CURS GRAMATICA LIMBA ENGLEZA

LECŢIA 1.................................................................................................................................................3 TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV................................................................................................3 A. Present Tense Simple.......................................................................................................................3 Present Tense Continuous.....................................................................................................................3 B. Past Tense Simple............................................................................................................................6 Past Tense Continuous..........................................................................................................................6 C. Present Perfect Simple.....................................................................................................................8 Present Perfect Continuous...................................................................................................................9 D. Past Perfect Simple........................................................................................................................12 Past Perfect Continuous......................................................................................................................12 E. Future Tense Simple.......................................................................................................................14 Future Continuous...............................................................................................................................14 Future Perfect Simple.........................................................................................................................15 Future Perfect Continuous..................................................................................................................15 Future-in-the-Past Simple...................................................................................................................16 Future-in-the-Past Continuous............................................................................................................16 Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului..............................................................................................16 LECŢIA 2...............................................................................................................................................18 CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR....................................................................................................18 LECŢIA 3...............................................................................................................................................21 MODUL CONDIŢIONAL ŞI FRAZELE CONDIŢIONALE...........................................................21 Present Conditional (condiţional prezent)..........................................................................................21 Past Conditional (condiţional trecut)..................................................................................................22 Frazele condiţionale (If-Clauses) .......................................................................................................23 LECŢIA 4...............................................................................................................................................25 VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ...........................................................................................25 LECŢIA 5...............................................................................................................................................28 Diateza pasiva.....................................................................................................................................28 LECŢIA 6...............................................................................................................................................30 VERBELE MODALE........................................................................................................................30 can, could, may, might, must, need, should, ought to, shall, will, would...........................................30 Can .................................................................................................................................................30 May ................................................................................................................................................31 Must ...............................................................................................................................................31 Need ...............................................................................................................................................32 Should, Ought to ............................................................................................................................32 Shall ...............................................................................................................................................32 Will, Would ...................................................................................................................................33 LECŢIA 7...............................................................................................................................................37 MODUL SUBJONCTIV....................................................................................................................37 LECTIA VIII..........................................................................................................................................42 MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE.....................................................................................................42 Constructii cu infinitivul.................................................................................................................43 Constructii cu participiul prezent....................................................................................................44 Constructie cu participiul trecut......................................................................................................45 CHEIA EXERCITIILOR........................................................................................................................47 LECTIA I............................................................................................................................................47 LECTIA II...........................................................................................................................................49 LECTIA III.........................................................................................................................................50 LECTIA IV ........................................................................................................................................51 LECTIA V..........................................................................................................................................51 LECTIA VI.........................................................................................................................................52 LECTIA VII........................................................................................................................................53 LECTIA VIII......................................................................................................................................55 2

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE
Verbul constituie coloana vertebrală a unei limbi. Cartea „Curs practic de limba engleză – verbul” (cu exerciţii şi cheie) cuprinde o parte teoretică – prezentarea clară şi sistematică a modurilor, timpurilor, concordanţei timpurilor, verbelor modale şi a altor probleme legate de verbul englez (cu exemple şi traducere), precum şi o parte practică cu exerciţii la fiecare capitol şi la sfârşitul cărţii au fost incluse cheia exerciţiilor şi lista verbelor neregulate întâlnite în cadrul exemplelor şi exerciţiilor. Prezentarea teoretică a problemelor este făcută în limba română.

LECŢIA 1
TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV
Există două aspecte în limba engleză: simplu şi continuu. În general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe acţiunea propriu-zisă, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata acţiunii, pe perioada de timp în care aceasta are loc. În explicarea întrebuinţării timpurilor continue se va întâlni formularea „acţiune în plină desfăşurare”. Aceasta înseamnă că acţiunea a început înainte de momentul la care se face referire şi va continua după acel moment. Există un număr de verbe în limba engleză care nu se folosesc la forma continuă, deoarece ideea de durată e inclusă în conţinutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know.

A. Present Tense Simple
Afirmativ I work. You work. He/she/it works. We work. You work. They work. Negativ I do not (don’t) work. You do not (don’t) work. He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work. We do not (don’t) work. You do not (don’t) work. They do not (don’t) work.

Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work? Present Tense Simple se foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune regulată, obişnuită, în perioada prezentă. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast?

Present Tense Continuous
Se conjugă verbul „to be” la timpul prezent şi se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I am working. 3

You are working. He/she/it is working. We are working. You are working. They are working. Negativ I am not working. You are not (aren’t) working. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. We are not (aren’t) working. You are not (aren’t) working. They are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune în plină desfăşurare în momentul prezent. Where are you going? I am going to school. De asemenea, poate arăta o acţiune care se desfăşoară pe timp limitat în perioada prezentă. I go to school by bus this week. My father is taking me in his car. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always, pentru a arăta o acţiune repetată. În acest caz, există o conotaţie afectivă (nemulţumire) sau acţiunea respectivă este caracteristică pentru acea persoană. You are always losing your things. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen.

EXERCIŢII cu Present Simple şi Present Continuous:
1. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii (Present Simple) la interogativ şi negativ: 1. I love my brother. 2. She talks too much. 3. I understand you. 4. You play the piano very well. 5. I always believe you. 6. He remembers my phone number. 7. They live in Bucharest. 8. He has a hot bath every day. 9. I trust my friend. 10. I have lunch at one o’clock. Notă: Verbul „to have”, atunci când nu înseamnă „a avea, a poseda”, ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast, to have a shower, to have a party), formează negativul şi interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do”. 2. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii (Present Continuous) la negativ şi interogativ: 4

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

It is raining. I am having a walk. He is telling the truth. You are typing a letter. They are swimming in the river. My friend is wearing a new dress. My mother is resting. We are studying English. Ann is knitting. The child is learning to play the piano.

3. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). 2. What you (do) on Sundays? 3. He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) tea. 4. In England it often (rain). 5. I (not like) that boy. 6. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. 7. You (like) this book? 8. You (dream) at night? Yes, I (dream) every night. 9. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). 10. How you usually (get) to work? I usually (go) by bus, but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. 11. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. 12. You (write) to John now? Yes, I (be). I always (write) to him on his birthday. 13. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre, as I (not want) to miss the first act. 14. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. 15. You (go) to work every day? Yes, of course, except Saturdays and Sundays. 16. Why you (smoke) so much? 17. Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John, but he is late, as usual. 18. I always (have) a rest after lunch. 19. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. 20. You (know) what time is it? 4. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Iarna ninge. 2. Duminica el nu se scoală devreme. 3. Eu nu studiez seara. 4. Ce faci? Citeşti sau priveşti la televizor? 5. Secretara tocmai bate la maşină un referat. 6. Ea merge la cumpărături sâmbăta. 7. Acum îmi fac temele la engleză. 8. Nu-mi place cafeaua. 9. Ce carte citeşti? 10. La ce oră se scoală John dimineaţa? 11. Ce faci tu în zilele libere? 12. Cui îi telefonezi? 13. El nu merge la şcoală cu metroul, merge pe jos. 14. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. Adesea citesc cărţi englezeşti. 16. Ea îşi face bagajul. 17. Cât de des le scrii părinţilor tăi? 18. Când merg la mare îmi place să înot mult. 19. Clientul tocmai îşi alege o pereche de pantofi. 5

forma III – participiul trecut to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtată a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). Past Tense trebuie învăţat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indică cele trei forme de bază ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. He/she/it was not working. You were working. forma II . Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formează prin adăugarea terminaţiei – ed în cazul verbelor regulate: to work – worked. terminată. cu perfectul compus. You were working.) Last year I travelled to England. They were not working.) Past Tense Continuous Se formează prin conjugarea verbului „to be” la trecut (Past Tense) şi adăugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. efectuată într-o perioadă de timp trecută. terminată. You were not working. Dacă verbul este neregulat. Se traduce. Past Tense Simple arată o acţiune trecută. He/she/it was working. They were working. Afirmativ I was working. Negativ I was not working.B. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia. Formele prescurtate sunt: 6 . You were not working. Este timpul de naraţiune. de obicei.Paste Tense. Yesterday I went for a walk. (Ieri am mers la plimbare. We were not working. We were working.

reprezintă fundalul de timp pe care se petrece acţiunea exprimată de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). Este. Puneţi verbele din urmatoarele propoziţii la Past Tense Simple: 1. În această situaţie. When I first (meet) him. verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). 3. He changed his library book every day. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. While I was crossing the street. He meets John on Sundays. de asemenea. I like to have a coffee in the morning. He translated the text. sora lui privea la televizor. 8. I sold my car. de obicei. he (work) in a bank. This time yesterday. They drank all the wine. posibil să apară într-o frază timpul Past Continuous în mod repetat. He forbade her to do this. ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul. 10. You drink too much. I play football. his sister was watching TV. într-un moment trecut. 2. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. este posibil să apară un verb folosit la Past Continuous şi un verb folosit la Past Simple. 6. He thought about you. 2. Se traduce. I hated him. I always make cakes on Sundays. 4. 3. 5. 10. în plină desfăşurare.) Adesea. 4. 7.) EXERCIŢII cu Past Tense Simple şi Continuous: 1. I own two umbrellas. I talk on the phone. 5. 2. He came home late. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii la negativ şi interogativ: 1. That sounds interesting. cu imperfectul. 3. 9. I met John. I was watching TV. în aceeaşi frază. 8. 6. You ask too many questions. ele arătând acţiuni paralele. (În timp ce John citea. I enjoyed travelling. 9. 2. When you (come in). While John was reading. În acest caz. 7 . Interogativ Was I working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were we working? Were you working? Were they working? Arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare într-un moment din trecut. 7. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. We worked very hard. You speak English well.was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working.

When I (enter) the classroom. 5. Bătea un vânt puternic când am ieşit din casă. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseară. El a dat primul examen săptămâna trecută. He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de înot. she (have) dinner. 11. mi-am luat micul dejun şi apoi am plecat la şcoală. 18. someone (ring up). 7. Afirmativ I have worked.3. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. You have worked. 20. 10. Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. 15. the teacher (write) on the blackboard. We have worked. eu conduceam maşina spre Sinaia. he (have) an accident. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecută? 3. Acum două zile am căzut şi mi-am rupt piciorul. You have worked. Mă pregăteam să merg la facultate. Cine a câştigat meciul alaltăieri? 22. În timp ce îmi căutam paşaportul am găsit această fotografie veche. Unde ţi-ai petrecut concediul vara trecută? 17. Ce făceai marţea trecută la ora 7 dimineaţa? 8. 4. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineaţă. 10. 21. When I (arrive). Ieri pe vremea asta plouă. la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. 12. 2. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. As I (write). He/she/it has worked. În timp ce ploua. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. Duminica trecută prietenii mei au jucat şah. C. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. Ei au ascuns imediat cărţile şi şi-au scos manualele de şcoală. 8. 9. Ieri mi-am pierdut mănuşile. I (watch) a film on TV. Ieri m-am sculat devreme. 6. Săptămâna trecută am fost bolnav şi nu am mers la şcoală. Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? 8 . This time last Sunday. Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent. 4. 9. Când ai cumpărat acest televizor? 14. They have worked. 5. While he (learn) to drive. 4. 16. Băieţii jucau cărţi când l-au auzit pe tatăl lor intrând în casă. 19. Când te-ai întors de la munte? 13.

