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1. CONCEPTUAL FRAMWORK 1.1 INTRO DUCTION
Today India is the second largest producer of the fruits (45.5 Million tons) and Vegetables (90.8 Million tons ) in the world ,contributing 10.23%and 14.45%of the total world production of fruits and vegetables respectively .India has made a fairly good progress on horticulture Map of world with total annual production of The horticulture crops touching over 149 million tons India has been bestowed with wide range of climate and physio-geographical conditions and as such is most suitable for growing various kinds of horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers , nuts , spices and plantation crops. With the focused attention given to horticulture, there has been spectacular change in terms of adoption of new technologies, production and availability of horticulture products. Fruits and vegetables constitute around 10 per cent of the total agriculture production of the country. This sector offers enormous potential for export. According to FAO, the export of fruits from India in 2003-04 US $166 million and that of vegetables US $ 205 million .India’s export of fruits and vegetables is more concentrated towards Asian region. Asian region accounted for 75% of total fruits and vegetable export 2003-04.The export to European and American market is very less due to imposition of stringent quality measures. But in the last 3-4 year the export of fruits and vegetable Europe has been increasing with the adoption of Good Agriculture practices (GAP) by Indian farmer. Also the APEADA is taking active role in establishing many quality testing laboratories and adequate documentation protocol across the country to boost the export of perishables. Maharashtra is the one of the largest state in the production of fruits and vegetable contributing nineteen percent of the total fruit production in the country. The state produces around nine million tones of fruits having productivity of 16 MT per hectare of, which is fairly good when compared to country’s average Of 12 MT. it grows commodities like grapes, pomegranate, mango, sapota , oranges, lime, strawberry, jackfruits etc in large quantity .The state holds prestigious position in vegetable production contributing 5% of the production and stands 7 in the country. Total production of vegetables in Maharashtra is approximately 5 million tones. Because of close proximity to Mumbai port and metropolitan market .the state enjoys the comparative advantage in export as well as long distance
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557
Export Of Grapes From India To UK In certain commodities the state has occupied unique and prestigious position , e.g. mango ,pomegranate, grapes , onion. Highly perishable nature of his fruits and vegetable make their marketing system more costly and complex. Timely and procurement of fruits and vegetable in bulk is of immense importance for exporters. Transportation plays an important role in fruits and vegetable marketing. The exporter has to meet the specific qualitative and quantitative requirements of the importer. The packaging, residue testing, documentation and phyto sanitary certification has to be met in order To export. So establishing an efficient backward linkage is must for exporting fruits and vegetables. 1.1.1 PROPOSED PLAN FOR MAHARASHTRA • • During very first season (2008-09) 350 Containers of Grapes were to European Nations from Nashik District alone. .Other exports from Nashik District are Pomegranate, Onion, and Banana etc.
1.1.2 History The domestication of purple grapes originated in what is now southern Turkey. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the innovation of alcoholic drinks such as wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production. Later, the growing of grapes spread to Europe, North Africa, and eventually North America. Native purple grapes belonging to the Vitis genus proliferated in the wild across North America, and were a part of the diet of many North American Native Americans, but were considered by European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. The first Old World Vitis vinifera purple grapes were cultivated in California where Spain had established a series of monasteries along the coasts to supply their navies with oranges to prevent scurvy and convert natives. Grapes have always had a part in history. There are old greek troughs and coffins in the Getty Villa, and they show cherubs in tubs of grapes, making wine.
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557
Export Of Grapes From India To UK 184.108.40.206 Description Grapes grow in clusters of 6 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins which are responsible for the color of purple grapes.Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines. 220.127.116.11 Market Scenario Nasik district is the largest producer and export of Grapes in Maharashtra. The main growing are Dindori , Nasik ,Niphad, Pimpalgaon –Basvant and Chandwad. Export of grapes from nasik stands at 7613.63 MT during 2003-04. Usually very little quantity of export quality grapes comes to APMCs. Export grapes are usually Procured at the fare gate. Traders and exports go directly to farms 20-25 days before harvest and they fix a procurement price based on the grade. 18.104.22.168 Period of price fluctuation: Generally the price of grape depends on the production, harvesting period and demands in market of other part of India. Low price: Nov to Dec with the average price around Rs.7 to 9/kg Peak price: April-May with average price around Rs.12 to 15/kg In this market some variety always fetch good price. A general price for varieties can be given below: 22.214.171.124.1 Sangli: It is second largest grapes growing and exporting district in Maharastra. Export quality grapes won’t come to here. So exporters and traders go directly to farmer’s orchard. The important growing regions are Malegaon, Miraj, Nimni, Savlaj and Tasgaon. Nearly 250-300 containers of grapes will be exported this year from Sangli district alone. During last year (200809) the farm gate procurement price of export quality grapes fluctuated with the time like this. February end’s 35-40 /kg March15-30: Rs 50 / kg March 30 onwards Rs 60-65/kg
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557
a Moorish traveller who visited Daulatabad in 1430 AD. wine. written during 1356-1220 BC. and Southern Indian states. ROAD. Salem and Hyderabad. Grapes are also used in some kinds of confectionery. Ibn Batuta. Cultivated grapes are believed to have been introduced into the north of India by the Persian invaders in 1300 AD. Fax -0731. Distribution is mainly to Bihar. juice.Grapes arrival is from Solapur. Indigenous varieties known as ‘Rangspay’.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.4072636.B. resembling Vitis lanata and Vitis palmata grow wild in the northwestern Himalayan foothills.2 Solapur Market: Solapur is also very big market for grapes . Grape cultivation is one of the most remunerative farming enterprises in India. Madurai. and grape seed oil. From Delhi. grape seed extracts. ‘Shonltu White’ and ‘Shonltu Red’ are grown in Himachal Pradesh even today. Nearly 80% of the production is Thompson seedless and 10-15% is Sharad and flame seedless.NEAR RAU. Famous Indian medicine scholars. mentioned the medicinal properties of grapes. Grape was also introduced in the south into Salem and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu by the Christian missionaries around 1832 AD.) Tel. from where they were introduced into the south (Daulatabad in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra) during the historic event of changing the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad by King Mohammed-bin-Tughlak. Native spp.0731. and into Hyderabad province by HEH. The prices of some important varieties are given below.1. In this market grape price depends on variety of grape. Sangli. Daulatabad. grape cultivation spread to different parts of the country. Orisa. botanically a true berry. reported to have seen flourishing vineyards in south India. 1.4064557 -4- . Kautilya in his ‘Arthashastra’ written in the fourth century BC mentioned the type of land suitable for grape cultivation.(M. Bengal. Grapes can be eaten raw or used for making jam.PIGDAMBER. respectively.1. Sasruta and Charaka in their medical treatises entitled ‘Sasruta Samhita’ and ‘Charaka Samhita’. Rest is from other varieties. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.P. and Baramati and from regions of Kolhapur surrounding Sangli. jelly. There are many Bihar and Bengal traders operating in this market. the Nizam of Hyderabad in the early part of the 20th century.3. vinegar. raisins.2.DISTRICT –INDORE. that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis.3 Grape A grape is the non-climacteric fruit.
B. sometimes used for winemaking and for jam. Fax -0731. and north to Quebec.) Tel.Extensive Residue Monitoring plan for monitoring the pesticide residues in grapes is implemented for consumer safety. ROAD. Indian grapes come in varied characteristics namely coloured. however.P. Native to the Eastern United States and Canada. Modern packhouse facility with automatic forced air system for precooling is available in all the commercial production areas. Vitis riparia. 1. • • • INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. sometimes used for wine. Native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico.1. the North American table and grape juice grapevines (including the concord cultivar).3. large and small berries. white.(M. Vitis amurensis.4064557 -5- . Native to the entire Eastern U. Vitis rotundifolia. hot and dry climate is ideal. unseeded. Indian grapes are successfully grown at and above 250 mean sea level.NEAR RAU. a wild vine of North America.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Grape (Vitis vinifera) is grown from temperate to warm regions. the most important Asian species. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: • Vitis labrusca.PIGDAMBER.0731. used for jams and wine.4072636.Traceability system is maintained for the product tracking. the muscadines.S. seeded.DISTRICT –INDORE.1 Grapevines Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera. the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia.
PIGDAMBER.4064557 -6- .1. The following table of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes for wine making: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.(M. ROAD. Fax -0731.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.0731.) Tel. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural".4072636. 27% as fresh fruit. The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year.NEAR RAU.2 Distribution and production Fig 1.1 Source: http://en. and 2% as dried fruit.wikipedia.DISTRICT –INDORE.866 square kilometres of the world are dedicated to grapes.org/wiki/Grape According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).P. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine.B. 75.3.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK
Table 1.1 Country Spain France Italy Turkey United States Iran Romania Portugal Argentina Australia Lebanon Area dedicated 11,750 km2 8,640 km2 8,270 km2 8,120 km2 4,150 km2 2,860 km2 2,480 km2 2,160 km2 2,080 km2 1,642 km2 1,122 km2
Top Ten Grapes Producers – 8 October 2009 Country Italy People's Republic of China United States France Spain Table:1.2 Turkey Iran Argentina Chile India World Production (Tonnes) 8,519,418 6,787,081 6,384,090 6,044,900 5,995,300 3,612,781 3,000,000 2,900,000 2,350,000 1,667,700 67,221,000 Footnote F F F F F F F F F F A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAOSTAT 2007, * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557
- Source: Food And Agricultural Organization7of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division
Export Of Grapes From India To UK Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grape There's no reliable statistics that breaks down grape production by variety. It is, however, believed that the most widely planted variety is Sultana, also known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 sq.km. (880,000 acres) dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Grenache, Tempranillo, and Chardonnay. 126.96.36.199 Table and wine grapes Commercially cultivated grapes can usually be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw (table grapes) or used to make wine (wine grapes). While almost all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera, table and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit (see below) with relatively thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller, usually seeded, and have relatively thick skins (a desirable characteristic in winemaking, since much of the aroma in wine comes from the skin). Wine grapes also tend to be very sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is approximately 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is usually around 15% sugar by weight. 188.8.131.52 Seedless grapes Seedlessness is a highly desirable subjective quality in table grape selection, and seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is, however, an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are currently more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Reliance and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of north-eastern United States and southern Ontario.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical content of grape seeds (see Health claims, below). 184.108.40.206 Raisins, currants and sultanas In most of Europe, dried grapes are referred to as "raisins" or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "Dried vine fruit" in official documents. A raisin is any dried grape. While raisin is a French loanword, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; grappe (from which the English grape is derived) refers to the bunch (as in une grappe de raisins). A currant is a dried Zante Black Corinth grape, the name being a corruption of the French raisin de Corinthe (Corinth grape). Currant has also come to refer to the blackcurrant and redcurrant, two berries unrelated to grapes. A sultana was originally a raisin made from a specific type of grape of Turkish origin, but the word is now applied to raisins made from common grapes and chemically treated to resemble the traditional sultana. 1.1.4 PRESENT STATUS OF GRAPE CULTIVATION IN THE COUNTRY Grape is grown under a variety of soil and climatic conditions in three distinct agro-climatic zones, namely, sub-tropical, hot tropical and mild tropical climatic regions in India. 220.127.116.11 Sub-tropical Region: This region covers the northwestern plains corresponding to 28° and 32° N latitude including Delhi; Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh; Hissar and Jind districts of Haryana; and Bhatinda, Ferozpur, Gurdaspur and Ludhiana districts of Punjab. Vines undergo dormancy and bud break starts in the first week of March while the rains arrive in the first week of June, and therefore, only 90-95 days are available from the initiation of growth to harvest. Consequently, ‘Perlette’ is the only early ripening variety grown in this region. Rain damage is a
(M. respectively.) Tel. and Bijapur.2 Hot Tropical Region: This region covers Nashik. Muscat Hamburg). two crops are harvested in a year. while the minimum is about 12°C. Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh and Coimbatore. Anantapur and Medak districts of Andhra Pradesh. Vinifera varieties susceptible to mildew suffer losses due to unprecedented rains during flowering and fruit set in both hot and mild tropical regions. Except for Thompson Seedless. Gulabi (Syn.DISTRICT –INDORE.P. Maximum and minimum temperature is 42°C and 8°C. Isabella). Sonaka). Solapur.Export Of Grapes From India To UK problem with Thompson Seedless in this region.4072636. Fax -0731. Sangli.4. Hyderabad.1. Mahbubnagar. Anab-e-Shahi. Maximum temperatures in a year seldom exceed 36°C. ROAD.0731. 1. Satara. This is the major viticulture region accounting for 70 percent of the area under grapes in the country. Ranga Reddy. Berry growth is impaired and in certain locations pink blush sometimes develops on green berries due to temperatures that drop to a low of 8°C. Latur and Osmanabad districts of Maharashtra. Area and production of different varieties of grapes in India is as follows: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. Single pruning and a single harvest is the accepted practice here.NEAR RAU.4.1. Gulberga districts of northern Karnataka lying between 15° and 20° N latitude. Pune. Thompson Seedless and its clones (Tas-A-Ganesh. Principal varieties are Bangalore Blue (Syn.4064557 . Bagalkot.PIGDAMBER. Belgaum.10 - . and Bhokri. Sharad Seedless and Flame Seedless are the varieties grown in this region. Vines do not undergo dormancy and double pruning and a single harvest is the general practice in this region. and Madurai and Theni districts of Tamil Nadu fall in this region. 1. Thompson Seedless is grown only with limited success. The major problems in this region are soil and water salinity and drought.3 Mild Tropical Region: An area covered by 10° and 15° N latitude including Bangalore and Kolar districts of Karnataka. Anab-e-Shahi.
