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1. CONCEPTUAL FRAMWORK 1.1 INTRO DUCTION
Today India is the second largest producer of the fruits (45.5 Million tons) and Vegetables (90.8 Million tons ) in the world ,contributing 10.23%and 14.45%of the total world production of fruits and vegetables respectively .India has made a fairly good progress on horticulture Map of world with total annual production of The horticulture crops touching over 149 million tons India has been bestowed with wide range of climate and physio-geographical conditions and as such is most suitable for growing various kinds of horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers , nuts , spices and plantation crops. With the focused attention given to horticulture, there has been spectacular change in terms of adoption of new technologies, production and availability of horticulture products. Fruits and vegetables constitute around 10 per cent of the total agriculture production of the country. This sector offers enormous potential for export. According to FAO, the export of fruits from India in 2003-04 US $166 million and that of vegetables US $ 205 million .India’s export of fruits and vegetables is more concentrated towards Asian region. Asian region accounted for 75% of total fruits and vegetable export 2003-04.The export to European and American market is very less due to imposition of stringent quality measures. But in the last 3-4 year the export of fruits and vegetable Europe has been increasing with the adoption of Good Agriculture practices (GAP) by Indian farmer. Also the APEADA is taking active role in establishing many quality testing laboratories and adequate documentation protocol across the country to boost the export of perishables. Maharashtra is the one of the largest state in the production of fruits and vegetable contributing nineteen percent of the total fruit production in the country. The state produces around nine million tones of fruits having productivity of 16 MT per hectare of, which is fairly good when compared to country’s average Of 12 MT. it grows commodities like grapes, pomegranate, mango, sapota , oranges, lime, strawberry, jackfruits etc in large quantity .The state holds prestigious position in vegetable production contributing 5% of the production and stands 7 in the country. Total production of vegetables in Maharashtra is approximately 5 million tones. Because of close proximity to Mumbai port and metropolitan market .the state enjoys the comparative advantage in export as well as long distance
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557
Export Of Grapes From India To UK In certain commodities the state has occupied unique and prestigious position , e.g. mango ,pomegranate, grapes , onion. Highly perishable nature of his fruits and vegetable make their marketing system more costly and complex. Timely and procurement of fruits and vegetable in bulk is of immense importance for exporters. Transportation plays an important role in fruits and vegetable marketing. The exporter has to meet the specific qualitative and quantitative requirements of the importer. The packaging, residue testing, documentation and phyto sanitary certification has to be met in order To export. So establishing an efficient backward linkage is must for exporting fruits and vegetables. 1.1.1 PROPOSED PLAN FOR MAHARASHTRA • • During very first season (2008-09) 350 Containers of Grapes were to European Nations from Nashik District alone. .Other exports from Nashik District are Pomegranate, Onion, and Banana etc.
1.1.2 History The domestication of purple grapes originated in what is now southern Turkey. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the innovation of alcoholic drinks such as wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production. Later, the growing of grapes spread to Europe, North Africa, and eventually North America. Native purple grapes belonging to the Vitis genus proliferated in the wild across North America, and were a part of the diet of many North American Native Americans, but were considered by European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. The first Old World Vitis vinifera purple grapes were cultivated in California where Spain had established a series of monasteries along the coasts to supply their navies with oranges to prevent scurvy and convert natives. Grapes have always had a part in history. There are old greek troughs and coffins in the Getty Villa, and they show cherubs in tubs of grapes, making wine.
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557
Export Of Grapes From India To UK 18.104.22.168 Description Grapes grow in clusters of 6 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins which are responsible for the color of purple grapes.Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines. 22.214.171.124 Market Scenario Nasik district is the largest producer and export of Grapes in Maharashtra. The main growing are Dindori , Nasik ,Niphad, Pimpalgaon –Basvant and Chandwad. Export of grapes from nasik stands at 7613.63 MT during 2003-04. Usually very little quantity of export quality grapes comes to APMCs. Export grapes are usually Procured at the fare gate. Traders and exports go directly to farms 20-25 days before harvest and they fix a procurement price based on the grade. 126.96.36.199 Period of price fluctuation: Generally the price of grape depends on the production, harvesting period and demands in market of other part of India. Low price: Nov to Dec with the average price around Rs.7 to 9/kg Peak price: April-May with average price around Rs.12 to 15/kg In this market some variety always fetch good price. A general price for varieties can be given below: 188.8.131.52.1 Sangli: It is second largest grapes growing and exporting district in Maharastra. Export quality grapes won’t come to here. So exporters and traders go directly to farmer’s orchard. The important growing regions are Malegaon, Miraj, Nimni, Savlaj and Tasgaon. Nearly 250-300 containers of grapes will be exported this year from Sangli district alone. During last year (200809) the farm gate procurement price of export quality grapes fluctuated with the time like this. February end’s 35-40 /kg March15-30: Rs 50 / kg March 30 onwards Rs 60-65/kg
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557
Famous Indian medicine scholars. Grapes are also used in some kinds of confectionery.4072636. from where they were introduced into the south (Daulatabad in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra) during the historic event of changing the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad by King Mohammed-bin-Tughlak. Indigenous varieties known as ‘Rangspay’.Grapes arrival is from Solapur. jelly.P.PIGDAMBER. ‘Shonltu White’ and ‘Shonltu Red’ are grown in Himachal Pradesh even today. respectively. juice. grape seed extracts. ROAD. and into Hyderabad province by HEH. Bengal.DISTRICT –INDORE. Sasruta and Charaka in their medical treatises entitled ‘Sasruta Samhita’ and ‘Charaka Samhita’. Salem and Hyderabad. vinegar. Distribution is mainly to Bihar.4064557 -4- . raisins.3 Grape A grape is the non-climacteric fruit.2.3. Kautilya in his ‘Arthashastra’ written in the fourth century BC mentioned the type of land suitable for grape cultivation. grape cultivation spread to different parts of the country. In this market grape price depends on variety of grape. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. mentioned the medicinal properties of grapes.(M. wine. 1.) Tel. reported to have seen flourishing vineyards in south India.B. Daulatabad. botanically a true berry. and grape seed oil. resembling Vitis lanata and Vitis palmata grow wild in the northwestern Himalayan foothills. Orisa.1.NEAR RAU. Grapes can be eaten raw or used for making jam. Cultivated grapes are believed to have been introduced into the north of India by the Persian invaders in 1300 AD. the Nizam of Hyderabad in the early part of the 20th century.2 Solapur Market: Solapur is also very big market for grapes .Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.1. Sangli. Nearly 80% of the production is Thompson seedless and 10-15% is Sharad and flame seedless. From Delhi. Fax -0731. and Southern Indian states.0731. Rest is from other varieties. written during 1356-1220 BC. and Baramati and from regions of Kolhapur surrounding Sangli. Native spp. The prices of some important varieties are given below. Grape cultivation is one of the most remunerative farming enterprises in India. a Moorish traveller who visited Daulatabad in 1430 AD. There are many Bihar and Bengal traders operating in this market. Grape was also introduced in the south into Salem and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu by the Christian missionaries around 1832 AD. Ibn Batuta. that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Madurai.
the muscadines.4064557 -5- .Export Of Grapes From India To UK Grape (Vitis vinifera) is grown from temperate to warm regions.DISTRICT –INDORE. Modern packhouse facility with automatic forced air system for precooling is available in all the commercial production areas.NEAR RAU. hot and dry climate is ideal.3. unseeded. 1. Vitis rotundifolia.1 Grapevines Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera. seeded. Native to the Eastern United States and Canada. used for jams and wine.P. Native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico.B.(M. however.Extensive Residue Monitoring plan for monitoring the pesticide residues in grapes is implemented for consumer safety. ROAD. Fax -0731. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: • Vitis labrusca. and north to Quebec. the North American table and grape juice grapevines (including the concord cultivar). Vitis riparia.Traceability system is maintained for the product tracking. white. Indian grapes are successfully grown at and above 250 mean sea level.) Tel. Native to the entire Eastern U.S.1. Indian grapes come in varied characteristics namely coloured. sometimes used for winemaking and for jam. • • • INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. large and small berries. Vitis amurensis. the most important Asian species. a wild vine of North America.0731. sometimes used for wine.4072636. the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia.PIGDAMBER.
org/wiki/Grape According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).866 square kilometres of the world are dedicated to grapes.DISTRICT –INDORE.2 Distribution and production Fig 1. 27% as fresh fruit.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.1. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine. The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural".NEAR RAU. and 2% as dried fruit.P. 75. The following table of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes for wine making: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.wikipedia.1 Source: http://en.0731. ROAD.4064557 -6- .PIGDAMBER.) Tel.4072636.3. Fax -0731.(M.B.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK
Table 1.1 Country Spain France Italy Turkey United States Iran Romania Portugal Argentina Australia Lebanon Area dedicated 11,750 km2 8,640 km2 8,270 km2 8,120 km2 4,150 km2 2,860 km2 2,480 km2 2,160 km2 2,080 km2 1,642 km2 1,122 km2
Top Ten Grapes Producers – 8 October 2009 Country Italy People's Republic of China United States France Spain Table:1.2 Turkey Iran Argentina Chile India World Production (Tonnes) 8,519,418 6,787,081 6,384,090 6,044,900 5,995,300 3,612,781 3,000,000 2,900,000 2,350,000 1,667,700 67,221,000 Footnote F F F F F F F F F F A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAOSTAT 2007, * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557
- Source: Food And Agricultural Organization7of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division
Export Of Grapes From India To UK Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grape There's no reliable statistics that breaks down grape production by variety. It is, however, believed that the most widely planted variety is Sultana, also known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 sq.km. (880,000 acres) dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Grenache, Tempranillo, and Chardonnay. 184.108.40.206 Table and wine grapes Commercially cultivated grapes can usually be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw (table grapes) or used to make wine (wine grapes). While almost all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera, table and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit (see below) with relatively thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller, usually seeded, and have relatively thick skins (a desirable characteristic in winemaking, since much of the aroma in wine comes from the skin). Wine grapes also tend to be very sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is approximately 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is usually around 15% sugar by weight. 220.127.116.11 Seedless grapes Seedlessness is a highly desirable subjective quality in table grape selection, and seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is, however, an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are currently more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Reliance and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of north-eastern United States and southern Ontario.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical content of grape seeds (see Health claims, below). 18.104.22.168 Raisins, currants and sultanas In most of Europe, dried grapes are referred to as "raisins" or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "Dried vine fruit" in official documents. A raisin is any dried grape. While raisin is a French loanword, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; grappe (from which the English grape is derived) refers to the bunch (as in une grappe de raisins). A currant is a dried Zante Black Corinth grape, the name being a corruption of the French raisin de Corinthe (Corinth grape). Currant has also come to refer to the blackcurrant and redcurrant, two berries unrelated to grapes. A sultana was originally a raisin made from a specific type of grape of Turkish origin, but the word is now applied to raisins made from common grapes and chemically treated to resemble the traditional sultana. 1.1.4 PRESENT STATUS OF GRAPE CULTIVATION IN THE COUNTRY Grape is grown under a variety of soil and climatic conditions in three distinct agro-climatic zones, namely, sub-tropical, hot tropical and mild tropical climatic regions in India. 22.214.171.124 Sub-tropical Region: This region covers the northwestern plains corresponding to 28° and 32° N latitude including Delhi; Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh; Hissar and Jind districts of Haryana; and Bhatinda, Ferozpur, Gurdaspur and Ludhiana districts of Punjab. Vines undergo dormancy and bud break starts in the first week of March while the rains arrive in the first week of June, and therefore, only 90-95 days are available from the initiation of growth to harvest. Consequently, ‘Perlette’ is the only early ripening variety grown in this region. Rain damage is a
Gulabi (Syn. 1.(M.4. and Bhokri. Maximum temperatures in a year seldom exceed 36°C.PIGDAMBER. two crops are harvested in a year. Isabella). and Bijapur.B. Sonaka). Thompson Seedless and its clones (Tas-A-Ganesh. while the minimum is about 12°C. Except for Thompson Seedless. 1.2 Hot Tropical Region: This region covers Nashik. Vines do not undergo dormancy and double pruning and a single harvest is the general practice in this region. Gulberga districts of northern Karnataka lying between 15° and 20° N latitude. Area and production of different varieties of grapes in India is as follows: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Principal varieties are Bangalore Blue (Syn. Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh and Coimbatore. This is the major viticulture region accounting for 70 percent of the area under grapes in the country.0731. Thompson Seedless is grown only with limited success. The major problems in this region are soil and water salinity and drought.DISTRICT –INDORE. Muscat Hamburg).3 Mild Tropical Region: An area covered by 10° and 15° N latitude including Bangalore and Kolar districts of Karnataka.4072636.10 - . Bagalkot. Anab-e-Shahi. Pune. Solapur. Sangli.4.Export Of Grapes From India To UK problem with Thompson Seedless in this region.NEAR RAU. and Madurai and Theni districts of Tamil Nadu fall in this region. Anantapur and Medak districts of Andhra Pradesh.1. Ranga Reddy.4064557 .) Tel. Anab-e-Shahi.1. Fax -0731. respectively. Vinifera varieties susceptible to mildew suffer losses due to unprecedented rains during flowering and fruit set in both hot and mild tropical regions. Hyderabad. Latur and Osmanabad districts of Maharashtra. Mahbubnagar. Maximum and minimum temperature is 42°C and 8°C. Berry growth is impaired and in certain locations pink blush sometimes develops on green berries due to temperatures that drop to a low of 8°C. Single pruning and a single harvest is the accepted practice here. Satara.P. ROAD. Sharad Seedless and Flame Seedless are the varieties grown in this region. Belgaum.