) • arată o acţiune trecută. I must buy a new one. Present Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be”. seldom.) I didn’t get up early this morning. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce în româneşte fie cu prezentul. I have often been to England.Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relaţie. începând din) şi for (de. I have seen two films this week. (El nu s-a întors încă acasă. dintr-un motiv sau altul. (Nu l-am văzut pe John de două luni. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodată în Anglia?) No. dacă aceasta este în cursul dimineţii (până la ora 12) sau după amiază. (Îl cunosc pe John de doi ani.) Traducerea celor două propoziţii în limba română este identică. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. I must buy a new one. De asemenea. (Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineaţă. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. (Nu l-am văzut în ultimul timp. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepoziţiile since (din. fie cu perfectul compus.) Dacă adverbul de timp este „this morning”. this week. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârşitul propoziţiei: lately. folosirea timpului verbal este condiţionată de momentul în care se face afirmaţia. I have never been to England. yet (în propoziţii negative).) I haven’t seen John since September. Yes. În acest caz. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aşează între auxiliar şi verb: often. dacă se pune o întrebare referitoare la trecut care începe cu „when”. 9 . la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseşte în următoarele situaţii: • arată o acţiune începută în trecut care continuă până în prezent. already. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat în trecut. În acest caz. (Am văzut două filme săptămâna aceasta. (Nu l-am văzut pe John din septembrie. I haven’t seen John for two months. (Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineaţă. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week. (Îl cunosc pe John din 1990. I lost my umbrella yesterday. He hasn’t returned home yet.) Trebuie precizat faptul că. always. I haven’t got up early this morning. • arată o acţiune trecută. never. dacă se menţionează momentul trecut în care a avut loc acţiunea care interesează în prezent sau care are rezultate în prezent.) I have known John for two years. terminată. în funcţie de context. efectuată într-o perioadă de timp neterminată. just. this year. care are rezultate în prezent sau care. se foloseşte Past Simple. folosirea lui este însoţită de adverbe precum: today. timp de). întrucât „when” reprezintă un moment precizat în trecut. interesează în prezent.) I have known John since 1990. El arată o legătură între trecut şi momentul prezent. Se foloseşte cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leagă trecutul de prezent. ever. this month. Trebuie să-mi cumpăr una nouă.) După cum se poate observa.) I haven’t seen him lately. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai văzut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella.

He (not come) home yet. să continue şi în viitor. You (visit) the Village Museum? 13. He just (leave) home. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. 21.) Ca şi Present Perfect Simple. I (not be) to the seaside this year. 9. 10 . You must come and see it. You ever (drive) a car? 17. 12. thank you. 8. He (not go) to bed yet. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. I am tired because I have been working all day.Afirmativ I have been working. I (live) here for one year. No. If it doesn’t stop soon. They have been working.) De asemenea. I (not write) to my friend for three months. It (not rain) since December. You have been working. (Sunt obosit pentru că am muncit toată ziua. You ever (eat) caviar? 14. (Plouă de 3 ore. 5. 6. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19. He always (rely on) his friend. You have been working. Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working. I already (see) this film. EXERCIŢII cu Present Perfect Simple şi Continuous: 1. How long you (live) here? 22. I just (have) one. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba română. cu accent pe durată. 11. 18. we shall have floods. între un moment trecut şi prezent. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple în locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. 15. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare. 2. poate arăta probabilitatea ca acţiunea începută în trecut. Would you like a cake? 7. vom avea inundaţii. 16. I (lend) him some money today. care continuă în prezent. Dacă nu se opreşte în curând. You (water) the flowers? 3. It has been raining for three hours. 4. We have been working. 10. He has not (hasn’t) been working. I (buy) a new house. He/she/it has been working.

I (cook) all the morning. A plecat John? 20. 13. I am not out of work now. 3. 4. 3. 5. Ever since that woman came to work here. 21. Ninge de două ore. Ai văzut ziarul de azi? 19. M-am gândit adesea să-mi iau carnet de conducere. De cât timp înveţi engleza? 5. Unde ţi-ai petrecut vacanţa anul acesta? 3. 3. 9. a plecat acum o oră. 7. 16.m. Un copil a spart geamul. Vremea s-a încălzit în ultimul timp. Ţi-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. Trebuie să-l înlocuim. acum doi ani. 8. 6.2. 6. am petrecut o lună aici. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. Da. 11. When are you going to do it? 12. she (try) to make trouble. I’m tired of it. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous în locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. It’s time we woke him up. The radio (play) since 7 a. I (try) last year but I (not succeed). I (water) the flowers. Da. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. El este ministru de doi ani. Am mers pe jos 10 km până acum. I (get) a job last month. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. 12. l-am luat la ora 8. 18. 10. 4. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple în locul infinitivelor: 1. Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. 23. De când mi-am cumpărat maşina. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. Traduc un text de două ore şi nu l-am terminat încă. I haven’t. 2. I (lose) my pen. You (see) your mother this week? No. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now. 25. When you (use) it last? 2. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. 14. am mers arareori pe jos la slujbă. 4. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. We (know) each other for several years. A fost un accident. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). La ce te-ai uitat? 15. Cine te-a învăţat să vorbeşti engleza atât de bine? 2. 4. 7. It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. 8. You (not see) it anywhere? No. 11. 10. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. Ei lucrează la această casă de un an şi nu au terminat-o încă. He (sleep) for 10 hours now. El a scris numai două scrisori de când a plecat în străinătate. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. 7. 11. 10. Ai mai fost în acest oraş? 24. Da. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. Am stat acasă şi nu am regretat nici o clipă. Nu am mers la vot. You (be) out of work long? 5. 9. 11 .

echivalentul în limba română al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. he got bored.) When you rang me up. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. când în aceeaşi frază în propoziţia principală se află un verb la Past Tense. Past Perfect Simple Se formează cu verbul „to have” la Past Tense Simple. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. 12 . Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. she had been typing for one hour. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua funcţiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous în propoziţia secundară. (El a spus că plouă de 3 zile.) Ca sens. ca şi Present Perfect. (După ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeaşi formă la toate persoanele. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. Arată o acţiune trecută care a avut loc înaintea unei alte acţiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. terminasem de scris temele. este vorba de o relaţie între două momente trecute. (Când mi-ai telefonat. Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare între două momente trecute.) He said it had been raining for three days. (Când el a intrat în cameră. Past Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be”. un verb de relaţie. ea bătea la maşină de o oră. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun.) După cum se observă. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. în acest caz. Afirmativ I had worked. De asemenea. I had finished writing my homework. dar. la care se adaugă forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba română. Afirmativ I had been working.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. s-a plictisit. When he entered the room. Este. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul.D. Interogativ Had I been working? Aceste forme se păstrează la toate persoanele.

The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. Când am ajuns la staţia de autobuz. When we met them. a înmânat-o profesorului. 10. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. 9. 10. After John (leave). We (ask) him what countries he (visit). we (climb) for 7 hours. 4. Mi-a părut rău că îl jignisem. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. 3. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. Ei mi-au spus că locuiau în Franţa din 1980. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. When she decided to have a rest. it (rain) for one hour. 2. I realized she (have) a party. Secretara mi-a spus că directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumătate de oră. El mi-a mulţumit pentru ceea ce făcusem pentru el. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. When I (find out) he (get married). After we (walked) for an hour. 8. 9. am mers la culcare. 9. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. At 3 o’clock on Friday. we (realize) we (lose) our way. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. 7. When I rang her up. 8. 6. 8. she felt chilly. they drank some coffee. De îndată ce au plecat musafirii. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. 7. 2. 5.Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. Puneţi verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. 6. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. 3. 4. 10. she (study) the subject for a week. After they (finish) dinner. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. 7. she (write) letters for one hour. 2. 3. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. 5. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. mi-am dat seama că îmi lăsasem poşeta acasă. 5. 3. Ei au călătorit în multe ţări după ce s-au căsătorit. I (return) from school. 6. 4. When we arrived at Sinaia. 6. 13 . 8. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. 2. El nu făcuse nimic înainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. 5. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. 3. 10. When I left home. When we reached the top. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. Nu ţi-am telefonat pentru că am crezut că plecaseşi în străinătate. When I arrived home. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. 4. She said she already (be) to England. When she sat for the exam. When I called on her unexpectedly.EXERCIŢII cu Past Simple şi Continuous: 1. De îndată ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. mother (cook) for two hours. The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. 2. 7. 4. 9.

We (shall) will go. They will not be going. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba română. Afirmativ I (shall) will go. They will go. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Negativ I (shall) will not be going. Forma scurtă pentru „shall not” este shan’t. Negativ I (shall) will not go. He/she/it will not go. Acest timp arată o acţiune viitoare obişnuită. la care se adaugă infinitivul verbului de conjugat. You will not be going. You will be going. He/she/it will be going. I (shall) will meet him next week. You will not go. Interogativ Shall I go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul că la interogativ persoana I. You will go. He/she/it will not be going. iar pentru „will not” este won’t. He/she/it will go. 14 . You will not be going. You will go.) Future Continuous Se formează cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be”. Future Tense Simple Se formează cu shall sau will la persoana I. You will be going. We (shall) will be going.E. You will not go. se foloseşte numai „shall”. We (shall) will not be going. We (shall) will not go. They will not go. They will be going. (Îl voi întâlni săptămâna viitoare. will la persoana II şi III. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going.

They will have gone. They will not have gone. 15 . He/she/it will not have gone. We (shall) will have gone. la care se adaugă infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. At three o’clock. You will not have gone. I will have reached Predeal.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba română. You will have gone. (Mâine la ora 3 voi călători spre Anglia. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. By three o’clock tomorrow. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. I will have been studying for three hours. I (shall) will have been going. We (shall) will not have gone. (Mâine până la ora 3 voi fi ajuns la Predeal. I will be travelling to England. When you come home.) Future Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be”. Interogativ Shall I have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arată o acţiune anterioară unei alte acţiuni sau unui moment viitor. You will not have gone. You will have gone. (have + forma III). Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba română. Future Perfect Simple Se formează cu shall sau will.Interogativ Shall I be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare într-un moment viitor. He/she/it will have gone.

) • Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. Arată o intenţie. la care se adaugă infinitivul verbului de conjugat. (El a spus că în ziua următoare. Este un timp rar folosit. arată un program precis. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât în întrebări disjunctive. bine stabilit.) It is going to rain. Este un timp destul de rar folosit. la ora 3. I leave for London tomorrow.) Întrucât nu poate fi întâlnit decât în propoziţii secundare (după un verb la timpul trecut în propoziţia principală). (Voi citi/am de gând să citesc această carte. He said that at 3 o’clock. va călători spre Anglia. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. You would not go. the next day. (Îl întâlnesc/îl voi întâlni pe John în dimineaţa aceasta. You would not go. Acest timp este folosit în concordanţa timpurilor pentru a arăta o acţiune posterioară unui moment sau unei acţiuni din trecut. We (should) would not go. You would go. (El a spus că va întârzia. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de 3 ore. Arată de asemenea o intenţie sau o probabilitate. Forma scurtă de la „should not” este shouldn’t. He/she/it would not go. he would be travelling to England. iar cea de la „would not” este wouldn’t. We (should) would go. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formează cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be”. They would go. Negativ I (should) would not go. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. Afirmativ I (should) would go. He/she/it would go. 16 . I am going to read this book.) • Expresia „to be going to” + infinitiv. You would go.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului • Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor. Într-un astfel de context. They would not go. Preia funcţiile lui Future Tense Continuous într-o propoziţie secundară.Când vei veni tu acasă. I should (would) be going. He said he would be late. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formează cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). I am meeting John this morning. Arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare între două momente viitoare. Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba română. atunci când în principală se află un verb la trecut.

I am sure I (succeed). I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. I (have) breakfast. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. I am sure you (like) this book. I am sure when I arrive home. 8. 6. In a week’s time. Din cauza grevei şoferilor de autobuze multă lume va merge pe jos la slujbă. When I take the exam. Ce faci mâine dimineaţă la ora 11? 3. Don’t expect me home for dinner. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth. 7. 7. ei vor avea ultima oră de engleză. 3. 4. 10. 7. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. 7. the baby (cry). 4. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. He (be) pleased if you invite him. By the end of the season. I (remember) this day all my life. mâine. By 5 o’clock. I (pay off) all my debts. You (be) in London tomorrow. Am cumpărat o maşină de scris şi voi învăţa să bat. 9. it probably (rain). între orele 12 şi 1. voi fi economisit 5 milioane. 4. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. 5. 8. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 1. El va studia în bibliotecă luni de la ora 1 la 5. 2. This time next month. Voi vizita târgul internaţional. 4. 6. 2. 6. Până anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. ea va fi terminat curăţenia în casă. You (recognize) him when you see him? 4. 8. they (be married) for 25 years. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. You (remember) to post my letter? 9. Uite ce am cumpărat la o licitaţie! 12. I (work) at the office till late at night. 10. By the end of the month. When you reach Sinaia. Next year. I (cook) for two hours. 2. 3. Vineri. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. 3. we (climb) the mountain. 3. By the beginning of next week. 10.m. This time next day. 9. I (swim) in the sea. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: 1. voi fi văzut acest film de 5 ori. I (know) the results in three days’ time. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: 1. I hope I (pass) the exam. He (study) all day tomorrow. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. Unde îl vei pune? 17 . E un obiect frumos. 9. 10. Trenul va fi plecat înainte de a ajunge noi la gară. By the time you come home. Până la ora 1. Let’s hurry to the beach. 5. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. She (watch) TV.EXERCIŢII cu timpurile „Future”: 1. 8. I (work) on this paper for a month. 2. Până la sfârşitul lunii. we (take) our exam. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. 2. 6. If we don’t hurry. 5. 11.

Propoziţia principală 1. Past Tense Continuous. nu în propoziţii.) He said he was going to school. (El a spus că este bolnav. cu excepţia propoziţiilor temporale sau condiţionale.) Nota 2: Dacă într-o frază există două propoziţii secundare cu acţiune posterioară celei din principală. Situaţiile cel mai des întâlnite sunt următoarele: 18 . Present Perfect Simple. (El a spus că va veni să mă vadă când va avea timp.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. (El a spus că va veni să mă vadă după ce va termina lucrul. (Ea a spus că uitase unde şi-a pus ochelarii. un timp „past” Past Tense Simple.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. desigur. se poate folosi Past Perfect în mod repetat.) She promised her mother she would help her. după care (în temporală sau condiţională) se întrebuinţează Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate).) c) Past Tense – acţiunea posterioară – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day. (El a spus că va pleca a doua zi. Present Tense Continuous. (El a spus că merge la şcoală. Past Perfect Simple.) Nota 1: Dacă într-o frază există două propoziţii. care nu pot include un verb la viitor. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. Ce înseamnă „un timp adecvat” se va vedea în continuare.) 3. (El a spus că se întorsese acasă cu o săptămână înainte.LECŢIA 2 CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR Concordanţa timpurilor se aplică. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. un timp „present” Present Tense Simple. (El a spus că va cumpăra o maşină dacă va avea bani. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale că o va ajuta. Ea constă în aceea că folosirea unui anumit timp în propoziţia principală obligă la folosirea unui timp adecvat în propoziţia secundară. Past Perfect Continuous Propoziţia secundară Orice alt timp „past”. Propoziţia principală 2. ci în fraze. (Am ajuns acasă după ce încetase ploaia. He said he would come to see me when he had time. secundara cu acţiunea anterioară celei din principală. dintre care una este temporală sau condiţională. a) Past Tense – acţiune simultană – Past Tense He said he was ill.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. Present Perfect Continuous Propoziţia secundară Orice timp cerut de sens. Future-in-the-Past se poate folosi numai o singură dată.) b) Past Tense – acţiune anterioară – Past Perfect He said he had returned home a week before.

Looking out of the window. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). He just (leave) home when he came across John.) I will have finished studying when you come home.a. When I arrived. 2. EXERCIŢII cu concordanţa timpurilor: 1. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinţă de a nu se respecta concordanţa timpurilor atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut. Pentru moment însă. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. 4. Când propoziţia secundară exprimă un adevăr general valabil.) Notă: În limba engleză contemporană. 3. She told me his name after he (leave). 7.) 2. (Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. (Profesorul le-a spus elevilor că apa fierbe o la 100 C. 4. 8. (Voi citi această carte când voi avea timp. sfătuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleză să respecte regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor aşa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. 19 . 10.) Excepţii de la concordanţa timpurilor: 1. Future – acţiune simultană – Present I will read this book when I have time. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. 9. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. 2. cu timpul. Când propoziţia secundară este comparativă. They didn’t know that I (play) football. 5. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. I was not sure if you (speak) English. I believed you (be) at the seaside. Când propoziţia secundară este atributivă. He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. să ajungă regulă. 5. (Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost dată de fratele meu. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. (Voi merge în Anglia după ce voi obţine viza. Future – acţiune anterioară – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. I understood you (be) a painter. 3. 2. the concert already (begin). After I (hear) the news. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasă.) b. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). Se poate întâlni. I congratulated him.) 3. When it started to rain. 6. 7. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinţă. It was clear they (talk) business again. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. 6. având în vedere simultaneitatea acţiunilor din propoziţia principală şi cea secundară: 1. de exemplu. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me”. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. ţinând seama de relaţia de anterioritate exprimată de verbul din propoziţia principală sau din cea secundară: 1.

I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. In 1998. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. 8. When he finally reached London. Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years. 19. After he (repair) the car. When their first baby (be born). You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. 4. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). 10. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). he was tired because he (travel) for three days. 5. 17. As wages had gone up. they will have been married for five years. 6. precum şi excepţiile: 20 . she will take a job as a secretary. We all believed he (win) the competition. By the time you (finish) translating the text. As soon as the holidays (begin). 9. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. 9. I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me. 7. this beach will become very crowded. I shall have typed all the letters. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). 7. Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. 10. ţinând seama de excepţiile de la concordanţa timpurilor: 1. 10. 3. 9. 3. 4. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. He promised he (drive) me home. 4. 2. având în vedere faptul că propoziţia secundară exprimă o acţiune posterioară celei din principală: 1. you will feel better. 18. When I (finish) the book. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. 6. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. I will lend it to you. 5. When I heard the main actor was ill. 3. 3. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. 6. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. 5. 12. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. 16. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). He believed the strike (end) very soon. 9. 4. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. 14. 2. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. 5. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now. 8. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-in-the-Past. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. 11. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. After she (learn) to type. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). 13. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. we supposed prices (go up). 8. 20. 7. 2. too. 15. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. he will drive to Sinaia. 6. respectând toate regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor. After you (drink) a coffee. 10. The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John.8.

not before. He was very upset because I (be) late. 10. Poliţistul mă va întreba ce am văzut în timpul accidentul. Afirmativ I should/would go. 5. la care se adaugă infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. 2.1. 13. he decided he (change) his job. 4. 19. 5. Îţi voi spune adevărul după ce îl voi afla eu însămi. I (not decide) yet. 6. 10. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. 20. 12. You will never know how much I (suffer). Secretara mi-a spus că directorul este ocupat. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. LECŢIA 3 MODUL CONDIŢIONAL ŞI FRAZELE CONDIŢIONALE Present Conditional (condiţional prezent) Se formează cu should şi would la persoana I şi would la persoanele II şi III. 16. When I finally arrived home. Hoţul nu şi-a dat seama că poliţia îl urmărea de o săptămână. 3. 7. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. 3. 14. they were listening to music. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. 9. 7. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. 7. After we have finished dinner. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. M-a întrebat câte litere sunt în alfabetul chinez şi nu am putut să-i răspund. 12. 17. Nu mi-am amintit că ne cunoscusem cu un an înainte. 9. 18. 6. When we (go) to see them last night. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. Maşina pe care o voi cumpăra va fi importată din Germania. A week ago. Ştiam că eşti în Bucureşti. 4. 15. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. we (drink) coffee and brandy. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. After having visited Italy. I will do it when I (want) to. 21 . 8. He told me he never (see) the sea. 2. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. 11. Tata îmi va da un cadou după ce voi lua examenul. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. I-am promis că îi voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. Nu am stat acasă să te aştept pentru că nu ştiam când vei veni. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. 11. Era foarte supărat că îşi pierduse dicţionarul şi nu era sigur că va găsi unul nou în librării. 8. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen.