B. but in recent years.000 tonnes of Bangalore Blue are crushed to make juice.000 10. Due to the non-prevalence of Phylloxera or nematodes. Merlot. Chenin Blanc.htm Area (ha) 3.500 500 500 1. seedless) Sharad Seedless .000 1. About 120.000 180. seeded) Bangalore Blue Syn. seeded) Flame Seedless (red.000 tonnes of Thompson Seedless and its mutants.1. seedless) Total Source:http://www.4072636.000 15. namely.000 Production (t) 135. Tas-A-Ganesh.000 4. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.(M. and 10.PIGDAMBER.000 tonnes of Bangalore Blue. Fax -0731.000 22.000 550. irrespective of the variety.P. the ‘Dogridge’ rootstock is being employed to combat soil and water salinity problems.3 Variety Anab-e-Shahi (white.000 20. seeded) Perlette (white. 1.500 1. ROAD. Some 20. rootstocks are not employed. Pinot Noir and Uni Blanc are crushed to process into wine.0731. seedless) Thomson Seedless and its mutants (white. Cabernet Sauvignon. is consumed fresh.000 60. Isabella (black.DISTRICT –INDORE. Sonaka and Manik Chaman are dried for raisins.000 Approximately 85 percent of the total production.org/docrep/003/x6897e/x6897e06.000 34. Chardonnay.) Tel.000 30. seedless) Gulabi Syn.fao.000 1.A mutant of Kishmish Chorni (black. Muscat Hamburg (purple.000.5 PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL Vines are raised on their own roots in India.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Table 1.4064557 .NEAR RAU. seeded) Bhokri (white.11 - .
3 Establishment Of Vineyards 1. sulphate of potash and micro-nutrients.PIGDAMBER.(M.5. Cuttings of 4 nodes each with a thickness of 8 to 10 mm are made from the selected canes. Usually. 75 cm depth and 118 m length in a north-south direction with a gap of 3 m between trenches are opened with heavy machinery. 50 kg of cattle INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.5. No Government agency is involved in the multiplication and supply of rooted cuttings. 1.1 percent is a practice to safeguard the cuttings against termite damage. cattle manure. up to a height of 45 cm after 15 days exposure to sun. The fresh cuttings are soaked in running water for 24 hours to leach out the water-soluble rooting inhibitors.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.4064557 . Wedge grafting is more common and the best time for the operation is September-October.1 Multiplication on Own Roots Grapes are multiplied exclusively by the rooting of hardwood cuttings.) Tel. Rooted cuttings of this rootstock are planted in the main field during February-March. preferably in polybags of 15 x 25 cm. 1. It is also a practice to plant the cuttings in situ when three to four cuttings prepared and treated as above are planted at each spot in the main field. The remaining gap is filled with a mixture of soil. The basal parts of cuttings are then dipped in a 2.2 Raising on Rootstocks Hardwood cuttings of the ‘Dogridge’ rootstock are subjected to rooting. single superphosphate.4072636. They are closed with topsoil. Soil drenching with chlorophyriphos 0. Land within a plot is levelled perfectly to have a gradient of less than 1 percent in any direction to ensure uniform discharge of water through the emitters of drip irrigation systems.12 - .1.DISTRICT –INDORE.P.5.5.3. Well matured canes obtained in September/October are selected. while June-July is the suitable time for chip budding. Growers themselves obtain the hardwood cuttings from elite vineyards and raise their own nurseries.NEAR RAU. ROAD.1.000 ppm strong IBA solution for five minutes before planting. Trenches of 75 cm width.1.1 Land Preparation and Vine Establishment The land is tilled and laid into plots of 120 m x 180 m separated by 3 m wide roads. Fax -0731.1.B.0731. The desired scion variety is then grafted/budded on the rootstocks in the field by wedge grafting/chip budding.
0731.4 CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF VINEYARDS 1.4072636. 1.5. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Fax -0731.) Tel.4. This system is followed for moderately vigorous varieties like Thompson Seedless and other seedless cultivars in about 25-30 percent of the vineyard area in Maharashtra. It is highly suited for vigorous varieties like Anab-e-Shahi.B.PIGDAMBER. bower was a very popular system of training in the past. sunburn of the berries and of the arms are experienced in summer.5.5.13 - .3.1 Training of Vines Many training systems are in vogue in India. this system is not popular.5 kg of sulphate of potash and 50 g each of ZnSO 4 and FeSO4 are added to the soil for every running meter length of the trench.Export Of Grapes From India To UK manure. Telephone System: T-trellis is used in this system of training.DISTRICT –INDORE. Yields in this system are less than the bower.5 kg of superphosphate. Telephone and Flat Roof Gable systems.(M. Bangalore Blue and Gulabi.1.1. 2. In very hot and dry places.1.2 Planting Season The best season for planting the rooted cuttings of cultivated varieties in the main field is September-October whereas for rootstocks it is February-March.4064557 . 1. but the most popular are Bower.NEAR RAU. With three top wires and ‘T’ shaped supports. Bower System: Owing to the high productive potential. But in varieties like Thompson Seedless and Tas-A-Ganesh where vine vigour and excessive foliage density affects the productivity adversely. 1.P. For vigorous varieties it is 6 m x 3 m or 4 m x 3 m and 3 m x 3 m or 3 m x 2 m for less vigorous varieties. the trellis looks like a telephone pole and wires and hence the name. ROAD.3.3 Spacing Spacing generally varies with the varieties and soil fertility.1.5. 0.
five crops are harvested every two years. the usage of organic manure has assumed high importance in India. 1. In the sub-tropical region. The clusters hang within the reach of the worker of an average height. The bunches are protected from direct sunlight and well exposed to sprays of pesticides.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Flat Roof Gable System: Combining the advantage of bower and the extended Y systems and eliminating their disadvantages.DISTRICT –INDORE. As a result. an inter-connected Y trellis forming a flat roof gable is being adopted. 60 percent is given as inorganic INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. While 40 percent of the annual dose is given through organic sources.4072636. this system is gaining popularity among the growers in Maharashtra. Fax -0731. P2O5 and K2O per hectare is followed in light sandy soils.3 Application of Manure and Fertilizers As vineyard soils are either sandy loams or heavy clays. In varieties like Gulabi and Bangalore Blue.PIGDAMBER. while 660:880:660 kg are applied for heavy clay soils.1. In the mild tropical region.) Tel. vines are pruned only once in December and the crop is harvested once. vines are pruned twice and the crop is harvested twice.2 Pruning of Vines Three distinct pruning practices are in vogue in relation to cropping in the three grape growing regions of the country.(M. which are fairly resistant to rain damage and in which fruit bud differentiation is not impaired by cloudy weather and rains. Half of the canes are pruned to renewal spurs and the rest to fruiting canes (3-4 nodes for Perlette).14 - . Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. This system is particularly followed for vigorous vines (vines grafted on rootstocks).4. In hot tropical regions. ROAD. vines are pruned twice but only one crop is harvested.5. A standard dose of 500:500:1000 kg of N.B.0731. Owing to these advantages.4. pruning is done at any time of the year. All canes in a vine are pruned back to single node spurs in March-May to develop canes and the canes are forward pruned in October-November for fruiting.5.1.NEAR RAU. 1.4064557 . The number of nodes retained on a cane varies with the variety and cane thickness. The annual dose is fixed based on the petiole analysis carried out at 45 days after spur pruning.P. There is no scope to prune earlier than October and later than November due to unfavourable weather conditions.
4064557 . Flea beetles: The adult beetles scrape the sprouting buds and eat them up completely after each pruning. thrips.1 percent or phosalone at 0. 1. carbaryl at 0. 1.05 percent.4 Weeding Weeds between the rows of vines are removed mechanically by tractor drawn implements.5 Supplementary Irrigation Since grapes are grown in areas where the evapotranspiration exceeds the precipitation.125 percent. Within the rows. dichlorvas at 0. while the rest is irrigated by drip systems. Damaged buds fail to sprout. Fax -0731. mainly glyphosate at about 2.4.1. quinolphos at 0.5. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.PIGDAMBER. Thrips: Thrips attack the ovaries of flowers and newly set berries and suck sap from them. Insecticides like carbaryl at 0. mealy bugs and leaf hoppers.5. phosalone at 0. Water is applied at different rates at different stages of vine growth and berry development.P. Calcium ammonium nitrate is usually not used.8 as the crop factor.05 percent. Less than 10 percent of the vineyard areas are surface irrigated. irrigation is essential.4. Recently application of soluble fertilizers through drip irrigation is picking up. 50 percent of P2O5 and 33 percent 1.NEAR RAU. Sulphate of potash is the only source of potash used in place of muriate.15 - .15 percent. Prophylactic sprays of insecticides against thrips are given once in five days from the initiation of bloom to berry set.05 percent are sprayed from the fourth day until the emergence of leaves. Sometimes the post-emergent weedicides.) Tel.4072636. Scab formation on the berry surface is also due to thrip damage to the ovaries/young berries.1. Thrips are effectively controlled by spraying phosphamidon at 0.05 percent. Such berries are not suitable for marketing.DISTRICT –INDORE.B.(M.05 percent or malathion at 0. Water requirement is calculated based on the pan evaporation using 0.6 Pests and their Management The important pests of grapes in India are. flea beetles.4. 40 percent of N.0 kg/ha or paraquat at about 7. The affected berries develop a corky layer and become brown on maturity.5 kg/ha is sprayed in fully grown vineyards. weeds are manually hoed and removed.Export Of Grapes From India To UK fertilizer. ROAD.5.1.0731. particularly in heavy clay soils.
1.4064557 . 1.15 percent. Mealy bug infected bunches are unfit for marketing. ROAD.2 percent or tridemorph at 0. Leaf hoppers: This pest has assumed serious proportions in all grape growing regions of India in recent years. A mixture of quinalphos at 0.B.25 percent or carbendazim at 0.000 per hectare when the berries start softening. Bordeaux mixture at 0. The adults and young nymphs of hoppers suck sap exclusively from the lower side of the leaves. young leaves. Alternaria is also becoming a serious pathogen. fenitrothion at 0. flowers and young berries. Nymphs and adults suck sap from the tender shoots resulting in crinkling and stunting of the new shoots.P. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Anthracnose is prevalent in all grape growing regions of the country.05 percent and phosalone at 0. They excrete honey on leaves and berries and sooty mold develops on the honey. phosalone at 0.4. downy mildew.5.05 percent is more effective on the nymphs while tridemorph at 0.8 percent.NEAR RAU.04 percent. It is better to release a mixed population of grubs and adults rather than only adults. copper oxychloride at 0. The disease is characterized by small light brown or greyish black lesions on tender shoots.16 - .DISTRICT –INDORE. Fax -0731.1 percent only is effective on the adults.) Tel. powdery mildew and bacterial leaf spot. Carbaryl at 0.4072636.1 percent mixed with neem oil 0.7 Diseases and their Management The important grape diseases are anthracnose.05 percent are sprayed to control this pest. ii) Spray only dichlorvas at 0.1 percent are used to control this disease.PIGDAMBER.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Mealy Bugs: Mealy bugs are the most serious and problematic pests of grapes in India.0731. Yield losses can be up to 50 percent due to mealy bug damage. iii) Release cryptolaemus montrozieri beetles at 8. Mealy bugs are hard-to-kill insects and the package of practices for their control in India is as follows: i) Avoid spraying broad-spectrum insecticides particularly synthetic pyrethroids.(M.1 percent.05 percent or quinalphos at 0.000-10. In recent years.
