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1. CONCEPTUAL FRAMWORK 1.1 INTRO DUCTION
Today India is the second largest producer of the fruits (45.5 Million tons) and Vegetables (90.8 Million tons ) in the world ,contributing 10.23%and 14.45%of the total world production of fruits and vegetables respectively .India has made a fairly good progress on horticulture Map of world with total annual production of The horticulture crops touching over 149 million tons India has been bestowed with wide range of climate and physio-geographical conditions and as such is most suitable for growing various kinds of horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers , nuts , spices and plantation crops. With the focused attention given to horticulture, there has been spectacular change in terms of adoption of new technologies, production and availability of horticulture products. Fruits and vegetables constitute around 10 per cent of the total agriculture production of the country. This sector offers enormous potential for export. According to FAO, the export of fruits from India in 2003-04 US $166 million and that of vegetables US $ 205 million .India’s export of fruits and vegetables is more concentrated towards Asian region. Asian region accounted for 75% of total fruits and vegetable export 2003-04.The export to European and American market is very less due to imposition of stringent quality measures. But in the last 3-4 year the export of fruits and vegetable Europe has been increasing with the adoption of Good Agriculture practices (GAP) by Indian farmer. Also the APEADA is taking active role in establishing many quality testing laboratories and adequate documentation protocol across the country to boost the export of perishables. Maharashtra is the one of the largest state in the production of fruits and vegetable contributing nineteen percent of the total fruit production in the country. The state produces around nine million tones of fruits having productivity of 16 MT per hectare of, which is fairly good when compared to country’s average Of 12 MT. it grows commodities like grapes, pomegranate, mango, sapota , oranges, lime, strawberry, jackfruits etc in large quantity .The state holds prestigious position in vegetable production contributing 5% of the production and stands 7 in the country. Total production of vegetables in Maharashtra is approximately 5 million tones. Because of close proximity to Mumbai port and metropolitan market .the state enjoys the comparative advantage in export as well as long distance
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557
Export Of Grapes From India To UK In certain commodities the state has occupied unique and prestigious position , e.g. mango ,pomegranate, grapes , onion. Highly perishable nature of his fruits and vegetable make their marketing system more costly and complex. Timely and procurement of fruits and vegetable in bulk is of immense importance for exporters. Transportation plays an important role in fruits and vegetable marketing. The exporter has to meet the specific qualitative and quantitative requirements of the importer. The packaging, residue testing, documentation and phyto sanitary certification has to be met in order To export. So establishing an efficient backward linkage is must for exporting fruits and vegetables. 1.1.1 PROPOSED PLAN FOR MAHARASHTRA • • During very first season (2008-09) 350 Containers of Grapes were to European Nations from Nashik District alone. .Other exports from Nashik District are Pomegranate, Onion, and Banana etc.
1.1.2 History The domestication of purple grapes originated in what is now southern Turkey. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the innovation of alcoholic drinks such as wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production. Later, the growing of grapes spread to Europe, North Africa, and eventually North America. Native purple grapes belonging to the Vitis genus proliferated in the wild across North America, and were a part of the diet of many North American Native Americans, but were considered by European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. The first Old World Vitis vinifera purple grapes were cultivated in California where Spain had established a series of monasteries along the coasts to supply their navies with oranges to prevent scurvy and convert natives. Grapes have always had a part in history. There are old greek troughs and coffins in the Getty Villa, and they show cherubs in tubs of grapes, making wine.
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557
Export Of Grapes From India To UK 188.8.131.52 Description Grapes grow in clusters of 6 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins which are responsible for the color of purple grapes.Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines. 184.108.40.206 Market Scenario Nasik district is the largest producer and export of Grapes in Maharashtra. The main growing are Dindori , Nasik ,Niphad, Pimpalgaon –Basvant and Chandwad. Export of grapes from nasik stands at 7613.63 MT during 2003-04. Usually very little quantity of export quality grapes comes to APMCs. Export grapes are usually Procured at the fare gate. Traders and exports go directly to farms 20-25 days before harvest and they fix a procurement price based on the grade. 220.127.116.11 Period of price fluctuation: Generally the price of grape depends on the production, harvesting period and demands in market of other part of India. Low price: Nov to Dec with the average price around Rs.7 to 9/kg Peak price: April-May with average price around Rs.12 to 15/kg In this market some variety always fetch good price. A general price for varieties can be given below: 18.104.22.168.1 Sangli: It is second largest grapes growing and exporting district in Maharastra. Export quality grapes won’t come to here. So exporters and traders go directly to farmer’s orchard. The important growing regions are Malegaon, Miraj, Nimni, Savlaj and Tasgaon. Nearly 250-300 containers of grapes will be exported this year from Sangli district alone. During last year (200809) the farm gate procurement price of export quality grapes fluctuated with the time like this. February end’s 35-40 /kg March15-30: Rs 50 / kg March 30 onwards Rs 60-65/kg
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557
Famous Indian medicine scholars. Nearly 80% of the production is Thompson seedless and 10-15% is Sharad and flame seedless. Indigenous varieties known as ‘Rangspay’.3. The prices of some important varieties are given below.3 Grape A grape is the non-climacteric fruit. that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. written during 1356-1220 BC. respectively. Ibn Batuta. Rest is from other varieties.4064557 -4- . the Nizam of Hyderabad in the early part of the 20th century. Fax -0731.NEAR RAU. From Delhi. reported to have seen flourishing vineyards in south India.2. Grape cultivation is one of the most remunerative farming enterprises in India.P. Orisa. mentioned the medicinal properties of grapes. ROAD. Grapes are also used in some kinds of confectionery.) Tel. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. vinegar. There are many Bihar and Bengal traders operating in this market.1. raisins. grape seed extracts. In this market grape price depends on variety of grape. Grapes can be eaten raw or used for making jam. resembling Vitis lanata and Vitis palmata grow wild in the northwestern Himalayan foothills. Sangli.0731. juice.1.(M. and Southern Indian states. Daulatabad. Distribution is mainly to Bihar. grape cultivation spread to different parts of the country. Madurai. ‘Shonltu White’ and ‘Shonltu Red’ are grown in Himachal Pradesh even today. and into Hyderabad province by HEH.B. Kautilya in his ‘Arthashastra’ written in the fourth century BC mentioned the type of land suitable for grape cultivation.Grapes arrival is from Solapur.2 Solapur Market: Solapur is also very big market for grapes . Salem and Hyderabad.PIGDAMBER. botanically a true berry. 1. Cultivated grapes are believed to have been introduced into the north of India by the Persian invaders in 1300 AD.4072636.DISTRICT –INDORE. Sasruta and Charaka in their medical treatises entitled ‘Sasruta Samhita’ and ‘Charaka Samhita’. wine. jelly.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1. Grape was also introduced in the south into Salem and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu by the Christian missionaries around 1832 AD. from where they were introduced into the south (Daulatabad in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra) during the historic event of changing the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad by King Mohammed-bin-Tughlak. a Moorish traveller who visited Daulatabad in 1430 AD. and grape seed oil. Native spp. and Baramati and from regions of Kolhapur surrounding Sangli. Bengal.
Fax -0731. 1. the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. the North American table and grape juice grapevines (including the concord cultivar).4072636. and north to Quebec. Native to the Eastern United States and Canada. ROAD. Modern packhouse facility with automatic forced air system for precooling is available in all the commercial production areas.B.4064557 -5- . unseeded. Indian grapes are successfully grown at and above 250 mean sea level. Vitis amurensis. Indian grapes come in varied characteristics namely coloured.P. large and small berries.(M. however.Extensive Residue Monitoring plan for monitoring the pesticide residues in grapes is implemented for consumer safety. Native to the entire Eastern U. used for jams and wine.Traceability system is maintained for the product tracking. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: • Vitis labrusca. sometimes used for wine. Vitis riparia.0731.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Grape (Vitis vinifera) is grown from temperate to warm regions.S.DISTRICT –INDORE.NEAR RAU. Vitis rotundifolia.1. a wild vine of North America.) Tel. hot and dry climate is ideal. Native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. the most important Asian species. seeded.PIGDAMBER. white. the muscadines.3.1 Grapevines Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera. sometimes used for winemaking and for jam. • • • INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.
P. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural".1.NEAR RAU.3.org/wiki/Grape According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).866 square kilometres of the world are dedicated to grapes. ROAD. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine.PIGDAMBER.B.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.2 Distribution and production Fig 1.0731.(M. 27% as fresh fruit. and 2% as dried fruit.) Tel.DISTRICT –INDORE. 75.4064557 -6- .wikipedia.4072636. The following table of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes for wine making: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year.1 Source: http://en. Fax -0731.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK
Table 1.1 Country Spain France Italy Turkey United States Iran Romania Portugal Argentina Australia Lebanon Area dedicated 11,750 km2 8,640 km2 8,270 km2 8,120 km2 4,150 km2 2,860 km2 2,480 km2 2,160 km2 2,080 km2 1,642 km2 1,122 km2
Top Ten Grapes Producers – 8 October 2009 Country Italy People's Republic of China United States France Spain Table:1.2 Turkey Iran Argentina Chile India World Production (Tonnes) 8,519,418 6,787,081 6,384,090 6,044,900 5,995,300 3,612,781 3,000,000 2,900,000 2,350,000 1,667,700 67,221,000 Footnote F F F F F F F F F F A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAOSTAT 2007, * = Unofficial/Semiofficial/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.B. ROAD,PIGDAMBER,NEAR RAU,DISTRICT –INDORE,(M.P.) Tel- 0731- 4072636, Fax -0731- 4064557
- Source: Food And Agricultural Organization7of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division
Export Of Grapes From India To UK Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grape There's no reliable statistics that breaks down grape production by variety. It is, however, believed that the most widely planted variety is Sultana, also known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 sq.km. (880,000 acres) dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Grenache, Tempranillo, and Chardonnay. 22.214.171.124 Table and wine grapes Commercially cultivated grapes can usually be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw (table grapes) or used to make wine (wine grapes). While almost all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera, table and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit (see below) with relatively thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller, usually seeded, and have relatively thick skins (a desirable characteristic in winemaking, since much of the aroma in wine comes from the skin). Wine grapes also tend to be very sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is approximately 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is usually around 15% sugar by weight. 126.96.36.199 Seedless grapes Seedlessness is a highly desirable subjective quality in table grape selection, and seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is, however, an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are currently more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Reliance and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of north-eastern United States and southern Ontario.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical content of grape seeds (see Health claims, below). 188.8.131.52 Raisins, currants and sultanas In most of Europe, dried grapes are referred to as "raisins" or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "Dried vine fruit" in official documents. A raisin is any dried grape. While raisin is a French loanword, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; grappe (from which the English grape is derived) refers to the bunch (as in une grappe de raisins). A currant is a dried Zante Black Corinth grape, the name being a corruption of the French raisin de Corinthe (Corinth grape). Currant has also come to refer to the blackcurrant and redcurrant, two berries unrelated to grapes. A sultana was originally a raisin made from a specific type of grape of Turkish origin, but the word is now applied to raisins made from common grapes and chemically treated to resemble the traditional sultana. 1.1.4 PRESENT STATUS OF GRAPE CULTIVATION IN THE COUNTRY Grape is grown under a variety of soil and climatic conditions in three distinct agro-climatic zones, namely, sub-tropical, hot tropical and mild tropical climatic regions in India. 184.108.40.206 Sub-tropical Region: This region covers the northwestern plains corresponding to 28° and 32° N latitude including Delhi; Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh; Hissar and Jind districts of Haryana; and Bhatinda, Ferozpur, Gurdaspur and Ludhiana districts of Punjab. Vines undergo dormancy and bud break starts in the first week of March while the rains arrive in the first week of June, and therefore, only 90-95 days are available from the initiation of growth to harvest. Consequently, ‘Perlette’ is the only early ripening variety grown in this region. Rain damage is a
Export Of Grapes From India To UK problem with Thompson Seedless in this region. Anab-e-Shahi. Gulberga districts of northern Karnataka lying between 15° and 20° N latitude. ROAD. Single pruning and a single harvest is the accepted practice here. Pune.1.2 Hot Tropical Region: This region covers Nashik. Berry growth is impaired and in certain locations pink blush sometimes develops on green berries due to temperatures that drop to a low of 8°C. Belgaum. Thompson Seedless and its clones (Tas-A-Ganesh. Gulabi (Syn.4.4. while the minimum is about 12°C.NEAR RAU. Ranga Reddy. and Bijapur.4064557 . 1. The major problems in this region are soil and water salinity and drought. Maximum temperatures in a year seldom exceed 36°C.B. Sharad Seedless and Flame Seedless are the varieties grown in this region. Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh and Coimbatore. Sangli. Solapur. two crops are harvested in a year. Vines do not undergo dormancy and double pruning and a single harvest is the general practice in this region. Fax -0731. 1. This is the major viticulture region accounting for 70 percent of the area under grapes in the country.) Tel. Isabella).(M. Latur and Osmanabad districts of Maharashtra.3 Mild Tropical Region: An area covered by 10° and 15° N latitude including Bangalore and Kolar districts of Karnataka.0731. and Madurai and Theni districts of Tamil Nadu fall in this region.1.P. Anab-e-Shahi. Mahbubnagar. Anantapur and Medak districts of Andhra Pradesh. respectively.PIGDAMBER. Principal varieties are Bangalore Blue (Syn. Maximum and minimum temperature is 42°C and 8°C.4072636. Muscat Hamburg). Except for Thompson Seedless.DISTRICT –INDORE. Satara. Vinifera varieties susceptible to mildew suffer losses due to unprecedented rains during flowering and fruit set in both hot and mild tropical regions. Area and production of different varieties of grapes in India is as follows: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Bagalkot. Thompson Seedless is grown only with limited success. and Bhokri.10 - . Hyderabad. Sonaka).