We should/would go. ar fi mers etc. Negativ I should/would not have gone. You would not go. They would not go. We should/would not go. Negativ I should/would not go. wouldn’t. Interogativ Should I go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Should we go? Would you go? Would they go? Se traduce cu condiţionalul prezent din limba română (aş merge. 22 . You would have gone. You would not have gone. He/she/it would go. You would go. Past Conditional (condiţional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adaugă infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). They would not have gone. He/she/it would not have gone. You would not go. Interogativ Should I have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu condiţionalul trecut din limba română (aş fi mers. Afirmativ I should/would have gone.You would go. He/she/it would have gone. We should/would have gone. ai merge. ar merge etc. We should/would not have gone. ai fi mers. They would not go. He/she/it would not go. You would have gone. They would have gone. Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. You would not have gone.).).

suppose. Acest tip de secundară este adesea combinat cu imperativul.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained. had. I (greet) him. (În caz că telefonează.) De asemenea. spune-i că nu sunt acasă. we would be fined. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. should se traduce cu: în caz că.) Nota 1: Trebuie să se ţină seama că subjonctivul folosit în propoziţia secundară are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând că el întârzie?) . If she should ring up. should poate fi folosit în secundară la tipul 2 de fraza condiţională. (Aş fi stat acasă dacă ar fi plouat. (Aş merge la mare dacă vremea ar fi bună. (În caz că poliţia ar afla adevărul/Dacă s-ar întâmpla ca poliţia să afle adevărul. providing. În acest caz. should). If the police should find out the truth. dar improbabilă. (Aş sta acasă dacă ar ploua. (Voi sta acasă dacă va ploua.) Tipul 2: Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. cu excepţia verbului „to be”. unde se întâlneşte forma „were” la toate persoanele.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1.) I will stay at home if it rains. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me.if not poate fi înlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me.) Nota 2: – if poate fi înlocuit de provided (that).) I would stay at home if it rained. noi am fi amendaţi. If I see him. (Voi merge la mare dacă vremea va fi bună. este posibilă omiterea lui if. were. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 1: 1. in case. 23 . şi în acest caz se inversează ordinea subiect – auxiliar. dacă s-ar întâmpla ca. (Aş fi mers la mare dacă vremea ar fi fost bună. supposing. tell her I am out. What shall we do. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come EXERCIŢII cu fraze condiţionale: 1. Tipul 3: Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine.Frazele condiţionale (If-Clauses) Există trei tipuri de fraze condiţionale: Tipul 1: Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. atunci când acţiunea din secundară este posibilă. în loc de Present Simple.

If I (not tell) him.2. I (answer) it. I (buy) a car. If I (be) you. 9. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 2: 1. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. If he had written a letter to me. 10. 8. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 3. he would have gone home. 5. 9. If I (give up) smoking. 4. If you don’t hurry. ţinând seama că se poate întâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze condiţionale: 1. It (be) better if you had waited. we shall have floods. If I (know) his phone-number. would you visit me? 3. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. Dacă ar ploua. If he (realize) it was so late. you (not get) into trouble. Unless you come at 6. străzile ar fi fost ude. you wouldn’t have an accident. Were I in your place. 5. 5. you (promise) to keep it a secret? 6. I (buy) it. I (answer) the phone. If it (go on) raining. I would go home immediately. 2. If you had taken my advice. He (tell) you if you had asked him. Had I been at home. he (take) a pill. I would ring him up. If I (move) to the country-side. If I (know) you had no driving licence. If I (see) him. I (not do) this. Should he have a headache. 7. 10. 3. 5. 3. 8. If you (drive) more carefully. 2. 7. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. 9. If I tell you something. If she finds out what has happened. you (not pass) the exam. 2. 7. she (be) very angry. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 3: 1. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. 10. străzile ar fi ude. 8. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 24 . 3. 6. 10. you will have to look after it. 3. Ai fi prins trenul dacă ai fi luat un taxi. If I like the dress. If you had known English. 2. You (be) sick if you eat so much. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. Vei prinde trenul dacă vei lua un taxi. you (not find) me at home. 9. 5. If I (work) harder. I (answer) your question if I can. 4. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Had I learned English grammar. străzile vor fi ude. Dacă va ploua. If he were more careful. he (get) a bar of chocolate. he would never have known. 4. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? 6. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. 4. 8. Unless you study more. I would speak to him. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. I would have succeeded. he (not make) so many mistakes. Dacă ar fi plouat. 6. If you (take) a dog. 5. I would be nervous. If I won the lottery. You (buy) this house if you had money? 4. 2. If the child is good. 4. you (be) late. 7. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country.

7. today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before 25 . He said: „She gave me a book”. He said she had given him a book. Dacă n-ai fi închis fereastra. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanţă dacă n-ar fi atât de mulţi oameni acolo. Atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut. 5. Dacă cina nu va fi gata la timp. He said „I was ill”. Ai prinde trenul dacă ai lua un taxi. He said he had been ill. 1. Ce-ai face dacă l-ai întâlni pe John? 12. Se schimbă o serie de cuvinte în funcţie de sens. ceea ce se întâmplă în majoritatea cazurilor. Se schimbă pronumele. Aş mai croşeta un pulover dacă aş mai avea lână. Nu vom merge la plimbare dacă nu va sta ploaia. Dacă un cerşetor ţi-ar cere bani. în propoziţia secundară se schimbă timpurile după cum urmează: Present past Present perfect past perfect Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past He said „I am ill”. Ce-ai fi făcut dacă l-ai fi întâlnit pe John? 6. Mi-ar plăcea mai mult piesa dacă ar fi mai scurtă. Ce s-ar fi întâmplat dacă ai fi condus cu viteză mare? 4. voi mânca la un restaurant. He said he had been working hard. Îl vei vedea dacă îl vei aştepta. Te-ai supăra dacă ţi-aş lua creionul? 9. 6. 1. He said „I will do the exercise”. i-ai da? 3. He said he would do the exercise. 2. LECŢIA 4 VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ Vorbirea directă: John said: „She is not at home”. Voi fi dezamăgit dacă nu voi afla adevărul. 7. Ce vei face dacă îl vei întâlni pe John? 11. 8. 9. 2.6. Vorbirea indirectă: John said she was not at home. Pentru a trece o propoziţie de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă. mi-ar fi fost frig. He said „I have been working hard. He said he was ill. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. Te vei supăra dacă îţi voi lua creionul? 8. în funcţie de sens. 10. Te-ai fi supărat dacă ţi-aş fi luat creionul? 10.

He asked me: „What is the time?” Corect: He asked me what the time was. există tentaţia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propoziţiile interogative. I would stay at home. iar răspunsul poate fi da sau nu. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) He said „Go out”. should. Întrebările speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. He said „Don’t go out”.He said he might be late. He said: „I might be late”. He told me to go out. Frazele condiţionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirectă în modul următor: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: „If it rains. on holiday. He told me not to go out. He said (that) he was ill. He said he was going to do that translation the next day. Întrebările generale se introduc cu if sau whether (dacă).tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time next week the next/the following week two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there He said: „I’ll be at home today”. Treceţi următoarele afirmaţii de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow”. „If it had rained. Where have you been? I’ve been away. Întrebări: există două tipuri de întrebări: generale şi speciale. Modalităţi de introducere a propoziţiilor secundare în vorbirea indirectă: 1. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. The weather was fine yesterday. În cazul întrebărilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirectă.” He said if itrained he would stay at home.” He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. 26 . He said he would be at home on that day. I would have stayed at home. might rămân neschimbate la vorbirea indirectă. could. 1. o tipurile 2 şi 3 nu se schimbă: „If it rained. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow”. ought to. He asked me where I had been. EXERCIŢII cu vorbirea directă şi vorbirea indirectă: 1. I will stay at home. Întrucât această propoziţie începe cu un cuvânt interogativ. 2. He asked me if I liked music. 3. ceea ce este o greşeală. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. trebuie acordată atenţie ordinei cuvintelor din propoziţia secundară. Verbele modale would. 3.” He said if it rained he would stay at home. Afirmaţii: cu that (care se poate omite) He said: „I am ill”. Întrebările generale sunt cele care încep cu un verb.

Where will you spend your weekend? 6. Don’t cross the street on a red light! 6. I am going to have a nap this afternoon. 6. 5. Treceţi următoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „Come in!” He told (asked. If I have enough money. Read the text. Can you speak English? 11. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. 7. Were you at the library yesterday? 9. please! 3. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. I will buy a car next year. If I had been at home. Don’t smoke so much! 8. Treceţi următoarele întrebări speciale la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?” He asked me when I had come back. I saw this film a week ago. 1. Did you drink coffee every day? 8. Would you like a cake? 12. 2. Did you buy this book yesterday? 7. please? 2. When did the rain stop? 9. I am very busy today. 1. Don’t drive so fast! 2. 9. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. please! 4. I will go shopping right now. 1. please? 4. When will you be back? 5. 10. Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! 10. Was your mother at home? 6. How long does it take you to reach your office? 4. Has the train left? 4. 8. Will you help me. John left for Sinaia two days ago. Can you come to tea this afternoon? 3. How did you travel? 27 . What are you going to do tomorrow? 3. Do you know what this word means? 5. Open the door. Could you lend me a book. Which of these cakes do you prefer? 10. 3.2. Who is this man? 7. I went to England two years ago. Write me a letter when you get to England! 5. How long have you been learning English? 2. Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. ordered) me to come in. Do you live in London for a long time? 10. 11. Take this pill! 9. Treceţi următoarele întrebări generale la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?” He asked me if I would be at home the next day. I would have answered the phone. Be careful with my books! 7. 12. Why is it so dark in this room? 8. 4.

EXERCIŢII cu diateza pasivă: 1. A specialist will repair my TV set. (by me) Complement indirect  Subiect He was given a book. In this office punctuality is insisted on. While I am in hospital. Desigur. la care se adaugă forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. În multe cazuri. Un alt exemplu de complement prepoziţional care poate deveni subiect. Someone has found the missing child. my flat was being painted. pasivul se foloseşte atunci când nu este important cine face acţiunea. de la sfârşitul propoziţiei. care. În aceste situaţii. în unele cazuri. 6. există trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect în transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. 2. Complement direct  Subiect A book was given to him. de asemenea. complementul prepoziţional. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine.LECŢIA 5 Diateza pasiva Pasivul se formează conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. Unde complementul direct este a book. poate deveni subiect în cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). While I was in hospital. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. I have been asked. I will be asked. În limba engleză. se omite formularea by. His coworkers must do something for him. 28 . Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte în cazul trecerii la pasiv. (by me) În propoziţia: In this office they insist on punctuality. 3. I was asked. 5. punctuality este un complement prepoziţional. my flat is being painted. În limba română. Activ: I gave him a book. iar complementul indirect este him. I will invite my friend to a party. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. complementul indirect şi. trecerea de la diateza activă la diateza pasivă se face prin transformarea complementului direct în subiect. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă: 1. Notă: Se poate folosi aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense şi Past Tense. 4. He has found your bag. I had been asked. Activ: She looked after the child. They will finish the work today. I am asked.