2 percent.PIGDAMBER.1 percent) and Penconazol (Topas at 0.17 - . uneven ripening and post-harvest berry drop.5.0731.(M.05 percent).8 percent or copper oxychloride at 0. especially along the main and lateral veins. Myclobutanil (Systhane at 0.4064557 .1. Calaxin at 0.04 percent. young shoots and immature berries. shot berries.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Downy mildew is the most devastating disease of grapes in the tropical region of the country. 1. copper oxychloride at 0.B.1. A wide range of fungicides. The disease mainly appears on the leaves. The symptoms appear as minute water soaked spots on the lower surface of the leaves. berry cracking and rotting.DISTRICT –INDORE.NEAR RAU. Entire clusters decay. Powdery mildew is controlled easily by wettable Sulphur formulations. blossom-end rot.P.15 percent is used to check its spread. It is next in importance to downy mildew in its devastating severity.) Tel.07 percent. pink berry syndrome. The eco-physiological disorders are ‘coulure’. Karathane EC at 0. Mancozeb at 0. Powdery mildew is prevalent in all the grape growing regions.2 percent) are used against this disease. while Bordeaux mixture at 0. ROAD. 1. Triademifon (Bayleton at 0. The disease is characterized by the presence of white powdery (ash like) coating in patches on both sides of the leaves. Streptocyclin at 500 ppm is used as a prophylactic spray. The losses are very high when it attacks the clusters before fruit set. Bacteria infects leaves. Properly neutralized Bordeaux mixture at 1 percent. Fax -0731. water berries. but also attacks the flower clusters and young fruits.9 Quality Improvement INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4.5. Other physiological disorders are cane immaturity. namely. cluster tip wilting.4. Salinity injury is common in Maharashtra and north Karnataka. metalaxyl (Ridomil Mz at 0.4072636. Severely infected leaves give a blighted appearance.8 Physiological Disorders Physiological disorders associated with high temperature and low atmospheric humidity in the hot tropical region are dead arm and trunk splitting. dry and drop down.025 percent) are used to control this disease.2 percent) or Phosethyl-Al (aliettle at 0. Mostly these spots coalesce and form larger patches.2 percent. shoots and berries.
The width and depth of girdling are 1-1. Rachides of the clusters are trimmed to retain 8-10. Grape is harvested almost all the year round. Fax -0731.Increasing the TSS Content: Berry thinning and cluster thinning to maintain adequate leaf/fruit ratio (5 cm2). Period of harvest and yield of different varieties is given below. Girdling is done at 4-5 mm diameter of the berries. In addition to the treatment with growth regulators. Increasing Berry Size: Manual means are used to supplement chemical thinning to ensure adequate berry thinning and improve the quality of grapes. Irrespective of the number of clusters. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Approximately 90-120 berries are retained per cluster depending upon the number of leaves available to nourish it at 8-10 berries per every leaf depending on its size.5 mm. depending on the number of leaves available per cluster.) Tel.DISTRICT –INDORE.B. When berry diameter is to be increased to more than 16 mm. Production of Loose Clusters: Pre-bloom GA sprays of 10 ppm and 15 ppm are given respectively on the 11th to 14th day after bud break for cluster elongation.18 - .1.4072636. clusters are dipped in a mixture of 10 ppm BA + 25 ppm GA or 2 ppm CPPU + 25 ppm GA or 1 ppm brassinosteroid + 25 ppm GA instead of GA alone at these two stages. Clusters are dipped in GA solution of 40-50 ppm concentration once at 3-4 mm size of the berries and again at 7-8 mm size. In vines trained to the flat roof gable. only the apical two or three shoots are retained.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Shoot and Cluster Thinning: Only one or two clusters are retained per cane depending upon the density of the latter. one or more varieties are always available at any given time of the year.6 HARVESTING AND YIELDS Approximately one million tonnes of grapes are harvested annually in India.PIGDAMBER.P. berry size and crispiness are increased by girdling. Clusters are dipped in GA solution of 30-40 ppm when 10-20 percent of the flowers open in each cluster for berry thinning.4064557 .(M. while girdling will ensure a TSS content of 20°B.NEAR RAU. If not all the varieties. ROAD.0731. 1. individual shoot length is encouraged rather than the total canopy size for preventing sunburn of the berries.
19 - . June-December June January-April Source:http://www.(M. and more than 70 percent of the total production is harvested in March-April.4064557 .B.PIGDAMBER.0731. Therefore. Yields as high as 100 t/ha in Anab-e-Shahi and 75 t/ha in Thompson Seedless were recorded in this region.fao.htm However.) Tel. 1. However. June-December November-December. but the cold storage facilities are inadequate. June-July January-March. particularly in the Hyderabad region. the major proportion of produce. which contributes more than 70 percent of the total harvest. quality of grapes is usually poor as a result of high yields. MARKETING More than 80 percent of the total production is consumed as table grapes in India. The productivity of grapes in India is very high. November- Anab-e-Shahi Bangalore Blue 40 Bhokri 30 Gulabi 30 Perlette 40 Thompson Seedless and other seedless 25 varieties December January-March. July.4072636. is harvested during March-April from the hot tropical region.org/docrep/003/x6897e/x6897e06. mainly of Anab-e-Shahi. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.1.DISTRICT –INDORE.P.7. Fax -0731.4 Variety Yield (t/ha) Period of Harvest Average Potential 45 90 60 50 50 50 50 February-May.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Table 1. market gluts and fall of prices of grapes in March-April are common.NEAR RAU. ROAD. Thompson Seedless and its clones.
8.0731.PIGDAMBER. a) Heavy initial investment for establishing a vineyard.4072636. 1. raisin and wine grapes. 1.1.B.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Approximately. 2. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. a) Sustaining productivity and minimizing risks in grape cultivation is possible because of the availability of a variety of agro-climatic regions suitable for grape cultivation for table.20 - .000 hectares due to the following constraints.P.DISTRICT –INDORE. with an average yield of 30 t/ha.8. Grapes are exported through three different agencies viz.5 percent (22. POTENTIAL FOR GRAPE PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT India has the distinction of achieving the highest productivity in grapes in the world. Fax -0731. These agencies have established their own facilities for pre-cooling and cold storage in the vicinity of major production sites. Growers’ Cooperatives and the Trader exporters. ROAD. b) Technologies to achieve high productivity are currently available.4064557 . d) Technologies to produce export quality grapes and quality raisins are available. The rest of the produce is marketed within the country.1 CONSTRAINTS IN GRAPE PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT Although grape cultivation is considered as highly remunerative.) Tel.1..000 t) of fresh grapes are exported to the Middle East and European countries. the area under grapes is confined to only 34. c) Narrow variety base and lack of diversity in utilization of the germplasm available in grape growing countries.NEAR RAU. Grower Exporters.(M. b) High recurring costs in vineyard management. c) Scope for double cropping in certain regions and harvesting round the year in certain varieties is practically feasible.
ROAD.B.PIGDAMBER.Export Of Grapes From India To UK d) High risk of losing the crop due to unprecedented changes in weather. f) Short period available for ripening in the north.9 GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND PLANS FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF GRAPES The Government of India is supporting the grape industry of the country in the following ways: a) Encourage and support the farmers for establishing the vineyards and installing drip irrigation systems by providing soft loans and subsidies. Maharashtra is the focal point for conducting and coordinating the research activities on grapes throughout the country. e) Soil and water salinity in Maharashtra and drought in the hot tropical areas. 1. h) Wine is not a popular drink at present. The National Research Centre for Grapes (ICAR) located at Pune. Research on grapes is carried out by the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) Institutes and State Agricultural Universities at different centres under the All India Coordinated Research Project on Grapes. b) Provide research support to sustain the productivity of grapes under adverse situations.DISTRICT –INDORE.NEAR RAU. i) Marketing problems in table grapes. Fax -0731.4064557 . INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.0731.) Tel.P.4072636.(M.1.21 - . g) Very low proportion of export quality grapes. c) Promote and support the export of fresh grapes by training the growers and providing soft loans and subsidies for pre-cooling and cold storage facilities.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.DISTRICT –INDORE.22 - . resveratrol bears a significant transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. may confer health benefits. heart disease. a significant volume of research indicates moderate consumption. have been positively linked to inhibiting any cancer. including reduced platelet aggregation and vasodilation.(M.) Tel. nitric oxide (endothelium-derived relaxing factor) • • Although adoption of wine consumption is not recommended by some health authorities. Fax -0731.1. a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure Increased production of the vasodilator hormone. such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men.P.NEAR RAU.1. Emerging evidence is that wine polyphenols like resveratrol provide physiological benefit whereas alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system.1 French Paradox Comparing diets among Western countries. a phenomenon named the French Paradox and thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine. reducing susceptibility to vascular damage Decreased activity of angiotensin. such as: • Alteration of molecular mechanisms in blood vessels.B.10 Health claims 1. polyphenols (e. In laboratory studies.10.2 Resveratrol Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol (a polyphenol antioxidant).PIGDAMBER.4064557 .g. ROAD. resveratrol) mainly in the grape skin provide other suspected health benefits. Apart from potential benefits of alcohol itself. viral infections and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease.10. degenerative nerve disease..1. 1. Protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol.4072636. researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat. surprisingly the incidence of heart disease remains low in France.0731.
ROAD.0731. resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties.1. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging.P.4072636.4064557 .org/wiki/Grape INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.wikipedia. Resveratrol is found in wide amounts among grape varieties.PIGDAMBER.10.Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.3 Anthocyanins and other phenolics( fig 1. have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp. in muscadine grapes. and prevent age-related heart failure. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets. Resveratrol is the subject of several human clinical trials. among which the most advanced is a one year dietary regimen in a Phase III study of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease. primarily in their skins and seeds which.) Tel.DISTRICT –INDORE.B.NEAR RAU.(M. Synthesized by many plants. 1. skeletal muscle and brain. Fax -0731.23 - .Export Of Grapes From India To UK of calorie restriction in heart.1) Source: http://en.
and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics. such as fungal infections. polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids. kaempferol.2 and 5. catechins) are the more abundant phenolic in white varieties. these seed constituents display inhibitory activities against several experimental disease models. including cancer. and only red wine is fermented with skins. In muscadine skins. a white wine contains lower phenolic contents because it is fermented after removal of skins. soil composition.(M. is higher in purple varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in purple grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin. geographic origin. Red wine offers health benefits more so than white because many beneficial compounds are present in grape skin.B.P. laricitrin and laricitrin 3-O-galactoside are also found in purple grape but absent in white grape 1. quercetin.g. Phenolic content of grape skin varies with cultivar. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content.0731. Total phenolic content. Contrary to previous results.4072636. ellagic acid. The flavonols syringetin. biochemical and medical studies have demonstrated significant antioxidant properties of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins. climate. ellagic acid and not resveratrol is the major phenolic in muscadine grapes. syringetin 3-O-galactoside.NEAR RAU. allowing the wine to absorb the resveratrol.10. myricetin. Fax -0731.8 mg/L.24 - . an exceptional phenolic content.4064557 . an index of dietary antioxidant strength.) Tel.DISTRICT –INDORE.Ordinary non-muscadine red wine contains between 0. because it is fermented with the skins. heart failure and other disorders of oxidative stress. depending on the grape variety. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.1. Wines produced from muscadine grapes may contain more than 40 mg/L.4 Seed constituents Since the 1980s.PIGDAMBER. Together with tannins. By contrast.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Anthocyanins tend to be the main polyphenolics in purple grapes whereas flavan-3-ols (e. and cultivation practices or exposure to diseases.. It is these anthocyanins that are attracting the efforts of scientists to define their properties for human health. ROAD.
irrigation.25 - .P. 1.) Tel.1.4064557 .DISTRICT –INDORE. beginning with bud break in the spring and culminating in leaf fall in autumn followed by winter dormancy. phytosterols. From a winemaking perspective. harvesting. this stage begins around March while in the Southern Hemisphere it begins around September when daily temperatures begin to surpass 10 °C (50 °F).0731.NEAR RAU. the start of this cycle is signaled by a "bleeding" of the vine. In the Northern Hemisphere.11. vine disease and pests in facilitating or impeding the vines progression from bud break. flowering.B. each step in the process plays a vital role in the development of grapes with ideal characteristics for making wine. and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid.1. The amount of time spent at each stage of the growth cycle depends on a number of factors-most notably the type of climate (warm or cool) and the characteristics of the grape variety. vine training and the use of agrochemicals. fruit set.1 Bud break The grape starts its annual growth cycle in the spring with bud break.1. Fax -0731.PIGDAMBER. If the vine had been pruned during the winter. oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. The stages of the annual growth cycle usually become observable within the first year of a vine's life. veraison. ROAD.11 Annual growth cycle of grapevines The annual growth cycle of grapevines is the process that takes place in the vineyard each year. 1. leaf fall and dormancyreacting if need be with the use of viticultural practices like canopy management.5 Concord grape juice Commercial juice products from Concord grapes have been applied in medical research studies.(M.4072636.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Grape seed oil from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and skincare products for many perceived health benefits. Grape seed oil is notable for its high contents of tocopherols (vitamin E). 1. showing potential benefits against the onset stage of cancer. Viticulturalists and vineyard managers monitor the effect of climate.10. loss of physical performance and mental acuity during aging and hypertension in humans. This bleeding occurs when the INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. platelet aggregation and other risk factors of atherosclerosis.
