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Understanding the different phases of life can give us better perspective of ourselves and of others as we go through each phases of life. 2. To understand better why people of certain groups behave the way they do. And also, to help us look at other people behavior at a particular age as normal in stead of looking at them as problem behavior. The Nature of Development: There are two approaches in the study of human development: 1. By age 2. By stages Concepts: 1. Development: Refers to the process by which organisms grow and change over the course of thei r lives.(Beltran, Jane) Refers to the process that produces a progressive series of changes that are orde rly and coherent and which lead to, and end with, maturity. (Hurlock, 1978: 22). It refers to qualitative changes, i.e., changes in the nature of functioning of an organ with resulting improved efficiency and accuracy of performance. Example : The baby crawls, then slowly develops his muscles to stand up, then walks bein g first assisted by another. 2. Growth: - Refers to quantitative changes, such as increase in size of the chest, lengthe ning of the bones - Includes only that which leads forward and excludes those that go backward. 3. Maturation: - It is the process by which we reach the full limit of our inherited physical and mental potential. (Beltran, 25) - It is the process of attaining a level of development at which some specified mental function or type of behavior ordinarily appears. - It is the process through which hereditary traits unfolds at an appointed time as the individual grows. Factors of Development: 1. Heredity: the transmission of genes from parents to offspring. 2. Environment: refers to all the forces that affect man. **CHART** Factors Medium / Process Goal 1. Heredity Maturation (stimulation is needed) Maturity 2. Environment Learning through which one gains experiences (The effort of th e learner is important) Maturity Principles of Development: 1. Development is orderly and follows sequential pattern which is predictable, e .g., from Infancy to childhood, adolescence, middle age, then mature age. Trends in the direction of development: a. Cephalo-caudal: starts in the head region and proceeds downward b. Proximo-distal: starts from the center to the farthest distance. 2. Development is the product of the interaction of maturity and learning Maturity is automatic / mechanical Learning takes place through the effort of the individual. However, learning can only take place when the individual is ready.
3. There are individual differences in development. Each individual develops at his own rate. 4. Development proceeds by stages (Hurlock): confer Beltran, Jane page 26 Major Theories and Issues on Development I. Psychosexual Theory of Development - Sigmund Freud Assumed that personality is mostly established by the age of five; A single body part is particularly sensitive to sexual, erotic stimulation; Believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages; Pointed out that not satisfying one of the child s needs becomes a source of poten tial conflict between the parents and the child; A child will encounter different kinds of problems in infancy and childhood, whi ch will shape his social and personality development; Libido refers to psychosexual energy; driving force behind behavior; Frustration and overindulgence lock some amount of the child s libido permanently into the stage in which they occur; this would result in fixation. Psychosexual stages Stage 1: The Oral stage o Early infancy period: the first 18 months of life; o Infant s pleasure seeking is centered on the mouth, e.g., biting, chewing and su cking; o If fixated at this stage, infant would continue to seek oral gratification as an adult. Stage 2: The Anal stage o Late infancy period: from the first 18 months to 3 years o The primary focus of the child s pleasure seeking is the anus and its function o f elimination or retention; o Success at this stage is dependent upon the way in which parents approach toil et training; Success or failure would result in: Anal-expulsive personality this happens if parents are too lenient and the child manages to derive pleasure from excreting maliciously, perhaps just before of a fter being placed on the toilet. This type of personality has a messy, wasteful and defiant character. Anal-retentive personality this happens if parents are too strict or begin toile t training too early and the child opts to retain feces. The child may develop s tringent, orderly, rigid, meticulous, and obsessive personality. Stage 3: The Phallic stage o Period of the early childhood: from 3-6 years o Pleasure seeking is centered on the genitals o During this stage, the child will compete with parents of the same sex for the affection of the parent of the opposite sex. o Problems in resoling this competition called Oedipus complex may result in fee lings of inferiority for men and of having to prove something for women. Stage 4: The Latency stage o School age period: from 6-12 years o During this stage, sexual urges are repressed and channeled into productive ac tivities that are socially acceptable. o The child places energy and effort on other aspects of life, such as learning, adjusting to the social environment outside the home, absorbing the culture, fo rming beliefs and values, and developing same sex friendships. o Habits that the child developed in the earlier stages become firm. o This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills
and self-confidence. Stage 5: The Genital stage o Period of puberty and beyond o During this stage, the individual develops a strong interest in the opposite s ex and his sexual interests mature. o Interest in the child s own sex organ and in other people s replaces the earlier f ocus on satisfaction of hunger and bowel movement. o A genital personality is mature and no longer dominated by early drives for pl easure. o Consequences of fixation are: frigidity, impotence, unsatisfactory relationshi ps. II. Theory of Cognitive Development - Jean Piaget (1896-1980) o He was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children and his theory of cognitive developmen t. He is also known as the great pioneer of constructivist theory of knowing ( Ern est von Glasersfeld); o He worn the Erasmus Prize because of this theory; o Cognitive theory is considered as constructivist because it asserts that we cons truct our cognitive abilities through self-motivated action in the world (www.wi kipedia. org). Earlier theory, like the Nativists describe cognitive development as the unfolding of innate knowledge and abilities. Later theory, like the Empi ricists describe cognitive development as the gradual acquisition of knowledge t hrough experience. o He delineated a sequential phases in intellectual development through series o f distinct stages, namely: Stage 1: Sensorimotor stage (birth 2 years) Characteristics: a. The child organizes his experiences around a sensorimotor framework, i.e., wh at he can see, hear, grasp or suck. An object that he can t see, hear or touch, doesn t seem to exist for him. b. During this period, infants are busy discovering relationship between their a ctions and its consequences, e.g.: Pushes food over the table and see what happens Throws bottle/glass of milk and see how you would react Tries how far he has to reach or grasp an object c. Infants begin to develop a concept of themselves as separate from the externa l world through experiments d. Infant begin to develop the concept of Object Permanence (10 months & up). Object Permanence is awareness that an object exists even when it is out of sigh t, e.g., infants would start to look for things that are moved out of his sight. The awareness that an object can be moved from one place to another although it was not sensed is the final realization of Object Permanence. Summary: 1. Existence of objects depends upon the senses. 2. The infant is able to differentiate self from objects. 3. Recognizes self as agent of actions and begins to act intentionally. 4. Achieves Object Permanence. Stage 2: Pre-operational stage (2-7 years) 1. Child is action-oriented and relies on overt actions 2. Cannot think without action and his thinking and understanding are based on p hysical and perceptual experiences. Four characteristics described the child at this stage: a. Representation: (1 ½ - 2 years) Children begin to use language Words are symbols of things outside Can represent things by drawing and he can pretend
Begin to be able to represent external world internally with symbols. Although t hey can think in symbolic terms, their thoughts are not yet organized in a logic al way. b. Their thoughts are irreversible Child cannot bring back his thought from the starting point of his mental proces s.. c. Perceives human characteristics in objects. He has not yet learned to disting uish human beings from objects. d. Inability to direct his own thinking without external cues. Piaget calls this stage Pre-operational because the child does not yet comprehend certain rules o f operations. At this stage, the child has 2 problems, namely: Conservation and Egocentric thinking. Conservation: This refers to the fact that the amount of substance remains the s ame even though its shape changes, or when it is divided into part. Ego-centric thinking: The child s thinking is centered only on himself for he does n t know yet other view points exist. However, this doesn t mean that the child is s elfish but rather it means that at this stage, the child is incapable of looking at the world from another person s point of view. Stage 3: Concrete Operational stage ( 7 11 years) a. The child can retrace his thoughts b. Can correct