We laughed at John. 2. The teacher asked me a difficult question. They set fire to the shed. 3. These books mustn’t be taken away. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 29 . Găsiţi subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. 3. He hasn’t slept in his bed. 4. 3. The policeman will show us the way. when I passed by. 6. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă: 1. We called for the doctor. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. 8. 7. Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize. Will you write the letter in ink? 3. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă în două feluri. 2. They are building a new house round the corner. 7. 9. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. 9. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. 8. This house has been built out of stone and cement. The guide showed the museum to the tourists. 5. 7. 9. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. 9. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. The noise frightened me. 6. I was recommended a very good doctor. The pupils will be told where to sit. 10. Has someone repaired the TV set? 2. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. We objected to his proposal. 5. 4. 8. 4. 6. Treceţi la pasiv următoarele propoziţii care cuprind combinaţii verb + prepoziţie: 1. People play football all over the world.7. Burglars broke into the house. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. 8. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii de la diateza pasivă la diateza activă. They have given me a nice present. This book will soon be forgotten. Did the sight of the accident shock him? 8. Will someone tell him the details? 6. He hates being made fun of. 3. 10. They didn’t look after the children properly. 2. 2. English is spoken all over the world. I have lent John two of my books. 5. Have you fed the dog? 7. I teach them English. They will give me a reward. Did the tornado frighten you? 5. Did they tell you about the meeting? 9. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. 10. Do you think they will turn down your request? 10. A reception was held in his honour. 6. 4. transformând atât complementul direct cât şi cel indirect în subiecte: 1.

9.) Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseşte înlocuitorul to be able to. prezent. will.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. might. Se folosesc înlocuitori. Ni s-a cerut să arătăm paşapoartele. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. (Pot să fac aceasta. Are sensul de a putea.) Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. He can speak English. Când a ajuns acasă şi-a dat seama că i se furase portofelul. could. Nu formează negativul şi interogativul cu „to do”. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. Scrisoarea va fi pusă la poştă cât mai curând posibil. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. may. Muzeul a fost închis pentru reparaţii. can’t I cannot (can’t) make this translation. ought to. Nu au toate timpurile. need. 15.) Could you help me? (Ai putea să mă ajuţi?) Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseşte could + infinitivul trecut He could have been here in time. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi în cartierul nostru. 8. Can = infinitiv. America a fost descoperită la sfârşitul secolului al XV-lea. 5. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toţi studenţii. 11. 10. LECŢIA 6 VERBELE MODALE can.) I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. shall. (Voi putea veni la tine mâine. He cannot (can’t) speak English. Ni se vor da instrucţiuni detaliate în privinţa referatului. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinţă. 4.1.) 2. (Ştiu să înot. should. prezent Negativ: cannot. condiţional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I? Could you? etc. I can swim. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. În acest hotel se vorbesc limbi străine. Arată o anumită abilitate fizică sau intelectuală. (Ar fi putut să fie aici în timp. 6. 12.) 30 . 7. 14. must. (N-am putut să vin la tine ieri. Can 1. a fi în stare: I can make this traslation. Se traduce cu a şti să. Această informaţie treuie tratată confidenţial. (Vreau să fac aceasta. 2. I can do this. Can you make this translation? Could Past Tense. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanţa. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie căutate în dicţionar. Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. would Caracteristici generale • • • • Nu primesc to înaintea lor şi după ele: Can is a model verb. (N-am putut să-ţi telefonez săptămâna aceasta. 13. 3.

) Cu acest sens. He is abroad.) I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. Se foloseşte înlocuitorul to have to. se foloseşte infinitivul trecut. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. (Nu se poate să fie ora 9.) Negativ: must not. (Ai fi putut să îmi scrii o scrisoare când erai în Anglia. A trebui: It’s got late. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv.) I will have to finish the translation tomorrow.) 2. Soarele nu a apus încă. I must go home. poţi.) Cu acest sens. (Am putut/mi s-a permis să fumez în cameră aceea. pot/am permisiunea să iau maşina ta?) 3. ideea de trecut este redată prin adăugarea infinitivului trecut. mayn’t Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. (Voi şti să conduc maşina după ce voi lua câteva lecţii.I can speak English. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense şi condiţionalul prezent. I had to finish the traslation yesterday. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. dar se foloseşte numai după un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirectă). You may/might help me when I am in need. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. (Da.) Negativ: may not. a avea permisiunea: May I smoke in this room? (Pot/am permisiunea să fumez în această cameră?) Yes. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate să. (Ai putea să mă ajuţi când sunt la nevoie. May/Might – s-ar putea să: Take your umbrella. to be permitted to.) Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. înlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri. (Va trebui să termin traducerea mâine. Are sensul de a putea.) 3.) Must 1.) 31 . nu e posibil să. He may/might be at home now. (S-a făcut târziu. May/might pot exprima un reproş. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. It may/might rain. S-ar putea să fie acasă acum. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc înlocuitorii: to be allowed to. you may. The sun hasn’t set yet. (A trebuit să termin traducerea ieri. (Nu se poate să-l fi văzut pe John pe stradă. (Ştiu să vorbesc engleza. (De ce nu ţi-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut să răceşti. El e în străinătate.) Ring up John. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. (Voi putea/mi se va permite să fumez în camera aceea.) Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. (Telefonează-i lui John.) În vorbirea familiară.) I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. se adaugă infinitivul trecut. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea”. He said I might smoke in that room. prezent Cu acest sens există timpul might care redă ideea de trecut. can I take your car? (Tată. (Ia-ţi umbrela. s-ar putea să plouă.) May 1. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. Father. Trebuie să plec acasă.

) Pentru a reda ideea de trecut. nu e nevoie. se foloseşte didn’t need + infinitivul We didn’t need to do this exercise. interogativ. You needn’t drive so fast. Hai să-l vizităm. se foloseşte needn’t + infinitivul trecut. ar fi bine să. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. (Nu e nevoie să conduci atât de repede.) Shall Folosit cu persoana I. Folosit cu persoana I. there is a speed limit here. Let’s call on him. (El nu are nevoie de această carte. se adaugă infinitivul trecut. Ought to Ambele verbe indică o acţiune corectă. (Ar trebui să o ajuţi pe mama ta la treburile casei. you must! (Da. It must have been late.) • Need: verb modal. De asemenea. poate indica. noţional. aici e limita de viteză. (Nu trebuie să conduci atât de repede. The teacher told us it was too easy for us.) John must be at home now. poate avea sensul probabil că: It must be late. ideea de trecut se redă prin adăugarea infinitivului trecut. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. you needn’t. o recomandare. need se foloseşte numai la interogativ şi negativ. se foloseşte verbul must. 2. You needn’t have watered the flowers. există 2 posibilităţi: • Dacă acţiunea nu era necesară. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes. trebuie!) Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need. (Probabil că John e acasă acum. to have to formează interogativul şi negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. ar fi cazul să.) Should. solicitarea unui sfat. Let’s go home. o obligaţie morală. de asemenea.) Pentru a răspunde afirmativ la întrebarea de mai sus. cu sensul de a fi nevoie: Ca verb modal. Need I be here at one o’clock? (E nevoie să fiu aici la ora 1?) No. (Nu. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie”.) You mustn’t drive so fast. shall indică viitorul. Se traduc cu: ar trebui să. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie să uzi florile. o ofertă sau o sugestie.) Cu acest sens. Notă: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. Nu a fost nevoie să facem acest exerciţiu. (Nu ar fi trebuit să fii atât de nepoliticos cu el.) Need Există două verbe: • To need: verb obişnuit. avem destul timp. N-ai văzut că urma să plouă? • Dacă acţiunea nu era necesară şi nu a fost făcută. Probabil că era târziu. Which dress shall I buy? (Ce rochie să cumpăr?) Shall I wait for you? (Să te aştept?) Shall we meet at one o’clock? (Să ne întâlnim la ora 1?) 32 . (Probabil că e târziu. cu sensul de a avea nevoie: He doesn’t need this book. Hai să mergem acasă.Trebuie menţionat faptul că înlocuitorul lui must. Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie”. dar a fost făcută. You should/ought to help your mother with housework. (Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseară. we have enough time. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday. Profesorul ne-a spus că e prea uşor pentru noi.

You may not smoke in this room. You mustn’t do this .în perioada prezentă My mother will sit for hours watching TV. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. I must go soon. When I was a child. cerere politicoasă: Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. He may not come in wearing dirty boots. 12.Folosit cu persoanele II şi III. 2. Can you help me? 9. (O fi ajuns la Paris până acum. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a îndrăzni) care se conjugă la afirmativ ca un verb obişnuit. 4.) • Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. I cannot translate ten pages a day. I must look up the words in the dictionary. 8. 33 . • Acţiune repetată: . He can swim very well. Would Formula de politeţe. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar dacă nu vei lua examenul. EXERCIŢII cu verbe modale: 1. 5. care are numai formă de trecut. 10. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicletă dacă vei lua examenul.) Notă: În afară de „would”. You may not speak to your mother like that. (Mama mea obişnuieşte să stea ore întregi privind la televizor. ideea de acţiune repetată în trecut se poate exprima cu „used to”. This child may have another cake. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. (Această fată seamănă foarte bine cu Jane. This girl looks very much like Jane. Will. 13. acolo unde este necesar: 1. 6.) .) She will be her sister. You may leave earlier.în trecut When I was a child.) • Presupunere: se traduce în limba română cu o fi. 14. o obligaţie sau o ameninţare care provin de la cel care vorbeşte. (Acest copil nu vrea să facă ce-i spun. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la Past Tense Simple şi Future Tense Simple. 7. 3. please? • A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte): This child will/would not do what I say. (O fi sora ei. în timp ce la interogativ şi negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obişnuit cât şi ca modal. shall poate arăta o promisiune. mama obişnuia să-mi citească poveşti. folosind înlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. my mother used to read me fairy tales. my mother would read me fairy tales.) This radio won’t work. I must learn English. She can lend you that book. May I walk on the grass? 11. (Când eram copil.

He should go to school everyday. You probably forgot to lock the door. She can read and write at the age of five. It can’t be too late. He probably thinks I am wrong. 4. 2. 1. 14. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. He is probably older than he looks. You needn’t do this. 17. 6. 2. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. She can play the piano very well. He …reach the Moon and walk there. 12. 16. 7. holidays will be very different. 4. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. Redaţi ideea de trecut în următoarele propoziţii folosind infinitivul trecut în loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. 9. Man …travel through space now. 8. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. 19. 3. Can you speak Chinese? 18. He may be at home. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. You might write to me more often. She is probably a very good doctor. 19. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. there is plenty in the fridge. Can Jane type very quickly? 17. 7. He needn’t buy milk. 5. 15. He was probably late. 18. It might rain. 2. He must speak English well.15. Must you be so rude? 20. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. 34 . 5. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: He probably speaks English well. 2. 4. You must have forgotten to lock the door. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. John must be ill. He ought to tell me the truth. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. You have probably forgotten his address. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. 4. 3. 10. John could be a winner. 3. He must be delayed at the office. 16. 5. 6. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. You might change your mind about that. He …even drive on its surface. 13. 9. 20. 10. 3. 11. Everybody may borrow books from this library. He probably came home very early. 8. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. You might pay more attention to your work.