Some 20.000 1. Due to the non-prevalence of Phylloxera or nematodes. irrespective of the variety. seeded) Bangalore Blue Syn.A mutant of Kishmish Chorni (black.P.000 Approximately 85 percent of the total production. Isabella (black. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.1.000 20.000 34. ROAD. seedless) Sharad Seedless . is consumed fresh. Merlot.000 Production (t) 135.000 tonnes of Bangalore Blue. seeded) Bhokri (white. Tas-A-Ganesh.000 550. and 10.000.000 10.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Table 1.500 1.000 180. the ‘Dogridge’ rootstock is being employed to combat soil and water salinity problems.NEAR RAU. Muscat Hamburg (purple.000 30.000 15.htm Area (ha) 3. Cabernet Sauvignon. seedless) Gulabi Syn.B.500 500 500 1. 1.000 tonnes of Thompson Seedless and its mutants.0731.000 tonnes of Bangalore Blue are crushed to make juice. Fax -0731.5 PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL Vines are raised on their own roots in India. Pinot Noir and Uni Blanc are crushed to process into wine.11 - . Chenin Blanc. Sonaka and Manik Chaman are dried for raisins.000 1.3 Variety Anab-e-Shahi (white. rootstocks are not employed. seedless) Thomson Seedless and its mutants (white.fao.000 60.DISTRICT –INDORE. namely.000 22. seeded) Flame Seedless (red. seeded) Perlette (white.) Tel. About 120. Chardonnay. seedless) Total Source:http://www.4064557 .PIGDAMBER.(M. but in recent years.4072636.000 4.org/docrep/003/x6897e/x6897e06.
1 Land Preparation and Vine Establishment The land is tilled and laid into plots of 120 m x 180 m separated by 3 m wide roads.3. The desired scion variety is then grafted/budded on the rootstocks in the field by wedge grafting/chip budding. ROAD.1.P. Land within a plot is levelled perfectly to have a gradient of less than 1 percent in any direction to ensure uniform discharge of water through the emitters of drip irrigation systems. Wedge grafting is more common and the best time for the operation is September-October.1 Multiplication on Own Roots Grapes are multiplied exclusively by the rooting of hardwood cuttings.2 Raising on Rootstocks Hardwood cuttings of the ‘Dogridge’ rootstock are subjected to rooting. Well matured canes obtained in September/October are selected.3 Establishment Of Vineyards 1.4064557 . No Government agency is involved in the multiplication and supply of rooted cuttings. single superphosphate. 1. up to a height of 45 cm after 15 days exposure to sun.1.PIGDAMBER.1.NEAR RAU.1 percent is a practice to safeguard the cuttings against termite damage. Fax -0731.5. 1.1.5. They are closed with topsoil. The basal parts of cuttings are then dipped in a 2. 75 cm depth and 118 m length in a north-south direction with a gap of 3 m between trenches are opened with heavy machinery.B.(M.0731.000 ppm strong IBA solution for five minutes before planting. It is also a practice to plant the cuttings in situ when three to four cuttings prepared and treated as above are planted at each spot in the main field. while June-July is the suitable time for chip budding. Growers themselves obtain the hardwood cuttings from elite vineyards and raise their own nurseries. The fresh cuttings are soaked in running water for 24 hours to leach out the water-soluble rooting inhibitors. preferably in polybags of 15 x 25 cm.12 - .5. Usually. sulphate of potash and micro-nutrients. Rooted cuttings of this rootstock are planted in the main field during February-March. Soil drenching with chlorophyriphos 0.4072636. Trenches of 75 cm width.DISTRICT –INDORE.) Tel. Cuttings of 4 nodes each with a thickness of 8 to 10 mm are made from the selected canes. 50 kg of cattle INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. cattle manure.5.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1. The remaining gap is filled with a mixture of soil.
1.4 CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF VINEYARDS 1.3. This system is followed for moderately vigorous varieties like Thompson Seedless and other seedless cultivars in about 25-30 percent of the vineyard area in Maharashtra.DISTRICT –INDORE. this system is not popular. With three top wires and ‘T’ shaped supports.1 Training of Vines Many training systems are in vogue in India.3 Spacing Spacing generally varies with the varieties and soil fertility.1. Bower System: Owing to the high productive potential. But in varieties like Thompson Seedless and Tas-A-Ganesh where vine vigour and excessive foliage density affects the productivity adversely.) Tel. Yields in this system are less than the bower.0731. ROAD.1.NEAR RAU.5 kg of sulphate of potash and 50 g each of ZnSO 4 and FeSO4 are added to the soil for every running meter length of the trench.4072636. bower was a very popular system of training in the past.5. but the most popular are Bower. In very hot and dry places.13 - .Export Of Grapes From India To UK manure.3.4064557 .2 Planting Season The best season for planting the rooted cuttings of cultivated varieties in the main field is September-October whereas for rootstocks it is February-March. 1. Telephone System: T-trellis is used in this system of training.5. For vigorous varieties it is 6 m x 3 m or 4 m x 3 m and 3 m x 3 m or 3 m x 2 m for less vigorous varieties. sunburn of the berries and of the arms are experienced in summer.1.B. 0.P. 2. Telephone and Flat Roof Gable systems. Bangalore Blue and Gulabi.4. Fax -0731.5 kg of superphosphate.5.PIGDAMBER.(M. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. the trellis looks like a telephone pole and wires and hence the name.5. 1. 1. It is highly suited for vigorous varieties like Anab-e-Shahi.
B. 60 percent is given as inorganic INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4064557 .3 Application of Manure and Fertilizers As vineyard soils are either sandy loams or heavy clays.NEAR RAU. The annual dose is fixed based on the petiole analysis carried out at 45 days after spur pruning. Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.0731. In the mild tropical region. In the sub-tropical region.(M. While 40 percent of the annual dose is given through organic sources. an inter-connected Y trellis forming a flat roof gable is being adopted.) Tel.4072636.5. As a result.PIGDAMBER. In hot tropical regions.1.14 - .4. The bunches are protected from direct sunlight and well exposed to sprays of pesticides. ROAD. while 660:880:660 kg are applied for heavy clay soils.DISTRICT –INDORE.4. this system is gaining popularity among the growers in Maharashtra. vines are pruned twice but only one crop is harvested. vines are pruned only once in December and the crop is harvested once. This system is particularly followed for vigorous vines (vines grafted on rootstocks).1.P. vines are pruned twice and the crop is harvested twice.2 Pruning of Vines Three distinct pruning practices are in vogue in relation to cropping in the three grape growing regions of the country. Fax -0731. pruning is done at any time of the year. the usage of organic manure has assumed high importance in India. In varieties like Gulabi and Bangalore Blue. P2O5 and K2O per hectare is followed in light sandy soils. 1. The number of nodes retained on a cane varies with the variety and cane thickness. The clusters hang within the reach of the worker of an average height. There is no scope to prune earlier than October and later than November due to unfavourable weather conditions. A standard dose of 500:500:1000 kg of N. five crops are harvested every two years. 1.5. which are fairly resistant to rain damage and in which fruit bud differentiation is not impaired by cloudy weather and rains. Half of the canes are pruned to renewal spurs and the rest to fruiting canes (3-4 nodes for Perlette). Owing to these advantages. All canes in a vine are pruned back to single node spurs in March-May to develop canes and the canes are forward pruned in October-November for fruiting.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Flat Roof Gable System: Combining the advantage of bower and the extended Y systems and eliminating their disadvantages.
mainly glyphosate at about 2.1.05 percent or malathion at 0.B. Damaged buds fail to sprout.0 kg/ha or paraquat at about 7. Calcium ammonium nitrate is usually not used.05 percent. Such berries are not suitable for marketing.NEAR RAU.8 as the crop factor. flea beetles.5.15 percent.4. Flea beetles: The adult beetles scrape the sprouting buds and eat them up completely after each pruning. Within the rows.PIGDAMBER.5 kg/ha is sprayed in fully grown vineyards. Recently application of soluble fertilizers through drip irrigation is picking up.1.4064557 . 50 percent of P2O5 and 33 percent 1. Thrips: Thrips attack the ovaries of flowers and newly set berries and suck sap from them.4 Weeding Weeds between the rows of vines are removed mechanically by tractor drawn implements.5.1 percent or phosalone at 0. Water is applied at different rates at different stages of vine growth and berry development. 1. quinolphos at 0. 1.4072636.5. phosalone at 0.05 percent.(M. Sometimes the post-emergent weedicides.125 percent. Thrips are effectively controlled by spraying phosphamidon at 0. mealy bugs and leaf hoppers. Sulphate of potash is the only source of potash used in place of muriate.DISTRICT –INDORE.4.6 Pests and their Management The important pests of grapes in India are. dichlorvas at 0. Scab formation on the berry surface is also due to thrip damage to the ovaries/young berries.0731.4. irrigation is essential. Less than 10 percent of the vineyard areas are surface irrigated. Fax -0731. ROAD. while the rest is irrigated by drip systems. thrips.1. 40 percent of N. carbaryl at 0.05 percent are sprayed from the fourth day until the emergence of leaves. particularly in heavy clay soils.Export Of Grapes From India To UK fertilizer.15 - . The affected berries develop a corky layer and become brown on maturity. Water requirement is calculated based on the pan evaporation using 0. weeds are manually hoed and removed.) Tel. Prophylactic sprays of insecticides against thrips are given once in five days from the initiation of bloom to berry set.5 Supplementary Irrigation Since grapes are grown in areas where the evapotranspiration exceeds the precipitation. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.P. Insecticides like carbaryl at 0.05 percent.
ii) Spray only dichlorvas at 0. Anthracnose is prevalent in all grape growing regions of the country.05 percent are sprayed to control this pest.1 percent mixed with neem oil 0.PIGDAMBER. Leaf hoppers: This pest has assumed serious proportions in all grape growing regions of India in recent years. 1. Carbaryl at 0. It is better to release a mixed population of grubs and adults rather than only adults. Mealy bug infected bunches are unfit for marketing. phosalone at 0.05 percent or quinalphos at 0.1 percent are used to control this disease. A mixture of quinalphos at 0. iii) Release cryptolaemus montrozieri beetles at 8.4072636. Fax -0731.16 - . Bordeaux mixture at 0. young leaves.DISTRICT –INDORE. The adults and young nymphs of hoppers suck sap exclusively from the lower side of the leaves.2 percent or tridemorph at 0.25 percent or carbendazim at 0.1 percent only is effective on the adults. flowers and young berries.000-10.05 percent is more effective on the nymphs while tridemorph at 0. downy mildew.5.4. Alternaria is also becoming a serious pathogen. Mealy bugs are hard-to-kill insects and the package of practices for their control in India is as follows: i) Avoid spraying broad-spectrum insecticides particularly synthetic pyrethroids. The disease is characterized by small light brown or greyish black lesions on tender shoots.8 percent. They excrete honey on leaves and berries and sooty mold develops on the honey.7 Diseases and their Management The important grape diseases are anthracnose.15 percent.) Tel. copper oxychloride at 0.05 percent and phosalone at 0.(M.NEAR RAU.1.1 percent. ROAD. powdery mildew and bacterial leaf spot. Yield losses can be up to 50 percent due to mealy bug damage. Nymphs and adults suck sap from the tender shoots resulting in crinkling and stunting of the new shoots. fenitrothion at 0.04 percent.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Mealy Bugs: Mealy bugs are the most serious and problematic pests of grapes in India.0731.4064557 .B. In recent years.000 per hectare when the berries start softening. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.P.