himself and start again if necessary c. Can consider more than one dimension at a time d. Can look at a single object or problem in different ways e. Has mastered the various conservation concept f. Starts to perform logical manipulation g. Can also form mental representations in series of actions. A five-year old ch ild can find his way to a friend s house but cannot trace it with paper and pencil . In contrast, an eight-year old can already draw into paper and pencil the map of the route. h. Piaget calls this period concrete stage because although children are using a bstract terms, they are doing it so only in relation to concrete objects. The ch ild still thinks in concrete, not abstract. Stage 4: Formal Operational stage ( 11 15 years old) a. Youngsters are able to reason purely in symbolic terms and this ushers to a n ew kind of thinking. b. An adolescent can search for and reach a general rule through the use of logi c. c. Learns to understand thins through cause and effect and also to develop conce pts. d. Ability to conceive possibilities beyond what is present in reality. e. Can think of alternatives to the way things are.(Bustos, et al) III. The Psychosocial Theory of Development: Erik Erikson (1902-1994) o Trained under Freud. Went to USA, taught at Harvard University o Agreed with Freud on some ideas but disagree on other ideas. o Emphasized a life-long development in contrast to Freud s psychosexual stages of development that stressed the first 5 years of life as key to development of pe rsonality. o Proposed Psychosocial Development consisting of 8 stages: Stage 1 4 focused on the child Stage 5 8 focused on the adolescent, adult, and old age o Each stage represents a developmental task or crisis that a person must negoti ate. o Each stage marks a potential turning point towards greater personal competence or greater weakness or vulnerability. **CHART**
Psychosocial crisis Trust vs. Mistrust 3 yrs)
Relationship with Maternal person
Lasting Outcome Self-confidence and Optimism Paternal person Self c
Early childhood (2 ontrol & Will Power Play age (4 e 5 yrs)
Autonomy vs. Shame Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Direction & Purpos Me
School age (6 11 yrs) thod and Competence Adolescence(12 idelity Young adult nd Love 18)
Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Role Confusion
Neighborhood & School Peer groups
Devotion & F Affiliation a C
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Partners in friendship
Adulthood Generativity vs Stagnation reativity, Production & Care Mature Age Wisdom Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Divided labor & shared household Mankind, My kind Renunciation and
Stage 1: Infancy Psychological crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust The basic reality for the infant is that he is TOTALLY DEPENDENT on others for s urvival, for warmth and relief from discomfort, for tactual contact and human in teraction, especially manifested in love and affection. The degree to which infa nts are able to acquire a sense of trust in other people and in the world depend s upon the quality of maternal care that they receive. Maternal care that is unr eliable, inadequate, and rejecting foster fear, suspicion, and apprehension in t he infant toward the world and people. Behavioral consequences of mistrust will result in acute anxiety and depression in infants and paranoia in adults. Studies done in orphanages reveal a high level of mortality. In Düsseldorf, German y, there was an exception. They found out that Old Anna, a nurse, was giving ext ra care and love to the infants and children. The infants / babies are not passive. Their whole psychological make-up is geard toward being needed. They need to be loved and touched. We need: 4 hugs a day to survive 8 hugs to fight bacteria 12 hugs to grow The Kangaroo clinic is advocating the healing power which a premature baby can exp erience when placed in the bosom of the mother. The baby s gaze at his parents creates in the baby a sense of being loved. Basic trust means being able to let other people love me This has a twofold effect s, namely: I can trust the world I can trust myself It the child s needs are not met, he blames himself; It is the consistently neglec t in responding to the child s need that will develop mistrust in the child. Pregnant women should communicate love to their children by touching their womb. A certain theologian wrote a book and he portrayed God as somebody far away whil e we are left to walk in the dark. Upon further inquiries on his life, it was re vealed that during childhood it was customary at that time to leave the child al