I don’t believe that he has passed the exam. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. 9. 8. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains. 1. 6. 7. perhaps it is a good one. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu should sau would: 1. You … take an umbrella. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t: 1. When I was young. I don’t believe it is his fault. It may/might snow in the mountains. 10. I don’t think the weather will change. I’ll give you as much as you want. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. perhaps it will rain. 5. 5. I don’t believe she has learnt English in two months. they are addictive. 10. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. 6. I don’t believe it was his fault. 4. It is possible that I come home early. I don’t think you will miss the train if you hurry. 10. People … speak during the concert. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. 6. 2. I … return the books before the 1st of September. The sky is clear. You…water the flowers. 3. 7. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. Don’t wait. I don’t think this is a true story. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. I don’t believe she has married that awful man. 7. 7. 3. 5. You can’t have been right. 4. You can’t be right. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone else. I don’t think he is at the office so late at night. 2. … you help me solve this problem? 3. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. 3. 2. 8. 8. You … take sleeping pills too often. I …wear my hair long. It is possible for her to be very late. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. 8. 9. 35 . 1. it will soon start raining.5. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. You … worry about money. but I doubt it. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. I don’t believe she has got so fat. Take your umbrella. I don’t believe you were right. 4. 9. It may/might have snowed in the mountains. You …not go to bed so late at night. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. 2. I think she was angry with you. 6. 4. I have bought his latest book.

9. You…(lend) him your text – book. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. You …do this whether you like it or not. you…get a nice present. The child … (leave) home. but he himself believes he needn’t. You …not expect everybody to obey you. 10. but I forgot it was Sunday. 2. 9. He …read for hours on end. The student …(write) such a long composition. folosind verbe modale sau înlocuitori ai acestora: 1. I …(see) him for that. Va trebui să mă ajuţi mai mult astăzi. The light was on in his room.” „Yes. He has one of his own. 6. 7. Încercaţi să gasiţi un sens următorului dialog: „Do you think he will?” „I think he might. 4. which was very convenient. 3. 12. he is a nice boy. 4. I locked the door and took the key with me. 3. I …(answer) the questions. Toţi studenţii pot şi trebuie să scrie această lucrare. I wrote him a letter. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. 2.5. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu must. 5. 4. I …(leave) it on the bus. I am sorry you wasted your time. 2. please? 7. 10. 11. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. You …(wait) for me. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul trecut: 1. This …be John’s house. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. I didn’t hear the phone. he will never read them all. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. 8. It …(rain) here. I …(answer) the questions. We …(wait) too long. 6. … you correct my exercise. 36 . I …read one book a day. 8. 7. You …(see) Anna yesterday. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. He …(be) at home. 4. This door … not unlock. for once? 3. 3. It’ll get stale. 8. 5. I haven’t got my bag with me. Profesorul mi-a spus că pot să lipsesc de la ora următoare. He …(swim) across the Danube. please? 10. the road is dry. 9. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. Go to sleep. 7. I …(be) in the garden. he was back soon. 10. When I was a teenager. John …(do) such a thing. You …(lend) him so many books. 10. he is a very poor swimmer. 5. This letter is full of mistakes. 2. Traduceţi în limba engleză. If you win the contest. 6. I promise you not …be disturbed. you …re-type it. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. 9. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. She is away.” „His family consider he should. 8.” 13. She …write an article for this magazine every week. …you tell me the truth. Sunt sigur că voi putea găsi timp să te ajut. which would have saved me a lot of work. You …(buy) so much bread. 6. 9. I …(get up) so early today.

Nu aveţi voie să vorbiţi în timpul examenului. 12. 20. Toată lumea să fie prezentă la şedinţă. Nu se poate să fi găsit uşa deschisă. 16. Nu se poate să fi fost acasă aseară. 8. LECŢIA 7 MODUL SUBJONCTIV În engleza contemporană. 17. 21. Ţi-am telefonat şi nu a răspuns nimeni. 24. 11. Vreţi. 22. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is 37 . De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. o dorinţă sau un blestem. Mâine va trebui să pun scrisoarea la poştă. 19. Am cerut să vorbesc cu directorul. 7. 14. exprimând o lozincă. Ştiam să cânt la pian când eram copil. o urare. să aştepţi câteva minute? 30. Va trebui să plec curând. Ar fi trebuit să citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. 26. De asemenea. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv: a. Apare în propoziţii exclamative. Nu a fost nevoie să spun „mulţumesc” când am aflat ora exactă formând 958 întrucât ştiam că informaţia e înregistrată pe bandă. ar fi înlocuit cu prezentul. Nu era nevoie să-mi faci cafea. 18. o încuiasem chiar eu. Nu ştiu să croşetez. E nevoie să urcăm la cabană pe jos? 15. Fie ce-o fi. Îţi promit că vei avea cartea mâine. 29. Come what may. Ar trebui ca toţi copiii să facă treburi în casă. Trebuie să-mi schimb pantofii când intru în casă pentru că sunt plini de noroi. 23. de Past Tense şi de Past Perfect.5. dar el nu a vrut să vină la telefon. 6. would + infinitiv. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal. am băut deja două astăzi. Nu e nevoie să-ţi cari singură bagajul în gară. Ai putea să-mi telefonezi mai des când ştii că sunt bolnav. Nu. 9. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. în engleza contemporană. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. Probabil că eram încă la facultate. Long live the king! Trăiască regele. Nu se poate ca profesorul să fi fost mulţumit de acest răspuns. Poate fi întâlnit în poezia clasică. 13. may. 10. există echivalenţi de subjonctiv care constau în verbele should. 1. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul să te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemată fie această ceaţă! b. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. might. Nu a fost nevoie să-i telefonez lui Jane ca să vorbesc cu ea pentru că urma să vină la mine peste o jumătate de oră. Ar fi trebuit să insişti. vă rog. Unde mergem acum? 28. în situaţii în care. 27.

Cineva să-mi aducă un pahar cu apă. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. Ex. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. După verbe ca: to propose. to suggest. I wish (mi-as dori. E necesar ca tu să fii prezent. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. I wish I had been born in England. to insist. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. Este imposibil ca el să facă aceasta. a. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. It is high time you began to study seriously. d. Ex. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. You speak English as if you had lived in England.) Ex. Ex. In exemplul de mai sus. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. Doctorul a insistat ca eu să stau acasă. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui să fie acceptată. (E timpul. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine: Everybody leave the hall. 38 . I recommended that his proposal be accepted. It is time the child went to bed. Echivalenti de subjonctiv a. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. Este de dorit ca noi să terminăm întâi traducerea. to urge. se foloseste would. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. 1. it is likely that. I wish it would stop raining. to order. I would sooner stay at home tonight. e. • Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. to recommend. Ex.c. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! c) As if/though (ca si cum. It is impossible that he do this. d)It is time. it is necessary that. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. to demand. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a. It is necessary that you be present. După construcţii de tipul: it is impossible that. it is desirable that. Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. Somebody bring me a glass of water. • Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. Toată lumea să părăsească sala. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. bine ar fi sa) • Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. I wish I were in England now. (Era de mult timpul. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. it is necessary that. apare ca were la toate persoanele. 1.) It is high time. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex.

in secundara se foloseste may. etc.when. to be afraid Ex. whichever. Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. no matter when. you have no right to do this. to urge. iti voi telefona. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. • Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. to recommend. Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. • De asemenea.Ex. • Dupa so that. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. you have no right to do this. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. • Dupa it is possible. whenever. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. Ex. Oricine ai fi. No matter who you may/might be. to suggest. Whoever you may/might be. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala. Ex. to insist. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul. It is impossible that he should have done this. may. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. It is necessary that you should be present. it was possible 39 . I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. • Dupa whoever. might Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. • Intrebari introduse prin how. however. I will ring you up. in order that Ex. Wherever I may/might be. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. Ex. It is impossible that he should do this. I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. where. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. to demand. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. in secundara se foloseste might. Oriunde as fi. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. wherever. Hurry up lest you miss the train. Dupa cum se observa. a. Ex.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. • Dupa to hope. fie in vorbirea direca. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. Ex. fie in vorbirea indirecta. I hope that he may pass the exam. why. Hurry up lest you should miss the train.

I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence.Ex. 1. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. 9. 40 . Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. 6. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. 1. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv 1. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. 8. I am sorry my friend is ill. I regret I have only one child. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. 2. 3. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. I regret I am not a student. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. It is possible that he may be here in time. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. I am sorry you live so far away. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. 4. I wish the weather were fine. Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. I am sorry it rains so often. 10. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. It was possible that he might be here in time. I wish he would take my advice. 6. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. 4. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. I was sorry you were out when I called. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. 7. 1. 8. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. iar in aceste cazuri. I am sorry books are so expensive. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. 1. I regret I have no children. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. 6. 7. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. I regret you didn’t win the competition. 3. 7. 2. 10. I wish I could speak English. 5. 3. 4. 5. 1. 8. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I am sorry I was late for the party. I was sorry you had got a fine. Ex. 2. I wish I might borrow your car. I regret I can’t go to the concert. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. 5. I am sorry you had an accident. 9.

He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. 9. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. 18. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. 6. 8. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 41 . Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. 16. la tara. 3. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 5. 5. If only I (become) a millionaire. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. 11. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. 20. 7. 2. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. am putea merge la plaja! 6. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. 17. 6. If only I (be) in Italy now! 9. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. 17. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. 3. 5. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. 4. If only my telephone (work)! 11. 2. You behave as if you (own) the place. It’s time we (go) home. I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. 6. 12. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv: 1. I am cold. 9. Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara. 15. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. 8. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. 7. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. 4. 12. 3. 10. He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. 14. I would rather you (close) that window. I would rather you (not waste) your time! 4. 13. 10. dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. 10. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. 19. 16. As prefera sa merg la teatru. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. 2. 1. 13. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 14. 20.9. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea.

2. Oricât te-ai stradui. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. Oricând te vei intoarce. 2. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. you should remember your own phone number. 6. 6. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. 4. 17. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 1. Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. 13. I wish I (find) another. nu te pot crede. eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta. 3. 7. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. 16. The road is wet. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. Oricare ar fi motivul. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. 42 . Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. 19. I have such a boring job. 10.10. 8. Orice mi-ai spune. astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. 3. 14. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. 2. 7. 5. 9. 7. 8. The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. 1. 15. 8. I wish my car (not break down) last week. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot. 10. 11. 8. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). All success (attend) you! 18. 12. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. I wish I (be) there when it happened. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora 8. 4. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. 4. 5. nu ar trebui sa ma minti. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). 6. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. 5. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. 9. 3.