During winter dormancy they turn brown until the spring when the vine begins the process of bud break and the first sign of green in the vineyard emerges in the form of tiny shoots.PIGDAMBER. The energy to facilitate this growth comes from reserves of carbohydrate stored in roots and wood of the vine from the last growth cycle. Flowering occurs when average daily temperatures stay between 15–20 °C (59–68 °F) which in the Northern Hemisphere wine regions is generally around May and for the Southern Hemisphere regions around November. the young shoots are very vulnerable to frost damage with vineyard managers going to great lengths protect the fragile shoots should temperature dramatically drop below freezing. Eventually the shoots sprout tiny leaves that can begin the process of photosynthesis.NEAR RAU. During this period a single vine can "bleed" up to 5 litres (1.Export Of Grapes From India To UK soil begins to warm and osmotic forces pushes water.(M. In warm climates. containing a low concentration of organic acids. ROAD. after about 4 weeks the growth of the shoots starts to rapidly accelerate with the shoots growing in length an average of 3 cm (1 in) a day. A few weeks after the initial clusters appears. This can include setting up heaters or wind circulators in the vineyard to keep cold air from settling on the vines. Buds are the small part of the vine that rest between the vine's stem and the petiole (leaf stem).[ 1.P. some early budding varieties (such as Chardonnay) can be at risk of premature bud break. the flowers start to grow in size INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.3 gallons) of water. Inside the buds contain usually three primordial shoots.11. This is a potential viticultural hazard in places like the Margaret River region of Western Australia where warm currents from the Indian Ocean can coax Chardonnay vines to prematurely bud in the midwinter month of July.26 - .B. producing the energy to accelerate growth.4072636. These buds appear in the summer of previous growth cycle green and covered in scales. up from the root system of the vine and it is expelled from the cuts (or "wounds") left over from pruning the vine.) Tel. Fax -0731. After bud break.0731.1. hormones.DISTRICT –INDORE.4064557 . In temperate climates. Tiny buds on the vine start to swell and eventually shoots begin to grow from the buds.2 Flowering Depending on temperatures. minerals and sugars. 40-80 days after bud break the process of flowering begins with small flower clusters appearing on the tips of the young shoots looking like buttons. where temperatures can reach above 10 °C (50 °F) in mid-winter.
with the process being mostly self contained within the vine. the pollen fertilizes the ovary which produces seeds as the flower begins the transformation into a grape berry.11. liberating the pollen from the anthers of the stamen.1. The percentage of fertilized flowers averages around 30 but can get as high as 60 or be much lower.3 Fruit set The stage of fruit set follows flowering almost immediately. encapsulating the seed.NEAR RAU.PIGDAMBER. Grape berry size depends on the number of seeds so berries with no seeds will be significantly INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. being able to self-pollinate. In the Northern Hemisphere. with the unfertilized flowers eventually falling off the vine. this normally takes place in May and in the Southern Hemisphere in November. But cross-pollination between vine species is possible as in the cases of the origins of several grape varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon (a cross pollination of Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon blanc) and Petite Sirah (a cross of Syrah and Peloursin). Shortly after the calyptra is shed.DISTRICT –INDORE.) Tel.B. Wind and insects generally play only a small role in aiding pollination.P. Coulure occurs when there is an imbalance of carbohydrate levels in the vine tissues and some berries fail to set or simply fall off the bunch.27 - . ROAD. containing 1-4 seeds.  This stage is very critical for wine production since it determines the potential crop yield.(M. 1.0731. During the process of fertilization. Most Vitis vinifera grape vines are hermaphroditic. At the beginning of the flowering process the only part that is visible is the fused cap of petals known as the calyptra.4072636. with both male stamens and female ovaries. Varieties like Grenache and Malbec are prone to this abnormal fruit set.It is during this stage of flowering that the pollination and fertilization of the grapevine takes place with the resulting product being a grape berry. Not every flower on the vine gets fertilized. wind & rain) can severely affect the flowering process. when the fertilized flower begins to develop a seed and grape berry to protect the seed. high temperatures and water stress having the potential of severely reducing the amount flowers that get fertilized.Export Of Grapes From India To UK with individual flowers becoming observable. Detrimental weather (cold. Climate and the health of the vine play an important role with low humidity. Millerandage occurs when some fertilized flowers do not form seeds but only small berry clusters. causing many flowers not to be fertilize and produce a group. Fax -0731. It is during this time when the buds that will become next years crops begin to form.4064557 .
ROAD. Fax -0731. it is considered ideal to have an earlier veraison. This color changing is due to the chlorophyll in the berry skin being replaced by anthocyanins (red wine grapes) and carotenoids (white wine grapes).4072636. which houses its seedling offspring. or by a boron deficiency in the vine.11.28 - .(M. the grape berries are green and hard to the touch. In the Northern Hemisphere this will be around the end of July and into August and between the end of January into February for the Southern Hemisphere. limited water stress and canopy management that creates a high "leaf to fruit" ratio can encourage veraison. This can be caused by vine disease.NEAR RAU. such as fanleaf. There are some factors in the vineyards that can control the onset of veraison. on the outer extents of the canopy. They begin to grow to about half their final size when they enter the stage of veraison. Typically the berries and clusters that are most exposed to warmth. This stage signals the beginning of the ripening process and normally takes places around 40-50 days after fruit set. During this stage the colors of the grape take form-red/black or yellow/green depending on the grape varieties. During this period the cane of the vine starts to ripen as well changing from green and INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. They have very little sugar and are high in organic acids. This is because the vine is biologically programmed to channel all its energies and resources into the berries. Conversely. On one cluster there maybe berries of various sizes which can create problems during winemaking due to the varying "skin to pulp" ratio among the grapes.1.PIGDAMBER.) Tel. For the production of high quality wine. Within six days of the start of veraison. The onset of veraison does not occur uniformly among all berries.B. undergo veraison first with the berries and clusters closer to the trunk and under the canopy shade undergoing it last. so that they may have a better chance of survival.4 Veraison Following fruit set. very vigorous wines with lots of leaf shading for photosynthesis and water supply will delay the start of veraison due to the vines energies being directed towards continued shoot growth of new buds.Export Of Grapes From India To UK smaller than berries containing seeds.4064557 . In a process known as engustment.DISTRICT –INDORE. 1.P. the berries start to soften as they build up sugars. the berries begin to grow dramatically as they accumulate glucose and fructose and acids begin to fall.0731. Gewürztraminer and the Chardonnay clones IA and Mendoza are both prone to millerandage.
Fax -0731. 1. the vines continues the process of photosynthesis. the term variety has become so entrenched in viticulture that any change to usage of the term cultivar is unlikely. The following spring. Following the first frost the leaves begin to fall as the vine starts to enter its winter dormancy period.) Tel. whether used for wine.4072636.0731.PIGDAMBER.11. creating carbohydrate reserves to store in the vine's roots and trunks. 1. currant. sultana). because they are propagated by cuttings and may have unstable reproductive properties.29 - .DISTRICT –INDORE.1.1.B. Following the harvest. ROAD. the cycle begins again.12 List of grape varieties This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes. In the Northern Hemisphere this is generally between September and October while in the Southern Hemisphere it is generally between February and April.(M. fresh or dried (raisin.4064557 . or eating as a table grape. The balance of all these factors contributes to when a winemaker or vineyard manager decides that it is time to harvest. Varieties: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.NEAR RAU. As the grape ripens on the vines.P. The term "grape varieties" actually refers to cultivars rather than botanical varieties according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The time of harvest depends on a variety of factors-most notably the subjective determination of ripeness. The threat of detrimental weather and vine diseases (such as grey rot) can also play a role in the time table. sugars and pH increase as acids (such as malic acid) decrease. At that point the chlorophyll in the leaves begin to break down and the leaves change color from green to yellow. It will continue doing this until an appropriate level of reserves have been stored. The vines begins to divert some of its energy production into its reserves in preparation for its next growth cycle.Export Of Grapes From India To UK springing to brown and hard. Tannins and other phenolics also develop which can affect the flavors and aromas in the resulting wine.5 After harvest In the vineyard. However. the antepenultimate event is the harvest in which the grapes are removed from the vine and transported to the winery to begin the wine making process.
2 thousand hectares occupying 1. Fax -0731. western Uttar Pradesh. Gulabi (Muscat) Beauty Seedless and Sharad Seedless Anab-e-Shahi.14 India Facts and Figures : Grape is one of the important fruit covering an area of 60.Export Of Grapes From India To UK More than 20 varieties are under cultivation in India. They can be grouped under following 4 categories based on colour and seeds.15 Major Export Destinations (2007-08) : Netherlands. only a dozen are commercially grown.(M. and the north-western region covering Punjab. Maharashta ranks first in terms of production accounting for more than 75% of total production and highest productivity in the country. Thompson Seedless is the ruling grape variety occupying 55% of the area with its clones.16 Major Competitor: Italy. Bangalore Blue occupies approximately 15% of the total area while Anab-e-Shahi and Dilkhush (15%).546 thousand MT. Thompson Seedless.30 - . and its clones Tas-A-Ganesh. Spain.1. Haryana.org/wiki/Grape Currently.13 Areas of Cultivation : Major grape-growing states are Maharashtra. Perlette (5%) and Gulabi and Bhokri together (5%).PIGDAMBER.P.) Tel. However. Karnataka. UAE. ROAD. Andhra Pradesh. Pusa Seedless. China. Argentina etc.83 crores. Bangladesh.wikipedia. 1.4064557 . Tamil Nadu. UK.1.1.1.0731. 1. Bangalore Blue. 1.4072636.1. Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Dilkhush (clone of Anab-e-Shahi) Perlette. Sonaka and Manik Chaman INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B.5 Source: http://en.30% of the total area. France. Sharad Seedless (5%).NEAR RAU. The total production of grapes in India is 1. Coloured seeded Coloured seedless White seeded White seedless Table. The total grape export from India during the year 2007-08 season was 96963 MT worth Rs 317.DISTRICT –INDORE. Germany. 1. US.
Fax -0731.4064557 .B.NEAR RAU.DISTRICT –INDORE.(M.0731. ROAD.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.PIGDAMBER.1.) Tel.P.31 - .1.4072636.17 COUNTRY PROFILE United Kingdom INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.
(93. West Indian. Annual population growth rate (2010 est.4064557 .).0731.4072636.) Tel.PIGDAMBER.B.000. South Asian..2 Source: http://en. Attendance--nearly 100%. agriculture--1.)--males 76. – 1. Welsh. Bristol. km. industry--18. 46% meadows and pastures.): 62. Constitution: Unwritten.4%. mi. Irish. Population (2010 est. 12% waste or urban. 1% inland water.17. 7% forested. about 7.NEAR RAU. ROAD. total 79.32 - .): 0. Cities: Capital--London (metropolitan pop. Work force (2009.17. 1. 10% forests and woodland. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.1Geography Area: 243.2 million.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Fig.org/wiki/Grape PROFILE 1.. Scottish Gaelic. Literacy--99%.17. Health: Infant mortality rate (2009 est.1. slightly smaller than Oregon. Other cities--Birmingham. Liverpool.)--4.7%.wikipedia.56 million).1. Climate: Generally mild and temperate. 1. Leeds.000 sq. weather is subject to frequent changes but to few extremes of temperature. partly common law and practice.(M. Fax -0731. Belfast. Life expectancy (2009 est. Muslim.25 million): Services--80. Major religions: Church of England (Anglican).P.2 People Nationality: Noun--Briton(s). Major ethnic groups: British. Church of Scotland (Presbyterian).DISTRICT –INDORE. females 81. 50% meadow and pasture.000 sq.1. Roman Catholic. Sheffield.3 Government Type: Constitutional monarchy. partly statutes. Bradford.1.1.4%. Irish Gaelic. Manchester. Adjective--British.2%. Education: Years compulsory--12. Terrain: 30% arable.5 yrs. 19% other. Land use: 25% arable.85/1. 31.0 years. Major languages: English.6 yrs. Glasgow. Edinburgh.1.