one when the child cries. The rationale for such behavior was to teach the child discipline. Basic trust here lies the foundation of our faith. It is also the foundation of moral behavior where our conscience is formed. It is also our way to contemplati ve prayer How to heal hurts inflicted on us while we were infants / babies? To get in tune when being hurt To get in tune when being loved Stage 2: Early childhood (2 -3 years old) Psychological crisis: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt The social demands of self-control are communicated to the child by the parents i nsistence that he controls, for example, elimination functions. If the child suc ceeds, self-worth increases; but when the child does not succeed, he feels asham ed. The child s capacities are developing rapidly at this time. He loves to run, push, pull, hold, let go. If this parents encourage him to stand on his own feet, to control himself, or permit him to exercise his capacities, this sense of control Erikson calls AUTONOMY. If, on the other hand, the parents demand too much and too soon, or if they prevent their child from using his newly found abilities, h e experiences SHAME AND DOUBT. No, I, My, Me these words are peculiar to this stage. What is needed at this stage is: Firmness when the child abuses Affirmation when the child is down To train the child to make his own decision To develop the child to stand up for something. Stage 3: The Play Age (4 5 years old) Psychological crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt At this stage, the child is active; he runs, fights, climbs. He takes pride in a ttacking and conquering his environment. He also takes pride in his mental power s in his abilities to use language and his fantasies and make-believe games. If the parents try to understand their child by answering his questions and acce pting his active play, he learns to approach what he desires, thus his INITIATIV E is reinforced. On the other hand, if his parents become impatient, punitive, a nd consider their child s questions foolish, his play silly, his attitudes wrong, the child feels GUILTY and uncertain and he develops a reluctance to act out his own desires. A very important job of a father is to play with his children. Punishment never ever works. Love heals. Stage 4: The School Age (6 11 years old) Psychological crisis: Industry vs. Inferiority The child enters into a new world: the school with his own goals, limits, failur es and achievements. When the child feels inadequate in his achievements as comp ared to that of his peers, he develops a sense of INFERIORITY. But if he is succ essful, if his achievements skills and abilities compare favorable well with tho se of his peers, he emerges with the feeling of ADEQUACY, COMPETENCE and pleasur e in his own work and a sense of INDUSTRY is developed. Teachers who believe in their students will really help them achieve better. Stage 5 Adolescence Psychological crisis: Identity vs. Role confusion At this crucial moment in his life, the adolescent must integrate various self-i mages, such as youth, friend, student, leader, follower, worker, woman or man, i
nto one image and select a career and a lifestyle. As the youth achieves a sense of basic trust, autonomy, initiative, and industry, the problem of achieving an IDENTITY is easier. Successful resolution of the identity crises makes him emer ge with a sense of who he is and what he stands for. ROLE CONFUSION is the major danger at this time should he fails to find a coherent identity. Two traps to be avoided at this stage: To have a rigid conscience To throw out the values and have nothing to hold on to. Three very important factors to be developed at this stage: Psychosexual development Belonging to a right group Forming our own religious values On sexual abuse: : What cannot be shared cannot be healed Effects of sexual abuse: People who were abused would act out to others what was done to them People withdraw to himself People get stuck in their psychosocial developmental task Stage 6: Young Adult Psychosocial crisis: Intimacy vs. Isolation Young adults are expected to form a lasting social bond characterized by caring, sharing and trust. Erikson believes that intimacy requires the development of n eutral relationship with a loved member of the opposite sex, with whom one is abl e and willing to regulate the cycles of work, procreation and recreation. A person who lacks a sense of personal identity has a more difficult time establ ishing close relationship. Sometimes he seeks isolation or forms limited ties th at lack spontaneity and genuineness. Tasks at this stage: to discover real love Love heals: Studies in Germany reveal that kissing is good for the health. Husbands who were kissed by their wives were less prone to vehicular accidents then those who wer e not kissed. Individuals who get married at mature age are more likely to succeed in marriage than those who marry at a younger age. Fear at this stage: Am I going to be abandoned? Am I going to be swallowed? Stage 7: Adulthood Psychological crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation