert region which is divided into the Great and Little Deserts.000 1.800. Delhi 7. Son. agriculturalcultivated 57%. the Bay of Bengal to the southeast and the Arabian Sea to the southwest. It is bound by Pakistan to the northwest.) a humid season.399.) A rainy monsoon season and (4. Madras 3. Average temperature ranges in New Delhi are from 7 to 21 degrees Celsius (45 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit) in January to 26 to 41 degrees Celsius (79 to 106 degrees Fahrenheit) in May. The mainland of India can be divided into four topographical regions.) The southern region which includes a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea and a broader one along the Bay of Bengal. Hyderabad 3. the Jumna.). Krishna. Nicobar and the Lakshadweep Islands. 1. Ahmadabad 2.096.1. Tropical hurricanes and cyclones are common between April to June and September to December.900. The Indo-Aryan who represent 72% of the population while the INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.500.1.17. 1.700.17.300.900.B. ROAD. Calcutta 4. Pune 1. Bhutan and Nepal to the north. New Delhi 301. Kosi.4072636. and the principal rivers include the Ganges with its tributaries.954.800.145.1.) A relatively cool winter monsoon season.100.300 (1991).15 PEOPLE: India's racial diversity is extremely complex.400. est.(M.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.400.) The northern mountains or Himalayan region which comprises three parallel ranges mixed with large plateaux and valleys. (1. Mumbai (Bombay) 9.700. pastures 4%.P.) A hot and rainless transitional season.695. which are flanked by the Western and Eastern Ghats.619. Major Cities (pop. Indus and Brahmaputra Rivers.206. Fax -0731. Ghaghra.566. other 16% (1993). Chambi. forested 23%. (3. Mahanadi.PIGDAMBER.0731.879. (2.302. Gandak.14 CLIMATE: India has a tropical climate that is dominated by the Asiatic monsoons with four fairly distinct seasons which are common to all six or seven climatic regions.12 ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION 1.) The Indo-Gangetic Plain which is formed by the basins of the Ganges.

secondary 7.4 per 1. 25. 80.1%.5% are Jain. Jews and the Anglo-Indians of mixed European and Indian descent.0 per 1. 21. 11.1. 1971 Indira Gandhi. Age Breakdown. 1.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Dravidian account for 25% and the Mongoloid with others account for 3%. Infant Mortality Rate. became India's first woman Prime Minister. 275 persons per sq km (712 persons per sq mi) (1991).9%.2%. 1.7% urban.1.1. 1. Increase Rate. Over 1.17. In 1965 a second war broke out between India and Pakistan over Kashmir which resulted in Soviet mediation and a peace agreement in Jan. From 1948 to 1949 India and Pakistan fought over Kashmir which ended when the UN divided the Kashmir between the two countries. 11. 58. In May 1964 Prime Minister Nehru died after being at the forefront of Indian politics since its independence. 27% 15 to 29. Sex Distribution.000 (1991). 1% 75 and over (1990).4% are Muslim.000 or 48.17. In 1977 Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her party were defeated in INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Birth Rate. In Mar. 1966. 1. 1. In Dec. primary 10.17. incomplete primary 7. 48.17.B.DISTRICT –INDORE.P.16 DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density.1 per 1. 11% 45 to 59.1%.NEAR RAU. ROAD. In 1948 Mohandas Gandhi who led India to independence was assassinated.1% female (1991).4064557 .000 live births (1990). 3% are Christian.WWII TO 1993: On Aug. 1947 India gained independence from Britain and the next day Pakistan was created while Jawaharlal Nehru became India's first Prime Minister.) Tel. Fax -0731.PIGDAMBER.8%. higher 2.000 (1991).4072636.17 RELIGIONS: Around 83% of the population are Hindu. 59. Urban-Rural.5 per 1.1 years male.1.600 languages and dialects are spoken throughout India with over 15 constitutionally recognized. Life Expectancy at Birth. In 1950 India adopted a new constitution which made it a republic.(M. In 1962 a border dispute erupted with China.38 - .9% male. 6% 60 to 74. 74.0731. 37% under 15. 18% 30 to 44. in which China invaded the northeastern border section of India. literate population aged 15 or over 261.000 (1991). 32.2% (1990).1 years female (1986-90). incomplete secondary 6. 15. Death Rate. Literacy. 1971 India assisted East Pakistan in a war against West Pakistan which resulted in East Pakistan becoming the independent nation of Bangladesh. 51.17.1.18 LANGUAGES: The official languages are Hindi and English.19 EDUCATION: Aged 25 or over and having attained: no formal schooling 65.20 MODERN HISTORY .3% rural (1991).9% (1981). There are also three alien ethnic groups which include the Parsis. with Hindi including its associated languages and dialects accounting for 84% of the population while English is used for national.200. 2% are Sikh while just under 1% are Buddhist and . political and commerce purposes.