seedless) Thomson Seedless and its mutants (white. is consumed fresh. ROAD.(M. irrespective of the variety.000 180. seeded) Bangalore Blue Syn.NEAR RAU. seedless) Gulabi Syn.000.000 1.htm Area (ha) 3. Fax -0731.DISTRICT –INDORE. namely.0731.000 20.org/docrep/003/x6897e/x6897e06.000 1.B. and 10.500 500 500 1. Cabernet Sauvignon. Isabella (black. Chenin Blanc.1.3 Variety Anab-e-Shahi (white. the ‘Dogridge’ rootstock is being employed to combat soil and water salinity problems. Merlot.000 550.000 Production (t) 135.000 Approximately 85 percent of the total production. Pinot Noir and Uni Blanc are crushed to process into wine.5 PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL Vines are raised on their own roots in India. About 120.PIGDAMBER.4064557 .000 60.000 34.11 - .000 22. seeded) Perlette (white.P. Chardonnay.000 10.A mutant of Kishmish Chorni (black.000 4. seeded) Flame Seedless (red.4072636. Muscat Hamburg (purple.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Table 1.000 30.000 tonnes of Bangalore Blue. 1.fao. Due to the non-prevalence of Phylloxera or nematodes. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Tas-A-Ganesh. seedless) Total Source:http://www.500 1.000 tonnes of Thompson Seedless and its mutants. seeded) Bhokri (white.000 tonnes of Bangalore Blue are crushed to make juice. seedless) Sharad Seedless . Sonaka and Manik Chaman are dried for raisins. rootstocks are not employed.000 15. but in recent years.) Tel. Some 20.
3 Establishment Of Vineyards 1.1 Multiplication on Own Roots Grapes are multiplied exclusively by the rooting of hardwood cuttings. 1. No Government agency is involved in the multiplication and supply of rooted cuttings. preferably in polybags of 15 x 25 cm. Fax -0731.5. while June-July is the suitable time for chip budding.1. Cuttings of 4 nodes each with a thickness of 8 to 10 mm are made from the selected canes.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.000 ppm strong IBA solution for five minutes before planting.2 Raising on Rootstocks Hardwood cuttings of the ‘Dogridge’ rootstock are subjected to rooting.B.1.4072636.) Tel. 50 kg of cattle INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.1 Land Preparation and Vine Establishment The land is tilled and laid into plots of 120 m x 180 m separated by 3 m wide roads. They are closed with topsoil. 1. Growers themselves obtain the hardwood cuttings from elite vineyards and raise their own nurseries.4064557 . The remaining gap is filled with a mixture of soil. Trenches of 75 cm width.1. Well matured canes obtained in September/October are selected.1. sulphate of potash and micro-nutrients. The fresh cuttings are soaked in running water for 24 hours to leach out the water-soluble rooting inhibitors. Wedge grafting is more common and the best time for the operation is September-October.12 - .3. Rooted cuttings of this rootstock are planted in the main field during February-March.(M.P. The basal parts of cuttings are then dipped in a 2. Soil drenching with chlorophyriphos 0.5.0731.NEAR RAU.PIGDAMBER.1 percent is a practice to safeguard the cuttings against termite damage. up to a height of 45 cm after 15 days exposure to sun. The desired scion variety is then grafted/budded on the rootstocks in the field by wedge grafting/chip budding. cattle manure. ROAD. 75 cm depth and 118 m length in a north-south direction with a gap of 3 m between trenches are opened with heavy machinery. single superphosphate.DISTRICT –INDORE. Usually. Land within a plot is levelled perfectly to have a gradient of less than 1 percent in any direction to ensure uniform discharge of water through the emitters of drip irrigation systems. It is also a practice to plant the cuttings in situ when three to four cuttings prepared and treated as above are planted at each spot in the main field.5.5.
For vigorous varieties it is 6 m x 3 m or 4 m x 3 m and 3 m x 3 m or 3 m x 2 m for less vigorous varieties.3. Yields in this system are less than the bower.) Tel.5.1. 1. but the most popular are Bower.5.2 Planting Season The best season for planting the rooted cuttings of cultivated varieties in the main field is September-October whereas for rootstocks it is February-March.5 kg of superphosphate. Telephone System: T-trellis is used in this system of training.PIGDAMBER. sunburn of the berries and of the arms are experienced in summer. ROAD.4064557 .NEAR RAU. Bower System: Owing to the high productive potential.5. 1.4. the trellis looks like a telephone pole and wires and hence the name.DISTRICT –INDORE.P.3.4 CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF VINEYARDS 1.1 Training of Vines Many training systems are in vogue in India.1. 2.1. It is highly suited for vigorous varieties like Anab-e-Shahi.B.4072636.0731. 0. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.Export Of Grapes From India To UK manure. Telephone and Flat Roof Gable systems. In very hot and dry places. this system is not popular. bower was a very popular system of training in the past. 1.(M.3 Spacing Spacing generally varies with the varieties and soil fertility.5.13 - . Bangalore Blue and Gulabi. But in varieties like Thompson Seedless and Tas-A-Ganesh where vine vigour and excessive foliage density affects the productivity adversely. This system is followed for moderately vigorous varieties like Thompson Seedless and other seedless cultivars in about 25-30 percent of the vineyard area in Maharashtra.1.5 kg of sulphate of potash and 50 g each of ZnSO 4 and FeSO4 are added to the soil for every running meter length of the trench. With three top wires and ‘T’ shaped supports. Fax -0731.
In the sub-tropical region. There is no scope to prune earlier than October and later than November due to unfavourable weather conditions.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Flat Roof Gable System: Combining the advantage of bower and the extended Y systems and eliminating their disadvantages. Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Owing to these advantages.4.4072636. In hot tropical regions.DISTRICT –INDORE. ROAD. vines are pruned twice and the crop is harvested twice.5. 1. vines are pruned twice but only one crop is harvested. As a result. A standard dose of 500:500:1000 kg of N. Half of the canes are pruned to renewal spurs and the rest to fruiting canes (3-4 nodes for Perlette). 1. Fax -0731. This system is particularly followed for vigorous vines (vines grafted on rootstocks).PIGDAMBER.1. vines are pruned only once in December and the crop is harvested once. five crops are harvested every two years. 60 percent is given as inorganic INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. an inter-connected Y trellis forming a flat roof gable is being adopted.) Tel. The clusters hang within the reach of the worker of an average height.14 - . In varieties like Gulabi and Bangalore Blue.B. The annual dose is fixed based on the petiole analysis carried out at 45 days after spur pruning.1.P. The bunches are protected from direct sunlight and well exposed to sprays of pesticides. The number of nodes retained on a cane varies with the variety and cane thickness. pruning is done at any time of the year.5. P2O5 and K2O per hectare is followed in light sandy soils.(M. which are fairly resistant to rain damage and in which fruit bud differentiation is not impaired by cloudy weather and rains. All canes in a vine are pruned back to single node spurs in March-May to develop canes and the canes are forward pruned in October-November for fruiting. the usage of organic manure has assumed high importance in India. While 40 percent of the annual dose is given through organic sources.4064557 . this system is gaining popularity among the growers in Maharashtra.0731. In the mild tropical region. while 660:880:660 kg are applied for heavy clay soils.NEAR RAU.2 Pruning of Vines Three distinct pruning practices are in vogue in relation to cropping in the three grape growing regions of the country.3 Application of Manure and Fertilizers As vineyard soils are either sandy loams or heavy clays.4.
thrips.4.5. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.05 percent. particularly in heavy clay soils.1.4.) Tel.Export Of Grapes From India To UK fertilizer.8 as the crop factor.1. phosalone at 0.NEAR RAU. Recently application of soluble fertilizers through drip irrigation is picking up.PIGDAMBER. irrigation is essential.05 percent or malathion at 0.15 - .4064557 .DISTRICT –INDORE. Sulphate of potash is the only source of potash used in place of muriate. Prophylactic sprays of insecticides against thrips are given once in five days from the initiation of bloom to berry set. Water requirement is calculated based on the pan evaporation using 0.15 percent. Sometimes the post-emergent weedicides. 40 percent of N. Insecticides like carbaryl at 0. Less than 10 percent of the vineyard areas are surface irrigated.125 percent.1 percent or phosalone at 0.4. Flea beetles: The adult beetles scrape the sprouting buds and eat them up completely after each pruning. 50 percent of P2O5 and 33 percent 1. Within the rows.05 percent. Thrips are effectively controlled by spraying phosphamidon at 0. dichlorvas at 0. carbaryl at 0.0 kg/ha or paraquat at about 7. The affected berries develop a corky layer and become brown on maturity.5 kg/ha is sprayed in fully grown vineyards.05 percent are sprayed from the fourth day until the emergence of leaves. weeds are manually hoed and removed. quinolphos at 0. mainly glyphosate at about 2. 1. Scab formation on the berry surface is also due to thrip damage to the ovaries/young berries. Fax -0731. 1. Thrips: Thrips attack the ovaries of flowers and newly set berries and suck sap from them.(M. flea beetles.5.6 Pests and their Management The important pests of grapes in India are.5.4 Weeding Weeds between the rows of vines are removed mechanically by tractor drawn implements. Calcium ammonium nitrate is usually not used.4072636. Such berries are not suitable for marketing.5 Supplementary Irrigation Since grapes are grown in areas where the evapotranspiration exceeds the precipitation.05 percent. Damaged buds fail to sprout. while the rest is irrigated by drip systems. Water is applied at different rates at different stages of vine growth and berry development.P. mealy bugs and leaf hoppers.1.0731.B. ROAD.
The adults and young nymphs of hoppers suck sap exclusively from the lower side of the leaves.1 percent. young leaves. 1. phosalone at 0.1 percent only is effective on the adults. fenitrothion at 0. Anthracnose is prevalent in all grape growing regions of the country.NEAR RAU. Carbaryl at 0.) Tel. Mealy bugs are hard-to-kill insects and the package of practices for their control in India is as follows: i) Avoid spraying broad-spectrum insecticides particularly synthetic pyrethroids.000 per hectare when the berries start softening.1 percent mixed with neem oil 0.7 Diseases and their Management The important grape diseases are anthracnose.8 percent. It is better to release a mixed population of grubs and adults rather than only adults. flowers and young berries.(M.15 percent.16 - . In recent years. Alternaria is also becoming a serious pathogen.2 percent or tridemorph at 0.04 percent. They excrete honey on leaves and berries and sooty mold develops on the honey.P. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Mealy Bugs: Mealy bugs are the most serious and problematic pests of grapes in India.4064557 .1 percent are used to control this disease. Nymphs and adults suck sap from the tender shoots resulting in crinkling and stunting of the new shoots. ROAD.B. Mealy bug infected bunches are unfit for marketing.DISTRICT –INDORE.000-10.4.4072636. copper oxychloride at 0. Fax -0731. iii) Release cryptolaemus montrozieri beetles at 8. The disease is characterized by small light brown or greyish black lesions on tender shoots. powdery mildew and bacterial leaf spot.05 percent and phosalone at 0. Bordeaux mixture at 0.05 percent is more effective on the nymphs while tridemorph at 0. ii) Spray only dichlorvas at 0. Leaf hoppers: This pest has assumed serious proportions in all grape growing regions of India in recent years. Yield losses can be up to 50 percent due to mealy bug damage.25 percent or carbendazim at 0.PIGDAMBER.05 percent or quinalphos at 0.05 percent are sprayed to control this pest. A mixture of quinalphos at 0.5.1.0731. downy mildew.