European Union. Judicial--magistrates' courts. Subdivisions: Scotland. Major suppliers--U. Wales--Plaid Cymru (Party of Wales). Northern Ireland--Ulster Unionist Party. fuels. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. appellate courts. electronics. heavy engineering and metal manufacturing.(M.DISTRICT –INDORE. chemicals.B. Wales. clay. Services (75% of GDP): Types--financial.4 Economy GDP (at current market prices.184 trillion..8% of GDP). textiles. oilseed. Annual growth rate (2009): -4. foodstuffs.2% of GDP): Products--cereals. chalk..6 billion: manufactured goods. potatoes. food. Green Party. European Union. natural gas.NEAR RAU. vegetables. 1. construction (23. ROAD.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Branches: Executive--monarch (head of state). 2009): $35. Legislative--bicameral Parliament: House of Commons. iron ore. House of Lords.P. counties. and Northern Ireland Assembly. limestone.0731.4064557 .1. Northern Ireland (municipalities.17.1.1. Social Democratic and Labour Party. fuels. Industry: Types--steel. Natural resources: Coal. high courts. prime minister (head of government). Alliance Party. business. beverages.. tobacco.S. cabinet. Welsh Assembly.8%. cattle. Progressive Unionist Party. in Scotland--Scottish National Party. sheep. Supreme Court. Political parties: Conservative.4072636. Trade (2009): Exports of goods and services--$351. hotels. county courts.17. British National Party. and parliamentary constituencies). Liberal Democrats. Labour. UK Independence Party.334.3 billion: manufactured goods. also. silica.1. oil. Sinn Fein. chemicals.) Tel. House of Lords. fish. Per capita GDP (at current market prices. and China.PIGDAMBER.S. tin. lead.5 HISTORY The Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC and most of Britain's subsequent incorporation into the Roman Empire stimulated development and brought more active contacts with the rest of Europe. Democratic Unionist Party. Suffrage: British subjects and citizens of other Commonwealth countries and the Irish Republic resident in the U. gypsum. Scottish Parliament. Fax -0731. communication.33 - . Agriculture (1.K. motor vehicles and aircraft. 2009): $2. poultry. Major markets--U. distribution. 1. at 18. transport. Imports of goods and services--$473. salt. machinery.
distinctive and distinguished university education. could develop.1. cultural.B.34 - . who placed third in number of seats won. 2010 election.0731.P. For the first time since 1974. lost its majority in the House of Commons in the May 6. The United Kingdom has been a member of the European Community (now European Union) since 1973. The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition has a 78-seat majority in the House of Commons. when it became clear that Labour would be unable to form a government. ROAD. and the Labour Party forms the opposition. the United Kingdom is a permanent member of the Security Council. and the Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems). first under Prime Minister Tony Blair and then under his successor.PIGDAMBER.(M. which led to several days of intense negotiations between the Conservatives (Tories). Prime Minister Gordon Brown resigned. held the Presidency of the G-8 during 2005. and land powers. and representative government.DISTRICT –INDORE.17. a separate but established church.6 POLITICAL CONDITIONS The Labour government that had been in power since 1997. The U. On May 11. it held the EU Presidency from July to December 2005. In the United Nations. Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg became the Deputy Prime Minister.K. the country again was exposed to invasion--including the pivotal incursions of the Angles. Cameron subsequently announced a formal coalition with the Liberal Democrats.NEAR RAU. who won the most seats. however.Export Of Grapes From India To UK As Rome's strength declined.) Tel.1. Gordon Brown resigned as Labour leader on May 11.4064557 . prompting an election for a new Labour leader. As part of the coalition deal. which remain characteristic of Britain. Fax -0731. no party was able to win a full majority in the Commons. Gordon Brown. it ranks third among NATO countries in total defense expenditure. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. a system of common law. Among these are a political. administrative. air.1.7 DEFENSE AND FOREIGN RELATIONS The United Kingdom is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and is one of NATO's major European maritime. 1.17. who is expected to be in place by September 2010. which would ensure Liberal Democrat support for a Conservative-led government in exchange for five Liberal Democrat cabinet seats and policy compromises. certain institutions.4072636. Norman rule effectively ensured Britain's safety from further intrusions. Saxons. and economic center in London. 1. and David Cameron became the new Prime Minister.1. and Jutes in the fifth and sixth centuries AD--up to the Norman conquest in 1066.
S. where they are on the front line in the war against continued Taliban operations.K. the secondlargest contingent of the coalition force in Afghanistan.000 personnel. is in charge of the United Kingdom's independent strategic nuclear arm.S.000-member Royal Navy. and its military forces are. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Fax -0731. with 42.000 Royal Marine commandos. forces are primarily based in the Helmand region. are active and regular participants in NATO and other coalition operations. U.) Tel.200 personnel. was the United States' main coalition partner in Operation Iraqi Freedom. which consists of four Trident missile submarines. after U.4 million) to Afghan reconstruction--the second-largest donor after the United States. its combat forces withdrew from Iraq in July 2009. 2010. the Royal Air Force.K. The United Kingdom stood shoulder to shoulder with the United States following the September 11. The U.P.0731.35 - . the U. and supporting international peacekeeping efforts.B.4064557 .(M. has contributed more than £510 million (approximately $723. The U. The British Army.PIGDAMBER.4072636. 2001 terrorist attacks in the U. which includes 6.. ROAD. In addition. forces.DISTRICT –INDORE.K.000 as of May 6.Export Of Grapes From India To UK The British Armed Forces are charged with protecting the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. force in Afghanistan stood at 10. consisting of approximately 99.K. along with the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. and 4% of British forces represent ethnic minorities. Approximately 9% of the British Armed Forces is female. The 37.NEAR RAU. promoting Britain's wider security interests.
720 Sq Mi) INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.17.B.Export Of Grapes From India To UK COUNTRY PROFILE INDIA source: http://en.) Tel.166.P. Fax -0731.9 CAPITAL: New Delhi 1.1. ROAD.1.1.692 Sq Km (1.36 - .org/wiki/Grape 1.wikipedia.4064557 .11 AREA: 3.(M.PIGDAMBER.18.104.22.168.NEAR RAU.1.0731.DISTRICT –INDORE.1.1.4072636.8 OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of India 1.10 SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Multiparty Federal Republic 1.1.
1.(M.37 - .17.4072636.) The southern region which includes a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea and a broader one along the Bay of Bengal. Chambi. Average temperature ranges in New Delhi are from 7 to 21 degrees Celsius (45 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit) in January to 26 to 41 degrees Celsius (79 to 106 degrees Fahrenheit) in May.) Tel. The rivers of India are generally divided into the Himalayan and peninsula rivers. The mainland of India can be divided into four topographical regions.DISTRICT –INDORE. which are flanked by the Western and Eastern Ghats. Myanmar and Bangladesh to the east. but generally can be divided into the following ethnic groups.1.841.800. (1.206.500.14 CLIMATE: India has a tropical climate that is dominated by the Asiatic monsoons with four fairly distinct seasons which are common to all six or seven climatic regions.NEAR RAU.0731. other 16% (1993). Mumbai (Bombay) 9.900. the Bay of Bengal to the southeast and the Arabian Sea to the southwest. Fax -0731. Cauvery. (3.) The desert region which is divided into the Great and Little Deserts.) A relatively cool winter monsoon season. It is bound by Pakistan to the northwest. The Indo-Aryan who represent 72% of the population while the INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. agriculturalcultivated 57%.P.4064557 .Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1. Madras 3.300. Lucknow 1. The southern region is separated from the IndoGangetic Plain by a mass of mountain ranges and plateaux on the Indian or Deccan Peninsula.624.) The northern mountains or Himalayan region which comprises three parallel ranges mixed with large plateaux and valleys.17. Betwa.954. (2.925. Major Cities (pop.302. Narbada and Tapti. Son. Yamuna. 1. Bhutan and Nepal to the north. Hyderabad 3.399.1. forested 23%.1. Delhi 7. Tropical hurricanes and cyclones are common between April to June and September to December. and the principal rivers include the Ganges with its tributaries. Krishna. pastures 4%. Ahmadabad 2.12 ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION 1. (4. (2. It is the second largest country in Asia and the territory also includes the Andaman.100.700. the Jumna. Bangalore 3. (1.400.000 1. Nicobar and the Lakshadweep Islands. China. Gandak.900. (3. Ghaghra. New Delhi 301. Nagpur 1. Kanpur 1.566.17.15 PEOPLE: India's racial diversity is extremely complex. est. Pune 1.695. Land Use.13 LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: India is located on the Indian sub-continent in South Asia. Calcutta 4.PIGDAMBER. Indus and Brahmaputra Rivers.) The Indo-Gangetic Plain which is formed by the basins of the Ganges. ROAD.096.) A hot and rainless transitional season.1. Mahanadi.300 (1991).17. Godavari.700. Kosi.) A rainy monsoon season and (4.) a humid season.619.400.145.800.B.).879.
8%. with Hindi including its associated languages and dialects accounting for 84% of the population while English is used for national.(M.1 years female (1986-90). 1971 Indira Gandhi. ROAD. In Dec. In May 1964 Prime Minister Nehru died after being at the forefront of Indian politics since its independence.17 RELIGIONS: Around 83% of the population are Hindu. Sex Distribution.5% are Jain. In 1962 a border dispute erupted with China.1. In 1948 Mohandas Gandhi who led India to independence was assassinated.4% are Muslim.1. incomplete primary 7.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Dravidian account for 25% and the Mongoloid with others account for 3%.0 per 1.P. 11.2%. Urban-Rural. Infant Mortality Rate.B.4072636. 59. 27% 15 to 29.9% (1981). 25. From 1948 to 1949 India and Pakistan fought over Kashmir which ended when the UN divided the Kashmir between the two countries.38 - . incomplete secondary 6. 11% 45 to 59. political and commerce purposes.20 MODERN HISTORY . 1.1 per 1.17.17. 6% 60 to 74.7% urban.3% rural (1991). 11. 1966. Life Expectancy at Birth.9% male. primary 10.NEAR RAU. 51. 1% 75 and over (1990).5 per 1. In Mar.600 languages and dialects are spoken throughout India with over 15 constitutionally recognized.DISTRICT –INDORE. Jews and the Anglo-Indians of mixed European and Indian descent. 1. 1.WWII TO 1993: On Aug.000 or 48. became India's first woman Prime Minister. 1947 India gained independence from Britain and the next day Pakistan was created while Jawaharlal Nehru became India's first Prime Minister.4 per 1. In 1977 Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her party were defeated in INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.17. 37% under 15. Over 1. higher 2.1. 2% are Sikh while just under 1% are Buddhist and . 18% 30 to 44. 32. literate population aged 15 or over 261.17. 3% are Christian.1.1. 58. 15.2% (1990). 80. Birth Rate.17.1 years male. There are also three alien ethnic groups which include the Parsis. in which China invaded the northeastern border section of India.1% female (1991). In 1965 a second war broke out between India and Pakistan over Kashmir which resulted in Soviet mediation and a peace agreement in Jan.200.1%.000 (1991).18 LANGUAGES: The official languages are Hindi and English. secondary 7.1%. 48.000 (1991). In 1950 India adopted a new constitution which made it a republic. 21.4064557 . Death Rate. Fax -0731. Increase Rate. 275 persons per sq km (712 persons per sq mi) (1991).PIGDAMBER.16 DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density.9%. Age Breakdown. 1.) Tel.0731. 1. Literacy. 74. 1971 India assisted East Pakistan in a war against West Pakistan which resulted in East Pakistan becoming the independent nation of Bangladesh.19 EDUCATION: Aged 25 or over and having attained: no formal schooling 65.000 (1991).000 live births (1990).
and resulted in the Congress (I) forming another government and Pamulaparti Venkata Narasihma Rao being sworn in as Prime Minister on June 21.) Tel. 1991. and Assam that climaxed on Dec. On Sept.0731.P. 13. Additionally. The elections were set for May 20.600 people while during 1991 there was an insurgence in violence and assassinations from militant groups in Punjab.NEAR RAU. Elections due for May 23 and 26 were postponed until June 12 and 15. 24. succeeded her as Prime Minister in December after parliamentary elections. 1991 a massive earthquake in the Himalayan region of Uttar Pradesh killed some 1.PIGDAMBER. On Oct. In July 1985 Rajiv Gandhi signed a peace accord with the Sikh leader. ROAD.(M. 31. however. In Jan. 1991 the government announced its intention to adopt the Mandal Commission's recommendation that 27% of public jobs be reserved for "socially and educationally backward classes". 1991. R. 20. 1992 Pres. On Mar. 1991 with Sikh separatists killing 49 Hindu passengers and wounding a further 20 on a train in Punjab. and were a three way contest between the Indian National Congress (I).4064557 . On Oct. 1992 some 91 Bombay slum dwellers lost their lives after drinking impurely mixed alcohol during New Years celebrations while in May 1992 some 210 also lost their lives in Orissa through similar circumstances. In 1983 serious unrest developed with the Sikhs wanting more regional autonomy for Punjab state and in 1984 the Indian Army launched a massive offensive and as many as 1. however. 1991 Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by the Tamil "Tiger" guerrilla group in a human bomb attack that also killed 14 others while he was preparing to give a campaign address in Sriperumbudur.4072636.39 - . 1992 some 47 people died as a result of a stampede during the ritual bathing in Kumbakonam. Jammu and Kashmir. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. 1991. On May 21. 1984 two Sikh bodyguards assassinated Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi her son. since 1983 there has been a Sri Lankan Tamil separatist insurgence and in 1987 under an agreement with the Sri Lankan government India occupied the northern regions of the island. 1991 Prime Minister Chandra Shekar resigned and Pres. 6. 23 and 26.DISTRICT –INDORE. in 1980 she won the elections and became Prime Minister again. the violence continued and in May 1987 the Punjab state government was dismissed and the state was placed under central control. In Feb. Ramaswamy Venkataraman dissolved the lower house of Parliament on Mar. In April 1992 a massive stock swindle known as the scam where a group of bankers and brokers collaborated to manipulate stock market operations resulted in the arrest of prominent brokers and the executives of several foreign and Indian banks and institutions.000 people were killed in the two day battle. Fax -0731. 26.Export Of Grapes From India To UK parliamentary elections. the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and a National Front and leftist parties combination.B. On July 25.