GENERATIVITY refers to a commitment to the future and to the new generation. The middle-age adult believes that an active concern about young people and their w elfare and about making the world a better place for future generations enhances the self. On the other hand, self-absorption leads to STAGNATION. Task at this stage: the establishment and guidance of this generation to be pass ed on, the need to reach out beyond ourselves. It also involves a crisis of meaning What do I pass on to? . This would involve g in touch with your own shadows (Carl Jung) The greatest gift one can give during this stage is TO CARE What is the middle age crisis? It is the feeling that I am not getting anywhere. It is the time to ask oneself: What do I really believe in? During this age, the individual realized that life has limits; that energy is also limited. The way o ut or the key to happiness is: TO CARE. At this stage, it is the best time to ex plore the other side of our masculinity / femininity. At this stage the face of Jesus has become bigger. Stage 8: Mature Age
Psychological crisis: Ego Integrity vs. Role Confusion The eight and last stage covers the period when life is approaching its end and the elderly adult now faces his last crisis: INTEGRITY vs. DESPAIR. When the eld erly adult accepts his life as worthy as he looks back and feels satisfied about it, then integrity emerges. Nevertheless, when he sees his life as having been wasted, finding little meaning and satisfaction in the past, despair may occur b ecause he sees that life is running out on him and there is little time left. Th at is why he fears death. Wisdom: the ability to look back at life and see the gifts that have been given to you. It is the ability to accept the limits of time and use time properly; it is grieving the losses and be thankful for whatever you still have. This is gro wth-full attitude. This last stage extends beyond life: LOVE UNDURES FOREVER. DEATH IS NOT THE END. IV. Kohlberg s Theory on Moral Development Value Development: Where do we receive our values and how do we develop them? As humans we are born with a series of undifferentiated potentials. For example, w e have the capacity to learn a language, but the particular language is not pres cribed by our genetic heritage. In this same sense, we have the innate capacity to acquire ethical beliefs. But the value system that we develop is dependent upon the cultural framework in whi ch we live. This capacity to become ethical beings and to conform to some univer sal principles of mutual cooperation and altruisms seems as old as the species i tself. Values development is a product of our interaction with our cultural environment . The foremost theorists in value Development are Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlb erg. Both stress that value development is intimately tied to the individual s cog nitive and psychomotor development. Three Stages of Moral Development (Kohlberg) Level I: The Pre-conventional Stage (Age 2 7) Here the child simply responds to the prevailing cultural values of right and wr ong, good and evil. Stage:1 At this stage, the child has no real understanding of the values themsel ves. He simply accepts authority of others. The physical consequences of the act ion determine the rightness or wrongness of the act. Summary: the child conforms in order to: Avoid punishment Receive reward Stage 2:: At this stage, the child begins to direct his activities toward the sa tisfaction of personal needs rather than the needs of others. Summary: the child conforms based on: Pleasure principle Level II Conventional Stage (age 7 12) Here the child conforms to societal expectations of family, group or nation in o rder to win the approval of authority figures. Stage 3: The child seeks to conform to expected social conventions. Good behavio r pleases others. Summary: The youngster conforms to maintain a Good-boy / Good girl image
Stage 4: The focus becomes fixed on rules, social order and respect for authorit y.
Summary: The youngster conforms out of doing his duty Level III: Conventional Stage (12 and above) The focus is on the development of social contract and autonomous decisions apar t from outside authorities. Stage 5: The individual establishes a social contract orientation and attempts t o conform to the ever-changing values and demands of society. Summary: The individual conforms in compliance to the social contract entered in to. Stage 6: Abstract qualities such as justice, respect for the rights and dignity of others become important. The individual subscribes to these abstract set of c oncepts. Conscience becomes the final arbiter of his decision-making. At this po int, the individual is essentially morally autonomous. . Summary: The individual acts based on the dictates of his conscience.
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