Karathane EC at 0.PIGDAMBER.15 percent is used to check its spread. Severely infected leaves give a blighted appearance. Calaxin at 0. Myclobutanil (Systhane at 0. uneven ripening and post-harvest berry drop. pink berry syndrome.(M. dry and drop down. while Bordeaux mixture at 0. copper oxychloride at 0.17 - .8 percent or copper oxychloride at 0. Bacteria infects leaves. Salinity injury is common in Maharashtra and north Karnataka. Other physiological disorders are cane immaturity. 1.DISTRICT –INDORE. The symptoms appear as minute water soaked spots on the lower surface of the leaves. 1.04 percent. The eco-physiological disorders are ‘coulure’. A wide range of fungicides.P.07 percent. The disease is characterized by the presence of white powdery (ash like) coating in patches on both sides of the leaves. Powdery mildew is controlled easily by wettable Sulphur formulations.4. The disease mainly appears on the leaves. Entire clusters decay. Properly neutralized Bordeaux mixture at 1 percent.1. Fax -0731. berry cracking and rotting. Mostly these spots coalesce and form larger patches. shot berries. water berries.2 percent.0731. cluster tip wilting. ROAD.1 percent) and Penconazol (Topas at 0. It is next in importance to downy mildew in its devastating severity.1. Powdery mildew is prevalent in all the grape growing regions.2 percent) are used against this disease. but also attacks the flower clusters and young fruits.5. young shoots and immature berries.4064557 . Mancozeb at 0.05 percent).NEAR RAU.8 Physiological Disorders Physiological disorders associated with high temperature and low atmospheric humidity in the hot tropical region are dead arm and trunk splitting.4072636.9 Quality Improvement INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. The losses are very high when it attacks the clusters before fruit set.4.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Downy mildew is the most devastating disease of grapes in the tropical region of the country. especially along the main and lateral veins. shoots and berries. Triademifon (Bayleton at 0.025 percent) are used to control this disease.B.5.2 percent. namely.2 percent) or Phosethyl-Al (aliettle at 0. blossom-end rot. Streptocyclin at 500 ppm is used as a prophylactic spray. metalaxyl (Ridomil Mz at 0.) Tel.
18 - . Clusters are dipped in GA solution of 30-40 ppm when 10-20 percent of the flowers open in each cluster for berry thinning.1.PIGDAMBER. ROAD. Production of Loose Clusters: Pre-bloom GA sprays of 10 ppm and 15 ppm are given respectively on the 11th to 14th day after bud break for cluster elongation. only the apical two or three shoots are retained.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Shoot and Cluster Thinning: Only one or two clusters are retained per cane depending upon the density of the latter. 1. Increasing Berry Size: Manual means are used to supplement chemical thinning to ensure adequate berry thinning and improve the quality of grapes. Approximately 90-120 berries are retained per cluster depending upon the number of leaves available to nourish it at 8-10 berries per every leaf depending on its size. In vines trained to the flat roof gable. while girdling will ensure a TSS content of 20°B.) Tel. Period of harvest and yield of different varieties is given below. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.P. When berry diameter is to be increased to more than 16 mm. clusters are dipped in a mixture of 10 ppm BA + 25 ppm GA or 2 ppm CPPU + 25 ppm GA or 1 ppm brassinosteroid + 25 ppm GA instead of GA alone at these two stages. Irrespective of the number of clusters.DISTRICT –INDORE. In addition to the treatment with growth regulators.6 HARVESTING AND YIELDS Approximately one million tonnes of grapes are harvested annually in India. Fax -0731. one or more varieties are always available at any given time of the year.(M.B.5 mm.4072636. Clusters are dipped in GA solution of 40-50 ppm concentration once at 3-4 mm size of the berries and again at 7-8 mm size. Girdling is done at 4-5 mm diameter of the berries.Increasing the TSS Content: Berry thinning and cluster thinning to maintain adequate leaf/fruit ratio (5 cm2).NEAR RAU.4064557 . Grape is harvested almost all the year round. Rachides of the clusters are trimmed to retain 8-10. depending on the number of leaves available per cluster. individual shoot length is encouraged rather than the total canopy size for preventing sunburn of the berries. If not all the varieties.0731. The width and depth of girdling are 1-1. berry size and crispiness are increased by girdling.
B.0731.1. June-December November-December. MARKETING More than 80 percent of the total production is consumed as table grapes in India. is harvested during March-April from the hot tropical region. but the cold storage facilities are inadequate. Thompson Seedless and its clones.P. and more than 70 percent of the total production is harvested in March-April. Fax -0731.7.19 - . July.htm However. which contributes more than 70 percent of the total harvest.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Table 1.4072636. Therefore.4 Variety Yield (t/ha) Period of Harvest Average Potential 45 90 60 50 50 50 50 February-May. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. market gluts and fall of prices of grapes in March-April are common.(M. June-December June January-April Source:http://www. November- Anab-e-Shahi Bangalore Blue 40 Bhokri 30 Gulabi 30 Perlette 40 Thompson Seedless and other seedless 25 varieties December January-March.DISTRICT –INDORE.fao.PIGDAMBER.) Tel. particularly in the Hyderabad region. The productivity of grapes in India is very high. However. ROAD. quality of grapes is usually poor as a result of high yields.4064557 . 1.org/docrep/003/x6897e/x6897e06. mainly of Anab-e-Shahi. the major proportion of produce.NEAR RAU. June-July January-March. Yields as high as 100 t/ha in Anab-e-Shahi and 75 t/ha in Thompson Seedless were recorded in this region.
c) Scope for double cropping in certain regions and harvesting round the year in certain varieties is practically feasible.000 hectares due to the following constraints. d) Technologies to produce export quality grapes and quality raisins are available. b) Technologies to achieve high productivity are currently available.20 - . The rest of the produce is marketed within the country.P.1.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Approximately.B.1.(M. with an average yield of 30 t/ha.8.8. Growers’ Cooperatives and the Trader exporters. Fax -0731. c) Narrow variety base and lack of diversity in utilization of the germplasm available in grape growing countries. 2. b) High recurring costs in vineyard management. the area under grapes is confined to only 34. a) Sustaining productivity and minimizing risks in grape cultivation is possible because of the availability of a variety of agro-climatic regions suitable for grape cultivation for table.) Tel.4072636.000 t) of fresh grapes are exported to the Middle East and European countries.NEAR RAU. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. a) Heavy initial investment for establishing a vineyard. 1. POTENTIAL FOR GRAPE PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT India has the distinction of achieving the highest productivity in grapes in the world.. 1.5 percent (22.4064557 . Grower Exporters. ROAD.DISTRICT –INDORE. Grapes are exported through three different agencies viz.1 CONSTRAINTS IN GRAPE PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT Although grape cultivation is considered as highly remunerative.PIGDAMBER.0731. These agencies have established their own facilities for pre-cooling and cold storage in the vicinity of major production sites. raisin and wine grapes.
(M.B. Maharashtra is the focal point for conducting and coordinating the research activities on grapes throughout the country.) Tel.Export Of Grapes From India To UK d) High risk of losing the crop due to unprecedented changes in weather. Research on grapes is carried out by the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) Institutes and State Agricultural Universities at different centres under the All India Coordinated Research Project on Grapes. h) Wine is not a popular drink at present.P.1. Fax -0731.DISTRICT –INDORE. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.0731.21 - .4064557 .PIGDAMBER. c) Promote and support the export of fresh grapes by training the growers and providing soft loans and subsidies for pre-cooling and cold storage facilities. e) Soil and water salinity in Maharashtra and drought in the hot tropical areas. b) Provide research support to sustain the productivity of grapes under adverse situations. g) Very low proportion of export quality grapes.NEAR RAU. ROAD.9 GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND PLANS FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF GRAPES The Government of India is supporting the grape industry of the country in the following ways: a) Encourage and support the farmers for establishing the vineyards and installing drip irrigation systems by providing soft loans and subsidies. i) Marketing problems in table grapes.4072636. f) Short period available for ripening in the north. The National Research Centre for Grapes (ICAR) located at Pune. 1.
a phenomenon named the French Paradox and thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine.0731. such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.. heart disease. Emerging evidence is that wine polyphenols like resveratrol provide physiological benefit whereas alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system. reducing susceptibility to vascular damage Decreased activity of angiotensin. including reduced platelet aggregation and vasodilation. such as: • Alteration of molecular mechanisms in blood vessels. Fax -0731. a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure Increased production of the vasodilator hormone.1. nitric oxide (endothelium-derived relaxing factor) • • Although adoption of wine consumption is not recommended by some health authorities.1 French Paradox Comparing diets among Western countries.g. a significant volume of research indicates moderate consumption. 1. surprisingly the incidence of heart disease remains low in France. polyphenols (e. In laboratory studies.NEAR RAU.P. ROAD. may confer health benefits.PIGDAMBER.10.) Tel.1. degenerative nerve disease.1.B.(M. resveratrol) mainly in the grape skin provide other suspected health benefits.22 - . viral infections and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat.DISTRICT –INDORE.2 Resveratrol Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol (a polyphenol antioxidant).4064557 . Protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol.10.10 Health claims 1. resveratrol bears a significant transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. have been positively linked to inhibiting any cancer. Apart from potential benefits of alcohol itself.4072636.
wikipedia.4072636.1) Source: http://en. Synthesized by many plants.0731. ROAD.4064557 .3 Anthocyanins and other phenolics( fig 1.P.10. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets.) Tel.(M. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging. Resveratrol is the subject of several human clinical trials. resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties.PIGDAMBER. have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp.NEAR RAU. in muscadine grapes. Resveratrol is found in wide amounts among grape varieties.Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.B.1.DISTRICT –INDORE. Fax -0731. skeletal muscle and brain. 1.23 - .org/wiki/Grape INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. and prevent age-related heart failure. primarily in their skins and seeds which. among which the most advanced is a one year dietary regimen in a Phase III study of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease.Export Of Grapes From India To UK of calorie restriction in heart.
climate. polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids. is higher in purple varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in purple grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin.(M. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Wines produced from muscadine grapes may contain more than 40 mg/L.Ordinary non-muscadine red wine contains between 0. myricetin.4072636. including cancer. biochemical and medical studies have demonstrated significant antioxidant properties of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Phenolic content of grape skin varies with cultivar. ellagic acid and not resveratrol is the major phenolic in muscadine grapes. ROAD. syringetin 3-O-galactoside. soil composition. It is these anthocyanins that are attracting the efforts of scientists to define their properties for human health. heart failure and other disorders of oxidative stress. a white wine contains lower phenolic contents because it is fermented after removal of skins.0731.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Anthocyanins tend to be the main polyphenolics in purple grapes whereas flavan-3-ols (e. Fax -0731. laricitrin and laricitrin 3-O-galactoside are also found in purple grape but absent in white grape 1. ellagic acid. and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics. an exceptional phenolic content.P.NEAR RAU. depending on the grape variety.DISTRICT –INDORE. By contrast.24 - .4 Seed constituents Since the 1980s. such as fungal infections.1. Red wine offers health benefits more so than white because many beneficial compounds are present in grape skin.) Tel. an index of dietary antioxidant strength.10. and only red wine is fermented with skins. Contrary to previous results. and cultivation practices or exposure to diseases. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content. geographic origin. The flavonols syringetin. these seed constituents display inhibitory activities against several experimental disease models. quercetin.2 and 5. Total phenolic content.. allowing the wine to absorb the resveratrol.PIGDAMBER. because it is fermented with the skins.4064557 . kaempferol.8 mg/L.B. Together with tannins. In muscadine skins.g. catechins) are the more abundant phenolic in white varieties.
beginning with bud break in the spring and culminating in leaf fall in autumn followed by winter dormancy. leaf fall and dormancyreacting if need be with the use of viticultural practices like canopy management.DISTRICT –INDORE.5 Concord grape juice Commercial juice products from Concord grapes have been applied in medical research studies.0731. ROAD. loss of physical performance and mental acuity during aging and hypertension in humans.4064557 .1.PIGDAMBER. The stages of the annual growth cycle usually become observable within the first year of a vine's life. harvesting. the start of this cycle is signaled by a "bleeding" of the vine. each step in the process plays a vital role in the development of grapes with ideal characteristics for making wine. and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. 1.1.1 Bud break The grape starts its annual growth cycle in the spring with bud break. fruit set. phytosterols.11 Annual growth cycle of grapevines The annual growth cycle of grapevines is the process that takes place in the vineyard each year. veraison.P.) Tel. platelet aggregation and other risk factors of atherosclerosis.25 - . The amount of time spent at each stage of the growth cycle depends on a number of factors-most notably the type of climate (warm or cool) and the characteristics of the grape variety. 1. showing potential benefits against the onset stage of cancer. this stage begins around March while in the Southern Hemisphere it begins around September when daily temperatures begin to surpass 10 °C (50 °F).1. In the Northern Hemisphere. From a winemaking perspective.11.(M. vine training and the use of agrochemicals.4072636. Fax -0731. irrigation. This bleeding occurs when the INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. If the vine had been pruned during the winter.10. Viticulturalists and vineyard managers monitor the effect of climate. vine disease and pests in facilitating or impeding the vines progression from bud break.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Grape seed oil from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and skincare products for many perceived health benefits.B. 1.NEAR RAU. oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. Grape seed oil is notable for its high contents of tocopherols (vitamin E). flowering.