Streptocyclin at 500 ppm is used as a prophylactic spray.05 percent).2 percent) are used against this disease. 1.4. The symptoms appear as minute water soaked spots on the lower surface of the leaves.4064557 . shoots and berries.2 percent.PIGDAMBER.NEAR RAU.1. copper oxychloride at 0. Mancozeb at 0.04 percent.4072636.0731. Salinity injury is common in Maharashtra and north Karnataka. young shoots and immature berries. Other physiological disorders are cane immaturity.8 percent or copper oxychloride at 0.2 percent) or Phosethyl-Al (aliettle at 0. but also attacks the flower clusters and young fruits.9 Quality Improvement INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Powdery mildew is controlled easily by wettable Sulphur formulations. blossom-end rot.15 percent is used to check its spread. pink berry syndrome. while Bordeaux mixture at 0. ROAD. A wide range of fungicides. metalaxyl (Ridomil Mz at 0. shot berries. Calaxin at 0.P. especially along the main and lateral veins. Fax -0731. Karathane EC at 0.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Downy mildew is the most devastating disease of grapes in the tropical region of the country.07 percent.1 percent) and Penconazol (Topas at 0. The losses are very high when it attacks the clusters before fruit set. Severely infected leaves give a blighted appearance.5. berry cracking and rotting. The disease mainly appears on the leaves. cluster tip wilting. namely.8 Physiological Disorders Physiological disorders associated with high temperature and low atmospheric humidity in the hot tropical region are dead arm and trunk splitting. Triademifon (Bayleton at 0.B. Bacteria infects leaves. The eco-physiological disorders are ‘coulure’.) Tel.1. water berries. 1.025 percent) are used to control this disease. uneven ripening and post-harvest berry drop.4. Myclobutanil (Systhane at 0.DISTRICT –INDORE. Mostly these spots coalesce and form larger patches.2 percent.5. dry and drop down. Entire clusters decay. The disease is characterized by the presence of white powdery (ash like) coating in patches on both sides of the leaves. It is next in importance to downy mildew in its devastating severity.(M. Powdery mildew is prevalent in all the grape growing regions. Properly neutralized Bordeaux mixture at 1 percent.17 - .
Rachides of the clusters are trimmed to retain 8-10. Approximately 90-120 berries are retained per cluster depending upon the number of leaves available to nourish it at 8-10 berries per every leaf depending on its size. depending on the number of leaves available per cluster. Period of harvest and yield of different varieties is given below.P. Increasing Berry Size: Manual means are used to supplement chemical thinning to ensure adequate berry thinning and improve the quality of grapes.B. ROAD.4072636.PIGDAMBER.0731. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Grape is harvested almost all the year round. Girdling is done at 4-5 mm diameter of the berries. clusters are dipped in a mixture of 10 ppm BA + 25 ppm GA or 2 ppm CPPU + 25 ppm GA or 1 ppm brassinosteroid + 25 ppm GA instead of GA alone at these two stages. The width and depth of girdling are 1-1. while girdling will ensure a TSS content of 20°B. Production of Loose Clusters: Pre-bloom GA sprays of 10 ppm and 15 ppm are given respectively on the 11th to 14th day after bud break for cluster elongation.18 - . When berry diameter is to be increased to more than 16 mm.1.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Shoot and Cluster Thinning: Only one or two clusters are retained per cane depending upon the density of the latter. Fax -0731. Clusters are dipped in GA solution of 40-50 ppm concentration once at 3-4 mm size of the berries and again at 7-8 mm size.(M. individual shoot length is encouraged rather than the total canopy size for preventing sunburn of the berries. 1. Irrespective of the number of clusters.Increasing the TSS Content: Berry thinning and cluster thinning to maintain adequate leaf/fruit ratio (5 cm2).5 mm.NEAR RAU. one or more varieties are always available at any given time of the year.6 HARVESTING AND YIELDS Approximately one million tonnes of grapes are harvested annually in India.DISTRICT –INDORE. berry size and crispiness are increased by girdling. Clusters are dipped in GA solution of 30-40 ppm when 10-20 percent of the flowers open in each cluster for berry thinning. If not all the varieties. In addition to the treatment with growth regulators. only the apical two or three shoots are retained. In vines trained to the flat roof gable.4064557 .) Tel.
7.) Tel. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. mainly of Anab-e-Shahi. However. and more than 70 percent of the total production is harvested in March-April. June-December June January-April Source:http://www.4064557 . particularly in the Hyderabad region. Therefore. Fax -0731.4072636.1.htm However. Thompson Seedless and its clones. July.org/docrep/003/x6897e/x6897e06.DISTRICT –INDORE.(M. is harvested during March-April from the hot tropical region. the major proportion of produce. 1. but the cold storage facilities are inadequate. which contributes more than 70 percent of the total harvest.19 - . ROAD. Yields as high as 100 t/ha in Anab-e-Shahi and 75 t/ha in Thompson Seedless were recorded in this region.NEAR RAU.4 Variety Yield (t/ha) Period of Harvest Average Potential 45 90 60 50 50 50 50 February-May.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Table 1. MARKETING More than 80 percent of the total production is consumed as table grapes in India.PIGDAMBER. quality of grapes is usually poor as a result of high yields. market gluts and fall of prices of grapes in March-April are common. November- Anab-e-Shahi Bangalore Blue 40 Bhokri 30 Gulabi 30 Perlette 40 Thompson Seedless and other seedless 25 varieties December January-March.P. June-December November-December. June-July January-March.B.0731. The productivity of grapes in India is very high.fao.
b) Technologies to achieve high productivity are currently available.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Approximately. These agencies have established their own facilities for pre-cooling and cold storage in the vicinity of major production sites.1. with an average yield of 30 t/ha.PIGDAMBER.0731.000 t) of fresh grapes are exported to the Middle East and European countries.(M. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. a) Sustaining productivity and minimizing risks in grape cultivation is possible because of the availability of a variety of agro-climatic regions suitable for grape cultivation for table.B. b) High recurring costs in vineyard management. 2.4064557 . d) Technologies to produce export quality grapes and quality raisins are available.8. Fax -0731. The rest of the produce is marketed within the country.5 percent (22.DISTRICT –INDORE. ROAD..20 - . Grower Exporters. Growers’ Cooperatives and the Trader exporters.1.) Tel. the area under grapes is confined to only 34.4072636. 1. c) Narrow variety base and lack of diversity in utilization of the germplasm available in grape growing countries.8.NEAR RAU. Grapes are exported through three different agencies viz.000 hectares due to the following constraints. raisin and wine grapes. 1. POTENTIAL FOR GRAPE PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT India has the distinction of achieving the highest productivity in grapes in the world. a) Heavy initial investment for establishing a vineyard.P. c) Scope for double cropping in certain regions and harvesting round the year in certain varieties is practically feasible.1 CONSTRAINTS IN GRAPE PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT Although grape cultivation is considered as highly remunerative.
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.0731. e) Soil and water salinity in Maharashtra and drought in the hot tropical areas.(M. f) Short period available for ripening in the north.NEAR RAU. h) Wine is not a popular drink at present.1.DISTRICT –INDORE.21 - . c) Promote and support the export of fresh grapes by training the growers and providing soft loans and subsidies for pre-cooling and cold storage facilities. Research on grapes is carried out by the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) Institutes and State Agricultural Universities at different centres under the All India Coordinated Research Project on Grapes.B.9 GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND PLANS FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF GRAPES The Government of India is supporting the grape industry of the country in the following ways: a) Encourage and support the farmers for establishing the vineyards and installing drip irrigation systems by providing soft loans and subsidies. Fax -0731. g) Very low proportion of export quality grapes. Maharashtra is the focal point for conducting and coordinating the research activities on grapes throughout the country.) Tel.4064557 .Export Of Grapes From India To UK d) High risk of losing the crop due to unprecedented changes in weather.PIGDAMBER.P. b) Provide research support to sustain the productivity of grapes under adverse situations. The National Research Centre for Grapes (ICAR) located at Pune.4072636. i) Marketing problems in table grapes. 1. ROAD.
g.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1. researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat.22 - . nitric oxide (endothelium-derived relaxing factor) • • Although adoption of wine consumption is not recommended by some health authorities. may confer health benefits.2 Resveratrol Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol (a polyphenol antioxidant). such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men.10 Health claims 1.1 French Paradox Comparing diets among Western countries. Protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol. a significant volume of research indicates moderate consumption. Fax -0731.1.) Tel.B. 1. heart disease.(M.PIGDAMBER. including reduced platelet aggregation and vasodilation.4064557 .. polyphenols (e. viral infections and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. ROAD. degenerative nerve disease. resveratrol bears a significant transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.P. Emerging evidence is that wine polyphenols like resveratrol provide physiological benefit whereas alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system.0731.1. In laboratory studies. have been positively linked to inhibiting any cancer. surprisingly the incidence of heart disease remains low in France. a phenomenon named the French Paradox and thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine.10.1.NEAR RAU. such as: • Alteration of molecular mechanisms in blood vessels. reducing susceptibility to vascular damage Decreased activity of angiotensin.DISTRICT –INDORE.10. a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure Increased production of the vasodilator hormone.4072636. Apart from potential benefits of alcohol itself. resveratrol) mainly in the grape skin provide other suspected health benefits.
Resveratrol is found in wide amounts among grape varieties.23 - . Fax -0731.NEAR RAU. resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties. primarily in their skins and seeds which.10.4072636.1) Source: http://en.Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.1. in muscadine grapes.org/wiki/Grape INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.) Tel. Resveratrol is the subject of several human clinical trials.wikipedia. 1. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets.0731. and prevent age-related heart failure. skeletal muscle and brain.B.DISTRICT –INDORE. have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp.4064557 .PIGDAMBER.3 Anthocyanins and other phenolics( fig 1. Synthesized by many plants. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging.Export Of Grapes From India To UK of calorie restriction in heart. among which the most advanced is a one year dietary regimen in a Phase III study of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease.(M. ROAD.P.
) Tel. these seed constituents display inhibitory activities against several experimental disease models.4064557 .24 - . Phenolic content of grape skin varies with cultivar.DISTRICT –INDORE. is higher in purple varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in purple grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin. laricitrin and laricitrin 3-O-galactoside are also found in purple grape but absent in white grape 1. ellagic acid. such as fungal infections. Wines produced from muscadine grapes may contain more than 40 mg/L. a white wine contains lower phenolic contents because it is fermented after removal of skins. ROAD.8 mg/L. geographic origin.NEAR RAU.B. Total phenolic content. because it is fermented with the skins.4 Seed constituents Since the 1980s.Ordinary non-muscadine red wine contains between 0. It is these anthocyanins that are attracting the efforts of scientists to define their properties for human health. ellagic acid and not resveratrol is the major phenolic in muscadine grapes.1. kaempferol. allowing the wine to absorb the resveratrol. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Together with tannins. depending on the grape variety. syringetin 3-O-galactoside. climate. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content. an index of dietary antioxidant strength.g. By contrast. heart failure and other disorders of oxidative stress.PIGDAMBER..2 and 5. and cultivation practices or exposure to diseases. an exceptional phenolic content. The flavonols syringetin. Fax -0731. Contrary to previous results. catechins) are the more abundant phenolic in white varieties.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Anthocyanins tend to be the main polyphenolics in purple grapes whereas flavan-3-ols (e. and only red wine is fermented with skins.(M. Red wine offers health benefits more so than white because many beneficial compounds are present in grape skin.P.10. soil composition.0731.4072636. biochemical and medical studies have demonstrated significant antioxidant properties of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins. myricetin. and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics. quercetin. In muscadine skins. including cancer.
phytosterols. loss of physical performance and mental acuity during aging and hypertension in humans. fruit set. From a winemaking perspective. Fax -0731.5 Concord grape juice Commercial juice products from Concord grapes have been applied in medical research studies. leaf fall and dormancyreacting if need be with the use of viticultural practices like canopy management. This bleeding occurs when the INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.1.NEAR RAU. The stages of the annual growth cycle usually become observable within the first year of a vine's life.4072636. 1. In the Northern Hemisphere.B. vine training and the use of agrochemicals.0731.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Grape seed oil from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and skincare products for many perceived health benefits. veraison. each step in the process plays a vital role in the development of grapes with ideal characteristics for making wine.25 - .PIGDAMBER.11 Annual growth cycle of grapevines The annual growth cycle of grapevines is the process that takes place in the vineyard each year. vine disease and pests in facilitating or impeding the vines progression from bud break. Viticulturalists and vineyard managers monitor the effect of climate. this stage begins around March while in the Southern Hemisphere it begins around September when daily temperatures begin to surpass 10 °C (50 °F). showing potential benefits against the onset stage of cancer. irrigation.DISTRICT –INDORE.1.P. Grape seed oil is notable for its high contents of tocopherols (vitamin E). and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid.(M.1. harvesting.10.) Tel.11. The amount of time spent at each stage of the growth cycle depends on a number of factors-most notably the type of climate (warm or cool) and the characteristics of the grape variety. oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. ROAD. the start of this cycle is signaled by a "bleeding" of the vine. beginning with bud break in the spring and culminating in leaf fall in autumn followed by winter dormancy.1 Bud break The grape starts its annual growth cycle in the spring with bud break. flowering. 1. If the vine had been pruned during the winter.4064557 . platelet aggregation and other risk factors of atherosclerosis. 1.