B. 1991 Prime Minister Chandra Shekar resigned and Pres. 1992 some 91 Bombay slum dwellers lost their lives after drinking impurely mixed alcohol during New Years celebrations while in May 1992 some 210 also lost their lives in Orissa through similar circumstances. 1991 a massive earthquake in the Himalayan region of Uttar Pradesh killed some 1. 1991 the government announced its intention to adopt the Mandal Commission's recommendation that 27% of public jobs be reserved for "socially and educationally backward classes". Additionally. 6. the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and a National Front and leftist parties combination. 1992 some 47 people died as a result of a stampede during the ritual bathing in Kumbakonam. On Sept. Fax -0731. and resulted in the Congress (I) forming another government and Pamulaparti Venkata Narasihma Rao being sworn in as Prime Minister on June 21. 1992 Pres. On Mar.DISTRICT –INDORE.PIGDAMBER.0731. Elections due for May 23 and 26 were postponed until June 12 and 15. ROAD. the violence continued and in May 1987 the Punjab state government was dismissed and the state was placed under central control.4064557 . 24. 1984 two Sikh bodyguards assassinated Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi her son. Jammu and Kashmir. 1991. 1991. On May 21. in 1980 she won the elections and became Prime Minister again. In July 1985 Rajiv Gandhi signed a peace accord with the Sikh leader.Export Of Grapes From India To UK parliamentary elections. Ramaswamy Venkataraman dissolved the lower house of Parliament on Mar. 20. R. since 1983 there has been a Sri Lankan Tamil separatist insurgence and in 1987 under an agreement with the Sri Lankan government India occupied the northern regions of the island. In Feb. however. In 1983 serious unrest developed with the Sikhs wanting more regional autonomy for Punjab state and in 1984 the Indian Army launched a massive offensive and as many as 1. however.000 people were killed in the two day battle. 26. In Jan. and Assam that climaxed on Dec. 1991 with Sikh separatists killing 49 Hindu passengers and wounding a further 20 on a train in Punjab. 31. On Oct.4072636.39 - . 23 and 26. On Oct.(M. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.NEAR RAU.600 people while during 1991 there was an insurgence in violence and assassinations from militant groups in Punjab. In April 1992 a massive stock swindle known as the scam where a group of bankers and brokers collaborated to manipulate stock market operations resulted in the arrest of prominent brokers and the executives of several foreign and Indian banks and institutions. The elections were set for May 20. On July 25. 13.) Tel.P. 1991 Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by the Tamil "Tiger" guerrilla group in a human bomb attack that also killed 14 others while he was preparing to give a campaign address in Sriperumbudur. and were a three way contest between the Indian National Congress (I). 1991. succeeded her as Prime Minister in December after parliamentary elections.

Re 38. On Dec.) Tel.000 rendered homeless.000. 7. 1993 with some 10.000 (1994).000 (1993). Jammu and Kashmir and Telingana region. 314.487.40 - . 1993 there were politically motivated bombings in Calcutta and Bombay with 60 and 33 people respectively losing their lives. ECONOMY: Gross National Product. In March and April. 1992 were released.17. although unofficial reports claimed the death toll to be as high as 35. 1992 the BJP leaders were arrested and on Dec.000.P. Tourism Receipts. On Jan. 12. Public Debt.1% (1990). On Jan. By Dec. Re 728. On Dec. USD $262. On Jan.21 CURRENCY: The official currency is the Rupee (Re) divided into 100 Paisa. USD $1. which had allegedly lost Rs 40. USD $80. 1992 Hindu and Muslim fundamentalist parties were outlawed.B.5% of total population (1991).000. 7.7 acres (27. Also in 1993 the government appointed a joint parliamentary committee to investigate the 1992 stock market scandal. 15. 1992 Hindu-Muslim riots erupted throughout the country after the demolition of the Muslim Babri Mosque in Ayodhya by Hindu militants and thousands of supporters.000.000. Balance of Trade.1.0731.985. 8.000 (1994). Fax -0731.131.4 hectares) around the temple site and the intention to construct two temples on the site.000 people officially losing their lives.000 (1993).060.470. ROAD. to acquire 67.000. 1992 the death toll from the religious clashes had climbed to 1.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Venkataraman was succeeded by Shankar Dayal Sharma after presidential elections.4064557 .000 (1993). Imports. Economically Active Population.DISTRICT –INDORE. one for the Muslims and the other for the Hindus.150. 13.370 or 37. During 1992 separatist militant activities continued in the regions of Punjab. 20. 1. On the same day and in response the government dismissed the BJP-run state government of Uttar Pradesh and imposed direct Presidential rule on the state while on Dec. During 1993 the government established a human rights commission to investigate claims of violations and abuse at the hands of police and security forces while clashes between the government forces and the various militant separatists continued throughout the year. 1993 Pres. Unemployed. The Hindus had claimed the site was the birthplace of Lord Rama and that they were going to build their own temple. that was later ratified by the Parliament. 1993 the BJP leaders arrested in Dec.242.NEAR RAU.(M. Re 695.000 (1994).134. 10.810. 1993 Hindu-Muslim riots broke out in Bombay claiming some 560 lives in the first week. 6.PIGDAMBER. Sharma issued a ordinance.000 and the country also experienced its worst earthquake in 50 years in the Maharashtra state on Sept.000 with some 140.000. 1992 other BJP-run state governments were dismissed. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4072636. Exports. 6.