During winter dormancy they turn brown until the spring when the vine begins the process of bud break and the first sign of green in the vineyard emerges in the form of tiny shoots. containing a low concentration of organic acids. Buds are the small part of the vine that rest between the vine's stem and the petiole (leaf stem). hormones. After bud break.DISTRICT –INDORE. Tiny buds on the vine start to swell and eventually shoots begin to grow from the buds. up from the root system of the vine and it is expelled from the cuts (or "wounds") left over from pruning the vine.PIGDAMBER.0731.P. where temperatures can reach above 10 °C (50 °F) in mid-winter. These buds appear in the summer of previous growth cycle green and covered in scales. Fax -0731. A few weeks after the initial clusters appears.11.) Tel. Inside the buds contain usually three primordial shoots.1. In temperate climates. This is a potential viticultural hazard in places like the Margaret River region of Western Australia where warm currents from the Indian Ocean can coax Chardonnay vines to prematurely bud in the midwinter month of July. after about 4 weeks the growth of the shoots starts to rapidly accelerate with the shoots growing in length an average of 3 cm (1 in) a day. 40-80 days after bud break the process of flowering begins with small flower clusters appearing on the tips of the young shoots looking like buttons.26 - . In warm climates. some early budding varieties (such as Chardonnay) can be at risk of premature bud break. During this period a single vine can "bleed" up to 5 litres (1.B. producing the energy to accelerate growth. Flowering occurs when average daily temperatures stay between 15–20 °C (59–68 °F) which in the Northern Hemisphere wine regions is generally around May and for the Southern Hemisphere regions around November. This can include setting up heaters or wind circulators in the vineyard to keep cold air from settling on the vines.(M.NEAR RAU. Eventually the shoots sprout tiny leaves that can begin the process of photosynthesis. the flowers start to grow in size INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4064557 . ROAD.Export Of Grapes From India To UK soil begins to warm and osmotic forces pushes water. The energy to facilitate this growth comes from reserves of carbohydrate stored in roots and wood of the vine from the last growth cycle.4072636.3 gallons) of water.[ 1. the young shoots are very vulnerable to frost damage with vineyard managers going to great lengths protect the fragile shoots should temperature dramatically drop below freezing.2 Flowering Depending on temperatures. minerals and sugars.
Coulure occurs when there is an imbalance of carbohydrate levels in the vine tissues and some berries fail to set or simply fall off the bunch. Shortly after the calyptra is shed.B. At the beginning of the flowering process the only part that is visible is the fused cap of petals known as the calyptra.Export Of Grapes From India To UK with individual flowers becoming observable. 1. Not every flower on the vine gets fertilized.4064557 .4072636.0731. In the Northern Hemisphere. It is during this time when the buds that will become next years crops begin to form.  This stage is very critical for wine production since it determines the potential crop yield. this normally takes place in May and in the Southern Hemisphere in November. The percentage of fertilized flowers averages around 30 but can get as high as 60 or be much lower. causing many flowers not to be fertilize and produce a group. Varieties like Grenache and Malbec are prone to this abnormal fruit set. when the fertilized flower begins to develop a seed and grape berry to protect the seed. with the unfertilized flowers eventually falling off the vine. containing 1-4 seeds.11.DISTRICT –INDORE. with both male stamens and female ovaries. being able to self-pollinate. high temperatures and water stress having the potential of severely reducing the amount flowers that get fertilized. Millerandage occurs when some fertilized flowers do not form seeds but only small berry clusters. Climate and the health of the vine play an important role with low humidity. During the process of fertilization.NEAR RAU. with the process being mostly self contained within the vine. Detrimental weather (cold.It is during this stage of flowering that the pollination and fertilization of the grapevine takes place with the resulting product being a grape berry. the pollen fertilizes the ovary which produces seeds as the flower begins the transformation into a grape berry. wind & rain) can severely affect the flowering process.1.(M. But cross-pollination between vine species is possible as in the cases of the origins of several grape varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon (a cross pollination of Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon blanc) and Petite Sirah (a cross of Syrah and Peloursin).27 - . ROAD. encapsulating the seed.PIGDAMBER. Most Vitis vinifera grape vines are hermaphroditic. Grape berry size depends on the number of seeds so berries with no seeds will be significantly INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.P.) Tel.3 Fruit set The stage of fruit set follows flowering almost immediately. Fax -0731. Wind and insects generally play only a small role in aiding pollination. liberating the pollen from the anthers of the stamen.
the berries start to soften as they build up sugars.DISTRICT –INDORE.11. such as fanleaf. Conversely.B. The onset of veraison does not occur uniformly among all berries. For the production of high quality wine. They have very little sugar and are high in organic acids.PIGDAMBER. Fax -0731.) Tel. very vigorous wines with lots of leaf shading for photosynthesis and water supply will delay the start of veraison due to the vines energies being directed towards continued shoot growth of new buds. undergo veraison first with the berries and clusters closer to the trunk and under the canopy shade undergoing it last.28 - .4064557 . so that they may have a better chance of survival. it is considered ideal to have an earlier veraison. In a process known as engustment.P. Typically the berries and clusters that are most exposed to warmth. In the Northern Hemisphere this will be around the end of July and into August and between the end of January into February for the Southern Hemisphere. During this stage the colors of the grape take form-red/black or yellow/green depending on the grape varieties.NEAR RAU. There are some factors in the vineyards that can control the onset of veraison. which houses its seedling offspring. on the outer extents of the canopy. the berries begin to grow dramatically as they accumulate glucose and fructose and acids begin to fall. They begin to grow to about half their final size when they enter the stage of veraison. or by a boron deficiency in the vine. Gewürztraminer and the Chardonnay clones IA and Mendoza are both prone to millerandage. This color changing is due to the chlorophyll in the berry skin being replaced by anthocyanins (red wine grapes) and carotenoids (white wine grapes). ROAD. the grape berries are green and hard to the touch. This is because the vine is biologically programmed to channel all its energies and resources into the berries. This stage signals the beginning of the ripening process and normally takes places around 40-50 days after fruit set.4072636.1.0731.(M. On one cluster there maybe berries of various sizes which can create problems during winemaking due to the varying "skin to pulp" ratio among the grapes.Export Of Grapes From India To UK smaller than berries containing seeds. During this period the cane of the vine starts to ripen as well changing from green and INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Within six days of the start of veraison.4 Veraison Following fruit set. limited water stress and canopy management that creates a high "leaf to fruit" ratio can encourage veraison. 1. This can be caused by vine disease.
Varieties: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. The following spring. In the Northern Hemisphere this is generally between September and October while in the Southern Hemisphere it is generally between February and April. sultana).12 List of grape varieties This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes. It will continue doing this until an appropriate level of reserves have been stored. At that point the chlorophyll in the leaves begin to break down and the leaves change color from green to yellow. The balance of all these factors contributes to when a winemaker or vineyard manager decides that it is time to harvest. the antepenultimate event is the harvest in which the grapes are removed from the vine and transported to the winery to begin the wine making process. the vines continues the process of photosynthesis.DISTRICT –INDORE. 1.P. However. Tannins and other phenolics also develop which can affect the flavors and aromas in the resulting wine.4064557 . the term variety has become so entrenched in viticulture that any change to usage of the term cultivar is unlikely. 1.1.0731. The time of harvest depends on a variety of factors-most notably the subjective determination of ripeness. Following the harvest.11.) Tel. currant. The term "grape varieties" actually refers to cultivars rather than botanical varieties according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. fresh or dried (raisin. or eating as a table grape.NEAR RAU. As the grape ripens on the vines. whether used for wine.(M. because they are propagated by cuttings and may have unstable reproductive properties. sugars and pH increase as acids (such as malic acid) decrease. The threat of detrimental weather and vine diseases (such as grey rot) can also play a role in the time table.29 - .PIGDAMBER.1. ROAD. Following the first frost the leaves begin to fall as the vine starts to enter its winter dormancy period.B.4072636. the cycle begins again. Fax -0731.5 After harvest In the vineyard. creating carbohydrate reserves to store in the vine's roots and trunks. The vines begins to divert some of its energy production into its reserves in preparation for its next growth cycle.Export Of Grapes From India To UK springing to brown and hard.
Thompson Seedless is the ruling grape variety occupying 55% of the area with its clones.4072636. Sharad Seedless (5%). only a dozen are commercially grown. 1.16 Major Competitor: Italy. and its clones Tas-A-Ganesh. Spain.0731. Bangalore Blue. Thompson Seedless. 1.30 - .1. Sonaka and Manik Chaman INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.NEAR RAU. Bangladesh. China. Coloured seeded Coloured seedless White seeded White seedless Table. Dilkhush (clone of Anab-e-Shahi) Perlette. Argentina etc. France.wikipedia.B.2 thousand hectares occupying 1. The total production of grapes in India is 1. UAE. Andhra Pradesh. 1. Karnataka. The total grape export from India during the year 2007-08 season was 96963 MT worth Rs 317. They can be grouped under following 4 categories based on colour and seeds.P.DISTRICT –INDORE.5 Source: http://en.(M. ROAD. US.PIGDAMBER.1. Maharashta ranks first in terms of production accounting for more than 75% of total production and highest productivity in the country. Perlette (5%) and Gulabi and Bhokri together (5%).15 Major Export Destinations (2007-08) : Netherlands.546 thousand MT.13 Areas of Cultivation : Major grape-growing states are Maharashtra.83 crores. Gulabi (Muscat) Beauty Seedless and Sharad Seedless Anab-e-Shahi. 1.30% of the total area. Germany. western Uttar Pradesh. UK.14 India Facts and Figures : Grape is one of the important fruit covering an area of 60.4064557 .1.1. Haryana.Export Of Grapes From India To UK More than 20 varieties are under cultivation in India.1. Pusa Seedless.org/wiki/Grape Currently.) Tel. Tamil Nadu. and the north-western region covering Punjab. Bangalore Blue occupies approximately 15% of the total area while Anab-e-Shahi and Dilkhush (15%). However. Fax -0731. Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
PIGDAMBER.NEAR RAU.4072636. Fax -0731.31 - .0731.P.(M. ROAD.DISTRICT –INDORE.4064557 .) Tel.1.1.B.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.17 COUNTRY PROFILE United Kingdom INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.