hormones.P. up from the root system of the vine and it is expelled from the cuts (or "wounds") left over from pruning the vine. In warm climates. the young shoots are very vulnerable to frost damage with vineyard managers going to great lengths protect the fragile shoots should temperature dramatically drop below freezing.) Tel. where temperatures can reach above 10 °C (50 °F) in mid-winter.(M. ROAD. containing a low concentration of organic acids.Export Of Grapes From India To UK soil begins to warm and osmotic forces pushes water.4064557 .4072636.11. Flowering occurs when average daily temperatures stay between 15–20 °C (59–68 °F) which in the Northern Hemisphere wine regions is generally around May and for the Southern Hemisphere regions around November. During this period a single vine can "bleed" up to 5 litres (1. These buds appear in the summer of previous growth cycle green and covered in scales. The energy to facilitate this growth comes from reserves of carbohydrate stored in roots and wood of the vine from the last growth cycle.PIGDAMBER.B.DISTRICT –INDORE. 40-80 days after bud break the process of flowering begins with small flower clusters appearing on the tips of the young shoots looking like buttons. after about 4 weeks the growth of the shoots starts to rapidly accelerate with the shoots growing in length an average of 3 cm (1 in) a day. A few weeks after the initial clusters appears. producing the energy to accelerate growth. This can include setting up heaters or wind circulators in the vineyard to keep cold air from settling on the vines.0731. minerals and sugars. Tiny buds on the vine start to swell and eventually shoots begin to grow from the buds. the flowers start to grow in size INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Inside the buds contain usually three primordial shoots. In temperate climates. This is a potential viticultural hazard in places like the Margaret River region of Western Australia where warm currents from the Indian Ocean can coax Chardonnay vines to prematurely bud in the midwinter month of July.1. Fax -0731. Eventually the shoots sprout tiny leaves that can begin the process of photosynthesis.[ 1. After bud break.3 gallons) of water. Buds are the small part of the vine that rest between the vine's stem and the petiole (leaf stem).NEAR RAU.2 Flowering Depending on temperatures. During winter dormancy they turn brown until the spring when the vine begins the process of bud break and the first sign of green in the vineyard emerges in the form of tiny shoots.26 - . some early budding varieties (such as Chardonnay) can be at risk of premature bud break.
4064557 .P. It is during this time when the buds that will become next years crops begin to form. with the unfertilized flowers eventually falling off the vine.It is during this stage of flowering that the pollination and fertilization of the grapevine takes place with the resulting product being a grape berry. causing many flowers not to be fertilize and produce a group.  This stage is very critical for wine production since it determines the potential crop yield. with the process being mostly self contained within the vine. with both male stamens and female ovaries.3 Fruit set The stage of fruit set follows flowering almost immediately. Coulure occurs when there is an imbalance of carbohydrate levels in the vine tissues and some berries fail to set or simply fall off the bunch.11. The percentage of fertilized flowers averages around 30 but can get as high as 60 or be much lower. Millerandage occurs when some fertilized flowers do not form seeds but only small berry clusters. Shortly after the calyptra is shed. In the Northern Hemisphere. being able to self-pollinate. Wind and insects generally play only a small role in aiding pollination. liberating the pollen from the anthers of the stamen. encapsulating the seed.0731. Varieties like Grenache and Malbec are prone to this abnormal fruit set.Export Of Grapes From India To UK with individual flowers becoming observable. wind & rain) can severely affect the flowering process. the pollen fertilizes the ovary which produces seeds as the flower begins the transformation into a grape berry. Climate and the health of the vine play an important role with low humidity.(M. Grape berry size depends on the number of seeds so berries with no seeds will be significantly INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.DISTRICT –INDORE. high temperatures and water stress having the potential of severely reducing the amount flowers that get fertilized.27 - . this normally takes place in May and in the Southern Hemisphere in November. containing 1-4 seeds.1. At the beginning of the flowering process the only part that is visible is the fused cap of petals known as the calyptra. During the process of fertilization. when the fertilized flower begins to develop a seed and grape berry to protect the seed.NEAR RAU. Detrimental weather (cold.B. Most Vitis vinifera grape vines are hermaphroditic. ROAD.PIGDAMBER. Not every flower on the vine gets fertilized. 1. But cross-pollination between vine species is possible as in the cases of the origins of several grape varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon (a cross pollination of Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon blanc) and Petite Sirah (a cross of Syrah and Peloursin). Fax -0731.) Tel.4072636.
Fax -0731.B.(M. Typically the berries and clusters that are most exposed to warmth. which houses its seedling offspring. They begin to grow to about half their final size when they enter the stage of veraison. During this period the cane of the vine starts to ripen as well changing from green and INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. They have very little sugar and are high in organic acids. This color changing is due to the chlorophyll in the berry skin being replaced by anthocyanins (red wine grapes) and carotenoids (white wine grapes).11.4072636.NEAR RAU.4064557 .PIGDAMBER. This stage signals the beginning of the ripening process and normally takes places around 40-50 days after fruit set.28 - .1.4 Veraison Following fruit set. This can be caused by vine disease. or by a boron deficiency in the vine. Gewürztraminer and the Chardonnay clones IA and Mendoza are both prone to millerandage. the grape berries are green and hard to the touch.0731. There are some factors in the vineyards that can control the onset of veraison.P. During this stage the colors of the grape take form-red/black or yellow/green depending on the grape varieties. so that they may have a better chance of survival.) Tel. In a process known as engustment. very vigorous wines with lots of leaf shading for photosynthesis and water supply will delay the start of veraison due to the vines energies being directed towards continued shoot growth of new buds. 1. This is because the vine is biologically programmed to channel all its energies and resources into the berries. Within six days of the start of veraison.Export Of Grapes From India To UK smaller than berries containing seeds. limited water stress and canopy management that creates a high "leaf to fruit" ratio can encourage veraison. In the Northern Hemisphere this will be around the end of July and into August and between the end of January into February for the Southern Hemisphere. the berries start to soften as they build up sugars. Conversely. it is considered ideal to have an earlier veraison. on the outer extents of the canopy. For the production of high quality wine. ROAD. The onset of veraison does not occur uniformly among all berries. undergo veraison first with the berries and clusters closer to the trunk and under the canopy shade undergoing it last. such as fanleaf. On one cluster there maybe berries of various sizes which can create problems during winemaking due to the varying "skin to pulp" ratio among the grapes.DISTRICT –INDORE. the berries begin to grow dramatically as they accumulate glucose and fructose and acids begin to fall.
sugars and pH increase as acids (such as malic acid) decrease.29 - . Following the harvest.5 After harvest In the vineyard.(M. Varieties: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. 1.P. the vines continues the process of photosynthesis.12 List of grape varieties This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes.4072636. 1.DISTRICT –INDORE. whether used for wine. At that point the chlorophyll in the leaves begin to break down and the leaves change color from green to yellow. the cycle begins again.4064557 . currant. The time of harvest depends on a variety of factors-most notably the subjective determination of ripeness.11. The following spring. The balance of all these factors contributes to when a winemaker or vineyard manager decides that it is time to harvest. the term variety has become so entrenched in viticulture that any change to usage of the term cultivar is unlikely.0731. because they are propagated by cuttings and may have unstable reproductive properties. Tannins and other phenolics also develop which can affect the flavors and aromas in the resulting wine. It will continue doing this until an appropriate level of reserves have been stored.PIGDAMBER. However. Fax -0731. creating carbohydrate reserves to store in the vine's roots and trunks.1.NEAR RAU.B. the antepenultimate event is the harvest in which the grapes are removed from the vine and transported to the winery to begin the wine making process. fresh or dried (raisin. ROAD. sultana). Following the first frost the leaves begin to fall as the vine starts to enter its winter dormancy period. In the Northern Hemisphere this is generally between September and October while in the Southern Hemisphere it is generally between February and April. The vines begins to divert some of its energy production into its reserves in preparation for its next growth cycle.) Tel. or eating as a table grape.Export Of Grapes From India To UK springing to brown and hard. As the grape ripens on the vines.1. The term "grape varieties" actually refers to cultivars rather than botanical varieties according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The threat of detrimental weather and vine diseases (such as grey rot) can also play a role in the time table.
UAE. The total production of grapes in India is 1. Germany. Fax -0731.5 Source: http://en. Coloured seeded Coloured seedless White seeded White seedless Table.14 India Facts and Figures : Grape is one of the important fruit covering an area of 60.Export Of Grapes From India To UK More than 20 varieties are under cultivation in India. Bangladesh. Karnataka. US.1. Argentina etc. UK.4064557 .1. Dilkhush (clone of Anab-e-Shahi) Perlette. Pusa Seedless. Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.P.4072636. Spain. only a dozen are commercially grown.30% of the total area.wikipedia. China.30 - . 1. western Uttar Pradesh. ROAD.DISTRICT –INDORE. Thompson Seedless.546 thousand MT. Sonaka and Manik Chaman INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Andhra Pradesh.1.org/wiki/Grape Currently.) Tel. However. Bangalore Blue occupies approximately 15% of the total area while Anab-e-Shahi and Dilkhush (15%).16 Major Competitor: Italy.15 Major Export Destinations (2007-08) : Netherlands. France.13 Areas of Cultivation : Major grape-growing states are Maharashtra.83 crores.1.B. Thompson Seedless is the ruling grape variety occupying 55% of the area with its clones. Perlette (5%) and Gulabi and Bhokri together (5%).NEAR RAU.PIGDAMBER.1. Tamil Nadu. and the north-western region covering Punjab. Sharad Seedless (5%).0731. Maharashta ranks first in terms of production accounting for more than 75% of total production and highest productivity in the country. Bangalore Blue. 1.2 thousand hectares occupying 1. 1. They can be grouped under following 4 categories based on colour and seeds. Haryana.(M. and its clones Tas-A-Ganesh. The total grape export from India during the year 2007-08 season was 96963 MT worth Rs 317. Gulabi (Muscat) Beauty Seedless and Sharad Seedless Anab-e-Shahi. 1.
P. ROAD. Fax -0731.DISTRICT –INDORE.NEAR RAU.31 - .(M.0731.1.PIGDAMBER.4064557 .1.17 COUNTRY PROFILE United Kingdom INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.) Tel.B.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.4072636.
31.2 million. Manchester.B. Roman Catholic.1. Major languages: English.1. Glasgow.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Fig.(M. industry--18. Leeds. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.1Geography Area: 243. 50% meadow and pasture. 10% forests and woodland..25 million): Services--80.2 Source: http://en. Fax -0731. Sheffield.17.4%. Other cities--Birmingham. South Asian. partly statutes.4072636.) Tel. Liverpool.). Life expectancy (2009 est.0 years. Belfast. Climate: Generally mild and temperate.wikipedia. Adjective--British. Scottish Gaelic. Irish Gaelic.32 - . Bristol.17. 1% inland water. agriculture--1.85/1.1. Land use: 25% arable. Literacy--99%. 12% waste or urban.000 sq. total 79. Annual population growth rate (2010 est.): 62. 1.000. Health: Infant mortality rate (2009 est. Welsh. Education: Years compulsory--12. km. Population (2010 est.)--males 76. Constitution: Unwritten.0731.PIGDAMBER.56 million).1.4%. 1.): 0. slightly smaller than Oregon. mi.4064557 .NEAR RAU.000 sq.P.1. 7% forested.17. Major ethnic groups: British. Work force (2009. Church of Scotland (Presbyterian).1.2 People Nationality: Noun--Briton(s).. Muslim. (93.DISTRICT –INDORE. weather is subject to frequent changes but to few extremes of temperature. about 7. ROAD. partly common law and practice. 19% other.3 Government Type: Constitutional monarchy. females 81.)--4. 46% meadows and pastures.6 yrs. West Indian.org/wiki/Grape PROFILE 1.7%. Bradford. Attendance--nearly 100%. – 1. Edinburgh.2%. Terrain: 30% arable.5 yrs. Cities: Capital--London (metropolitan pop. Irish. Major religions: Church of England (Anglican).