Leather.900.000. 1.509 mi) (1990). Food.742 mi) (1989).191 (1990). 1. Roads. Fertilizers.B. Millet.497.17. Limestone. Potatoes.28 MILITARY: 1.264.1. Iron and Steel. Software Development.4064557 .6% air force while military expenditure accounts for 3. length 2. Radio.000.3% (1993) of the Gross National Product (GNP).41 - .518.0731.433.198.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1. Copper. Cotton.1. Beverages. Transport Equipment.1. total of 3. Mica. vessels 855 (1990). cars 2.000 passenger-mi) (1990).26 TRANSPORT: Railroads.974.1. Cement. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Merchant Marine. Fax -0731. Textiles. Tea.000 (176. the former USSR. Air Transport.DISTRICT –INDORE. Television. Handicrafts. Chemicals. passenger-km 284.800.4072636.) Tel.000. receivers 20.000 passenger-mi) (1990).000 (453. Jute. receivers 65.000 (10.000.000.23 MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Barley. cargo ton-km 233. Vehicles.P.PIGDAMBER.000 (160. 1.000 (1993).400 (1993). Bauxite. Rice. Telephones.17.000 short ton-mi) (1990). Coal. Gemstones.000 short ton-mi) (1990).242.284. Software. Sorghum.000 (1989). Japan. 1. Ground Nuts. passenger-km 16. Iran and Iraq.17.800.000. 1.975 km (38.000 km (1. Machinery. trucks and buses 1. Oil and Gas.000.22 MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partners are the USA. Food Processing.8% navy and 9. route length 61. 1. Iron Ore.27 COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers. Oil Refining.NEAR RAU.17. Manganese.25 MAIN EXPORTS: Fish.17. Gemstones. Machinery.24 MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture.17.000.832. Textiles. the UK. units 8.037.(M.000 (1994).000 (1989). Fruit.1. Coke.000 (1992) total active duty personnel with 85. cargo ton-km 662.000 (1994).145. 4. Sugar Cane.6% army. Iron Ore.17.000. Tea.805 with a total circulation of 18. Wheat.1. Pulses. deadweight tonnage 10. ROAD.1.966. Chromium. Vegetables.

(M.  Thomson seedless and sharad seedless variety is best suited for cultivation in the tropical areas. Delhi and he get the following conclusion:  The advent of new varieties having high consumer preference and technical advancement in cultivation has made this crop more popular.P.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.) Tel.4072636.B. Fax -0731.  Owing to the nutritional and medicinal values of the fruits.0731.DISTRICT –INDORE. there is preference among the consumers in the domestic and international markets. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. This variety is one of the best varieties suitable for export purpose and it is gaining popularity among consumers. Merro Don Thomas had done the research on Analysis of Export Procedures for Grapes in the month of June 2010 from Institute of Management and Development. The exports have not been substantial since the international standards were not known.4064557 .  Most of the Grapes produced is consumed locally and about 1 per cent is exported. ROAD.42 - .PIGDAMBER.NEAR RAU.2 Literature Review Mr.

Fax -0731. Export qualities of grapes are grown in India. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. have created problems in obtaining economic yields. More than four-five varieties are grown in India. crop and post harvest management. etc. so a number of taste options are available. India can definitely make a dent in grapes trade in the world market. 1.000 MT tons.NEAR RAU. India can prove to be competitive.3 Rationale • • • • • • • India is the largest producer of agricultural product and has a lot of export potential.000 – 30.. infrastructure such as cold chain. it facilitates long-term and healthy business dealings.) Tel.4072636. India has clean transaction terms with other countries. Karnataka has exported about 2000 MT to other countries during the last few years.(M.DISTRICT –INDORE.43 - . Downy Mildew.B. will augment the cultivation of quality grapes and will help in increasing the exports to a tune of about 20.Export Of Grapes From India To UK  Of late. ROAD. There is potential for export to the United State of America also. The migrants can prove to be good promoters for the fruits.4064557 .  In this background.P.0731. Diseases such as Powdary mildew. facilities for marketing etc. Most of the Indians migrate to other country and thus they demand for Indian fruits.  Proper varietal selection. Indian grapes have penetrated into the European Union since suitable varieties conforming to international standards are being produced.PIGDAMBER.

ROAD.4 Objectives Of Research • • • To find out the potential.44 - .NEAR RAU.PIGDAMBER.DISTRICT –INDORE.) Tel.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.P. To find out the major potential markets for export.0731. market for Indian grapes.B. Fax -0731.(M. To find out the measures to increase the growth of grapes export from India.4064557 .4072636. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.

1.4072636.P.5 Methodology Agriculture is one of the strongholds of the Indian economy and accounts for 14.2 Countries involved • India and UK 1.NEAR RAU.4064557 . the sector provided employment to 58.0731.5.PIGDAMBER.(M.DISTRICT –INDORE.) Tel. Furthermore.6 per cent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009-10.5. 1. and 10.23 per cent (provisional) of the total exports. ROAD.B.3 Data Collection And Sources INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.2 per cent of the work force.45 - .1 Type of study • Research of the exports of grapes from India to UK. Fax -0731.5.

Websites and search engines. so there was a problem in showing the extensive growth in its exports.(M. magazines.) Tel.6 Limitations • • • • The time period provided for the research was not sufficient to undergo an analytical research work.DISTRICT –INDORE. The secondary data has been collected on the basis of various trade portals.4072636. Fax -0731.P.0731.PIGDAMBER. journals and news paper articles. The domestic consumption of grapes is higher. 1. ROAD. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.46 - . thus the authentication of the data is questionable.B.4064557 .NEAR RAU. Sources of secondary data being the books.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • I have used the secondary data for the preparation of this project. Direct face to face interaction for collecting the primary data was not possible.

4064557 .PIGDAMBER. ROAD.0731.(M.) Tel.P.47 - .4072636. Fax -0731.Export Of Grapes From India To UK INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B.NEAR RAU.DISTRICT –INDORE.