South Asian.DISTRICT –INDORE. Health: Infant mortality rate (2009 est. agriculture--1. Irish.1. Fax -0731.): 0.4072636. Annual population growth rate (2010 est. Roman Catholic.NEAR RAU. Bristol.56 million). 31. ROAD.5 yrs. (93.6 yrs. Life expectancy (2009 est. Major ethnic groups: British. Edinburgh.1.1. Climate: Generally mild and temperate.2 People Nationality: Noun--Briton(s).) Tel.PIGDAMBER.). Cities: Capital--London (metropolitan pop.32 - .4064557 . Other cities--Birmingham. weather is subject to frequent changes but to few extremes of temperature.4%. females 81. Glasgow.0 years.2%. km.(M.000 sq.4%. 10% forests and woodland.17. 1% inland water. Irish Gaelic. 19% other.000. Literacy--99%.1Geography Area: 243.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Fig.2 million.P. Population (2010 est.17. partly common law and practice. Attendance--nearly 100%. Manchester.): 62.)--males 76. Major languages: English. 50% meadow and pasture. Liverpool.1.0731.2 Source: http://en. Muslim. mi.3 Government Type: Constitutional monarchy.wikipedia..)--4. – 1.1. slightly smaller than Oregon.25 million): Services--80.000 sq. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. 1. 1. 46% meadows and pastures. total 79. Constitution: Unwritten. Major religions: Church of England (Anglican). Church of Scotland (Presbyterian).1.85/1. Scottish Gaelic.org/wiki/Grape PROFILE 1. Sheffield. West Indian. Leeds.B. 12% waste or urban. Belfast. about 7. Terrain: 30% arable. Work force (2009.7%.17. Land use: 25% arable. Bradford. partly statutes. 7% forested. industry--18. Welsh. Adjective--British. Education: Years compulsory--12..
in Scotland--Scottish National Party. lead. Fax -0731. potatoes. motor vehicles and aircraft. Natural resources: Coal. counties. vegetables. textiles. Trade (2009): Exports of goods and services--$351. cattle. tobacco. machinery.1. county courts. hotels. natural gas.B.PIGDAMBER. Subdivisions: Scotland. salt. Legislative--bicameral Parliament: House of Commons. Scottish Parliament. Progressive Unionist Party. Alliance Party. Industry: Types--steel. Liberal Democrats. and Northern Ireland Assembly. oil.P. ROAD. fuels. cabinet. Welsh Assembly. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. sheep. Northern Ireland (municipalities.S. chemicals.33 - . Services (75% of GDP): Types--financial.1.4064557 . fish. prime minister (head of government). Imports of goods and services--$473. Democratic Unionist Party. Wales--Plaid Cymru (Party of Wales). House of Lords. appellate courts.) Tel. at 18.(M. food. Agriculture (1. clay. Supreme Court. Per capita GDP (at current market prices.2% of GDP): Products--cereals. European Union. gypsum. Judicial--magistrates' courts. fuels. Political parties: Conservative. iron ore. distribution. chemicals.184 trillion. foodstuffs. 1. 2009): $35. Annual growth rate (2009): -4.NEAR RAU. tin. and China. silica. European Union. Labour.17. British National Party. Wales.5 HISTORY The Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC and most of Britain's subsequent incorporation into the Roman Empire stimulated development and brought more active contacts with the rest of Europe. also. Sinn Fein. construction (23.. Social Democratic and Labour Party. transport.0731.S. limestone. electronics.8% of GDP). and parliamentary constituencies). Suffrage: British subjects and citizens of other Commonwealth countries and the Irish Republic resident in the U.334. 1. 2009): $2. UK Independence Party. communication. Northern Ireland--Ulster Unionist Party.3 billion: manufactured goods. House of Lords.. business.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Branches: Executive--monarch (head of state).8%.K. high courts. Major suppliers--U.. beverages.4 Economy GDP (at current market prices. Green Party.17. heavy engineering and metal manufacturing.1. poultry. chalk.6 billion: manufactured goods. oilseed.DISTRICT –INDORE.4072636. Major markets--U.1.
1. and the Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems). Fax -0731. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. could develop.NEAR RAU. The U. the country again was exposed to invasion--including the pivotal incursions of the Angles.17.DISTRICT –INDORE. when it became clear that Labour would be unable to form a government. prompting an election for a new Labour leader. Saxons. 2010 election.4064557 . Prime Minister Gordon Brown resigned. Gordon Brown resigned as Labour leader on May 11. no party was able to win a full majority in the Commons. which remain characteristic of Britain.0731. which led to several days of intense negotiations between the Conservatives (Tories).) Tel. On May 11. Gordon Brown. Norman rule effectively ensured Britain's safety from further intrusions.P. air. 1. Cameron subsequently announced a formal coalition with the Liberal Democrats. cultural. and economic center in London.1. a separate but established church.1. and land powers.Export Of Grapes From India To UK As Rome's strength declined. and Jutes in the fifth and sixth centuries AD--up to the Norman conquest in 1066. who placed third in number of seats won. held the Presidency of the G-8 during 2005.(M. In the United Nations. lost its majority in the House of Commons in the May 6. administrative. ROAD.B. The United Kingdom has been a member of the European Community (now European Union) since 1973. 1. certain institutions.34 - . a system of common law. As part of the coalition deal. however.17. distinctive and distinguished university education. who won the most seats.K.1. the United Kingdom is a permanent member of the Security Council. which would ensure Liberal Democrat support for a Conservative-led government in exchange for five Liberal Democrat cabinet seats and policy compromises. and representative government.7 DEFENSE AND FOREIGN RELATIONS The United Kingdom is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and is one of NATO's major European maritime. Among these are a political. and David Cameron became the new Prime Minister.6 POLITICAL CONDITIONS The Labour government that had been in power since 1997. and the Labour Party forms the opposition. it held the EU Presidency from July to December 2005.PIGDAMBER. it ranks third among NATO countries in total defense expenditure. first under Prime Minister Tony Blair and then under his successor. For the first time since 1974. who is expected to be in place by September 2010. The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition has a 78-seat majority in the House of Commons.4072636. Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg became the Deputy Prime Minister.
forces. with 42. promoting Britain's wider security interests.S.K.PIGDAMBER. the U. 2001 terrorist attacks in the U. after U. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. along with the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. The 37. the Royal Air Force. the secondlargest contingent of the coalition force in Afghanistan. ROAD. consisting of approximately 99.P.000 as of May 6. was the United States' main coalition partner in Operation Iraqi Freedom. has contributed more than £510 million (approximately $723.) Tel.NEAR RAU.DISTRICT –INDORE. where they are on the front line in the war against continued Taliban operations.35 - .(M.Export Of Grapes From India To UK The British Armed Forces are charged with protecting the United Kingdom and its overseas territories.K. forces are primarily based in the Helmand region. U. Fax -0731. Approximately 9% of the British Armed Forces is female.K.4064557 .. The U. In addition. and its military forces are.4 million) to Afghan reconstruction--the second-largest donor after the United States. The British Army.B. which includes 6. is in charge of the United Kingdom's independent strategic nuclear arm. The United Kingdom stood shoulder to shoulder with the United States following the September 11. and 4% of British forces represent ethnic minorities. The U. which consists of four Trident missile submarines.0731. its combat forces withdrew from Iraq in July 2009.4072636.000-member Royal Navy. 2010. force in Afghanistan stood at 10.S.000 Royal Marine commandos.000 personnel. and supporting international peacekeeping efforts.200 personnel.K. are active and regular participants in NATO and other coalition operations.
org/wiki/Grape 126.96.36.199 - .17.17.0731.17.4072636.PIGDAMBER.4064557 .9 CAPITAL: New Delhi 1.17. Fax -0731.1.720 Sq Mi) INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.8 OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of India 1.11 AREA: 3.wikipedia.P.1.1.1.) Tel.(M.166.1.692 Sq Km (1. ROAD.B.NEAR RAU.DISTRICT –INDORE.Export Of Grapes From India To UK COUNTRY PROFILE INDIA source: http://en.1.10 SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Multiparty Federal Republic 1.
The mainland of India can be divided into four topographical regions. Cauvery. Yamuna. Chambi. (3.17. the Bay of Bengal to the southeast and the Arabian Sea to the southwest. It is bound by Pakistan to the northwest. Hyderabad 3.14 CLIMATE: India has a tropical climate that is dominated by the Asiatic monsoons with four fairly distinct seasons which are common to all six or seven climatic regions. Nicobar and the Lakshadweep Islands. (2. Myanmar and Bangladesh to the east.15 PEOPLE: India's racial diversity is extremely complex. (3. Gandak.1.000 1.879. Betwa.P.17.800.B. Major Cities (pop.300 (1991).302. which are flanked by the Western and Eastern Ghats.(M. New Delhi 301.17. The Indo-Aryan who represent 72% of the population while the INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. agriculturalcultivated 57%.NEAR RAU. (1.PIGDAMBER.17.) The northern mountains or Himalayan region which comprises three parallel ranges mixed with large plateaux and valleys.100.) The desert region which is divided into the Great and Little Deserts.) The Indo-Gangetic Plain which is formed by the basins of the Ganges. and the principal rivers include the Ganges with its tributaries. Mahanadi. (4.700.) A hot and rainless transitional season.) The southern region which includes a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea and a broader one along the Bay of Bengal.12 ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION 1. Indus and Brahmaputra Rivers.800. ROAD. Nagpur 1. (2.145.) a humid season.0731. 1. Kosi.). Land Use. China.841.900.4072636. est.4064557 .566.400. Calcutta 4. Bhutan and Nepal to the north.500. Godavari. Average temperature ranges in New Delhi are from 7 to 21 degrees Celsius (45 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit) in January to 26 to 41 degrees Celsius (79 to 106 degrees Fahrenheit) in May. other 16% (1993).Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1. Ahmadabad 2. pastures 4%.) A rainy monsoon season and (4. Son. Madras 3.400.1. forested 23%. Delhi 7. 1.13 LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: India is located on the Indian sub-continent in South Asia. Pune 1. Krishna.206. Fax -0731.37 - .695.) Tel. The rivers of India are generally divided into the Himalayan and peninsula rivers.1. The southern region is separated from the IndoGangetic Plain by a mass of mountain ranges and plateaux on the Indian or Deccan Peninsula.619. It is the second largest country in Asia and the territory also includes the Andaman. but generally can be divided into the following ethnic groups.300. Mumbai (Bombay) 9.1.) A relatively cool winter monsoon season. (1.925. Lucknow 1.900.954.096. Kanpur 1.399. the Jumna.624. Bangalore 3. Narbada and Tapti. Ghaghra.700. Tropical hurricanes and cyclones are common between April to June and September to December.DISTRICT –INDORE.
1. 21. Literacy. In Dec.000 (1991). 48. Jews and the Anglo-Indians of mixed European and Indian descent. 11% 45 to 59. 59.4% are Muslim.1 years female (1986-90).4072636.1 per 1. 6% 60 to 74.4 per 1.17 RELIGIONS: Around 83% of the population are Hindu. 1. 1% 75 and over (1990). 11.3% rural (1991). ROAD.1. 1971 Indira Gandhi.000 (1991). 1. Life Expectancy at Birth. In May 1964 Prime Minister Nehru died after being at the forefront of Indian politics since its independence. 74.38 - . 32. higher 2.0 per 1.1. 80. 25. incomplete primary 7.2%. Urban-Rural. In 1965 a second war broke out between India and Pakistan over Kashmir which resulted in Soviet mediation and a peace agreement in Jan.B.2% (1990). 51. 15. 11.NEAR RAU. literate population aged 15 or over 261. Sex Distribution. became India's first woman Prime Minister.17. 275 persons per sq km (712 persons per sq mi) (1991). 1966.WWII TO 1993: On Aug. Death Rate.4064557 . secondary 7.5% are Jain. Age Breakdown. In 1977 Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her party were defeated in INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.7% urban.16 DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density.0731.000 (1991). In 1950 India adopted a new constitution which made it a republic. 3% are Christian. There are also three alien ethnic groups which include the Parsis.9% male.17. with Hindi including its associated languages and dialects accounting for 84% of the population while English is used for national.P.000 or 48.DISTRICT –INDORE. 1971 India assisted East Pakistan in a war against West Pakistan which resulted in East Pakistan becoming the independent nation of Bangladesh.1% female (1991).17.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Dravidian account for 25% and the Mongoloid with others account for 3%.20 MODERN HISTORY . 1947 India gained independence from Britain and the next day Pakistan was created while Jawaharlal Nehru became India's first Prime Minister. primary 10.000 live births (1990).1%.) Tel. Infant Mortality Rate. in which China invaded the northeastern border section of India. Over 1. In Mar. 1.PIGDAMBER.1 years male. 37% under 15.200. 1. In 1962 a border dispute erupted with China. 58.9%.600 languages and dialects are spoken throughout India with over 15 constitutionally recognized.1%.17. political and commerce purposes.1.5 per 1.9% (1981).8%. From 1948 to 1949 India and Pakistan fought over Kashmir which ended when the UN divided the Kashmir between the two countries. 2% are Sikh while just under 1% are Buddhist and .19 EDUCATION: Aged 25 or over and having attained: no formal schooling 65.18 LANGUAGES: The official languages are Hindi and English.1. 27% 15 to 29.(M. Increase Rate. In 1948 Mohandas Gandhi who led India to independence was assassinated. 1. incomplete secondary 6. Fax -0731. 18% 30 to 44.17. Birth Rate.