4064557 . 2009): $35. lead. Supreme Court. business. construction (23. salt. Wales--Plaid Cymru (Party of Wales). Democratic Unionist Party.. Judicial--magistrates' courts.4072636. House of Lords. Legislative--bicameral Parliament: House of Commons.184 trillion.4 Economy GDP (at current market prices. 1. Alliance Party. Fax -0731. Northern Ireland--Ulster Unionist Party. tin.33 - .17.1.B. UK Independence Party. gypsum. fish. food. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. vegetables. communication. and Northern Ireland Assembly. House of Lords. and parliamentary constituencies). Progressive Unionist Party. transport. Annual growth rate (2009): -4. clay. European Union. heavy engineering and metal manufacturing. sheep. Agriculture (1.. chalk. British National Party.S. motor vehicles and aircraft.K. appellate courts. textiles. electronics. ROAD. in Scotland--Scottish National Party.) Tel. tobacco.S. foodstuffs. 2009): $2. Political parties: Conservative. cattle.0731. natural gas. Per capita GDP (at current market prices. poultry. Labour. European Union. Suffrage: British subjects and citizens of other Commonwealth countries and the Irish Republic resident in the U. chemicals. Industry: Types--steel. county courts. Liberal Democrats. potatoes.17. Northern Ireland (municipalities.PIGDAMBER. Wales.NEAR RAU.5 HISTORY The Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC and most of Britain's subsequent incorporation into the Roman Empire stimulated development and brought more active contacts with the rest of Europe. Trade (2009): Exports of goods and services--$351. Subdivisions: Scotland. oilseed. beverages.1. Major suppliers--U. Sinn Fein. Social Democratic and Labour Party.1.8%. and China. hotels. Imports of goods and services--$473. limestone. cabinet. iron ore. also. chemicals.1. fuels.334. oil. silica. Green Party.(M.2% of GDP): Products--cereals. fuels. Services (75% of GDP): Types--financial.DISTRICT –INDORE. Natural resources: Coal.P. distribution.. Scottish Parliament.3 billion: manufactured goods. at 18. Welsh Assembly. counties.8% of GDP). prime minister (head of government).Export Of Grapes From India To UK Branches: Executive--monarch (head of state). 1. Major markets--U. machinery. high courts.6 billion: manufactured goods.
who placed third in number of seats won. In the United Nations. the country again was exposed to invasion--including the pivotal incursions of the Angles. 1. who won the most seats.4072636. certain institutions.34 - . prompting an election for a new Labour leader.1. ROAD. and the Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems).NEAR RAU. Norman rule effectively ensured Britain's safety from further intrusions.17. a system of common law. when it became clear that Labour would be unable to form a government. administrative. cultural. and representative government.K. it held the EU Presidency from July to December 2005. however. and David Cameron became the new Prime Minister. and the Labour Party forms the opposition. Prime Minister Gordon Brown resigned.1. Saxons. the United Kingdom is a permanent member of the Security Council.7 DEFENSE AND FOREIGN RELATIONS The United Kingdom is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and is one of NATO's major European maritime. and land powers. Gordon Brown. 1. Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg became the Deputy Prime Minister. Cameron subsequently announced a formal coalition with the Liberal Democrats. The United Kingdom has been a member of the European Community (now European Union) since 1973. which remain characteristic of Britain. As part of the coalition deal. which would ensure Liberal Democrat support for a Conservative-led government in exchange for five Liberal Democrat cabinet seats and policy compromises. Among these are a political. On May 11. a separate but established church. could develop. who is expected to be in place by September 2010. The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition has a 78-seat majority in the House of Commons. no party was able to win a full majority in the Commons.B. which led to several days of intense negotiations between the Conservatives (Tories).) Tel.Export Of Grapes From India To UK As Rome's strength declined. lost its majority in the House of Commons in the May 6.1. Gordon Brown resigned as Labour leader on May 11.PIGDAMBER. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. and Jutes in the fifth and sixth centuries AD--up to the Norman conquest in 1066. The U. distinctive and distinguished university education.17.6 POLITICAL CONDITIONS The Labour government that had been in power since 1997.(M. Fax -0731. it ranks third among NATO countries in total defense expenditure.DISTRICT –INDORE. For the first time since 1974. 2010 election.0731.1.P.4064557 . first under Prime Minister Tony Blair and then under his successor. and economic center in London. air. held the Presidency of the G-8 during 2005.
2010. along with the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. force in Afghanistan stood at 10.000 personnel. and its military forces are.4 million) to Afghan reconstruction--the second-largest donor after the United States. is in charge of the United Kingdom's independent strategic nuclear arm. was the United States' main coalition partner in Operation Iraqi Freedom.000 Royal Marine commandos. forces are primarily based in the Helmand region.K. ROAD. The U.K. 2001 terrorist attacks in the U.PIGDAMBER.K. The U. U. Fax -0731. The 37. which consists of four Trident missile submarines. and supporting international peacekeeping efforts.B.S. In addition.000 as of May 6. forces. after U.. The British Army.K.(M. The United Kingdom stood shoulder to shoulder with the United States following the September 11.35 - . where they are on the front line in the war against continued Taliban operations. and 4% of British forces represent ethnic minorities. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. which includes 6.200 personnel.) Tel. are active and regular participants in NATO and other coalition operations.0731.NEAR RAU. the secondlargest contingent of the coalition force in Afghanistan.P.4064557 .DISTRICT –INDORE.S. consisting of approximately 99.Export Of Grapes From India To UK The British Armed Forces are charged with protecting the United Kingdom and its overseas territories.4072636. the U. has contributed more than £510 million (approximately $723.000-member Royal Navy. the Royal Air Force. Approximately 9% of the British Armed Forces is female. with 42. its combat forces withdrew from Iraq in July 2009. promoting Britain's wider security interests.
) Tel.1.PIGDAMBER.222.8 OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of India 1.P.9 CAPITAL: New Delhi 1.NEAR RAU.1. Fax -0731.1.4064557 .4072636. ROAD.692 Sq Km (1.Export Of Grapes From India To UK COUNTRY PROFILE INDIA source: http://en.17.wikipedia.17.11 AREA: 3.DISTRICT –INDORE.B.1.36 - .720 Sq Mi) INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.org/wiki/Grape 1.1.10 SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Multiparty Federal Republic 1.0731.17.1.(M.166.1.17.
400. forested 23%. 1. China. (3.PIGDAMBER.) The northern mountains or Himalayan region which comprises three parallel ranges mixed with large plateaux and valleys. Land Use. Godavari.096. Hyderabad 3.) A rainy monsoon season and (4.1. Betwa.954. Krishna. agriculturalcultivated 57%.) A relatively cool winter monsoon season.NEAR RAU.0731. Son. Myanmar and Bangladesh to the east.206.4064557 .1.000 1.15 PEOPLE: India's racial diversity is extremely complex.566.1. Pune 1. The rivers of India are generally divided into the Himalayan and peninsula rivers.14 CLIMATE: India has a tropical climate that is dominated by the Asiatic monsoons with four fairly distinct seasons which are common to all six or seven climatic regions. Fax -0731. Calcutta 4. Indus and Brahmaputra Rivers. Nagpur 1. Tropical hurricanes and cyclones are common between April to June and September to December.300.4072636.1.800.925. the Bay of Bengal to the southeast and the Arabian Sea to the southwest.B. other 16% (1993).700. Kanpur 1. Average temperature ranges in New Delhi are from 7 to 21 degrees Celsius (45 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit) in January to 26 to 41 degrees Celsius (79 to 106 degrees Fahrenheit) in May. Madras 3.) The Indo-Gangetic Plain which is formed by the basins of the Ganges. Delhi 7. Nicobar and the Lakshadweep Islands.900.) a humid season. 1.17.879. (1. but generally can be divided into the following ethnic groups.300 (1991). est.500. It is the second largest country in Asia and the territory also includes the Andaman. which are flanked by the Western and Eastern Ghats.399. The southern region is separated from the IndoGangetic Plain by a mass of mountain ranges and plateaux on the Indian or Deccan Peninsula. and the principal rivers include the Ganges with its tributaries. Mumbai (Bombay) 9.) Tel.) The southern region which includes a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea and a broader one along the Bay of Bengal.) The desert region which is divided into the Great and Little Deserts.624.800. ROAD. Major Cities (pop.13 LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: India is located on the Indian sub-continent in South Asia.100. Ghaghra.DISTRICT –INDORE.(M.841. Gandak. Lucknow 1.37 - . Bangalore 3.145. It is bound by Pakistan to the northwest.302. (4. (2. Kosi. Chambi. Narbada and Tapti.900. (2.) A hot and rainless transitional season. Ahmadabad 220.127.116.115.400. pastures 4%.). the Jumna. (1. Cauvery.12 ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION 1.700. New Delhi 301.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1. Yamuna. (3.619. Bhutan and Nepal to the north.17. Mahanadi. The Indo-Aryan who represent 72% of the population while the INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.P. The mainland of India can be divided into four topographical regions.
2% (1990).16 DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density. 51.1%.200.) Tel. In 1977 Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her party were defeated in INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Life Expectancy at Birth. There are also three alien ethnic groups which include the Parsis.4064557 . 1971 Indira Gandhi.000 (1991). higher 2. primary 10. 1.7% urban. 3% are Christian. In 1965 a second war broke out between India and Pakistan over Kashmir which resulted in Soviet mediation and a peace agreement in Jan. 1% 75 and over (1990).17.000 (1991).8%. 15. Sex Distribution.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Dravidian account for 25% and the Mongoloid with others account for 3%. 1971 India assisted East Pakistan in a war against West Pakistan which resulted in East Pakistan becoming the independent nation of Bangladesh. 1947 India gained independence from Britain and the next day Pakistan was created while Jawaharlal Nehru became India's first Prime Minister.1 years male. 11. incomplete primary 7. Over 1.17. 2% are Sikh while just under 1% are Buddhist and . 11% 45 to 59.1. with Hindi including its associated languages and dialects accounting for 84% of the population while English is used for national.4 per 1. 21.19 EDUCATION: Aged 25 or over and having attained: no formal schooling 65.000 (1991). ROAD. 59.PIGDAMBER. 27% 15 to 29. In 1948 Mohandas Gandhi who led India to independence was assassinated.20 MODERN HISTORY . secondary 7.9%.5% are Jain. Infant Mortality Rate.3% rural (1991). 11.NEAR RAU.1% female (1991).17. Death Rate.0 per 1.(M. 58. 6% 60 to 74. Age Breakdown.0731. 275 persons per sq km (712 persons per sq mi) (1991).1.P.1 per 1. Fax -0731. 1. In 1962 a border dispute erupted with China. Jews and the Anglo-Indians of mixed European and Indian descent. Birth Rate. 32. political and commerce purposes. 1.4072636.18 LANGUAGES: The official languages are Hindi and English. 1.B. incomplete secondary 6. literate population aged 15 or over 261.5 per 1. 80.2%.1.WWII TO 1993: On Aug.1. In May 1964 Prime Minister Nehru died after being at the forefront of Indian politics since its independence.17. Literacy.17.1 years female (1986-90).600 languages and dialects are spoken throughout India with over 15 constitutionally recognized.9% (1981). in which China invaded the northeastern border section of India. 74. Urban-Rural.DISTRICT –INDORE.000 live births (1990). In Dec. 1966.1%.4% are Muslim.9% male. Increase Rate. 37% under 15. 1. 25. From 1948 to 1949 India and Pakistan fought over Kashmir which ended when the UN divided the Kashmir between the two countries.38 - .1.000 or 48. 18% 30 to 44.17 RELIGIONS: Around 83% of the population are Hindu. became India's first woman Prime Minister. 48. In 1950 India adopted a new constitution which made it a republic. In Mar.