1993 with some 10. one for the Muslims and the other for the Hindus. On Jan. During 1992 separatist militant activities continued in the regions of Punjab.000 (1993).487. In March and April. The Hindus had claimed the site was the birthplace of Lord Rama and that they were going to build their own temple. 20. Jammu and Kashmir and Telingana region. ROAD.4072636. 1993 Pres.000. although unofficial reports claimed the death toll to be as high as 35. 15. 1992 other BJP-run state governments were dismissed.000 (1993).000 (1994).Export Of Grapes From India To UK Venkataraman was succeeded by Shankar Dayal Sharma after presidential elections. 7. Balance of Trade.134.000 (1994). Exports.000 rendered homeless. which had allegedly lost Rs 40. 6.000. that was later ratified by the Parliament.7 acres (27. 1992 Hindu and Muslim fundamentalist parties were outlawed.40 - . On Jan. On Dec. to acquire 67.000. 12.060.150.000 people officially losing their lives. 1992 were released. Re 38. During 1993 the government established a human rights commission to investigate claims of violations and abuse at the hands of police and security forces while clashes between the government forces and the various militant separatists continued throughout the year. 1992 Hindu-Muslim riots erupted throughout the country after the demolition of the Muslim Babri Mosque in Ayodhya by Hindu militants and thousands of supporters.1. 13.000 with some 140.) Tel.NEAR RAU.5% of total population (1991). Sharma issued a ordinance. 10.1% (1990).242. 1993 Hindu-Muslim riots broke out in Bombay claiming some 560 lives in the first week.000 and the country also experienced its worst earthquake in 50 years in the Maharashtra state on Sept. 1992 the death toll from the religious clashes had climbed to 1.4 hectares) around the temple site and the intention to construct two temples on the site. 1993 the BJP leaders arrested in Dec.131.470. On Jan. USD $262.P. 6. ECONOMY: Gross National Product.B. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.000 (1994). 1992 the BJP leaders were arrested and on Dec.000. USD $80.17. Fax -0731.21 CURRENCY: The official currency is the Rupee (Re) divided into 100 Paisa.DISTRICT –INDORE.000. Unemployed. USD $1.370 or 37. On the same day and in response the government dismissed the BJP-run state government of Uttar Pradesh and imposed direct Presidential rule on the state while on Dec. Re 728. 1993 there were politically motivated bombings in Calcutta and Bombay with 60 and 33 people respectively losing their lives.985. 8. 7. On Dec.000. 314. Tourism Receipts. By Dec. Public Debt. Re 695.000 (1993). Imports.0731. 1.000. Economically Active Population. Also in 1993 the government appointed a joint parliamentary committee to investigate the 1992 stock market scandal.(M.810.PIGDAMBER.4064557 .
1.000 (1994).145. receivers 20. Ground Nuts. Sugar Cane.000.17. Sorghum.17. ROAD.1.900.497.000. Textiles.6% air force while military expenditure accounts for 3.198. Millet. Gemstones. Telephones. units 8. 1.264.000 (1994).000 passenger-mi) (1990).8% navy and 9. Software. Vehicles.509 mi) (1990). Air Transport. Tea.800. passenger-km 284. Wheat. cars 2.000. Rice.17. Tea. Coal.PIGDAMBER. Cement.0731. Limestone. Radio. Fax -0731.17. Roads. trucks and buses 1. Manganese. Oil Refining. Transport Equipment.25 MAIN EXPORTS: Fish.23 MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Barley. Oil and Gas.284. 1.000 (1992) total active duty personnel with 85. Mica.000.400 (1993).000 km (1. length 2. Machinery. Beverages. 1.000 (176. Machinery.000. Iron Ore.000.000. 1.433. Chemicals.DISTRICT –INDORE. deadweight tonnage 10. Cotton. Television.41 - . Copper. Gemstones.4072636. total of 3. Food. Handicrafts.000 (1989).22 MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partners are the USA.975 km (38.805 with a total circulation of 18. Iran and Iraq.1.742 mi) (1989). Jute.000.4064557 . receivers 65.000 (160. Vegetables.28 MILITARY: 1.26 TRANSPORT: Railroads. Leather.000 (10. cargo ton-km 22.214.171.124. the former USSR. Food Processing. Iron Ore.242. Japan. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. route length 61.974. 4.000 short ton-mi) (1990).B.000 short ton-mi) (1990).3% (1993) of the Gross National Product (GNP).966.27 COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers.832.1. Software Development. Coke. 1.17. Fertilizers.6% army. Merchant Marine. vessels 855 (1990). passenger-km 16. Bauxite. Chromium.191 (1990). Textiles.NEAR RAU.800. Potatoes.000 (453.000.1. Iron and Steel.24 MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1. the UK. Fruit.000 passenger-mi) (1990).000 (1989).1.000 (1993).P.037.) Tel.1. Pulses. cargo ton-km 662.(M.518.
Most of the Grapes produced is consumed locally and about 1 per cent is exported. Owing to the nutritional and medicinal values of the fruits. Merro Don Thomas had done the research on Analysis of Export Procedures for Grapes in the month of June 2010 from Institute of Management and Development. Delhi and he get the following conclusion: The advent of new varieties having high consumer preference and technical advancement in cultivation has made this crop more popular. there is preference among the consumers in the domestic and international markets.) Tel. ROAD. The exports have not been substantial since the international standards were not known.0731.4064557 . This variety is one of the best varieties suitable for export purpose and it is gaining popularity among consumers.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.PIGDAMBER.4072636.B.P.NEAR RAU.DISTRICT –INDORE.42 - .2 Literature Review Mr. Fax -0731.(M. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Thomson seedless and sharad seedless variety is best suited for cultivation in the tropical areas.
) Tel.P. Export qualities of grapes are grown in India. More than four-five varieties are grown in India.4072636. have created problems in obtaining economic yields.3 Rationale • • • • • • • India is the largest producer of agricultural product and has a lot of export potential. Karnataka has exported about 2000 MT to other countries during the last few years. There is potential for export to the United State of America also.NEAR RAU. India can prove to be competitive.4064557 .43 - .PIGDAMBER. In this background. 1. it facilitates long-term and healthy business dealings.(M.000 MT tons. Indian grapes have penetrated into the European Union since suitable varieties conforming to international standards are being produced. Proper varietal selection. Fax -0731. facilities for marketing etc.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Of late. The migrants can prove to be good promoters for the fruits. crop and post harvest management. etc. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Most of the Indians migrate to other country and thus they demand for Indian fruits.B. so a number of taste options are available. infrastructure such as cold chain. India can definitely make a dent in grapes trade in the world market. ROAD. India has clean transaction terms with other countries.000 – 30. Diseases such as Powdary mildew. Downy Mildew.DISTRICT –INDORE.. will augment the cultivation of quality grapes and will help in increasing the exports to a tune of about 20.0731.
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.(M.PIGDAMBER.B. Fax -0731.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.DISTRICT –INDORE.4072636.NEAR RAU.) Tel. To find out the measures to increase the growth of grapes export from India.P. market for Indian grapes. To find out the major potential markets for export. ROAD.4 Objectives Of Research • • • To find out the potential.44 - .4064557 .0731.
23 per cent (provisional) of the total exports.NEAR RAU.4072636.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1. and 10.5.PIGDAMBER. the sector provided employment to 58. 1.45 - .2 Countries involved • India and UK 1.B.DISTRICT –INDORE.5.6 per cent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009-10.P.1 Type of study • Research of the exports of grapes from India to UK.4064557 . Furthermore. ROAD.5 Methodology Agriculture is one of the strongholds of the Indian economy and accounts for 14.) Tel.3 Data Collection And Sources INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Fax -0731.0731.2 per cent of the work force.5.(M. 1.
magazines.NEAR RAU. 1.PIGDAMBER. The secondary data has been collected on the basis of various trade portals. The domestic consumption of grapes is higher.(M. ROAD.46 - . Direct face to face interaction for collecting the primary data was not possible. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Sources of secondary data being the books. thus the authentication of the data is questionable. Websites and search engines.B.4064557 .4072636.0731.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • I have used the secondary data for the preparation of this project.P. journals and news paper articles.) Tel.6 Limitations • • • • The time period provided for the research was not sufficient to undergo an analytical research work. so there was a problem in showing the extensive growth in its exports. Fax -0731.DISTRICT –INDORE.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4064557 .NEAR RAU. Fax -0731. ROAD.4072636.PIGDAMBER.DISTRICT –INDORE.47 - .P.0731.) Tel.B.(M.
01 314. EXPORT PERFORMANCE 2.PIGDAMBER.59 441.P.1.) Tel.47 2.013.650.39 458.193.70 11.79 8.19 2.40 6.98 12.31 1. Fax -0731.994.650.162.DISTRICT –INDORE.107.966.210.37 0 0 2008-2009 Qty 24.064. lacs Qty in Mt.274.B.50 529.61 54.26 Value 13.54 Source: http://tradejunction.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.55 6.19 520.398.45 164.66 1.45 563.627.020.4072636.97 1.26 242.379.5 338.303.72 298. ROAD.apeda.657.448.91 0 0 196.081.64 92.09 37.46 361.5 410.15 1.89 407.242.340.15 784.1 EXPORT OF GRAPES Table 2.402.4064557 .667.22 472.43 292.19 3.94 25.22 13.09 0 0 390.686.61 745.59 570.36 13.140.597.522.67 7.1 Product Group Report/Country Wise Value in Rs.06 226.39 2.62 120.62 2.35 3.87 1.97 4.7 578.aspx?gcode=0205 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.17 452.NEAR RAU.03 595.14 9.0731.68 6.64 354.586.115.com/indexp/product_description_32head.488.379.656.29 13.33 890 228.78 314.(M.137.90 1.509.757.641. Product: FRESH GRAPES Country NETHERLAND UK BANGLADESH U ARAB EMTS BELGIUM SAUDI ARABIA NORWAY GERMANY NEPAL SRI LANKA OMAN MOROCCO MALAYSIA ALGERIA 2006-2007 Qty Value 19.10 313.63 10.04 5.79 451.84 743.761.28 3.639.00 3.66 3.13 208.18 0 0 2007-2008 Qty Value 24.75 6.86 3.76 343.48 - .62 3.32 1.552.440.368.91 4.