Ramaswamy Venkataraman dissolved the lower house of Parliament on Mar. 24.39 - .) Tel. 1991.0731. In July 1985 Rajiv Gandhi signed a peace accord with the Sikh leader. 1992 some 47 people died as a result of a stampede during the ritual bathing in Kumbakonam. since 1983 there has been a Sri Lankan Tamil separatist insurgence and in 1987 under an agreement with the Sri Lankan government India occupied the northern regions of the island. On Oct. 1992 some 91 Bombay slum dwellers lost their lives after drinking impurely mixed alcohol during New Years celebrations while in May 1992 some 210 also lost their lives in Orissa through similar circumstances. 1991 the government announced its intention to adopt the Mandal Commission's recommendation that 27% of public jobs be reserved for "socially and educationally backward classes". The elections were set for May 20. Fax -0731. 31. In Feb. however. On July 25. Additionally.B.P. Jammu and Kashmir.4064557 . INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. On May 21. the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and a National Front and leftist parties combination. In April 1992 a massive stock swindle known as the scam where a group of bankers and brokers collaborated to manipulate stock market operations resulted in the arrest of prominent brokers and the executives of several foreign and Indian banks and institutions.000 people were killed in the two day battle. 13. the violence continued and in May 1987 the Punjab state government was dismissed and the state was placed under central control. ROAD.PIGDAMBER. In Jan. R.NEAR RAU. succeeded her as Prime Minister in December after parliamentary elections. 1991 a massive earthquake in the Himalayan region of Uttar Pradesh killed some 1. and were a three way contest between the Indian National Congress (I). 1984 two Sikh bodyguards assassinated Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi her son. In 1983 serious unrest developed with the Sikhs wanting more regional autonomy for Punjab state and in 1984 the Indian Army launched a massive offensive and as many as 1. 1991. On Sept. 1991 Prime Minister Chandra Shekar resigned and Pres. 20.4072636.Export Of Grapes From India To UK parliamentary elections.600 people while during 1991 there was an insurgence in violence and assassinations from militant groups in Punjab. 6. On Oct. 1992 Pres. 26. 23 and 26. 1991 with Sikh separatists killing 49 Hindu passengers and wounding a further 20 on a train in Punjab. On Mar. 1991.DISTRICT –INDORE. and resulted in the Congress (I) forming another government and Pamulaparti Venkata Narasihma Rao being sworn in as Prime Minister on June 21. however. in 1980 she won the elections and became Prime Minister again. 1991 Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by the Tamil "Tiger" guerrilla group in a human bomb attack that also killed 14 others while he was preparing to give a campaign address in Sriperumbudur.(M. and Assam that climaxed on Dec. Elections due for May 23 and 26 were postponed until June 12 and 15.
During 1993 the government established a human rights commission to investigate claims of violations and abuse at the hands of police and security forces while clashes between the government forces and the various militant separatists continued throughout the year.1% (1990). 15.PIGDAMBER.060. 314. 7. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Re 695. ECONOMY: Gross National Product.40 - . 1992 Hindu and Muslim fundamentalist parties were outlawed.985.5% of total population (1991). 13. USD $1.000 (1993).000.000.134.000 with some 140. On Jan. USD $262. On the same day and in response the government dismissed the BJP-run state government of Uttar Pradesh and imposed direct Presidential rule on the state while on Dec.131. On Dec.242. Also in 1993 the government appointed a joint parliamentary committee to investigate the 1992 stock market scandal.470.NEAR RAU.000 (1993).DISTRICT –INDORE. On Jan.0731. On Jan.7 acres (27. 1992 other BJP-run state governments were dismissed. 1992 Hindu-Muslim riots erupted throughout the country after the demolition of the Muslim Babri Mosque in Ayodhya by Hindu militants and thousands of supporters. 10.000. Unemployed.000 (1994). one for the Muslims and the other for the Hindus. 7.4064557 . 1993 Hindu-Muslim riots broke out in Bombay claiming some 560 lives in the first week. Jammu and Kashmir and Telingana region. Sharma issued a ordinance.000 (1994). By Dec.4072636.810. 1992 were released. 6. 1993 there were politically motivated bombings in Calcutta and Bombay with 60 and 33 people respectively losing their lives.1. On Dec. although unofficial reports claimed the death toll to be as high as 35. During 1992 separatist militant activities continued in the regions of Punjab. Re 728. USD $80. Re 38.P.000 (1993). 1993 Pres.150. that was later ratified by the Parliament. ROAD.21 CURRENCY: The official currency is the Rupee (Re) divided into 100 Paisa.000 and the country also experienced its worst earthquake in 50 years in the Maharashtra state on Sept. 1993 with some 10.B. 20. 6.000.370 or 37.000 (1994).000.(M.000. Fax -0731.17.000 rendered homeless. 12. Imports. to acquire 67. 1. The Hindus had claimed the site was the birthplace of Lord Rama and that they were going to build their own temple. Public Debt. Balance of Trade. which had allegedly lost Rs 40. 1992 the BJP leaders were arrested and on Dec. 8. 1992 the death toll from the religious clashes had climbed to 1.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Venkataraman was succeeded by Shankar Dayal Sharma after presidential elections.4 hectares) around the temple site and the intention to construct two temples on the site. 1993 the BJP leaders arrested in Dec. Economically Active Population. Tourism Receipts.000. Exports. In March and April.000 people officially losing their lives.) Tel.487.
17.966.000 short ton-mi) (1990). deadweight tonnage 10. Textiles.6% army.000 (1989).000. 1. Vehicles. 4. Cement.742 mi) (1989).000 passenger-mi) (1990). Wheat. Iron Ore. 1.000 (1993).17. Radio. Coal.497.509 mi) (1990).) Tel. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.433. Television. Machinery.000 (176. total of 3. Copper.17.27 COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers.518. receivers 20. Textiles. Machinery.975 km (38.24 MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture. Iron and Steel.1.1.000 short ton-mi) (1990). Limestone. Roads. Air Transport.B.NEAR RAU.000.1.900.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.4072636.000 (453. ROAD.800.242. the former USSR.28 MILITARY: 1.284. cargo ton-km 662.22 MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partners are the USA. Rice. Millet.0731. 1. Beverages. cargo ton-km 233. Fax -0731.832. Transport Equipment. passenger-km 16. Fruit.17. Chemicals.1.000 (1989).000 (160.000 km (1.17. Software Development.1.974.191 (1990). Iran and Iraq. Food.1. Gemstones. Oil Refining. Merchant Marine. Iron Ore.4064557 .000 (1992) total active duty personnel with 85.P. route length 61.037. Sugar Cane. 1.17.000.000. Potatoes.400 (1993). Handicrafts.000.25 MAIN EXPORTS: Fish.198.1.000 (1994). 1. Japan.000. Ground Nuts. Cotton. Tea.805 with a total circulation of 18. 1. trucks and buses 1. Oil and Gas. Sorghum. Manganese. length 2.17. Coke. Gemstones. Jute.264.DISTRICT –INDORE. Food Processing. Software.PIGDAMBER.8% navy and 9. Leather. Bauxite.(M. Vegetables.000. vessels 855 (1990).000 passenger-mi) (1990).000. Mica.000.3% (1993) of the Gross National Product (GNP). Telephones.800. Fertilizers. the UK. cars 2.000 (1994).000 (10.6% air force while military expenditure accounts for 3. Pulses. receivers 65.41 - . passenger-km 284.145. Chromium.26 TRANSPORT: Railroads. units 8. Tea.23 MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Barley.
4072636.0731. Merro Don Thomas had done the research on Analysis of Export Procedures for Grapes in the month of June 2010 from Institute of Management and Development.PIGDAMBER. there is preference among the consumers in the domestic and international markets. Thomson seedless and sharad seedless variety is best suited for cultivation in the tropical areas.2 Literature Review Mr. ROAD. Delhi and he get the following conclusion: The advent of new varieties having high consumer preference and technical advancement in cultivation has made this crop more popular.) Tel. This variety is one of the best varieties suitable for export purpose and it is gaining popularity among consumers.DISTRICT –INDORE.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.(M.NEAR RAU. Owing to the nutritional and medicinal values of the fruits.4064557 . Most of the Grapes produced is consumed locally and about 1 per cent is exported. The exports have not been substantial since the international standards were not known.P.42 - .B. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Fax -0731.
DISTRICT –INDORE.B. infrastructure such as cold chain.NEAR RAU.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Of late. crop and post harvest management. Diseases such as Powdary mildew. In this background. Proper varietal selection. have created problems in obtaining economic yields. More than four-five varieties are grown in India.4072636. etc.PIGDAMBER.0731. facilities for marketing etc.) Tel.3 Rationale • • • • • • • India is the largest producer of agricultural product and has a lot of export potential..(M. There is potential for export to the United State of America also. Indian grapes have penetrated into the European Union since suitable varieties conforming to international standards are being produced.000 MT tons. so a number of taste options are available.000 – 30. India can definitely make a dent in grapes trade in the world market. Downy Mildew. Karnataka has exported about 2000 MT to other countries during the last few years. it facilitates long-term and healthy business dealings.P. 1. India has clean transaction terms with other countries. Most of the Indians migrate to other country and thus they demand for Indian fruits.43 - . Fax -0731. will augment the cultivation of quality grapes and will help in increasing the exports to a tune of about 20. Export qualities of grapes are grown in India. The migrants can prove to be good promoters for the fruits. ROAD. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. India can prove to be competitive.4064557 .
DISTRICT –INDORE. To find out the major potential markets for export.) Tel.4072636.PIGDAMBER.4064557 . market for Indian grapes. To find out the measures to increase the growth of grapes export from India.(M.NEAR RAU.44 - . ROAD.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.0731.4 Objectives Of Research • • • To find out the potential. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Fax -0731.P.B.
Furthermore. Fax -0731.4072636.1 Type of study • Research of the exports of grapes from India to UK. and 10.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.(M.23 per cent (provisional) of the total exports.0731.5.5 Methodology Agriculture is one of the strongholds of the Indian economy and accounts for 14.P.3 Data Collection And Sources INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.DISTRICT –INDORE. ROAD. 1.45 - .NEAR RAU.5.5.6 per cent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009-10.4064557 .2 Countries involved • India and UK 1. 1.PIGDAMBER.2 per cent of the work force.) Tel.B. the sector provided employment to 58.
journals and news paper articles. ROAD. magazines.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • I have used the secondary data for the preparation of this project.0731.DISTRICT –INDORE.46 - . Sources of secondary data being the books.4072636.) Tel.6 Limitations • • • • The time period provided for the research was not sufficient to undergo an analytical research work.4064557 . Fax -0731.PIGDAMBER. Direct face to face interaction for collecting the primary data was not possible.NEAR RAU. The domestic consumption of grapes is higher. Websites and search engines. so there was a problem in showing the extensive growth in its exports.B. 1.(M. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. The secondary data has been collected on the basis of various trade portals.P. thus the authentication of the data is questionable.
47 - .) Tel.B.(M.NEAR RAU.P. ROAD.Export Of Grapes From India To UK INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.0731. Fax -0731.DISTRICT –INDORE.4064557 .PIGDAMBER.4072636.
597.29 13.04 5.70 11.PIGDAMBER.36 13.66 1.45 164. ROAD.22 13.94 25.63 10.84 743.107.91 0 0 196.97 1.013.91 4.76 343.303. EXPORT PERFORMANCE 2.22 472.15 1.18 0 0 2007-2008 Qty Value 24.90 1.59 570.64 354.39 458.440.966.17 452.00 3.402.1.641.115.757.72 298. lacs Qty in Mt.761.39 2.61 745.274.B. Product: FRESH GRAPES Country NETHERLAND UK BANGLADESH U ARAB EMTS BELGIUM SAUDI ARABIA NORWAY GERMANY NEPAL SRI LANKA OMAN MOROCCO MALAYSIA ALGERIA 2006-2007 Qty Value 19.552.137.46 361.340.98 12.7 578.09 0 0 390.140.081.657.NEAR RAU.0731.54 Source: http://tradejunction.1 Product Group Report/Country Wise Value in Rs.398.64 92.45 563.242.379.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.03 595.19 520.686.apeda.1 EXPORT OF GRAPES Table 2.43 292.064.09 37.627.97 4.15 784.5 410.06 226.4072636. Fax -0731.62 120.26 242.19 2.522.48 - .61 54.) Tel.488.62 3.162.667.62 2.79 8.379.66 3.59 441.448.020.com/indexp/product_description_32head.19 3.14 9.586.50 529.650.193.87 1.509.639.78 314.67 7.40 6.28 3.10 313.13 208.650.33 890 228.994.75 6.(M.4064557 .5 338.79 451.01 314.DISTRICT –INDORE.89 407.aspx?gcode=0205 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.37 0 0 2008-2009 Qty 24.31 1.368.47 2.32 1.26 Value 13.210.55 6.P.68 6.35 3.656.86 3.