70 11. Product: FRESH GRAPES Country NETHERLAND UK BANGLADESH U ARAB EMTS BELGIUM SAUDI ARABIA NORWAY GERMANY NEPAL SRI LANKA OMAN MOROCCO MALAYSIA ALGERIA 2006-2007 Qty Value 19.37 0 0 2008-2009 Qty 24.39 458.368.62 120.61 745.1 Product Group Report/Country Wise Value in Rs.162.020.757.115.18 0 0 2007-2008 Qty Value 24.NEAR RAU.79 8.0731.50 529.966.00 3.54 Source: http://tradejunction.5 410.379.13 208.5 338.137.586.01 314.67 7.340.402.86 3.06 226.aspx?gcode=0205 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.40 6.4064557 .47 2.39 2. lacs Qty in Mt.63 10.64 354.398.107.94 25.10 313.597.641.com/indexp/product_description_32head.68 6.4072636.91 0 0 196.639.19 520.98 12.28 3.210.193.522.440.64 92.66 1.667.26 242.656.79 451.627.761.650.1 EXPORT OF GRAPES Table 2.(M.59 441.15 784.686.081.448.14 9.509.97 4.19 2.29 13.22 13.66 3.09 0 0 390.31 1.43 292.75 6.) Tel.7 578.22 472.140.46 361.013.59 570.P.552.15 1.84 743.1.apeda.61 54.064.89 407. Fax -0731.32 1.76 343.45 164.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.90 1.78 314.274.04 5.55 6.994.242.17 452.488.03 595.45 563.91 4. ROAD.PIGDAMBER.72 298.87 1.35 3.33 890 228.DISTRICT –INDORE.379.62 2.09 37.97 1.26 Value 13.48 - .650.303.62 3.19 3.B.657. EXPORT PERFORMANCE 2.36 13.

85 727357.349.62 260.01 119.64 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5.2 1.85 32.16 8.75 10.765.17 0.12 2269.684.21 3.97 726.43 0 17.78 839.07 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.38 7463.P.951.82 3968.54 233.15 56.PIGDAMBER.36 2008-2009 Qty 754671.78 14.47 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.09 0 157.89 55689.23 0 0 0 0 0 468.48 128792.2 62.48 34.64 6.27 Value 459278.13 0 585.01 1 0.4072636. Value in Rs.41 76427.02 38.5 1916.1 4722.2 27.28 489619.48 28.04 1182. Fax -0731.1 879.NEAR RAU.73 2 0 59 299 0 0 0 0 0 1.88 514979.9 24151.35 931.DISTRICT –INDORE.47 0.02 220240.09 2823.1 0.4 47.58 12.79 5598 3654.08 42.69 107286.370.13 2548.12 9.02 19.(M.78 47. ROAD.65 1.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Table 2.58 133654.81 0 221.58 15579.592.22 75.15 0.97 2007-2008 Qty 743264.941.52 1470.41 3317.998.48 25539.13 0 1.67 6245.0731.49 - .25 1340.83 2474.4 650.2 23.21 Value 269968.84 985.B.) Tel.63 17 117.75 313.08 3047.81 1702.58 1078. lacs Port: KANDLA SEA Product BASMATI RICE OTHER CEREALS NON BASMATI RICE JAGGERY AND CONFECTIONERY GUARGUM CEREAL PREPRATIONS PULSES OTHER PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS GROUND NUTS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES DRIED AND PRESERVED VEGETABLES DAIRY PRODUCTS MILLED PRODUCTS OTHER FRESH FRUITS COCOA PRODUCTS OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES FRESH MANGOES FRESH ONIONS FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SEEDS MANGO PULP PROCESSED MEAT NATURAL HONEY FLORICULTURE Total 2006-2007 Qty Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7621.8 0.6 1.2 497.12 5248.95 2552.4064557 .37 3064.86 4929.39 21.43 65.2 Port Report / Product Group Wise Qty in Mt.5 132.

66 8697.75 82.27 30.67 136.57 16439.39 2008-2009 Qty Value 7355.21 698.18 6812 4040.06 15.26 1.08 105.aspx?pcode=515 Table 2.39 3360.78 93.34 0 0 0 0 9.62 40.21 5. Value in Rs.99 57.18 43.65 36.28 55.98 15602.05 13548.84 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4 6546.3 Port Report / Product Group Wise Qty in Mt.81 0.68 33435.02 1507.02 103.47 0 0 0.79 36.82 0 0 0 0 1.3 1.02 8.49 164.21 7.73 0 0 0 0 2007-2008 Qty Value 5515.51 27.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Source: http://tradejunction.45 2. Fax -0731.69 0.59 88.53 49.com/indexp/portreport_prdgrp.NEAR RAU.3 132.64 70.01 0.32 43.3 172.91 277.15 2.50 - .94 200.49 74. lacs Port: MUMBAI AIR Product SHEEP / GOAT MEAT OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES FLORICULTURE FRESH MANGOES OTHER FRESH FRUITS FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SEEDS POULTRY PRODUCTS MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS ANIMAL CASINGS BUFFALO MEAT DAIRY PRODUCTS OTHER PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES CEREAL PREPRATIONS FRESH ONIONS JAGGERY AND CONFECTIONERY COCOA PRODUCTS MANGO PULP FRESH GRAPES ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES WHEAT SWINE MEAT NATURAL HONEY DRIED AND PRESERVED VEGETABLES 2006-2007 Qty Value 238.4064557 .DISTRICT –INDORE.9 6. ROAD.13 55.32 15.02 41.41 188.B.(M.49 10.53 1310.11 1649.27 0.37 934.39 130.67 9.18 4.97 4.3 0.09 9.33 12.58 68.07 30.58 965.17 0 0 49.25 4095.6 118.99 2266.48 40.72 53.34 45.49 437.93 9.94 1736.1 11.88 8901.26 0 0 61.15 1210.15 122.51 57.31 37.24 1016 554.46 788.78 89.8 0 0 0.07 87.28 473.5 1.46 128.) Tel.64 1.16 46536.4072636.65 0 0 1.22 234.48 105.34 189.06 34873.33 59.03 100.73 1676.P.21 5637.07 13630.5 11.6 17.apeda.42 116.0731.02 10097.49 3073.24 5.PIGDAMBER.09 64.