97 726.38 7463.2 23.13 0 1.35 931.9 24151.65 1.95 2552.13 2548.1 4722.P.81 0 221. Fax -0731.85 727357.02 38.78 14.85 32.48 28.75 313.4064557 . ROAD.25 1340.998.43 65.07 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.2 497.48 34.12 5248.41 76427.21 Value 269968.47 0.01 1 0.08 42.5 132.48 128792.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Table 2.765.79 5598 3654.27 Value 459278.2 62.04 1182.58 12.12 2269.97 2007-2008 Qty 743264.52 1470.23 0 0 0 0 0 468.) Tel.37 3064.62 260.0731.NEAR RAU.58 1078.4072636.64 6.89 55689.49 - .4 47.84 985.82 3968.78 839.PIGDAMBER.4 650.28 489619.88 514979.73 2 0 59 299 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 1916.2 Port Report / Product Group Wise Qty in Mt.69 107286.12 9.09 2823.64 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5.75 10.67 6245.1 0.1 879.08 3047.63 17 117.15 56.16 8.81 1702.22 75.17 0.48 25539.8 0.47 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.41 3317.43 0 17.2 1.83 2474.09 0 157.370. lacs Port: KANDLA SEA Product BASMATI RICE OTHER CEREALS NON BASMATI RICE JAGGERY AND CONFECTIONERY GUARGUM CEREAL PREPRATIONS PULSES OTHER PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS GROUND NUTS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES DRIED AND PRESERVED VEGETABLES DAIRY PRODUCTS MILLED PRODUCTS OTHER FRESH FRUITS COCOA PRODUCTS OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES FRESH MANGOES FRESH ONIONS FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SEEDS MANGO PULP PROCESSED MEAT NATURAL HONEY FLORICULTURE Total 2006-2007 Qty Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7621.58 15579.78 47.6 1.21 3.02 19.39 21.02 220240.01 119.349.592.DISTRICT –INDORE.15 0.684.54 233.(M.86 4929.13 0 585.2 27.941.951. Value in Rs.B.58 133654.36 2008-2009 Qty 754671.
79 36.75 82.49 164.53 1310.65 0 0 1.48 40.13 55.21 5.DISTRICT –INDORE.28 473.08 105.64 1.81 0.98 15602.34 189.51 57.21 7.apeda.02 1507.5 11.82 0 0 0 0 1.34 45.33 12.39 3360.49 74.15 1210. ROAD.07 30.73 0 0 0 0 2007-2008 Qty Value 5515.22 234.3 1.50 - .4072636.49 3073.93 9.3 0.aspx?pcode=515 Table 2.59 88.09 9.73 1676.6 118.39 2008-2009 Qty Value 7355.06 34873.B.46 788.(M.34 0 0 0 0 9.33 59.67 136.02 41.11 1649.32 15.PIGDAMBER.49 10.3 Port Report / Product Group Wise Qty in Mt.07 13630.65 36.0731.97 4.46 128.49 437.4064557 .78 93.69 0.18 4.26 0 0 61.25 4095.99 57.27 0.15 2.99 2266.18 43.4 6546.21 698.58 965.91 277.78 89.53 49.37 934.84 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.9 6.03 100.09 64.72 53.28 55.P.3 132.15 122.41 188.58 68.68 33435.8 0 0 0.02 103.5 1. Value in Rs.02 8.21 5637. lacs Port: MUMBAI AIR Product SHEEP / GOAT MEAT OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES FLORICULTURE FRESH MANGOES OTHER FRESH FRUITS FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SEEDS POULTRY PRODUCTS MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS ANIMAL CASINGS BUFFALO MEAT DAIRY PRODUCTS OTHER PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES CEREAL PREPRATIONS FRESH ONIONS JAGGERY AND CONFECTIONERY COCOA PRODUCTS MANGO PULP FRESH GRAPES ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES WHEAT SWINE MEAT NATURAL HONEY DRIED AND PRESERVED VEGETABLES 2006-2007 Qty Value 238.51 27.32 43.07 87.48 105.17 0 0 49. Fax -0731.1 11.66 8697.31 37.05 13548.NEAR RAU.27 30.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Source: http://tradejunction.47 0 0 0.02 10097.67 9.) Tel.6 17.24 1016 554.94 1736.18 6812 4040.39 130.64 70.88 8901.42 116.57 16439.45 2.06 15.26 1.01 0.94 200.16 46536.com/indexp/portreport_prdgrp.24 5.3 172.62 40.
B.DISTRICT –INDORE. ROAD.PIGDAMBER.) Tel.(M.aspx?pcode=483 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.com/indexp/PortReport_prdgrp.NEAR RAU.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Source:http://tradejunction.4064557 . Fax -0731.P.apeda.51 - .0731.4072636.
36 1.183.92 1.527.81 10.895.05 8.103.84 1.981.377.59 3.68 1.034.608.376.36 3.80 3.362.Value(20082007) 2007) 2008) 2008) 2009) 2009) Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value 71. fruits.95 3.044.627.74 803.08 3.582.aspx?ctry=13421 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.59 71.34 62.862.239.354.92 2.888.61 1.08 936.32 2.QTY(2008.19 1. dried. ROAD.974.129.QTY(2007. branches and other parts of plants without flowers or flower buds and grasses for bouquets or for ornamental purpose OTHER BAKERY PRODUCTS Onions.55 6.17 1.40 2.009.563.12 540.DISTRICT –INDORE.61 2.89 7.272.061.59 2.743.19 3.85 655.197.32 2.960. Pomegranates Fresh other food preparation not elsewhere specified Natural honey QTY(2006.63 1.20 2.34 3.02 5.190.382.77 13.883.4064557 .952.00 1.42 6.87 12.44 8.07 7.141.419.751.91 9.4072636.042.343.78 3.04 4.473. fresh Other vegetalbes./presvd Mixed Vegetables fresh/chilled Ground-nuts HPS Kernels Mango pulp Not Fresh foliage.202.28 1.025.478.60 8.108. fresh/dried.82 2.672.63 374.527.43 7.633.02 2.72 2.343.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.60 816.072.144.06 1.66 2.088.13 10.48 2.206.575.52 - .196.39 1.953.10 4.030.566.12 2.56 1.2 Country Report / Product Wise Country: UK Table 2.622.69 4.537.379.26 2.89 1.777.56 249.0731.595.920.67 11.apeda.64 6.411.42 2.10 43.P. whole/cut/sliced/broken/in powder but not further prepared Guargum treated and pulverised Mangoes .73 Source: http://tradejunction.932.410.045.07 5.42 2.204.19 3.20 1.283.37 1.98 3.4 Product Basmati Rice Papad Grapes.131.) Tel.137.08 12.559. Fax -0731. nuts and other edible parts of plants prepd.57 11.505.010.NEAR RAU.17 12.101.743.68 1.403.26 705.013.71 6.PIGDAMBER.63 1.57 29.40 7.328.20 8.Value(2007.125.66 804.535.579.87 7.(M.Value(2006.095.68 3.com/indexp/country_description.17 2.B.56 3.67 19.285.47 2.388.
09 6 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.09 8 Qty in mt Value in lakhs Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2006-2007 Country UK Total Qty Value 13657.6 Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2007-2008 Qty Value 12757.94 7 2005-2006 Country UK Total Qty Value 11318.94 7 13657.DISTRICT –INDORE.5 5914.P.4072636. ROAD.40 1 12757.5 5914.75 1 ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table 2.6 7656.8 Country UK Total ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table2.6 6368.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.5 Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2008-2009 Country UK Total Qty Value ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table 2.53 - .6 7656.) Tel.6 6597.09 8 11639.4064557 .B.9 Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2004-2005 Country UK Qty Value 5888.PIGDAMBER.0731.NEAR RAU.3 INDIA EXPORT STATISTICS ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table2.7 3290.6 6368.75 1 11318.4 11639.6 1 6597.(M. Fax -0731.7 ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table 2.
com/indexp/genReport.(M.apeda. ROAD.PIGDAMBER.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 5888.09 6 Total Source: http://tradejunction.B.) Tel.4064557 .0731.P. Fax -0731.7 3290.DISTRICT –INDORE.54 - .4072636.NEAR RAU.aspx INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.
46 April-May Qty 4756 .0731.UK Quantity in mt. 87 AprilDecember Valu Qty e 4780.1 4756 . 46 2348.) Tel.4 Country report for grapes Table 2. 87 2519. 2363 96 .6 April-October Qty 4777. 23 April-August Qty 4776. 2363 96 .Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2. 23 2360. 19 AprilSeptember Qty 4776.DISTRICT –INDORE. 99 4777.4064557 .PIGDAMBER. 48 Value 2519. 39 Source: http://tradejunction. Fax -0731.10 Year 2009-2010 Country . ROAD. 19 2361.6 4780. 48 5025. Value in lakhs April-January Product FRESH GRAPES Total Qty 5025. 46 4755. 79 Value 2360.1 Value 2347.com/indexp/genReport. 01 2347.7 Value 2348. 79 4776.7 4756 .P.aspx#content INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.(M. 23 April-June Qty 4756 . 23 2360. 99 Value 2361. 46 Value 2346.55 - . 79 Value 2360. 79 4776.apeda. 01 April-April Qty 4755.NEAR RAU.B. 39 2346.4072636.
71 10157.47 13409.84 67735.84 1008606.5 54254.98 267887.8 12741.08 DAIRY PRODUCTS 45371.2 4225.45 OTHER FRESH FRUITS 177638.6 387126.36 684.33 130760.53 817.11 2006-07 PRODUCT Qty Value FLORICULTURE FLORICULTURE 42545.0731.01 GUARGUM 189304.37 77428.51 30452.89 1932855.3 Total 1267857.53 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES DRIED AND PRESERVED VEGETABLES 119270.52 6587.56 - .39 Total 2002857.98 950.9 206928.29 8908.29 170614.39 774849.DISTRICT –INDORE.28 42993.32 1014.88 14193.28 43086.29 505285.14 1296.B.57 207700.71 103577.81 50968.99 49336.94 42205.37 258567.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.38 WALNUTS 5062.8 96963.94 105407.83 112574.9 6831.53 125726.13 9329.01 16207.82 PULSES 255084.18 124627.67 31817.43 42754.84 365915.29 48226.6 246832.13 46397.4 14896.78 1724573.6 SHEEP / GOAT MEAT 5777.72 2007-08 Qty 36240.09 12158.47 70146. Fax -0731.48 350235.05 59880.64 2463.42 14212.17 MANGO PULP 156835.57 Qty 30798.79 22194.11 COCOA PRODUCTS 3412.47 12231.17 311756.89 48949.25 40861.4 Total 849257.57 95550.62 NATURAL HONEY 8135.11 123900.51 75298.32 14123.23 POULTRY PRODUCTS 711245.85 59614.5 316351.34 83703.49 54350.13 483478.73 FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SEEDS 8104.95 Total 50649.77 2008-09 Value 36881.85 245144.63 SWINE MEAT 1523.09 8403.06 884.41 11999.68 FRESH FRUITS & VEGETABLES FRESH ONIONS 1378373.82 1646790.45 33687.31 49641.2 JAGGERY AND CONFECTIONERY 455935.31 69415.2 297890.28 65269.19 1710.5 182752.84 43457.8 ANIMAL CASINGS 435.63 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.91 483970.53 39333.4072636.57 OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES 276824.37 917.47 6716.3 30997.65 79846.42 136880.61 147861.49 56152.4064557 .08 844881.53 2646267.65 54900.53 200482.2 59172.64 1057016.59 Value 34014.63 15587.34 8535.79 FRESH MANGOES 79060.96 44108.48 33856.91 OTHER PROCESSED FOODS GROUND NUTS 251428.91 110092.86 11803.6 243711.63 17071.5 Three year description of APEDA product Table 2.07 411856.21 173013.79 30192. ROAD.51 96281.65 CEREAL PREPRATIONS 111123.56 1467904.68 1245.47 78999.77 1823.P.72 857.NEAR RAU.64 211166.36 ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 50771.79 OTHER PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 318067.28 166752.6 43314.9 137179 54232.7 4979.69 712.9 139637.82 354978.PIGDAMBER.87 1670186.57 281068.09 48880.44 619.21 68020.85 87346.46 5696.55 86656.93 133898.72 1355246.47 865.22 MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS 77426.99 269587.76 31782.8 98086.97 256768.18 ANIMAL PRODUCTS BUFFALO MEAT 494506.3 321374.31 462749.2 47446.51 50582.69 512926.) Tel.95 FRESH GRAPES 85897.(M.21 4011.56 2408129.62 37790.17 116330.27 135962.65 PROCESSED MEAT 860.6 6091.23 691312.36 112579.