P.2 62.65 1.78 14.97 726.4 47.01 1 0.370.NEAR RAU. Fax -0731.5 132.0731.47 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.49 - .67 6245.5 1916.17 0.88 514979.1 0.54 233.01 119.998.81 0 221.B.09 0 157.41 76427.07 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.69 107286.23 0 0 0 0 0 468.08 3047.) Tel.22 75.48 28.13 2548.2 497.13 0 1.21 3.765.85 727357.75 10.52 1470.47 0.04 1182.02 220240.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Table 2.2 Port Report / Product Group Wise Qty in Mt.58 15579.48 34.85 32.25 1340.12 5248.941.DISTRICT –INDORE.13 0 585.37 3064.2 23.58 12.84 985.09 2823.8 0.58 1078.4 650.4072636.38 7463.73 2 0 59 299 0 0 0 0 0 1.79 5598 3654.78 839. Value in Rs.39 21.PIGDAMBER.684.592.9 24151.08 42.2 27.86 4929.12 9.78 47. lacs Port: KANDLA SEA Product BASMATI RICE OTHER CEREALS NON BASMATI RICE JAGGERY AND CONFECTIONERY GUARGUM CEREAL PREPRATIONS PULSES OTHER PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS GROUND NUTS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES DRIED AND PRESERVED VEGETABLES DAIRY PRODUCTS MILLED PRODUCTS OTHER FRESH FRUITS COCOA PRODUCTS OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES FRESH MANGOES FRESH ONIONS FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SEEDS MANGO PULP PROCESSED MEAT NATURAL HONEY FLORICULTURE Total 2006-2007 Qty Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7621.951.48 25539. ROAD.1 879.1 4722.6 1.15 56.58 133654.43 0 17.83 2474.16 8.15 0.81 1702.4064557 .02 19.48 128792.35 931.97 2007-2008 Qty 743264.75 313.36 2008-2009 Qty 754671.82 3968.2 1.27 Value 459278.62 260.12 2269.95 2552.64 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5.(M.63 17 117.89 55689.28 489619.41 3317.21 Value 269968.43 65.349.64 6.02 38.
75 82.67 136.34 0 0 0 0 9.49 74.58 68.32 43.09 64.24 5.57 16439.59 88.64 1.65 36.24 1016 554.DISTRICT –INDORE.15 1210.45 2.41 188.49 437.97 4.39 3360.78 89. lacs Port: MUMBAI AIR Product SHEEP / GOAT MEAT OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES FLORICULTURE FRESH MANGOES OTHER FRESH FRUITS FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SEEDS POULTRY PRODUCTS MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS ANIMAL CASINGS BUFFALO MEAT DAIRY PRODUCTS OTHER PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES CEREAL PREPRATIONS FRESH ONIONS JAGGERY AND CONFECTIONERY COCOA PRODUCTS MANGO PULP FRESH GRAPES ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES WHEAT SWINE MEAT NATURAL HONEY DRIED AND PRESERVED VEGETABLES 2006-2007 Qty Value 238.PIGDAMBER.69 0.98 15602.25 4095.4 6546.3 132.NEAR RAU.18 43.26 1.94 1736.5 1.3 1.01 0.27 30.39 130.aspx?pcode=515 Table 2.02 1507.1 11.31 37.17 0 0 49.28 473.49 3073.64 70.4072636.22 234.65 0 0 1.32 15.07 13630.6 17.07 87.46 128.11 1649.18 6812 4040.91 277.81 0.51 27.apeda.3 172. ROAD.18 4.15 122.51 57.02 8.84 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.34 189.28 55.03 100.88 8901.66 8697.21 7.62 40.27 0.47 0 0 0.3 0.3 Port Report / Product Group Wise Qty in Mt.99 57.16 46536.09 9.02 103.73 0 0 0 0 2007-2008 Qty Value 5515.33 12.P.21 698.93 9. Fax -0731.0731.8 0 0 0.05 13548.6 118.21 5.21 5637.(M.73 1676.82 0 0 0 0 1.46 788.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Source: http://tradejunction.com/indexp/portreport_prdgrp.08 105.79 36.53 1310.42 116.06 15.50 - .99 2266.94 200.48 105.48 40.4064557 .37 934.72 53.49 164.15 2.9 6.) Tel.53 49. Value in Rs.02 10097.B.39 2008-2009 Qty Value 7355.78 93.68 33435.06 34873.58 965.07 30.33 59.02 41.34 45.13 55.26 0 0 61.49 10.67 9.5 11.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK Source:http://tradejunction.P.PIGDAMBER.51 - .apeda.(M.4064557 . ROAD.B.aspx?pcode=483 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Fax -0731.NEAR RAU.0731.4072636.DISTRICT –INDORE.) Tel.com/indexp/PortReport_prdgrp.
08 3.025.61 2.56 1.751.28 1.59 2.974.137.55 6.190.17 2.QTY(2007.(M.527.NEAR RAU.43 7.034.68 1.044.20 2.DISTRICT –INDORE.60 816.883.08 12. branches and other parts of plants without flowers or flower buds and grasses for bouquets or for ornamental purpose OTHER BAKERY PRODUCTS Onions.68 1.328.4072636.42 6.0731.103. Fax -0731.52 - .05 8.108.64 6.67 11.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.183.382.072.239.888.32 2.59 71.196. dried. fruits.582.40 2.QTY(2008.952.388.478.129.Value(2006.73 Source: http://tradejunction.061.131. ROAD.26 2.743.473.67 19.932.apeda.10 4.37 1.095.02 2.89 1.87 12.4 Product Basmati Rice Papad Grapes.19 1.743.19 3.377.00 1.895.40 7.202.78 3.06 1.283.63 1.71 6.60 8.343.84 1.98 3.088.66 2.92 1.12 540.57 11. Pomegranates Fresh other food preparation not elsewhere specified Natural honey QTY(2006.95 3.P. fresh/dried.403.69 4.953.411.59 3.920.) Tel.125.206.56 3.042.PIGDAMBER.34 3.04 4.47 2.013.009.777.48 2.B.537.07 7.08 936.563.197.608.20 8.343.575.559.595.85 655.101.36 3. whole/cut/sliced/broken/in powder but not further prepared Guargum treated and pulverised Mangoes .672.aspx?ctry=13421 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.61 1./presvd Mixed Vegetables fresh/chilled Ground-nuts HPS Kernels Mango pulp Not Fresh foliage.354.32 2.80 3.535.89 7.91 9.57 29.505.379.66 804.141.72 2.81 10.com/indexp/country_description.36 1.376.13 10.Value(20082007) 2007) 2008) 2008) 2009) 2009) Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value 71.566.42 2.34 62.285.204.63 1.045.92 2.07 5.82 2.56 249.19 3.20 1.Value(2007.144.87 7.17 1.527. nuts and other edible parts of plants prepd.981.579.39 1.17 12.44 8.10 43.627.42 2.622.419.272.362.410.633.02 5.63 374.4064557 .12 2.960.2 Country Report / Product Wise Country: UK Table 2.030. fresh Other vegetalbes.010.74 803.77 13.68 3.862.26 705.
40 1 12757.8 Country UK Total ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table2.0731.6 1 6597.09 8 Qty in mt Value in lakhs Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2006-2007 Country UK Total Qty Value 13657.75 1 ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table 2.) Tel. Fax -0731.6 6368.94 7 13657.6 6368.(M.6 Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2007-2008 Qty Value 12757.09 6 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.9 Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2004-2005 Country UK Qty Value 5888.4 11639.3 INDIA EXPORT STATISTICS ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table2.6 6597.75 1 11318.09 8 11639.7 ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table 2. ROAD.94 7 2005-2006 Country UK Total Qty Value 11318.4072636.NEAR RAU.P.B.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.5 Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2008-2009 Country UK Total Qty Value ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table 2.5 5914.53 - .4064557 .DISTRICT –INDORE.6 7656.7 3290.5 5914.6 7656.PIGDAMBER.
ROAD.4064557 .) Tel.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 5888.0731.PIGDAMBER.54 - .apeda.4072636. Fax -0731.com/indexp/genReport.(M.09 6 Total Source: http://tradejunction.aspx INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.NEAR RAU.P.B.7 3290.DISTRICT –INDORE.
79 Value 2360.4072636.0731.P. 23 2360.10 Year 2009-2010 Country . 46 April-May Qty 4756 . 46 Value 2346.B.1 Value 2347.4064557 . 39 Source: http://tradejunction.7 4756 .DISTRICT –INDORE.apeda. 46 4755.aspx#content INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.6 April-October Qty 4777. 46 2348. 39 2346. Fax -0731.(M.UK Quantity in mt.7 Value 2348. 99 4777.4 Country report for grapes Table 2. 01 2347. ROAD.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2. 79 4776. 2363 96 .NEAR RAU. 79 4776. 2363 96 .55 - .PIGDAMBER. 19 2361. Value in lakhs April-January Product FRESH GRAPES Total Qty 5025. 87 2519. 48 Value 2519. 19 AprilSeptember Qty 4776. 01 April-April Qty 4755. 23 April-June Qty 4756 . 48 5025. 23 2360.com/indexp/genReport. 99 Value 2361. 87 AprilDecember Valu Qty e 4780.) Tel. 23 April-August Qty 4776.6 4780.1 4756 . 79 Value 2360.
32 1014.98 950.79 OTHER PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 318067.11 123900.23 POULTRY PRODUCTS 711245.4 14896.56 2408129.65 CEREAL PREPRATIONS 111123.42 14212.86 11803.2 297890.73 FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SEEDS 8104.31 69415.34 8535.NEAR RAU.41 11999.51 96281.65 54900.PIGDAMBER.25 40861.57 OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES 276824.34 83703.2 47446.2 JAGGERY AND CONFECTIONERY 455935.87 1670186.95 Total 50649.84 365915.53 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES DRIED AND PRESERVED VEGETABLES 119270.08 DAIRY PRODUCTS 45371.5 182752.4 Total 849257.99 49336.28 43086.47 6716.62 NATURAL HONEY 8135.51 30452.72 1355246.18 ANIMAL PRODUCTS BUFFALO MEAT 494506.4072636.37 917.47 78999.18 124627.82 1646790.79 22194.37 258567.17 116330.13 483478.51 75298.01 16207.8 12741. Fax -0731.71 10157.72 857.32 14123.89 1932855.53 200482.P.68 FRESH FRUITS & VEGETABLES FRESH ONIONS 1378373.49 56152.83 112574.21 68020.62 37790.5 54254.31 462749.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.57 Qty 30798.DISTRICT –INDORE.09 48880.17 311756.57 95550.29 505285.93 133898.08 844881.88 14193.84 1008606.69 512926.69 712.85 59614.94 42205.29 48226.39 Total 2002857.89 48949.9 137179 54232.53 125726.09 12158.21 4011.57 281068.47 70146.39 774849.6 43314.17 MANGO PULP 156835.79 30192.85 87346.81 50968.79 FRESH MANGOES 79060.5 316351. ROAD.43 42754.56 - .0731.55 86656.77 2008-09 Value 36881.53 39333.77 1823.2 4225.94 105407.47 13409.4064557 .84 67735.52 6587.B.21 173013.76 31782.36 ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 50771.49 54350.45 33687.36 112579.22 MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS 77426.63 17071.27 135962.47 865.96 44108.6 246832.45 OTHER FRESH FRUITS 177638.57 207700.28 42993.82 PULSES 255084.14 1296.67 31817.65 79846.44 619.63 SWINE MEAT 1523.6 SHEEP / GOAT MEAT 5777.07 411856.63 15587.82 354978.56 1467904.05 59880.8 ANIMAL CASINGS 435.13 46397.01 GUARGUM 189304.06 884.8 98086.72 2007-08 Qty 36240.98 267887.61 147861.7 4979.59 Value 34014.91 110092.3 Total 1267857.29 170614.9 6831.3 30997.31 49641.28 65269.71 103577.28 166752.48 350235.37 77428.65 PROCESSED MEAT 860.6 243711.33 130760.63 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.9 139637.64 211166.99 269587.38 WALNUTS 5062.97 256768.3 321374.85 245144.68 1245.46 5696.47 12231.36 684.91 OTHER PROCESSED FOODS GROUND NUTS 251428.84 43457.53 2646267.5 Three year description of APEDA product Table 2.91 483970.2 59172.11 COCOA PRODUCTS 3412.51 50582.13 9329.(M.11 2006-07 PRODUCT Qty Value FLORICULTURE FLORICULTURE 42545.95 FRESH GRAPES 85897.23 691312.9 206928.53 817.64 2463.78 1724573.6 6091.8 96963.48 33856.19 1710.64 1057016.6 387126.42 136880.09 8403.) Tel.29 8908.