PIGDAMBER. Fax -0731.(M.B.apeda.P.51 - . ROAD.com/indexp/PortReport_prdgrp.aspx?pcode=483 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Source:http://tradejunction.NEAR RAU.0731.4072636.) Tel.DISTRICT –INDORE.4064557 .

743.56 3.030.89 1.932.81 10.633.40 2.57 11.43 7.87 12.4064557 .Value(20082007) 2007) 2008) 2008) 2009) 2009) Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value 71.12 540.10 4.622.411.82 2.12 2.362.36 3.061.32 2.196.478. dried.69 4.(M.010.137.044.103.Value(2006.202.608.582.77 13.206.895.91 9.56 249.883.272.PIGDAMBER.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.862. fresh Other vegetalbes.07 7.403.42 2.92 2.26 2.28 1.204.343.045.60 8.08 936.P.960.141. whole/cut/sliced/broken/in powder but not further prepared Guargum treated and pulverised Mangoes .974.419.) Tel.19 3.66 804.52 - .144.63 1.02 5.61 2.07 5.382. branches and other parts of plants without flowers or flower buds and grasses for bouquets or for ornamental purpose OTHER BAKERY PRODUCTS Onions.025. Fax -0731.85 655. ROAD.920.285./presvd Mixed Vegetables fresh/chilled Ground-nuts HPS Kernels Mango pulp Not Fresh foliage.02 2.183.888.71 6.08 3.575.B.354.26 705.283.89 7.aspx?ctry=13421 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.125.04 4.34 62.473.505.535.73 Source: http://tradejunction.13 10.101.595.20 2.60 816.68 1.527.19 1.190.57 29.47 2.78 3.328.34 3.108.NEAR RAU.98 3.63 374.apeda. Pomegranates Fresh other food preparation not elsewhere specified Natural honey QTY(2006. fresh/dried.197.129.952.0731.072.388.QTY(2007.05 8.10 43.92 1.74 803.55 6.009.08 12.44 8.37 1.61 1.64 6.537.20 8.672.131.56 1.Value(2007.566.68 1.377. nuts and other edible parts of plants prepd.40 7.39 1.67 19.36 1.80 3.32 2.87 7.751.527.17 1.239.QTY(2008.981.042.4 Product Basmati Rice Papad Grapes.034.20 1. fruits.013.627.67 11.63 1.17 12.410.00 1.953.743.088.06 1.379.95 3.19 3.563.com/indexp/country_description.59 2.59 3.095.72 2.42 6.2 Country Report / Product Wise Country: UK Table 2.42 2.343.17 2.4072636.777.59 71.579.376.84 1.48 2.68 3.559.DISTRICT –INDORE.66 2.

53 - .7 3290.PIGDAMBER.5 Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2008-2009 Country UK Total Qty Value ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table 2.09 6 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Fax -0731.4072636.(M.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.6 1 6597.75 1 11318.6 7656.8 Country UK Total ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table2.6 6597.0731.09 8 Qty in mt Value in lakhs Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2006-2007 Country UK Total Qty Value 13657.6 6368.75 1 ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table 2.6 6368.6 Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2007-2008 Qty Value 12757.40 1 12757.4064557 . ROAD.5 5914.7 ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table 2.94 7 2005-2006 Country UK Total Qty Value 11318.5 5914.94 7 13657.4 11639.P.NEAR RAU.9 Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2004-2005 Country UK Qty Value 5888.3 INDIA EXPORT STATISTICS ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table2.B.6 7656.09 8 11639.DISTRICT –INDORE.) Tel.

apeda.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 5888.DISTRICT –INDORE.) Tel.4072636.aspx INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.P. ROAD.NEAR RAU.com/indexp/genReport.4064557 .7 3290.0731.09 6 Total Source: http://tradejunction.(M.PIGDAMBER. Fax -0731.54 - .B.

4 Country report for grapes Table 2. 79 4776.1 4756 . 19 2361.10 Year 2009-2010 Country . 79 Value 2360.apeda. 46 4755. 39 Source: http://tradejunction.4072636. 87 2519. 23 April-August Qty 4776. Value in lakhs April-January Product FRESH GRAPES Total Qty 5025. 46 April-May Qty 4756 . ROAD. 2363 96 .7 4756 .6 4780.) Tel.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2. 01 April-April Qty 4755.B. 99 4777. 48 Value 2519.(M.6 April-October Qty 4777. 01 2347. 99 Value 2361.55 - . 46 2348. 79 Value 2360.0731. 19 AprilSeptember Qty 4776.com/indexp/genReport. 2363 96 . 48 5025. 46 Value 2346.UK Quantity in mt.aspx#content INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. 23 April-June Qty 4756 . 87 AprilDecember Valu Qty e 4780.NEAR RAU. Fax -0731.4064557 .PIGDAMBER. 23 2360.DISTRICT –INDORE.7 Value 2348. 39 2346.P.1 Value 2347. 79 4776. 23 2360.