5 1484735.PIGDAMBER. RougeRibier.P.27 3228051.52 3999648.) Tel. U.98 168737.DISTRICT –INDORE. Crimson seedless.23 10907355.36 1045714.5 Kg /9 kg 0-1 °C 0-1 °C Variety Thompson Seedless Sharad Seedless Flame Seedless Packing Storage Temp.Germany Thompson seedless.79 947702. Berry Size: 18mm white Berry Size: 18mm black Berry Size: 18mm pink 4.05 41053.77 1516777.) Thompson seedless. Flame seedless. Fax -0731.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Total CEREALS BASMATI RICE NON BASMATI RICE WHEAT OTHER CEREALS MILLED PRODUCTS Total Grand Total 1139402.84 3535. Varieties grown in Maharashtra Manek chaman.99 46633. Emperor.86 5597331.com/indexp/exportstatement.89 424307.14 9994. Red globe. UK.77 2180594.722 MTs(2002-03) Availability December to April Major exports to Middle East.73 392057.(M.0731. ROAD.76 652314.33 237. Exotic.58 3629442. Christmas Varieties in demand internationally rose.83 MTs (2003-04) 70 – 80% (Approx.73 434458.73 5285916.41 145.B. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.63 1183355.93 14141299.27 279280.K.51 690204.57 - .81 777043.73 54684.aspx 2.12 740979.09 59925.95 3702191. Sharad seedless.22 72515.42 Source: http://tradejunction.61 399545.94 300232.6 EXPORT SPECIFICATIONS FOR GRAPES Table 2.apeda.43 1556411.4072636.34 3220200.43 23. Calmeria. nbsp.NEAR RAU.4064557 .21 730275. Fantasy seedless Sharad Seedless Total export from India Share of Maharashtra Export Specifications Countries Middle East Holland/Germany Berry Size: 15mm Colour:Berry Size: 16mm Colour: amber white/amber Berry Size: 15mm black Berry Size: 16mm black ----Berry Size: 16mm pink 1 Kg 4.88.8 1120. Holland.94 3187060.71 2433913.58 17451122.69 8133.95 9041.06 931879. Tas-a-Ganesh.5 6530112.52 9752245.12 Thompson Seedless Flame Seedless 26783.5 Kg /9kg 0-1 °C International Standards of Pesticide Residue Levels nbsp. Ruby seedless. Sonaka Area under crop in Maharashtra (35236 ha) Maharashtra’s Production (9.
02 0.00 0.01 0.50 0.01 0.msamb.50 0.00 0.4072636.02 1.00 2.10 0.10 1.01 0.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Max.4064557 .10 Insecticide/Pesticide Organochlorine Pesticides Aldrin Chlordane (cis & trans) Chlorothalonil DDT (all isomers) Dichlofluanid Dicofol Dieldrin Endosulfan (all isomers) Endrin Lindane HCH (alpha & beta) Heptachlor Organophosphorus Pesticides Acephate Azinphos-methl Chlorfenvinphos Chlorpyriphos methyl Drazinon Dichlorvos Dimerthoate Ehion Etrimphos Fenchlorphos Fenitrothion Malathion Profenophos 2-chlorophenol(metabolite) Methamidophos Methidathion Mevinphos Source : http://www.PIGDAMBER. ROAD.DISTRICT –INDORE.Europe ND ND 1.01 0.00 ND 10.58 - .50 ND 0.02 0.05 0. Fax -0731.(M.50 0.) Tel.0731.com/english/export/promotion/grapes. Permissible Limits(mgm/kg).00 ND 0.P.5 ND 0.NEAR RAU.htm INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.05 ND 0.B.
B.PIGDAMBER. ROAD. entails a total cost of Rs. To export table variety of grapes as well as the value added products like wine in a coordinated manner. The project in the first stage. National Horticulture Board. Fax -0731. Pune. It is also proposed to set up Maharashtra Grape Board (MGB). STERLING EXPORTS INC OM SHREE INTERNATIONAL GNT EXPORTS RAIEN TRADING CORPORATION NHC INDUSTRIES PVT.(M.4064557 .DISTRICT –INDORE. Satara and Ahmed Nagar.7 Agri Export Zone of India with reference to grapes Maharashtra is the largest grape producing state in the country. an autonomous development agency which will work as a facilitator to ensure a smooth and orderly development of the grape industry in the state.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.0731.4072636.) Tel. The rest of the expenditure will be borne by the State Government. agencies like APEDA.50 crore out of which 2.35 crore will come from various Central Govt.59 - . 3. It is expected that in the next Five years a total exports of more than Rs. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.P.8 Top 10 Exporters (FRESH GRAPES) • • • • • • • • • • MAHINDRA SHUBHLABH SERVICES LTD. Ministry of Food Processing Industries. 2. LTD. Solapur. ATHARVA INTERNATIONAL CHAND FRUIT COMPANY PRIVATE LTD BOMBAY EXPORTS FRESHTROP FRUITS LTD. 68 crores will take place. Ministry of Agriculture. Sangli. the Govt. of Maharashtra has put up a proposal for setting up of Agri Export Zone in encompassing districts of Nasik.NEAR RAU.
India produces many varieties of grapes.) Tel.PIGDAMBER. the water supply management is unsustainable.DISTRICT –INDORE. Weakness• • • • There is low in technology inputs in horticulture production.B.0731. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Propagation is mandatory. SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths• • • India is the largest producer of agro-product in the world.NEAR RAU.60 - .4064557 . Threats• So far the Indian grapes were not exported to the far countries.4072636. Income generation and employment support to more of the Indian population. Fax -0731. Due to variation in the monsoons.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 3. ROAD. Opportunities• • India will be able to supply grapes to the neighboring countries. so Indian grapes will have to face a cut throat competition. India has the ability to cater the continuous demand of grapes by the consumers.P.(M. Poor post harvest facilities for warehousing.
an expert said. 2008. India has tough competition from Italy.500 tons last season. Spain." said Mr S Dave. in some consignments has shown some signs of easing as UK and Sweden have started accepting Indian grapes by adhering to their own maximum residue level (MRL). is estimated to be around 45. But. which had come under a cloud following the presence of chlormequat. Director of Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA). which is the main destination for the Indian fruit.DISTRICT –INDORE.) Tel. while Germany and The Netherlands prescribed the amended limits in March. the export to EU.000 containers have been sent to Europe this year compared to 2. Grapes are harvested during February-April while whatever pesticides are to be sprayed are used 60-100 days before harvest and therefore it is difficult to conform to amended MRL norms in the middle of the season. – PTI. etc.P.PIGDAMBER. Argentina. Fax -0731.(M.4064557 .NEAR RAU. so it will require huge initial investment and so the Indian grape will be lacking in cost competitiveness. Mr Dave said exports were not affected as APEDA also made changes in the MRL after some of the countries changed that. 4. ROAD. However. a chemical residue. As each container carries 15 tons of grapes. "About 3.500 containers last year. China.000 tons compared to about 37. FINDINGS India's grapes export to EU rises by 20% despite restrictions India's grapes export to Europe is estimated to have jumped by 20 per cent during this season even though countries like Germany and The Netherlands changed the prescribed minimum residues level (MRL) midseason. Farmers in the grapes belt of Maharashtra are of the view that the changes to MRL in the mid-season are made by the developed countries to discourage imports and such changes act as non-tariff barriers.B.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • • India has to cover the world market as a sunrise nation in grapes. According to sources.0731. The deadlock over India’s grapes export to the European Union. in 2007-08 season. The European Union issued a separate MRL in its update in January. a big hurdle still remains from Germany and Netherlands .61 - .4072636. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. UK changed the MRL in December 2007 and issued further clarification in February this year. who are yet to clear grapes consignment from India because of safety concerns.
” an Apeda official said. Major findings of this research are as follows: • There are many other market for the export of grapes. most of the rejected containers are lying at Rotterdam ( Netherlands ) port.” a grape exporter from Pune told FE. Indian exporters say it is difficult to follow food safety guidelines in European Union as all membernations have their own rules.B. Trades sources said that there 98 types of pesticide residue whose presence in the grapes consignment need to be tested. ROAD.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Netherlands in one of the largest buyers of Indian grapes and officials feel that any loss of market could hurt overall fruit exports from the country.DISTRICT –INDORE.” a grape exporter said Maximum amount of grapes in India is exported from Maharashtra followed by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. The European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) in its latest safety study report stated that no acute consumer health risk is expected if table grapes with a mean chlormequat residue concentration of 1. India is aiming to increase its grapes exports to the EU to around 44. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.06 gm per kg are consumed. the 27-member European Union has not formulated any specific maximum residue level (MRL). “In the absence of any specific norms we have been following the default level of 0.000 tonne achieved last year because of poor supplies from Chile . exporters have been are yet to decide on whether any tests should be conducted on the grapes consignment. According to trade sources. “We are constantly in touch with EU officials and hope to find a solution to this problem shortly.P. In the case of chlormequat.62 - . The exporters are worried that time is running because of grape export period is only in the range of six to seven weeks. due the absence of coherent norms in the EU. Fax -0731.NEAR RAU.) Tel.4064557 . “We have already lost two weeks and any further delay would result in huge financial loss.0731.4072636.(M.000 tonne from 37. There are 140 farmers in Maharashtra registered for exports.05 gm per kg standard.PIGDAMBER. The maximum permissible level is 1 gm per kg in the country. However.
4072636.DISTRICT –INDORE.63 - . Export procedure of grapes by Mr. 5.P.0731.PIGDAMBER. Fax -0731. Ajay Choudhary.(M.) Tel. Institute of Management and Development. RELATED STUDIES Following are related studies: • • Export potential of India in agricultural product by Mr. India improving its quality of export as well as export. St Joseph college of commerce. ROAD. Merro Don Thomas.B.4064557 . Delhi INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • • There is involvement of tough competition with other European countries.NEAR RAU.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK 6.B. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.P.PIGDAMBER.4064557 . Fax -0731.4072636.DISTRICT –INDORE. Price and quality meter should match.0731. Due to increase demand of grapes in the global market.) Tel. There are many neighbour countries in which export can done.NEAR RAU. ROAD. productivity should increase.64 - . SUGGESTIONS Following are the suggestions brought from my research: • • • • • Warehousing facility should be improved.(M. Quality should improve which give positive result in the export performance.
For the survival of the grape industry in India. Diversification of uses as wine/juice and export of table grapes can ease the marketing problems.B. Currently more than 80 percent of the produce is used for table purposes.NEAR RAU. There is a need to diversify the uses of grapes. Maintenance of quality of table grapes by crop regulation is the priority consideration to increase exports. Soil and water salinity and drought are the impediments in this direction. but as cold storage facilities are currently inadequate there are frequent market gluts.4072636.4064557 .P. Future efforts are to be concentrated in this direction. efforts are needed to extend grape cultivation to newer areas.000 hectares with an annual production of 1.65 - . Since the highest productivity in grapes has been achieved. CONCLUSION Grape is cultivated over an area of 34.000. ROAD. for which suitable rootstocks are to be identified. Although.) Tel.PIGDAMBER. the returns per unit area of land are very high with grape cultivation.DISTRICT –INDORE.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 7. the produce should be quality and cost competitive.000 tonnes. The risk of losing a crop due to unprecedented changes in weather is also very high.0731. the area under grapes is not expanding fast owing to the high initial cost of establishing the vineyards and high recurring cost of production. Fax -0731. The major bulk of the produce is harvested in March-April.(M. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.
NEAR RAU.com/India%20Production/India_Production.htm http://www.PIGDAMBER.aspx? hscode=08061000&mids=.4064557 .wikipedia.com/indexp/genReport.cookeryonline.html http://www.php http://hubpages. ROAD.0731.com/indexp/product_description_32head.aspx http://tradejunction.com/hub/Health_Benefits_of_Grape Magazines: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.aspx?gcode=0205 http://tradejunction.) Tel.66 - .com/apedawebsite/ http://tradejunction.info/updates/grape-health.htm http://agricoop.B.aspx http://tradejunction.htm http://mn4h.org/wiki/Grape http://en. REFERENCE Websites: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • http://en.vegetarian-nutrition.com/india/news/eu-halts-grape-importsindia/392628/ http://apeda.4072636.apeda.in/hort/hortrevo5.org/wiki/List_of_grape_varieties http://www.(M.com/distribution/horticulture/DG1103.apeda.org/docrep/003/x6897e/x6897e06.apeda. Fax -0731.nic.business-standard.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 8.com/indexp/exportstatement.apeda.DISTRICT –INDORE.P.com/mealexperience/Grapes/Index.fao.&top_r=50&yr=ALL&hscode1=GRAPE http://www.wikipedia.
. 2009 Conservation Magazine.Nov. Alison Crowe. 22 2009 Publix magazine.4072636.(M. Fax -0731. 2009 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Nov.PIGDAMBER. ROAD.) Tel.67 - .4064557 . Mumbai April 22 2010 Winemaker..0731.DISTRICT –INDORE...P.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • • • • Business Standard.B..Dec.NEAR RAU.
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