1992 some 91 Bombay slum dwellers lost their lives after drinking impurely mixed alcohol during New Years celebrations while in May 1992 some 210 also lost their lives in Orissa through similar circumstances. 1991 Prime Minister Chandra Shekar resigned and Pres. R. 23 and 26. 1991 with Sikh separatists killing 49 Hindu passengers and wounding a further 20 on a train in Punjab. 1992 some 47 people died as a result of a stampede during the ritual bathing in Kumbakonam. On July 25.DISTRICT –INDORE. 1984 two Sikh bodyguards assassinated Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi her son. 1992 Pres.000 people were killed in the two day battle. The elections were set for May 20. In Feb. Ramaswamy Venkataraman dissolved the lower house of Parliament on Mar. succeeded her as Prime Minister in December after parliamentary elections. In July 1985 Rajiv Gandhi signed a peace accord with the Sikh leader. 6. 26. 1991 a massive earthquake in the Himalayan region of Uttar Pradesh killed some 1. however. and were a three way contest between the Indian National Congress (I). 24.) Tel. On May 21. ROAD. 20. In 1983 serious unrest developed with the Sikhs wanting more regional autonomy for Punjab state and in 1984 the Indian Army launched a massive offensive and as many as 1.PIGDAMBER. On Oct. the violence continued and in May 1987 the Punjab state government was dismissed and the state was placed under central control. however.0731.B.P. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. since 1983 there has been a Sri Lankan Tamil separatist insurgence and in 1987 under an agreement with the Sri Lankan government India occupied the northern regions of the island. 31. On Mar. Jammu and Kashmir. 13. and resulted in the Congress (I) forming another government and Pamulaparti Venkata Narasihma Rao being sworn in as Prime Minister on June 21. In April 1992 a massive stock swindle known as the scam where a group of bankers and brokers collaborated to manipulate stock market operations resulted in the arrest of prominent brokers and the executives of several foreign and Indian banks and institutions.4072636.NEAR RAU. in 1980 she won the elections and became Prime Minister again. and Assam that climaxed on Dec. 1991. On Oct. 1991. Additionally. 1991. 1991 Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by the Tamil "Tiger" guerrilla group in a human bomb attack that also killed 14 others while he was preparing to give a campaign address in Sriperumbudur. On Sept. In Jan. 1991 the government announced its intention to adopt the Mandal Commission's recommendation that 27% of public jobs be reserved for "socially and educationally backward classes". Elections due for May 23 and 26 were postponed until June 12 and 15.4064557 .Export Of Grapes From India To UK parliamentary elections. the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and a National Front and leftist parties combination. Fax -0731.600 people while during 1991 there was an insurgence in violence and assassinations from militant groups in Punjab.39 - .(M.
470. 1992 other BJP-run state governments were dismissed.000 (1993). 7.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Venkataraman was succeeded by Shankar Dayal Sharma after presidential elections. Tourism Receipts. Unemployed.) Tel.1. 1. 1992 were released.000. By Dec. 20. On Dec. On the same day and in response the government dismissed the BJP-run state government of Uttar Pradesh and imposed direct Presidential rule on the state while on Dec. Public Debt.17. On Jan. one for the Muslims and the other for the Hindus.0731.5% of total population (1991).810.000.060.4064557 . USD $1. Exports.21 CURRENCY: The official currency is the Rupee (Re) divided into 100 Paisa.150.000 (1994). ECONOMY: Gross National Product. Fax -0731. 15.P. USD $80. 7. Economically Active Population. 314. During 1992 separatist militant activities continued in the regions of Punjab.000 (1993).40 - . Sharma issued a ordinance. Re 695.242.000 and the country also experienced its worst earthquake in 50 years in the Maharashtra state on Sept. Re 728. which had allegedly lost Rs 40.000 rendered homeless. Re 38.000. 1992 the death toll from the religious clashes had climbed to 1. During 1993 the government established a human rights commission to investigate claims of violations and abuse at the hands of police and security forces while clashes between the government forces and the various militant separatists continued throughout the year.000 (1993).000 (1994). although unofficial reports claimed the death toll to be as high as 35. 12. 6.1% (1990). INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. The Hindus had claimed the site was the birthplace of Lord Rama and that they were going to build their own temple. 1993 Pres. 1993 with some 10. Balance of Trade.000.PIGDAMBER. 1992 Hindu-Muslim riots erupted throughout the country after the demolition of the Muslim Babri Mosque in Ayodhya by Hindu militants and thousands of supporters. to acquire 67. that was later ratified by the Parliament.000.(M.370 or 37. 1993 the BJP leaders arrested in Dec. 8. USD $262.985. 1992 Hindu and Muslim fundamentalist parties were outlawed.NEAR RAU.4 hectares) around the temple site and the intention to construct two temples on the site.000. ROAD. Jammu and Kashmir and Telingana region.000 (1994).134. Also in 1993 the government appointed a joint parliamentary committee to investigate the 1992 stock market scandal. On Jan. 1992 the BJP leaders were arrested and on Dec.000 with some 140. On Dec.487.000 people officially losing their lives. 1993 Hindu-Muslim riots broke out in Bombay claiming some 560 lives in the first week.4072636. On Jan.131. 10. In March and April. 13.DISTRICT –INDORE.7 acres (27. Imports. 1993 there were politically motivated bombings in Calcutta and Bombay with 60 and 33 people respectively losing their lives.B.000. 6.
Roads. Chemicals. Chromium. total of 3.145. Textiles.1. Bauxite. Machinery.1.000.17.23 MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Barley.25 MAIN EXPORTS: Fish. deadweight tonnage 10. Sugar Cane.1.NEAR RAU.1.742 mi) (1989).1.8% navy and 9.264. Limestone. units 8.242.28 MILITARY: 1. Machinery.41 - .1.000. 1.800. Pulses.17.000 (176. receivers 20. Oil and Gas.000 passenger-mi) (1990).975 km (38.000.17.17. 4. Iron and Steel. 1. Merchant Marine. Cement. Vegetables. Handicrafts. Transport Equipment. Jute.) Tel.000 (1989). Ground Nuts. Copper.17.000 short ton-mi) (1990).497. Air Transport.832. Oil Refining. Food Processing.PIGDAMBER.000. trucks and buses 1. Tea.B.974. Beverages. the UK. passenger-km 16.4064557 . Mica. Gemstones. length 2.4072636.000 (1994).6% air force while military expenditure accounts for 3.000.000 (1989).1. receivers 65. Textiles.400 (1993).433.284. vessels 855 (1990). Fruit. Vehicles.900.6% army.509 mi) (1990).000 (1993). Manganese. 1.000 (1994). 1.198.26 TRANSPORT: Railroads.000 (453. Cotton. Sorghum. 1. 1.000 (10. Coal.037. Potatoes. Telephones.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.000.17. the former USSR.000 km (1. Coke. Software Development.24 MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture.000. cargo ton-km 662.22 MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partners are the USA.518. ROAD. Gemstones. Iron Ore. cars 2.000 short ton-mi) (1990). Fax -0731.191 (1990).17. route length 61. Leather.000. Fertilizers. Iron Ore.P.000 passenger-mi) (1990).800. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.3% (1993) of the Gross National Product (GNP).000.27 COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers.000 (160.(M. Rice. Radio.DISTRICT –INDORE. Millet. Software. passenger-km 284. Tea.966.805 with a total circulation of 18. Wheat. Television. Food. cargo ton-km 233.000 (1992) total active duty personnel with 85. Iran and Iraq.0731. Japan.
Owing to the nutritional and medicinal values of the fruits. ROAD.(M. there is preference among the consumers in the domestic and international markets.DISTRICT –INDORE.PIGDAMBER.2 Literature Review Mr. This variety is one of the best varieties suitable for export purpose and it is gaining popularity among consumers.B.4072636. Fax -0731. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Most of the Grapes produced is consumed locally and about 1 per cent is exported.0731.P. Delhi and he get the following conclusion: The advent of new varieties having high consumer preference and technical advancement in cultivation has made this crop more popular. The exports have not been substantial since the international standards were not known.) Tel. Thomson seedless and sharad seedless variety is best suited for cultivation in the tropical areas.42 - .NEAR RAU.4064557 .Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1. Merro Don Thomas had done the research on Analysis of Export Procedures for Grapes in the month of June 2010 from Institute of Management and Development.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK Of late.000 – 30. have created problems in obtaining economic yields.(M. 1. Downy Mildew. India has clean transaction terms with other countries.PIGDAMBER. will augment the cultivation of quality grapes and will help in increasing the exports to a tune of about 20.. The migrants can prove to be good promoters for the fruits. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4064557 . Proper varietal selection.B.4072636.43 - . ROAD. crop and post harvest management.P. facilities for marketing etc. Karnataka has exported about 2000 MT to other countries during the last few years. In this background. Diseases such as Powdary mildew. Export qualities of grapes are grown in India. India can prove to be competitive. Fax -0731.0731. India can definitely make a dent in grapes trade in the world market.000 MT tons.NEAR RAU. it facilitates long-term and healthy business dealings.3 Rationale • • • • • • • India is the largest producer of agricultural product and has a lot of export potential.DISTRICT –INDORE. infrastructure such as cold chain.) Tel. There is potential for export to the United State of America also. so a number of taste options are available. More than four-five varieties are grown in India. Most of the Indians migrate to other country and thus they demand for Indian fruits. etc. Indian grapes have penetrated into the European Union since suitable varieties conforming to international standards are being produced.
To find out the major potential markets for export.PIGDAMBER. ROAD.4 Objectives Of Research • • • To find out the potential.DISTRICT –INDORE. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4072636. To find out the measures to increase the growth of grapes export from India.NEAR RAU. Fax -0731.) Tel.B.4064557 . market for Indian grapes.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.0731.P.(M.44 - .
2 per cent of the work force.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 1.5.0731. and 10.45 - .4072636.2 Countries involved • India and UK 1.5. 1. 1. Furthermore. ROAD.3 Data Collection And Sources INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.DISTRICT –INDORE.P.PIGDAMBER.B.5 Methodology Agriculture is one of the strongholds of the Indian economy and accounts for 14.4064557 .1 Type of study • Research of the exports of grapes from India to UK. the sector provided employment to 58.5.NEAR RAU. Fax -0731.(M.) Tel.6 per cent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009-10.23 per cent (provisional) of the total exports.
magazines.B.6 Limitations • • • • The time period provided for the research was not sufficient to undergo an analytical research work.PIGDAMBER.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • I have used the secondary data for the preparation of this project.NEAR RAU.0731.4072636.) Tel. journals and news paper articles. The domestic consumption of grapes is higher.(M. Sources of secondary data being the books. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. thus the authentication of the data is questionable. ROAD. Direct face to face interaction for collecting the primary data was not possible. so there was a problem in showing the extensive growth in its exports.4064557 . The secondary data has been collected on the basis of various trade portals. Fax -0731. 1. Websites and search engines.P.46 - .DISTRICT –INDORE.
B. Fax -0731.NEAR RAU.47 - .) Tel.4064557 .P. ROAD.(M.DISTRICT –INDORE.4072636.0731.PIGDAMBER.Export Of Grapes From India To UK INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.
EXPORT PERFORMANCE 2.43 292.59 570.97 1.97 4.22 13.17 452.761.19 3.B.7 578.379.68 6.apeda.398.90 1.639.86 3.0731.1.1 Product Group Report/Country Wise Value in Rs.94 25.368.64 354.59 441.115.020.340.488.62 2. lacs Qty in Mt.72 298.210.36 13.P.440.62 120.78 314.46 361.597.274.61 54.19 520.26 242.448.) Tel.PIGDAMBER.62 3.47 2.com/indexp/product_description_32head. Product: FRESH GRAPES Country NETHERLAND UK BANGLADESH U ARAB EMTS BELGIUM SAUDI ARABIA NORWAY GERMANY NEPAL SRI LANKA OMAN MOROCCO MALAYSIA ALGERIA 2006-2007 Qty Value 19.667.09 37.35 3.(M.641.39 458.5 410.193.242.06 226.650.63 10.03 595.379.4064557 .26 Value 13.552.45 164.509.61 745.1 EXPORT OF GRAPES Table 2.aspx?gcode=0205 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.76 343.4072636.55 6.37 0 0 2008-2009 Qty 24.19 2.54 Source: http://tradejunction.5 338.79 8.994.013.45 563.29 13.15 1.04 5.32 1.89 407.79 451.107.522.15 784.627.75 6.01 314.303.137.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.91 0 0 196.64 92.66 1.87 1.84 743.966.650.98 12.66 3.081.657.40 6.22 472.09 0 0 390.28 3.586.91 4.14 9.48 - .00 3.33 890 228.39 2.50 529.13 208.064.70 11. ROAD.NEAR RAU.402.67 7. Fax -0731.DISTRICT –INDORE.31 1.18 0 0 2007-2008 Qty Value 24.656.162.686.10 313.757.140.