51 50582.56 - .86 11803.63 SWINE MEAT 1523.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.49 54350.42 14212.5 316351.31 69415.7 4979.36 ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 50771.84 1008606.2 59172.11 COCOA PRODUCTS 3412.79 30192.31 462749.28 42993.84 43457.63 15587.13 46397.64 2463.81 50968.84 67735.9 139637.23 691312.68 1245.85 245144.01 16207.53 2646267.37 917.0731.06 884.95 FRESH GRAPES 85897.53 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES DRIED AND PRESERVED VEGETABLES 119270.51 96281.82 1646790.49 56152.91 OTHER PROCESSED FOODS GROUND NUTS 251428.21 68020.B.32 1014.88 14193.99 49336.42 136880.3 321374.57 Qty 30798.6 43314.21 173013.57 95550.17 311756.5 Three year description of APEDA product Table 2.43 42754.56 1467904.82 PULSES 255084.39 Total 2002857.NEAR RAU.PIGDAMBER.69 712.64 1057016.2 4225.5 54254.28 43086.4 Total 849257.31 49641.48 33856.8 96963.79 22194.56 2408129.77 1823.64 211166.8 12741.76 31782.37 77428.21 4011.37 258567.85 59614.97 256768.33 130760.45 33687.) Tel.65 79846.47 13409.32 14123.11 123900.08 DAIRY PRODUCTS 45371.34 83703.5 182752.71 10157.41 11999.4072636.51 30452.47 70146.29 8908.38 WALNUTS 5062.09 8403.09 12158.47 78999.79 FRESH MANGOES 79060.71 103577.DISTRICT –INDORE.61 147861.6 246832.91 110092.4064557 .17 MANGO PULP 156835.8 98086.47 6716.01 GUARGUM 189304.91 483970.84 365915.65 CEREAL PREPRATIONS 111123.09 48880.73 FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SEEDS 8104.6 6091.72 2007-08 Qty 36240.28 166752.6 SHEEP / GOAT MEAT 5777.13 483478.8 ANIMAL CASINGS 435.34 8535.65 54900.82 354978.36 112579.57 207700.53 200482.07 411856.28 65269.67 31817.9 6831.39 774849.27 135962.6 387126. Fax -0731.69 512926.65 PROCESSED MEAT 860.13 9329.18 ANIMAL PRODUCTS BUFFALO MEAT 494506.18 124627.96 44108.78 1724573.52 6587.57 281068.6 243711.63 17071.4 14896.53 39333.48 350235.99 269587.94 42205.22 MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS 77426.36 684.47 865.63 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.83 112574.2 47446.P.72 857.05 59880.14 1296.25 40861.3 30997.72 1355246.23 POULTRY PRODUCTS 711245.85 87346.89 1932855.08 844881.98 267887.59 Value 34014. ROAD.98 950.17 116330.(M.29 505285.44 619.46 5696.3 Total 1267857.94 105407.79 OTHER PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 318067.89 48949.95 Total 50649.9 137179 54232.68 FRESH FRUITS & VEGETABLES FRESH ONIONS 1378373.2 297890.51 75298.2 JAGGERY AND CONFECTIONERY 455935.19 1710.11 2006-07 PRODUCT Qty Value FLORICULTURE FLORICULTURE 42545.57 OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES 276824.9 206928.87 1670186.45 OTHER FRESH FRUITS 177638.62 37790.55 86656.29 48226.53 125726.77 2008-09 Value 36881.47 12231.29 170614.62 NATURAL HONEY 8135.53 817.93 133898.

36 1045714.95 9041.P.09 59925.12 740979.12 Thompson Seedless Flame Seedless 26783.DISTRICT –INDORE.0731.6 EXPORT SPECIFICATIONS FOR GRAPES Table 2.94 3187060. UK.42 Source: http://tradejunction.06 931879.81 777043. Emperor.63 1183355.73 54684.5 Kg /9kg 0-1 °C International Standards of Pesticide Residue Levels nbsp.43 23.33 237.71 2433913.73 434458. RougeRibier.69 8133.apeda. Sonaka Area under crop in Maharashtra (35236 ha) Maharashtra’s Production (9.(M.8 1120.NEAR RAU.99 46633.77 2180594.98 168737.4064557 .52 3999648. Sharad seedless. Crimson seedless.79 947702.5 1484735.PIGDAMBER. Tas-a-Ganesh.B.com/indexp/exportstatement.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Total CEREALS BASMATI RICE NON BASMATI RICE WHEAT OTHER CEREALS MILLED PRODUCTS Total Grand Total 1139402.89 424307. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Flame seedless. Red globe.51 690204.83 MTs (2003-04) 70 – 80% (Approx.52 9752245.K.) Tel.95 3702191.86 5597331.5 Kg /9 kg 0-1 °C 0-1 °C Variety Thompson Seedless Sharad Seedless Flame Seedless Packing Storage Temp.58 3629442.34 3220200. Berry Size: 18mm white Berry Size: 18mm black Berry Size: 18mm pink 4.27 3228051.73 392057. nbsp.88.722 MTs(2002-03) Availability December to April Major exports to Middle East.58 17451122.23 10907355.05 41053.43 1556411.27 279280.22 72515.21 730275. Christmas Varieties in demand internationally rose.76 652314. Fax -0731.94 300232. Ruby seedless. Fantasy seedless Sharad Seedless Total export from India Share of Maharashtra Export Specifications Countries Middle East Holland/Germany Berry Size: 15mm Colour:Berry Size: 16mm Colour: amber white/amber Berry Size: 15mm black Berry Size: 16mm black ----Berry Size: 16mm pink 1 Kg 4. U. Holland.93 14141299. Exotic.5 6530112.aspx 2.Germany Thompson seedless.77 1516777.61 399545.73 5285916.84 3535. ROAD.4072636.) Thompson seedless.41 145.57 - .14 9994. Varieties grown in Maharashtra Manek chaman. Calmeria.