(As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine. to hear. to dislike. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o to call – called – called o to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. I consider him to be a good student. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think. to hate. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make. (Consider ca el este un bun student. to allow.) e. Ex. Ex. to watch. I made him study English.) 43 . (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). to order. to feel. verbe declarative: to state. He admitted the news to be false. Diateza activa o nedefinit: calling o perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o nedefinit: being called o perfect: having been called Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. to wish. Diateza activa o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call o infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling o infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called o infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called o infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. to cause.) He ordered the door to be locked. to know. Ex. to declare. Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want. to expect. Ex. to believe. to like.) I want John to do this. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. diateza si timpuri. Ex. in cazul verbelor neregulate. to suppose. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. to consider. Ex.) I let him go out and play. to admit.) b. Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv.) c. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to).) d. to understand. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. I’d like him to come with me.Infinitivul poate avea aspect. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). verbe exprimând un ordin.) I expected him to come in time. I want you to go now. I saw him leave the room.

to consider. to know. to smell. Nominativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo. Constructii cu participiul prezent 1.) If I happen to meet him. Ex. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time".) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este. He was made to study English. to make. to prove. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex. to seem. He is said to be a good writer. de obicei.) 1. I consider him to be a good student. I made him study English. to turn out.) f. She is sure to come in time. a. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex.) It is necessary for me to go there. cu verbele: to happen. to leave. Ex. He considered the news to be false. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist. ii voi spune unde esti. The news was considered to be false. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el. It is easy for me to do this. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp. They declared him to be the man of the year. to believe. to hear. It is necessary that I (should) go there. to count upon/on . (E usor sa fac asta. He is considered to be a good student. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. a. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina. (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala.They declared him to be the man of the year. Ex. precum si cu verbele to find. 44 . (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. He proved to be a good journalist. to say. 1. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. to suppose. He was declared to be the man of the year. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc. to hear. I will tell him where you are.) This remains for him to decide. b.) It is impossible for him to come. Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see. It is impossible that I (should) come. to watch. For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. to expect.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului. Ex. I rely on you to do this. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor.) I happened to meet him in the street.

) I will have my hair done. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. vom merge la plaja. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. She had two sons killed in the war. 8. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriu-zisa. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui.) 3. 11. 9. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. 45 . Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. we shall go to the beach. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. Ex. 2. (Daca vremea va permite.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi.) I left / found her crying. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. Nominativ cu Participiu Este pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: Ex: He was seen leaving. 3. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. 2. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând. I had my bedroom window broken. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. Cred ca el e un sot bun. (Voi merge sa ma coafez.) She was heard singing. 7. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor.) I heard her singing.) Weather permitting. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. (Ea a fost auzita cântând. 10. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând.Ex. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. (Orele fiind terminate. (El a fost vazut plecând. I-am privit jucând fotbal. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect. Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. 6. am mers acasa. Ex: The classes being over. we went home. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. (Am auzit-o cântând. 4. 5. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat.

Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. 10. 8. It is necessary that he be present. It is advisable that you should resign. You should read it. I can’t solve it. 5. The people were impatient. 4. 4. 5. I saw the plane landing. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: It is important that I should know the truth. 2. It’s time we met again. I thought she was unable to win the contest. 2. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. 9. We should have a heart to heart talk. I can’t believe she said that. 5. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. 2. I cam make it. at once. I don’t want you to catch a cold. 8. This problem is too difficult. 3. They heard him repeat it several times. I ordered a taxi. This is a valuable piece of advice. This is a good book. The match was about to begin. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. 1. We should do it now. This translation is easy for me to make. 10. It is sure they have had an argument. The dog was heard barking. 9. 7. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. 46 . 6. 10. Expected that he would resign. 15. 3. 2. It is possible that I might buy a car. I have closed the window. 7. It is recommendable that you should read this book. You should bear it in mind. 3. 5. 4. This is a strange thing. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. 4. 3. It is important that you should come to the office. You should take it. This is the main thing. The time has come. She was thought to be a gifted child.12. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. 6. 9. 2. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. It was proved that she was a liar. It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. 6. Everybody. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. She heard the baby crying. I didn’t want her to miss the train. 13. 3. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. This fact is important. I found the boy breaking the window. 7. 14. 1. It is impossible that he should have said that. It is important to know the truth. 1. l. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: This translation is easy. 8. They said she was ill.

7. I don’t always believe. Is my friend wearing? 7. Are you typing? 5. 8. Weather permitting. I saw her fainting. What do you do on your free days? 12. She heard the hunters shooting. 5. You don’t play. 6. it often rains. 10. Is my mother resting? 8. I found her digging in the garden. Do they live? 8. I am not going. Am I having? 3. remembers. he doesn’t get up early. Does he remember? 7. write. She doesn’t talk. CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. The concert being over. She goes shopping on Saturdays. I like to swim a lot. I saw the peasants working in the field. 14. Everybody being at home. What book are you reading? 10. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. 20. I could hear her typing. we were seared about having floods. He doesn’t have. speaks. I don’t understand. On Sundays. I stopped smoking. 12. 6. Does she talk? 3. 9. My friend isn’t wearing. he walks. I always have. 5. do you do? 3. He doesn’t remember. go. I went shopping. 19. are you waiting? I am waiting. When I go to the seaside. he is having. I am not having. The river having risen in the night. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. The rain having stopped. He isn’t telling. we hurried to the beach. Do I love? 2. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. I had to change them. My mother isn’t resting. I don’t trust. It snows in winter. 3. Why are you opening the window? I5. Do I trust? 10. 7. Now I am doing my homework in English. Ann isn’t knitting. 10. it is raining. Are you writing. 19. 4. always borrow/is always borrowing. He doesn’t go to school by underground. I do not study in the evening. They don’t live. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. 17. Are we studying? 9. drinks. The mud having ruined my shoes. I don’t like coffee. 6. The plane having taken off. are you thinking? I am thinking. 18. is drinking. Is it raining? 2.4. Do I understand? 4. I went home relaxed. I often read English books. Is Ann knitting? 10. 3. 6. Do you go? 16. 8. 4. 2. Do you dream? I dream 9. 2. Does he have? 9. 2. 7. 20. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 47 . don’t understand. Do you usually get. 6. 11. am taking. The secretary is just typing a report. are you hurrying? I don’t want. I don’t love. How often do you write to your parents? 18. 13. It isn’t raining. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. 7. 1 don’t like. Are they swimming? 6. we sat down to dinner. 9. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. am. We aren’t studying. Do I always believe? 6. 15. Do you smoke? 17. Is he telling? 4. They aren’t swimming. I went to post it. 10. She is packing her luggage. The child isn’t learning. I don’t have. I saw her lying on the beach. 14. 5. 16. 4. Do you play? 5. Do you like? 8. The decision being taken in my favour. 1 am cooking. the audience left the hali. You aren’t typing. 9. I heard the child breaking the vase. 8. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. Whom are you ringing up? 13. The sun having risen. The letter being written.

It has been raining. Have you paid? 19. This time yesterday it was raining. I slept. 8. 9. Last night. I didn’t succeed. 9. I have been wearing. Have you been. He has just left. He hasn’t gone. 8. We have been walking since 3 o clock. I5. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. Since I bought a car. I played. we left. 18. 1 liked. 19. Yesterday I got up early. he wasn’t wearing. Did they drink? 3. 17. Did I sell? 6. 8. He has been a Minister for two years. Did I enjoy? 9. 11. 13. 10. have you been wearing? 6. he has caught. 16. my friends played chess. I always made. 6. I have just had. 20. He didn’t change. He sat for his first exam last week. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. she was having. 9. 10. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. Did he think? 2. 10. He didn’t come. 5. What were you doing last Tuesday. Yesterday. I haven’t been. 3. have you cooked? 7. He has been. 5. 18. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. I arrived. 8. 4. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. Have you been? I have been. 4. he was working. 8. I was talking. 7. 4. 14. 5. While I was looking for my passport. 10. He didn’t forbid. I returned. I have bought. 17. 9. 9. Exercitiul 4: 1. he was-learning. 7. I have lent.1. 7. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. I met. Have you ever eaten? 13. It has been snowing for two hours. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: l. I have been doing. We have known. began. He has been fishing. 2. Did I hate? 4. The child has been playing. 4. I saw. Did you sleep well last night? 3. Have you been to this town before? Yes. He didn’t think. Did he change? 5. Has John left? Yes. Did we work? 7. Did he translate? 10. 2. I was. 6. I have been watering. Have you seen? she left. 10. I have already seen. I spent a month here. he realized. 15. 3. 14. 10. 10. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 48 . Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. 12. 7. He has been sleeping. 11 . We must replace it. 19. I have seldom walked to my office. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. 5. You drank. She has changed. Have you ever tried? I tried. he left an hour ago. I was writing. 3. 5. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. Exercitiul 2: 1. 6. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. Last Sunday. Have you watered? 3. He met. We have walked 10 km so far. I didn’t hate. When did you buy this TV set? 12. How long have you been learning English? 5. have you been. 1t hasn’t rained. I had it at 8 o’clock. We didn’t work. I didn’t enjoy. 5. 2. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. 9. the teacher was writing. I got. you came in. 2. 6. You asked. Have you visited? 12. 4. I have lost. 8. I have been asking. Exercitiul 2: l. Have you ever driven? 16. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. That sounded. You spoke. two years ago. I owned. 14. What did you look at? It was an accident. I was driving to Sinaia. 8. While it was raining. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. The radio has been playing. Yesterday I lost my gloves. were you going. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. They didn’t drink. 4. Have you read? 18. 6. I have’ been shopping. I found this old photo. I got up. He didn’t translate. I entered. were you doing? 7. When did you return from the mountains? 11. someone rang up. 13. the engine – drivers have gone. I had breakfast and then I left for school. Exercitiul 3: I. Have you lived? I have lived. 20. he had. 9. He hasn’t come. 3. 4. she has been trying. The weather has got warmer lately. 1 first met. I was watching. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. I didn’t sell. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. I haven’t written. 7. 2. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. I have been cooking. I got up late yesterday morning. Exercitiul 4: 1. A child has broken the window. 6. He has always relied. Did he come? 8. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15.