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Holland.42 Source: http://tradejunction.83 MTs (2003-04) 70 – 80% (Approx.73 434458.95 9041.61 399545.73 5285916.4072636.22 72515.84 3535.69 8133.com/indexp/exportstatement. Sharad seedless.DISTRICT –INDORE.Germany Thompson seedless.51 690204.99 46633.27 279280.77 2180594. Sonaka Area under crop in Maharashtra (35236 ha) Maharashtra’s Production (9.63 1183355. UK.73 54684.12 Thompson Seedless Flame Seedless 26783.88.06 931879.58 3629442. Calmeria.81 777043.aspx 2.94 3187060. Tas-a-Ganesh.93 14141299.89 424307. Flame seedless.71 2433913.52 3999648. ROAD.95 3702191.NEAR RAU. Crimson seedless.76 652314.722 MTs(2002-03) Availability December to April Major exports to Middle East.0731.6 EXPORT SPECIFICATIONS FOR GRAPES Table 2.5 Kg /9 kg 0-1 °C 0-1 °C Variety Thompson Seedless Sharad Seedless Flame Seedless Packing Storage Temp.43 1556411. Fax -0731.41 145.79 947702.86 5597331.09 59925. Exotic.77 1516777.apeda.(M.5 1484735.05 41053. Berry Size: 18mm white Berry Size: 18mm black Berry Size: 18mm pink 4.8 1120.5 Kg /9kg 0-1 °C International Standards of Pesticide Residue Levels nbsp.) Tel. nbsp. Fantasy seedless Sharad Seedless Total export from India Share of Maharashtra Export Specifications Countries Middle East Holland/Germany Berry Size: 15mm Colour:Berry Size: 16mm Colour: amber white/amber Berry Size: 15mm black Berry Size: 16mm black ----Berry Size: 16mm pink 1 Kg 4.98 168737.73 392057.5 6530112. RougeRibier.33 237.4064557 .36 1045714. Ruby seedless.27 3228051.23 10907355.B.12 740979. Red globe.PIGDAMBER.) Thompson seedless.K.43 23.57 - .58 17451122. Varieties grown in Maharashtra Manek chaman.52 9752245. Christmas Varieties in demand internationally rose.34 3220200.14 9994. U.94 300232. Emperor.21 730275.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Total CEREALS BASMATI RICE NON BASMATI RICE WHEAT OTHER CEREALS MILLED PRODUCTS Total Grand Total 1139402.P.
Europe ND ND 1.02 0.(M.00 ND 0.02 0. Permissible Limits(mgm/kg).10 0.50 0.01 0.50 ND 0.00 ND 10.P.01 0.PIGDAMBER.B.00 0.0731.NEAR RAU. ROAD.5 ND 0.htm INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.) Tel.01 0.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Max.01 0.05 0.10 Insecticide/Pesticide Organochlorine Pesticides Aldrin Chlordane (cis & trans) Chlorothalonil DDT (all isomers) Dichlofluanid Dicofol Dieldrin Endosulfan (all isomers) Endrin Lindane HCH (alpha & beta) Heptachlor Organophosphorus Pesticides Acephate Azinphos-methl Chlorfenvinphos Chlorpyriphos methyl Drazinon Dichlorvos Dimerthoate Ehion Etrimphos Fenchlorphos Fenitrothion Malathion Profenophos 2-chlorophenol(metabolite) Methamidophos Methidathion Mevinphos Source : http://www.50 0.00 2.00 0. Fax -0731.DISTRICT –INDORE.05 ND 0.58 - .4072636.02 1.com/english/export/promotion/grapes.50 0.10 1.msamb.4064557 .
(M.) Tel. agencies like APEDA. Satara and Ahmed Nagar. It is also proposed to set up Maharashtra Grape Board (MGB).NEAR RAU. 68 crores will take place.B. 3.59 - .35 crore will come from various Central Govt. Ministry of Food Processing Industries. Pune.P. Sangli. The rest of the expenditure will be borne by the State Government.8 Top 10 Exporters (FRESH GRAPES) • • • • • • • • • • MAHINDRA SHUBHLABH SERVICES LTD. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Ministry of Agriculture. of Maharashtra has put up a proposal for setting up of Agri Export Zone in encompassing districts of Nasik.DISTRICT –INDORE.4064557 . National Horticulture Board.0731. LTD.4072636.7 Agri Export Zone of India with reference to grapes Maharashtra is the largest grape producing state in the country. It is expected that in the next Five years a total exports of more than Rs. the Govt. STERLING EXPORTS INC OM SHREE INTERNATIONAL GNT EXPORTS RAIEN TRADING CORPORATION NHC INDUSTRIES PVT. ROAD. To export table variety of grapes as well as the value added products like wine in a coordinated manner. 2. ATHARVA INTERNATIONAL CHAND FRUIT COMPANY PRIVATE LTD BOMBAY EXPORTS FRESHTROP FRUITS LTD.50 crore out of which 2. The project in the first stage. entails a total cost of Rs. Fax -0731.PIGDAMBER. an autonomous development agency which will work as a facilitator to ensure a smooth and orderly development of the grape industry in the state. Solapur.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.
B.60 - .P. ROAD. Due to variation in the monsoons.4072636. Opportunities• • India will be able to supply grapes to the neighboring countries. SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths• • • India is the largest producer of agro-product in the world.DISTRICT –INDORE.(M. Income generation and employment support to more of the Indian population. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Threats• So far the Indian grapes were not exported to the far countries.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 3. India produces many varieties of grapes. Weakness• • • • There is low in technology inputs in horticulture production. India has the ability to cater the continuous demand of grapes by the consumers. the water supply management is unsustainable. so Indian grapes will have to face a cut throat competition. Propagation is mandatory. Poor post harvest facilities for warehousing.PIGDAMBER.4064557 .0731. Fax -0731.NEAR RAU.) Tel.
the export to EU.(M.500 containers last year. 2008. – PTI.NEAR RAU. who are yet to clear grapes consignment from India because of safety concerns.) Tel.4072636.000 tons compared to about 37. which had come under a cloud following the presence of chlormequat. a big hurdle still remains from Germany and Netherlands . The deadlock over India’s grapes export to the European Union." said Mr S Dave. Grapes are harvested during February-April while whatever pesticides are to be sprayed are used 60-100 days before harvest and therefore it is difficult to conform to amended MRL norms in the middle of the season.PIGDAMBER.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • • India has to cover the world market as a sunrise nation in grapes. China.DISTRICT –INDORE. in some consignments has shown some signs of easing as UK and Sweden have started accepting Indian grapes by adhering to their own maximum residue level (MRL). in 2007-08 season. UK changed the MRL in December 2007 and issued further clarification in February this year.B.4064557 . INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. India has tough competition from Italy. while Germany and The Netherlands prescribed the amended limits in March. Fax -0731. However. According to sources. is estimated to be around 45. As each container carries 15 tons of grapes.500 tons last season. The European Union issued a separate MRL in its update in January. But.000 containers have been sent to Europe this year compared to 2. so it will require huge initial investment and so the Indian grape will be lacking in cost competitiveness. an expert said.0731. Director of Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA). Argentina. Farmers in the grapes belt of Maharashtra are of the view that the changes to MRL in the mid-season are made by the developed countries to discourage imports and such changes act as non-tariff barriers. Spain. "About 3. FINDINGS India's grapes export to EU rises by 20% despite restrictions India's grapes export to Europe is estimated to have jumped by 20 per cent during this season even though countries like Germany and The Netherlands changed the prescribed minimum residues level (MRL) midseason.P. etc. a chemical residue. which is the main destination for the Indian fruit. Mr Dave said exports were not affected as APEDA also made changes in the MRL after some of the countries changed that.61 - . ROAD. 4.
The maximum permissible level is 1 gm per kg in the country. Major findings of this research are as follows: • There are many other market for the export of grapes.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Netherlands in one of the largest buyers of Indian grapes and officials feel that any loss of market could hurt overall fruit exports from the country.DISTRICT –INDORE.” an Apeda official said.) Tel. due the absence of coherent norms in the EU. The European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) in its latest safety study report stated that no acute consumer health risk is expected if table grapes with a mean chlormequat residue concentration of 1.(M. most of the rejected containers are lying at Rotterdam ( Netherlands ) port. Indian exporters say it is difficult to follow food safety guidelines in European Union as all membernations have their own rules.P. In the case of chlormequat. “In the absence of any specific norms we have been following the default level of 0.05 gm per kg standard.” a grape exporter said Maximum amount of grapes in India is exported from Maharashtra followed by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.000 tonne from 37. Fax -0731. The exporters are worried that time is running because of grape export period is only in the range of six to seven weeks.000 tonne achieved last year because of poor supplies from Chile . exporters have been are yet to decide on whether any tests should be conducted on the grapes consignment.06 gm per kg are consumed.0731. ROAD.NEAR RAU.PIGDAMBER.4072636. “We are constantly in touch with EU officials and hope to find a solution to this problem shortly.B. However.62 - . India is aiming to increase its grapes exports to the EU to around 44. Trades sources said that there 98 types of pesticide residue whose presence in the grapes consignment need to be tested.” a grape exporter from Pune told FE. the 27-member European Union has not formulated any specific maximum residue level (MRL). “We have already lost two weeks and any further delay would result in huge financial loss.4064557 . INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. There are 140 farmers in Maharashtra registered for exports. According to trade sources.
4072636. Ajay Choudhary. Fax -0731. RELATED STUDIES Following are related studies: • • Export potential of India in agricultural product by Mr.DISTRICT –INDORE.P.NEAR RAU. Export procedure of grapes by Mr. Merro Don Thomas. St Joseph college of commerce.PIGDAMBER.63 - .Export Of Grapes From India To UK • • There is involvement of tough competition with other European countries. ROAD. 5.) Tel.(M. India improving its quality of export as well as export. Delhi INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4064557 .0731. Institute of Management and Development.B.
64 - .) Tel.NEAR RAU. There are many neighbour countries in which export can done.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 6. ROAD. SUGGESTIONS Following are the suggestions brought from my research: • • • • • Warehousing facility should be improved. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Price and quality meter should match.DISTRICT –INDORE.0731.PIGDAMBER. Fax -0731.4064557 . productivity should increase. Quality should improve which give positive result in the export performance.P.B. Due to increase demand of grapes in the global market.4072636.(M.
There is a need to diversify the uses of grapes. The major bulk of the produce is harvested in March-April.DISTRICT –INDORE.000 hectares with an annual production of 1. Currently more than 80 percent of the produce is used for table purposes. the produce should be quality and cost competitive.0731.000. The risk of losing a crop due to unprecedented changes in weather is also very high.4064557 .Export Of Grapes From India To UK 7. the returns per unit area of land are very high with grape cultivation. Although. for which suitable rootstocks are to be identified.NEAR RAU. the area under grapes is not expanding fast owing to the high initial cost of establishing the vineyards and high recurring cost of production.PIGDAMBER. For the survival of the grape industry in India.(M. but as cold storage facilities are currently inadequate there are frequent market gluts. Future efforts are to be concentrated in this direction.65 - . Soil and water salinity and drought are the impediments in this direction. efforts are needed to extend grape cultivation to newer areas.000 tonnes. Since the highest productivity in grapes has been achieved. Maintenance of quality of table grapes by crop regulation is the priority consideration to increase exports. Diversification of uses as wine/juice and export of table grapes can ease the marketing problems.) Tel. Fax -0731. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. CONCLUSION Grape is cultivated over an area of 34.4072636.P.B. ROAD.
aspx http://tradejunction.org/wiki/List_of_grape_varieties http://www.cookeryonline.in/hort/hortrevo5.com/apedawebsite/ http://tradejunction.&top_r=50&yr=ALL&hscode1=GRAPE http://www. Fax -0731.business-standard.) Tel.com/India%20Production/India_Production.NEAR RAU.PIGDAMBER.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 8.com/mealexperience/Grapes/Index.aspx?gcode=0205 http://tradejunction.com/distribution/horticulture/DG1103.org/docrep/003/x6897e/x6897e06.org/wiki/Grape http://en.66 - .com/indexp/exportstatement.wikipedia.apeda.com/hub/Health_Benefits_of_Grape Magazines: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.(M.4072636.DISTRICT –INDORE.nic.apeda.0731.P. REFERENCE Websites: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • http://en.php http://hubpages.htm http://agricoop.com/indexp/genReport.vegetarian-nutrition.htm http://mn4h.aspx? hscode=08061000&mids=.B.apeda.htm http://www.apeda.html http://www.fao.aspx http://tradejunction. ROAD.info/updates/grape-health.com/india/news/eu-halts-grape-importsindia/392628/ http://apeda.com/indexp/product_description_32head.4064557 .wikipedia.
B. Mumbai April 22 2010 Winemaker..Dec.PIGDAMBER.) Tel.... 22 2009 Publix magazine.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • • • • Business Standard. Fax -0731.4064557 .Nov.67 - .4072636. 2009 Conservation Magazine.0731. 2009 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Alison Crowe. ROAD. Nov.NEAR RAU.DISTRICT –INDORE.(M.P..
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