01 0. Fax -0731.10 Insecticide/Pesticide Organochlorine Pesticides Aldrin Chlordane (cis & trans) Chlorothalonil DDT (all isomers) Dichlofluanid Dicofol Dieldrin Endosulfan (all isomers) Endrin Lindane HCH (alpha & beta) Heptachlor Organophosphorus Pesticides Acephate Azinphos-methl Chlorfenvinphos Chlorpyriphos methyl Drazinon Dichlorvos Dimerthoate Ehion Etrimphos Fenchlorphos Fenitrothion Malathion Profenophos 2-chlorophenol(metabolite) Methamidophos Methidathion Mevinphos Source : http://www.02 0. ROAD.50 0.50 0.02 1.00 2.Europe ND ND 1.50 ND 0.00 0.02 0.4064557 . Permissible Limits(mgm/kg).01 0.10 0.) Tel.01 0.00 0.00 ND 10.(M.P.10 1.DISTRICT –INDORE.05 ND 0.com/english/export/promotion/grapes.4072636.58 - .htm INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.NEAR RAU.msamb.00 ND 0.5 ND 0.05 0.PIGDAMBER.B.0731.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Max.01 0.50 0.

3.DISTRICT –INDORE. National Horticulture Board.) Tel. the Govt. The project in the first stage.4072636.P. LTD. Sangli. It is also proposed to set up Maharashtra Grape Board (MGB).50 crore out of which 2.NEAR RAU. Pune. Satara and Ahmed Nagar.8 Top 10 Exporters (FRESH GRAPES) • • • • • • • • • • MAHINDRA SHUBHLABH SERVICES LTD. an autonomous development agency which will work as a facilitator to ensure a smooth and orderly development of the grape industry in the state.35 crore will come from various Central Govt. STERLING EXPORTS INC OM SHREE INTERNATIONAL GNT EXPORTS RAIEN TRADING CORPORATION NHC INDUSTRIES PVT. To export table variety of grapes as well as the value added products like wine in a coordinated manner. It is expected that in the next Five years a total exports of more than Rs. Solapur. of Maharashtra has put up a proposal for setting up of Agri Export Zone in encompassing districts of Nasik. The rest of the expenditure will be borne by the State Government.59 - .B. Ministry of Food Processing Industries.0731.7 Agri Export Zone of India with reference to grapes Maharashtra is the largest grape producing state in the country.(M. ROAD. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. agencies like APEDA. ATHARVA INTERNATIONAL CHAND FRUIT COMPANY PRIVATE LTD BOMBAY EXPORTS FRESHTROP FRUITS LTD. Ministry of Agriculture. 2.4064557 . 68 crores will take place.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2. entails a total cost of Rs.PIGDAMBER. Fax -0731.

Propagation is mandatory.P.NEAR RAU.B. the water supply management is unsustainable. Due to variation in the monsoons. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Opportunities• • India will be able to supply grapes to the neighboring countries.60 - .PIGDAMBER.) Tel. Weakness• • • • There is low in technology inputs in horticulture production.4064557 . SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths• • • India is the largest producer of agro-product in the world. Poor post harvest facilities for warehousing. Income generation and employment support to more of the Indian population. Threats• So far the Indian grapes were not exported to the far countries.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 3. India has the ability to cater the continuous demand of grapes by the consumers.(M.0731. ROAD. India produces many varieties of grapes. so Indian grapes will have to face a cut throat competition.DISTRICT –INDORE. Fax -0731.4072636.

which is the main destination for the Indian fruit. which had come under a cloud following the presence of chlormequat.500 tons last season. China.500 containers last year.NEAR RAU. According to sources. who are yet to clear grapes consignment from India because of safety concerns. Spain.0731.) Tel.000 containers have been sent to Europe this year compared to 2. The deadlock over India’s grapes export to the European Union. UK changed the MRL in December 2007 and issued further clarification in February this year. is estimated to be around 45. the export to EU.DISTRICT –INDORE. India has tough competition from Italy. in some consignments has shown some signs of easing as UK and Sweden have started accepting Indian grapes by adhering to their own maximum residue level (MRL). Farmers in the grapes belt of Maharashtra are of the view that the changes to MRL in the mid-season are made by the developed countries to discourage imports and such changes act as non-tariff barriers. But. 2008. Grapes are harvested during February-April while whatever pesticides are to be sprayed are used 60-100 days before harvest and therefore it is difficult to conform to amended MRL norms in the middle of the season.(M. FINDINGS India's grapes export to EU rises by 20% despite restrictions India's grapes export to Europe is estimated to have jumped by 20 per cent during this season even though countries like Germany and The Netherlands changed the prescribed minimum residues level (MRL) midseason. a big hurdle still remains from Germany and Netherlands .4064557 . a chemical residue. Mr Dave said exports were not affected as APEDA also made changes in the MRL after some of the countries changed that. However. while Germany and The Netherlands prescribed the amended limits in March. 4. "About 3. The European Union issued a separate MRL in its update in January. etc." said Mr S Dave. in 2007-08 season. As each container carries 15 tons of grapes. Argentina. Director of Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA). an expert said. – PTI.PIGDAMBER.61 - .Export Of Grapes From India To UK • • India has to cover the world market as a sunrise nation in grapes. Fax -0731. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. so it will require huge initial investment and so the Indian grape will be lacking in cost competitiveness.4072636. ROAD.000 tons compared to about 37.P.B.