15 56.36 2008-2009 Qty 754671.04 1182.85 32.81 1702.941.765.89 55689.48 25539.01 1 0.64 6.48 128792.25 1340.1 4722. Fax -0731.4064557 .15 0.370.58 133654.2 1.PIGDAMBER.8 0.58 15579.82 3968.13 0 1. lacs Port: KANDLA SEA Product BASMATI RICE OTHER CEREALS NON BASMATI RICE JAGGERY AND CONFECTIONERY GUARGUM CEREAL PREPRATIONS PULSES OTHER PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS GROUND NUTS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES DRIED AND PRESERVED VEGETABLES DAIRY PRODUCTS MILLED PRODUCTS OTHER FRESH FRUITS COCOA PRODUCTS OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES FRESH MANGOES FRESH ONIONS FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SEEDS MANGO PULP PROCESSED MEAT NATURAL HONEY FLORICULTURE Total 2006-2007 Qty Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7621.998.13 2548.DISTRICT –INDORE.4 47.64 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5.65 1.B.78 14.2 Port Report / Product Group Wise Qty in Mt.58 12.5 132.02 220240.48 34.73 2 0 59 299 0 0 0 0 0 1.78 839.35 931.97 2007-2008 Qty 743264.09 0 157.08 3047.97 726.P.21 Value 269968.63 17 117.592.54 233.1 0.2 27.85 727357.41 76427.13 0 585.07 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.16 8.(M.12 2269.684.02 19.38 7463.1 879.5 1916.62 260.86 4929.2 23.12 9.88 514979.6 1.67 6245.52 1470.28 489619.2 62.69 107286.NEAR RAU.2 497.75 313.27 Value 459278.4 650.37 3064.23 0 0 0 0 0 468.951.4072636.95 2552.01 119.12 5248.0731.78 47.09 2823.83 2474.02 38.84 985.75 10.49 - .58 1078.43 0 17.39 21.21 3.9 24151.48 28.47 0. Value in Rs.79 5598 3654.22 75.43 65.) Tel.47 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.08 42.349.17 0. ROAD.81 0 221.41 3317.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Table 2.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK Source: http://tradejunction.69 0.02 8.31 37.49 3073.07 13630.57 16439.84 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.39 3360.68 33435.91 277.81 0.NEAR RAU.41 188.1 11.3 132.67 136.15 2.47 0 0 0. Value in Rs.51 57.07 30.75 82.24 5.79 36.(M.6 17.78 89.02 103.62 40.26 0 0 61.34 189. ROAD.6 118.27 0.58 68.34 45.18 4.4 6546.06 15.64 1.aspx?pcode=515 Table 2.46 788.3 172.22 234.3 Port Report / Product Group Wise Qty in Mt.49 10.33 59.39 130.37 934.09 64.73 1676.25 4095.32 43.93 9.) Tel.49 437.33 12.05 13548.48 105.51 27. lacs Port: MUMBAI AIR Product SHEEP / GOAT MEAT OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES FLORICULTURE FRESH MANGOES OTHER FRESH FRUITS FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SEEDS POULTRY PRODUCTS MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS ANIMAL CASINGS BUFFALO MEAT DAIRY PRODUCTS OTHER PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES CEREAL PREPRATIONS FRESH ONIONS JAGGERY AND CONFECTIONERY COCOA PRODUCTS MANGO PULP FRESH GRAPES ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES WHEAT SWINE MEAT NATURAL HONEY DRIED AND PRESERVED VEGETABLES 2006-2007 Qty Value 238.11 1649.02 10097.03 100.4064557 .3 0.78 93.27 30.4072636.67 9.46 128.94 1736.13 55.18 6812 4040.48 40.9 6.53 1310.58 965.32 15.P.8 0 0 0.49 74.99 2266.42 116.59 88.21 5.B.15 122.16 46536.PIGDAMBER.09 9.18 43.88 8901.65 0 0 1.5 11.26 1.0731.99 57.45 2.06 34873.53 49.98 15602.21 698.com/indexp/portreport_prdgrp.3 1.17 0 0 49.72 53.28 473.08 105.50 - .DISTRICT –INDORE. Fax -0731.01 0.66 8697.49 164.97 4.24 1016 554.apeda.34 0 0 0 0 9.64 70.02 41.5 1.21 7.07 87.15 1210.94 200.28 55.73 0 0 0 0 2007-2008 Qty Value 5515.65 36.82 0 0 0 0 1.39 2008-2009 Qty Value 7355.21 5637.02 1507.
(M.4072636.PIGDAMBER.P.B.0731. ROAD.com/indexp/PortReport_prdgrp.4064557 .Export Of Grapes From India To UK Source:http://tradejunction.DISTRICT –INDORE.51 - . Fax -0731.) Tel.aspx?pcode=483 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.apeda.NEAR RAU.
960.20 2.34 62.43 7.272.206.010.73 Source: http://tradejunction.4 Product Basmati Rice Papad Grapes. dried.66 804.045.777.56 249.953.Value(20082007) 2007) 2008) 2008) 2009) 2009) Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value 71.920.17 2.32 2.04 4.4072636.2 Country Report / Product Wise Country: UK Table 2.575.559.B.89 7.67 11.473.47 2.633.343.10 43.com/indexp/country_description.72 2.009.410.(M.68 3.37 1.71 6.77 13.196.08 3.91 9.20 8.00 1.78 3.17 12. whole/cut/sliced/broken/in powder but not further prepared Guargum treated and pulverised Mangoes .52 - . fresh Other vegetalbes.05 8.137.67 19. branches and other parts of plants without flowers or flower buds and grasses for bouquets or for ornamental purpose OTHER BAKERY PRODUCTS Onions.06 1.44 8.125.354.285.19 3.505.411.56 1.02 2.57 29.61 2.12 540.87 12. nuts and other edible parts of plants prepd.81 10.895.Value(2006.PIGDAMBER.59 2.60 8.57 11.68 1.98 3.60 816.478.743.379.888.563.204.apeda.751.26 705. fresh/dried.55 6.743.034.362.42 2.328.QTY(2008.36 3.) Tel.283.382.042.622.66 2.4064557 .68 1.59 3.19 1.32 2.69 4.343.202.388.85 655.952.932.579.183.63 1.044.74 803.095.419.141.63 1.QTY(2007.80 3.48 2.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.56 3.36 1.12 2.239.92 2.061.42 6.0731.59 71.108.Value(2007.403.08 12.07 5.92 1. Pomegranates Fresh other food preparation not elsewhere specified Natural honey QTY(2006.131.84 1.535.981.129.42 2.40 2.566.82 2.595.34 3.08 936.39 1.P.103.02 5.101.95 3.DISTRICT –INDORE.377.025.61 1.26 2.862.537.28 1.87 7.144.030.63 374.07 7.627.376.527.10 4.NEAR RAU.582.072. fruits.17 1.13 10.89 1./presvd Mixed Vegetables fresh/chilled Ground-nuts HPS Kernels Mango pulp Not Fresh foliage. ROAD.64 6.672.918.104.22.168 3.aspx?ctry=13421 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.527.088.40 7.013.608.883. Fax -0731.20 1.
ROAD.5 5914.40 1 12757.0731.B.P.09 8 11639.6 6597.8 Country UK Total ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table2.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2. Fax -0731.6 1 6597.7 ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table 2.(M.5 Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2008-2009 Country UK Total Qty Value ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table 2.6 7656.4072636.94 7 2005-2006 Country UK Total Qty Value 11318.5 5914.53 - .7 3290.DISTRICT –INDORE.PIGDAMBER.3 INDIA EXPORT STATISTICS ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table2.4064557 .6 6368.) Tel.6 7656.09 8 Qty in mt Value in lakhs Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2006-2007 Country UK Total Qty Value 13657.6 6368.09 6 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.9 Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2004-2005 Country UK Qty Value 5888.NEAR RAU.6 Qty in mt Value in lakhs 2007-2008 Qty Value 12757.75 1 11318.75 1 ProductGroup: FRESH GRAPES Table 2.4 11639.94 7 13657.
4064557 . ROAD.NEAR RAU.54 - .) Tel.09 6 Total Source: http://tradejunction.PIGDAMBER.0731.7 3290.B.P.DISTRICT –INDORE.apeda.com/indexp/genReport.4072636.aspx INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Fax -0731.(M.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 5888.
2363 96 .4072636.0731. 19 AprilSeptember Qty 4776.com/indexp/genReport. 46 4755.6 April-October Qty 4777.6 4780. 46 2348.B. 48 Value 2519. 19 2361. 46 April-May Qty 4756 .aspx#content INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.7 4756 .1 4756 .1 Value 2347.apeda.10 Year 2009-2010 Country . 01 April-April Qty 4755. 23 2360. 48 5025.55 - . 79 Value 2360. 23 2360. 79 4776.DISTRICT –INDORE. 79 Value 2360.4064557 . 39 Source: http://tradejunction. 39 2346. 87 AprilDecember Valu Qty e 4780. 99 4777. 99 Value 2361. 01 2347.NEAR RAU. 23 April-August Qty 4776. 79 4776.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2. 46 Value 2346.(M.P. Fax -0731. Value in lakhs April-January Product FRESH GRAPES Total Qty 5025.UK Quantity in mt.7 Value 2348. 2363 96 . 87 2519.4 Country report for grapes Table 2. ROAD.PIGDAMBER. 23 April-June Qty 4756 .) Tel.
2 297890.14 1296.84 43457.07 411856.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2.37 917.56 1467904.11 123900.32 14123.36 ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 50771.32 1014.45 33687.89 1932855.42 14212.23 691312.51 50582.64 1057016.87 1670186.64 211166.9 137179 54232.91 110092.47 6716.28 166752.71 103577.3 321374.0731.38 WALNUTS 5062.22 MISCELLANEOUS PREPARATIONS 77426.33 130760.81 50968.2 JAGGERY AND CONFECTIONERY 455935.55 86656.62 NATURAL HONEY 8135.79 22194.76 31782.72 857.28 43086.84 1008606.47 78999.78 1724573.NEAR RAU.4072636.37 258567.88 14193.53 2646267.7 4979.68 FRESH FRUITS & VEGETABLES FRESH ONIONS 1378373.4 14896.48 33856.43 42754. ROAD.5 316351.36 112579.94 42205.01 GUARGUM 189304.68 1245.29 48226. Fax -0731.93 133898.17 116330.25 40861.9 6831.05 59880.13 483478.56 2408129.82 PULSES 255084.21 68020.86 11803.29 505285.85 245144.47 70146.4064557 .89 48949.79 FRESH MANGOES 79060.P.) Tel.2 4225.6 43314.9 139637.63 15587.85 59614.08 DAIRY PRODUCTS 45371.51 96281.49 54350.49 56152.B.98 950.8 96963.29 8908.67 31817.94 105407.79 30192.53 817.47 13409.23 POULTRY PRODUCTS 711245.27 135962.31 49641.37 77428.69 512926.63 17071.99 49336.01 16207.6 SHEEP / GOAT MEAT 5777.51 30452.57 OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES 276824.13 9329.45 OTHER FRESH FRUITS 177638.18 124627.46 5696.4 Total 849257.36 684.31 69415.41 11999.57 95550.95 FRESH GRAPES 85897.PIGDAMBER.21 4011.64 2463.39 Total 2002857.53 39333.5 Three year description of APEDA product Table 2.44 619.6 387126.84 365915.17 311756.72 2007-08 Qty 36240.84 67735.65 PROCESSED MEAT 860.09 8403.2 47446.17 MANGO PULP 156835.69 712.82 1646790.57 207700.61 147861.98 267887.47 12231.59 Value 34014.51 75298.(M.09 12158.83 112574.47 865.11 2006-07 PRODUCT Qty Value FLORICULTURE FLORICULTURE 42545.63 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.57 Qty 30798.91 483970.96 44108.9 206928.65 CEREAL PREPRATIONS 111123.53 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES DRIED AND PRESERVED VEGETABLES 119270.3 Total 1267857.06 884.91 OTHER PROCESSED FOODS GROUND NUTS 251428.71 10157.48 350235.39 774849.2 59172.8 12741.34 83703.31 462749.6 243711.77 1823.19 1710.73 FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SEEDS 8104.53 200482.34 8535.56 - .97 256768.DISTRICT –INDORE.8 98086.65 79846.5 182752.53 125726.95 Total 50649.13 46397.85 87346.6 246832.82 354978.42 136880.62 37790.79 OTHER PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 318067.72 1355246.6 6091.8 ANIMAL CASINGS 435.28 42993.11 COCOA PRODUCTS 3412.99 269587.29 170614.77 2008-09 Value 36881.18 ANIMAL PRODUCTS BUFFALO MEAT 494506.21 173013.5 54254.09 48880.63 SWINE MEAT 1523.08 844881.65 54900.3 30997.52 6587.57 281068.28 65269.