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Fax -0731.NEAR RAU. ROAD.4064557 .06 gm per kg are consumed. “In the absence of any specific norms we have been following the default level of 0. “We are constantly in touch with EU officials and hope to find a solution to this problem shortly.05 gm per kg standard. In the case of chlormequat. “We have already lost two weeks and any further delay would result in huge financial loss. The maximum permissible level is 1 gm per kg in the country. exporters have been are yet to decide on whether any tests should be conducted on the grapes consignment. Indian exporters say it is difficult to follow food safety guidelines in European Union as all membernations have their own rules.000 tonne achieved last year because of poor supplies from Chile .PIGDAMBER.P. Trades sources said that there 98 types of pesticide residue whose presence in the grapes consignment need to be tested. India is aiming to increase its grapes exports to the EU to around 44.” a grape exporter said Maximum amount of grapes in India is exported from Maharashtra followed by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.4072636.62 - . The European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) in its latest safety study report stated that no acute consumer health risk is expected if table grapes with a mean chlormequat residue concentration of 1.” a grape exporter from Pune told FE. The exporters are worried that time is running because of grape export period is only in the range of six to seven weeks. the 27-member European Union has not formulated any specific maximum residue level (MRL).(M.” an Apeda official said.) Tel.0731. most of the rejected containers are lying at Rotterdam ( Netherlands ) port.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Netherlands in one of the largest buyers of Indian grapes and officials feel that any loss of market could hurt overall fruit exports from the country.DISTRICT –INDORE. due the absence of coherent norms in the EU.000 tonne from 37.B. Major findings of this research are as follows: • There are many other market for the export of grapes. There are 140 farmers in Maharashtra registered for exports. However. According to trade sources.

Export procedure of grapes by Mr.63 - .B. ROAD. 5. Delhi INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. St Joseph college of commerce. India improving its quality of export as well as export. Ajay Choudhary.DISTRICT –INDORE. Fax -0731. Institute of Management and Development.0731.PIGDAMBER.(M.P.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • • There is involvement of tough competition with other European countries.4072636.NEAR RAU.) Tel. RELATED STUDIES Following are related studies: • • Export potential of India in agricultural product by Mr.4064557 . Merro Don Thomas.

NEAR RAU.DISTRICT –INDORE.PIGDAMBER. Fax -0731.P. Quality should improve which give positive result in the export performance. productivity should increase. Price and quality meter should match.(M. There are many neighbour countries in which export can done.4072636. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.64 - . ROAD. Due to increase demand of grapes in the global market.B.) Tel.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 6.0731.4064557 . SUGGESTIONS Following are the suggestions brought from my research: • • • • • Warehousing facility should be improved.

Diversification of uses as wine/juice and export of table grapes can ease the marketing problems.DISTRICT –INDORE.(M.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 7. Currently more than 80 percent of the produce is used for table purposes.65 - . The major bulk of the produce is harvested in March-April. Fax -0731.B.NEAR RAU.000 tonnes. efforts are needed to extend grape cultivation to newer areas. but as cold storage facilities are currently inadequate there are frequent market gluts.000 hectares with an annual production of 1. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Soil and water salinity and drought are the impediments in this direction. Since the highest productivity in grapes has been achieved. the area under grapes is not expanding fast owing to the high initial cost of establishing the vineyards and high recurring cost of production.4072636.PIGDAMBER.) Tel. There is a need to diversify the uses of grapes.4064557 . for which suitable rootstocks are to be identified. CONCLUSION Grape is cultivated over an area of 34. the produce should be quality and cost competitive. Although.0731. The risk of losing a crop due to unprecedented changes in weather is also very high. ROAD.000. the returns per unit area of land are very high with grape cultivation.P. Maintenance of quality of table grapes by crop regulation is the priority consideration to increase exports. For the survival of the grape industry in India. Future efforts are to be concentrated in this direction.

fao.in/hort/hortrevo5. ROAD.wikipedia.(M. Fax -0731.66 - .com/indexp/genReport.com/apedawebsite/ http://tradejunction.B.htm http://agricoop.htm http://www.info/updates/grape-health.4072636.4064557 .nic.PIGDAMBER.com/distribution/horticulture/DG1103.wikipedia.html http://www.cookeryonline.DISTRICT –INDORE.business-standard.htm http://mn4h.apeda.apeda. REFERENCE Websites: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • http://en.org/wiki/Grape http://en.NEAR RAU.aspx http://tradejunction.com/india/news/eu-halts-grape-importsindia/392628/ http://apeda.php http://hubpages.aspx http://tradejunction.com/indexp/product_description_32head.apeda.com/indexp/exportstatement.com/hub/Health_Benefits_of_Grape Magazines: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.org/docrep/003/x6897e/x6897e06.aspx? hscode=08061000&mids=.apeda.&top_r=50&yr=ALL&hscode1=GRAPE http://www.org/wiki/List_of_grape_varieties http://www.P.0731.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 8.vegetarian-nutrition.com/India%20Production/India_Production.aspx?gcode=0205 http://tradejunction.com/mealexperience/Grapes/Index.) Tel.

22 2009 Publix magazine.0731.Nov.PIGDAMBER. Alison Crowe. 2009 Conservation Magazine.) Tel. 2009 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Fax -0731. ROAD.67 - ..P. Nov.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • • • • Business Standard.B. Mumbai April 22 2010 Winemaker..DISTRICT –INDORE..4064557 .(M.4072636.NEAR RAU...Dec.