71 2433913. Flame seedless. Berry Size: 18mm white Berry Size: 18mm black Berry Size: 18mm pink 4.22 72515.6 EXPORT SPECIFICATIONS FOR GRAPES Table 2.5 Kg /9 kg 0-1 °C 0-1 °C Variety Thompson Seedless Sharad Seedless Flame Seedless Packing Storage Temp.77 1516777.73 54684. Sharad seedless. Holland.99 46633.apeda.23 10907355.09 59925.05 41053.42 Source: http://tradejunction. Calmeria. nbsp. Fax -0731.63 1183355.com/indexp/exportstatement. Emperor. RougeRibier.aspx 2.77 2180594.) Thompson seedless.4072636.722 MTs(2002-03) Availability December to April Major exports to Middle East.89 424307.88.0731.12 740979.79 947702.61 399545.14 9994.73 5285916.76 652314.34 3220200.P.52 9752245.86 5597331. ROAD.NEAR RAU.Germany Thompson seedless.5 1484735.B.81 777043.94 300232. Sonaka Area under crop in Maharashtra (35236 ha) Maharashtra’s Production (9.58 3629442. UK.PIGDAMBER.73 434458. Tas-a-Ganesh.36 1045714.43 23.58 17451122. Crimson seedless. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.41 145.5 6530112.94 3187060.K.95 3702191.21 730275. Exotic. U. Varieties grown in Maharashtra Manek chaman.27 279280.12 Thompson Seedless Flame Seedless 26783. Fantasy seedless Sharad Seedless Total export from India Share of Maharashtra Export Specifications Countries Middle East Holland/Germany Berry Size: 15mm Colour:Berry Size: 16mm Colour: amber white/amber Berry Size: 15mm black Berry Size: 16mm black ----Berry Size: 16mm pink 1 Kg 4.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Total CEREALS BASMATI RICE NON BASMATI RICE WHEAT OTHER CEREALS MILLED PRODUCTS Total Grand Total 1139402.(M. Ruby seedless.27 3228051.51 690204.43 1556411.8 1120. Red globe.84 3535.98 168737.DISTRICT –INDORE.5 Kg /9kg 0-1 °C International Standards of Pesticide Residue Levels nbsp.83 MTs (2003-04) 70 – 80% (Approx.73 392057.4064557 .52 3999648.) Tel.69 8133.06 931879.93 14141299.57 - . Christmas Varieties in demand internationally rose.33 237.95 9041.
50 0.PIGDAMBER.msamb.DISTRICT –INDORE.01 0.58 - .NEAR RAU.50 ND 0.05 ND 0.01 0.00 2.01 0.05 0. Permissible Limits(mgm/kg).02 1.5 ND 0.P.10 1.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Max.0731.Europe ND ND 1.00 0.com/english/export/promotion/grapes.00 0.10 Insecticide/Pesticide Organochlorine Pesticides Aldrin Chlordane (cis & trans) Chlorothalonil DDT (all isomers) Dichlofluanid Dicofol Dieldrin Endosulfan (all isomers) Endrin Lindane HCH (alpha & beta) Heptachlor Organophosphorus Pesticides Acephate Azinphos-methl Chlorfenvinphos Chlorpyriphos methyl Drazinon Dichlorvos Dimerthoate Ehion Etrimphos Fenchlorphos Fenitrothion Malathion Profenophos 2-chlorophenol(metabolite) Methamidophos Methidathion Mevinphos Source : http://www.htm INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.4064557 .50 0.) Tel. Fax -0731.02 0. ROAD.4072636.(M.10 0.50 0.02 0.B.00 ND 0.00 ND 10.01 0.
Export Of Grapes From India To UK 2. Sangli.0731.NEAR RAU.4072636.(M. entails a total cost of Rs. STERLING EXPORTS INC OM SHREE INTERNATIONAL GNT EXPORTS RAIEN TRADING CORPORATION NHC INDUSTRIES PVT.) Tel. The project in the first stage. Pune. an autonomous development agency which will work as a facilitator to ensure a smooth and orderly development of the grape industry in the state. It is also proposed to set up Maharashtra Grape Board (MGB).B.4064557 .59 - . agencies like APEDA.7 Agri Export Zone of India with reference to grapes Maharashtra is the largest grape producing state in the country. National Horticulture Board. It is expected that in the next Five years a total exports of more than Rs. of Maharashtra has put up a proposal for setting up of Agri Export Zone in encompassing districts of Nasik. 68 crores will take place. To export table variety of grapes as well as the value added products like wine in a coordinated manner. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.DISTRICT –INDORE. the Govt. Solapur. Satara and Ahmed Nagar. Fax -0731. 2. The rest of the expenditure will be borne by the State Government. ATHARVA INTERNATIONAL CHAND FRUIT COMPANY PRIVATE LTD BOMBAY EXPORTS FRESHTROP FRUITS LTD. Ministry of Agriculture. ROAD.50 crore out of which 2.P.35 crore will come from various Central Govt. Ministry of Food Processing Industries.8 Top 10 Exporters (FRESH GRAPES) • • • • • • • • • • MAHINDRA SHUBHLABH SERVICES LTD.PIGDAMBER. 3. LTD.
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.PIGDAMBER.0731. the water supply management is unsustainable.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 3. Income generation and employment support to more of the Indian population. India produces many varieties of grapes. Fax -0731.NEAR RAU.) Tel.60 - . India has the ability to cater the continuous demand of grapes by the consumers. Propagation is mandatory.(M.B.4072636.4064557 . so Indian grapes will have to face a cut throat competition. Threats• So far the Indian grapes were not exported to the far countries.P.DISTRICT –INDORE. Opportunities• • India will be able to supply grapes to the neighboring countries. SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths• • • India is the largest producer of agro-product in the world. Due to variation in the monsoons. Poor post harvest facilities for warehousing. Weakness• • • • There is low in technology inputs in horticulture production. ROAD.
China. However. a chemical residue.) Tel. According to sources. 2008. UK changed the MRL in December 2007 and issued further clarification in February this year. so it will require huge initial investment and so the Indian grape will be lacking in cost competitiveness. who are yet to clear grapes consignment from India because of safety concerns. etc. The European Union issued a separate MRL in its update in January. Spain.(M. which is the main destination for the Indian fruit. which had come under a cloud following the presence of chlormequat. is estimated to be around 45. Farmers in the grapes belt of Maharashtra are of the view that the changes to MRL in the mid-season are made by the developed countries to discourage imports and such changes act as non-tariff barriers. Fax -0731.4072636. Director of Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA).500 containers last year." said Mr S Dave. But. As each container carries 15 tons of grapes. an expert said. FINDINGS India's grapes export to EU rises by 20% despite restrictions India's grapes export to Europe is estimated to have jumped by 20 per cent during this season even though countries like Germany and The Netherlands changed the prescribed minimum residues level (MRL) midseason.500 tons last season.000 tons compared to about 37.DISTRICT –INDORE. while Germany and The Netherlands prescribed the amended limits in March.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • • India has to cover the world market as a sunrise nation in grapes. in 2007-08 season. – PTI.000 containers have been sent to Europe this year compared to 2. the export to EU.0731. The deadlock over India’s grapes export to the European Union. ROAD. 4. Grapes are harvested during February-April while whatever pesticides are to be sprayed are used 60-100 days before harvest and therefore it is difficult to conform to amended MRL norms in the middle of the season.NEAR RAU.PIGDAMBER.B.4064557 . Argentina. in some consignments has shown some signs of easing as UK and Sweden have started accepting Indian grapes by adhering to their own maximum residue level (MRL). India has tough competition from Italy. a big hurdle still remains from Germany and Netherlands . Mr Dave said exports were not affected as APEDA also made changes in the MRL after some of the countries changed that.61 - .P. "About 3. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.
” a grape exporter said Maximum amount of grapes in India is exported from Maharashtra followed by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.62 - .” an Apeda official said. India is aiming to increase its grapes exports to the EU to around 44. According to trade sources. “In the absence of any specific norms we have been following the default level of 0.B.PIGDAMBER. exporters have been are yet to decide on whether any tests should be conducted on the grapes consignment.000 tonne from 37. Trades sources said that there 98 types of pesticide residue whose presence in the grapes consignment need to be tested.) Tel.0731. However. ROAD. due the absence of coherent norms in the EU. “We are constantly in touch with EU officials and hope to find a solution to this problem shortly. Major findings of this research are as follows: • There are many other market for the export of grapes.Export Of Grapes From India To UK Netherlands in one of the largest buyers of Indian grapes and officials feel that any loss of market could hurt overall fruit exports from the country. The exporters are worried that time is running because of grape export period is only in the range of six to seven weeks. Indian exporters say it is difficult to follow food safety guidelines in European Union as all membernations have their own rules.06 gm per kg are consumed.(M. Fax -0731. most of the rejected containers are lying at Rotterdam ( Netherlands ) port.P. There are 140 farmers in Maharashtra registered for exports. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. “We have already lost two weeks and any further delay would result in huge financial loss.4064557 . The European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) in its latest safety study report stated that no acute consumer health risk is expected if table grapes with a mean chlormequat residue concentration of 1.4072636. The maximum permissible level is 1 gm per kg in the country.000 tonne achieved last year because of poor supplies from Chile . the 27-member European Union has not formulated any specific maximum residue level (MRL).DISTRICT –INDORE.05 gm per kg standard.NEAR RAU.” a grape exporter from Pune told FE. In the case of chlormequat.
RELATED STUDIES Following are related studies: • • Export potential of India in agricultural product by Mr. Delhi INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.DISTRICT –INDORE.PIGDAMBER.B. Fax -0731. Merro Don Thomas. Export procedure of grapes by Mr. Ajay Choudhary.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • • There is involvement of tough competition with other European countries.0731.(M. ROAD. 5.P.NEAR RAU.63 - . St Joseph college of commerce.4072636. Institute of Management and Development.) Tel.4064557 . India improving its quality of export as well as export.
DISTRICT –INDORE. Fax -0731. Price and quality meter should match. Due to increase demand of grapes in the global market.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 6.0731. productivity should increase. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Quality should improve which give positive result in the export performance.4064557 .4072636.) Tel.(M. SUGGESTIONS Following are the suggestions brought from my research: • • • • • Warehousing facility should be improved.B.NEAR RAU.P.64 - . ROAD. There are many neighbour countries in which export can done.PIGDAMBER.
Since the highest productivity in grapes has been achieved. Fax -0731.0731. The major bulk of the produce is harvested in March-April.000 tonnes. Maintenance of quality of table grapes by crop regulation is the priority consideration to increase exports.65 - .B.4064557 .PIGDAMBER. CONCLUSION Grape is cultivated over an area of 34.) Tel.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 7.DISTRICT –INDORE.000. Soil and water salinity and drought are the impediments in this direction. Diversification of uses as wine/juice and export of table grapes can ease the marketing problems. the produce should be quality and cost competitive. Future efforts are to be concentrated in this direction.4072636.(M. The risk of losing a crop due to unprecedented changes in weather is also very high. the returns per unit area of land are very high with grape cultivation. efforts are needed to extend grape cultivation to newer areas. but as cold storage facilities are currently inadequate there are frequent market gluts. For the survival of the grape industry in India. There is a need to diversify the uses of grapes. Currently more than 80 percent of the produce is used for table purposes.000 hectares with an annual production of 1. the area under grapes is not expanding fast owing to the high initial cost of establishing the vineyards and high recurring cost of production. Although.NEAR RAU. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. for which suitable rootstocks are to be identified. ROAD.P.
aspx? hscode=08061000&mids=.P.vegetarian-nutrition.htm http://mn4h.com/indexp/exportstatement.nic.php http://hubpages.4064557 . ROAD.wikipedia.0731.apeda.&top_r=50&yr=ALL&hscode1=GRAPE http://www.com/indexp/genReport.apeda.fao.aspx http://tradejunction.org/docrep/003/x6897e/x6897e06.(M.) Tel.DISTRICT –INDORE.htm http://www.html http://www.business-standard.wikipedia.info/updates/grape-health.com/distribution/horticulture/DG1103.66 - .com/apedawebsite/ http://tradejunction.B.in/hort/hortrevo5.NEAR RAU.apeda.com/mealexperience/Grapes/Index.com/india/news/eu-halts-grape-importsindia/392628/ http://apeda. REFERENCE Websites: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • http://en.com/indexp/product_description_32head.Export Of Grapes From India To UK 8.cookeryonline.aspx http://tradejunction.4072636.aspx?gcode=0205 http://tradejunction.PIGDAMBER.com/India%20Production/India_Production.htm http://agricoop.apeda.com/hub/Health_Benefits_of_Grape Magazines: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A. Fax -0731.org/wiki/Grape http://en.org/wiki/List_of_grape_varieties http://www.
) Tel. 2009 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE AND RESEARCH A.Nov.(M.Export Of Grapes From India To UK • • • • Business Standard.NEAR RAU...4064557 .DISTRICT –INDORE..B.PIGDAMBER. Nov.0731. 2009 Conservation Magazine... Mumbai April 22 2010 Winemaker. Fax -0731. ROAD. 22 2009 Publix magazine.Dec.4072636. Alison Crowe.67 - .P.
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