Because of the strike of the bus – drivers. he had thought. between twelve and one o’clock. 9. 2. I shall/will know. We shall/will have taken. 7. 6. would end. he handed it to the teacher. Exercitiut 2: 1. 6. 7. 10. 9. he would give. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. had been speaking. 4. he went. 2. had been having. I shall/will have saved five million lei. 4. I realized I had left my bag at home. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. had left. they had been. 8. 7. will/shall will be climbing. I had not enjoyed. will be crying. he had got married. she had not passed. he told. 9. 10. 8. 3. we realized. 8. she told. he had left. we had been digging. I shall/will have been working. they had been waiting. she had been cleaning and dusting. he would finish. 3. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. Wil1 you remember? 9. we had lost. She will be watching. I rang him up. he had visited. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. 5. 4. Exercitiul 3: 1. I entered. 6. 5. I had read. 3. By this time next year. On Friday. 2. You will be. I shall/will succeed. Exercitiul 2: 1. I had returned. I had done. they will be having their last English class. 3. had already begun. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. 10. 3. 6. 4. 7. had spread. 8. congratulated. 8. he had been. had been climbing. 9. 6. he had caught. I called. 7. 5. he would drive. I shall/will have been cooking. 9. 9. You had to type. it will probably be raining. 7. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. he would pass. he went. As soon as the guests had left. 10. I played/I was playing. they had finished. 6. had not told. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. he had stolen. did not remember. Exercitiul 2: 1. You will like. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. 4. 9. I shall/will pass. 4. will have spent. 5. had listened. he had been travelling. she had been studying. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. 4. 7. prices would go up. The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. 2. Will you recognize? 4. I found out. 5. 9. 6. 2. she had been writing. 6. we asked. You will have seen. will have risen. 4. 2. 10. had been cooking. Will you be needing? 5. 4. 8. we had been walking. 6. 10. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. 10. 8. Exercitiul 4: 1. 6. I went to bed. 2. he would win. 8. they would remain. 9. I would remain. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. was shining. I was sorry I had hurt him. He thanked me for what I had done for him. it had been raining. 5. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. 5. 5. 10. I shall/will have finished. 5.1. they were talking. he wanted. 7. 3. I shall/will have paid off. I usually read. I had heard. 3. I shall/will be working. 2. 10. 7. He will be. When I arrived at the bus stop. 3. wilt be rising. 9. they will have been married. Exercitiul 4: 49 . you spoke. 10. 2. Exercitiul 3: 1. 3. he had just left. 8. I shall/will have read 8. 6. I had met. Exercitiul 4: 1. 8. had been swimming. had eaten. 7. 4. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. 10. I shall/will be having. 5. he had learned/he had been learning. would be cancelled. you were. She had just gone out. it had been raining. He will be studying. 7. 3. you would soon have. 2. You will not/won’t find. I had lost. it had been raining. 3. you were. I shall/will remember. she had already been. 2. I shall/will be swimming. Exercitiul 3: 1.

The secretary told me the manager was busy. 10. I was. she looks. he will get. you would have read. 8. 11. 8. he would have. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. he has arrived. 6. I have. you do. I had worked. he had realized. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. I knew. 8. you had been wearing. You will see him if you wait. he had not expected. 4. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. I moved. 17. she will be. 5. I will answer. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. I were. 4. 6. you have read. will soon move. you had driven. he trusted. 19. we went. you will be. I will eat at a restaurant. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. we reach. 7. Exercitiul 5: 1. 10. 3. 6. they had been listening. I will earn/will be earning. 10. had failed. 10. 7. 6. she has learnt. you have drunk. 9. I would spend. he hoped. 4. 14. 6. 10. 2. 5. you take. 11. 5. it would not be raining when I arrived. he has repaired. I finish. If it rained. I work/I worked. 3. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: l. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. 9. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. I had known. 8. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. is. they had known. 3. 9. 10. 7. I knew you were in Bucharest. 4. 9. 3. it goes on. he tells. 6. Exercitiul 6: 1. 2. 6. 8. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. 7. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. he would change. you see. I finish. she has changed. is. 6. If it had rained. he had eaten. 4. 12. would not go. melts. 7. 19. 4. 3. he had never seen. 9. 13. 5. It would have been. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. you will be. you will not find. I will buy. 10. 7. he would have told. 4. you see. they have done. 7. you had invited. do not eat. 5. 2. I was. you finish. 9. 7. you see. you are reading. I would buy. he would not remember. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. 3. I had not eaten. they have been. 14. I have suffered. 2. she notices you have broken. 3. 3. I wouldn’t do. you were. 12. 2. I had not decided. 18. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. 8. 9. would you give him some? 3. 11. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. he would not make. 5. 3. Exercitiul 5: 1. I would have answered. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. 9. 4. I will greet 2. I will lend. you have just told. 10. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. 2. is born. arrive. 20. the streets would have been wet. 16. 5. 17. If it rains. 15. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. 15. you will not pass. 7. Exercitiul 2: 1. he would take. 5. 50 . 12. 13. there are. 8. the streets will be wet. 8. 20. Would you buy? 4. you wouldn’t have got. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. I saw. 16. Exercitiul 7: l. 9. If a beggar asked you for money. 5. 8. 2. I have been reading. will you promise? 6. 2. I had not told. 18. 10. 7. is. I gave up. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. I would have answered. he leaves.1. What will you do if you meet John? 11. I have received. we will drink. 2. I read. I would not have made. I want. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. begin. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: l. If dinner is not ready in time. 5. 6. he had tried. Exercitiul 4: l. he had to write. the streets would be wet. What would you do if you meet John? 12. I would like the play more if it were shorter.

The work will be finished today (by them). We will be shown the way by the policeman. 12. 6. He asked me how long I had been learning . He told me to read that text. I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. 4. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). He asked me where I would spend my weekend. He asked me if my mother had been at home. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. 2. 2. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). My friend will be invited to a party (by me). He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. They are taught English (by me). He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. A new house is being built round the corner (by them). He asked me if the train had left. English is taught to them (by me). The missing child has been found (by someone). 11. 12. 7. 8. Exercitiul 2: 1. Exercitiul 2: 1. 10. 6. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before. He asked me if I could lend him a book. 2. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. A nice present has been given to me (by them). He told me to open the door. 6.LECTIA IV Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. 4. 5. A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). John was laughed at (by us). 3. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. 10. Football is played all over the world. 9. I will be given a reward (by them). 6. 3. Exercitiul 3: 1. He asked me if I would like a cake. LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. A reward will be given to me (by them). He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. 2. Fire was set to the shed (by them). 2. He told me not to smoke so much. He said she would go shopping right then. 10. 8. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. He asked me when the rain had stopped. 5. 7. 8. 8. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. 4. when I passed by. 4. The house was broken into (by burglars). 3. 9. 9. Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. The doctor was called for (by us). 7. 8. 9. 10.English. 3. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. Something must be done for him by his coworkers. His proposal was objected to (by us). He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. I was frightened by the noise. He said he was very busy on that day. 6. 2. 8. He asked me how I had travelled. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). He asked me when I would be back. He told me to be careful with his books. He told me to take that pill. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. 4. 7. 4.: 3. 51 . 9. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. 11. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). 9. I have been given a nice present (by them). The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). 8. He said he had gone to England two years before. 5. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. 2. He asked me who that man was. 10. 5. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. Exercitiul 4: 1. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. 7. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. 7. The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). Exercitiul 3: 1. 9. Your bag has been found (by him). 3. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. He said the weather had been fine the day before. 5. He said he had seen that film a week before. He asked me if I would help him. 4. The way will be shown to us by the policeman. 3. 5. 6. The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). 6. 7. 5. John has been lent two of my books (by me). The children weren’t looked after properly (by them).

Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. People mustn’t take away these books. 8. 7. 9. 7. He hates people making fun of him. I had to look up. This must be the best. He must have been. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. He could read and write. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. She will be able to play. 11. 3. 5. 6. 2. 15. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. I will have to go. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. 8. The child was allowed/permitted to have. You should have visited. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. She will be able to read and write. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. You might have paid. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. can’t. can. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. 10. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. can. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. 9. 5. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. 6. He will be able to swim. You needn’t have done. 3. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. Exercitiul 4: l. 2. You didn’t have to do. can. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. 10. You must have forgotten. 14. They have built this house out of stone and cement. You shouldn’t have gone. 6. 6. 3. Exercitiul 5: 52 . John could have been. 5. Exercitiul 2: 1. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. 13. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. 19. 18. 14. Many new blocks are being built in our district. LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. 12. 8. 5. 9. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. He must be older. 12. 9. I will have to learn. They held a reception in his honour. She will be able to lend. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. 15. We were asked to show our passports. He ought to have told. 19. 8. 13. You can’t have seen. 4. 2. I will have to look up. 4. 10. He must have been delayed. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. I won t be able to translate. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. 2. He could swim. 4. You might have written. 2. It must have taken a long time. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. We were told very interesting things at the conference. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. You must have known the lesson. You might have changed. I had to go. Were you told about the meeting? 9. He must have come home. 10. People speak English all over the world. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. He needn’t have bought. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. It can t have been. She could play. 7. 10. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. She could lend. 4. 12. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. I had to learn. 16. 13. can. 16. 3. 5. 14. 8. Exercitiul 3: 1. Has the dog been fed? 7. It must have been. You won’t have to do. The museum was closed for repairs. He should have gone. The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. 6. People will soon forget this book. can’t. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. He must think. 20. 4.Exercitiul 4: 1. He was not allowed/permitted to come. 7. Exercitiul 6: l. 15. He may have been. Detailed instructions will be given to us about the paper. 7. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. The rescue party finally discovered the climber. You must have left your umbrella. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. You were allowed/permitted to leave. 5. 4: She must be a very good doctor. It can’t have been. Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. 3. You can’t have been. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. I couldn’t translate. 17. 6. 11. 2. He must have been late. 3 It might have rained. John must have been.

The teacher told me I might skip the next class. please. can’t have seen. 8. Exercitiul 10: 1. She may/might be very late. 5. will. would. didn’t need to see. I wish I lived in Bucharest. Exercitiul 11: 1. No. 10. 10. mustn’t. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". 9. Will you. 10. 4. I have already drunk two. 5. 6. He can’t be at the office. 8. 2. 24. She may/might have been angry. 5. 7.1. 3. This can’t be a true story. needn’t. 2. shall. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. 18. 8. It can’t be his fault. 10. I will have to leave soon. you shall have the book tomorrow. didn’t need to buy. 5. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. must have left. 8. shall. 23. 14. can’t have swum. will. didn’t need to wait. 3. 4. Exercitiul 12: 1. should. 6. I wish I could go to the concert. 2. needn’t have written. S. should. Exercitiul 6: 1. 8. 11. It may/might be a good one. I must have been still at the faculty. 4. 7. would. 7. 29. He may/might have been right. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. will. needn’t. 5. needn’t have waited. Exercitiul 9: 1. 3. It can’t have been his fault. mustn’t. 17. You will have to help me more today. 4. She can’t have learned English. would. She can’t have got. 6. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. 3. 6. 3. I had locked it myself 27. 6. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. 10. 7. 22. 3. 8. 12. I wish I could pay the piano. You ought to/should have insisted. Exercitiul 2: 53 . 5. 7. 3. mustn’t. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. 4. Exercitiul 13: 1. needn’t have answered. She may/might have been out. 9. Where shall we go now? 28. 4. I may/might come home. 9. 13. should. 7. 10. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. 2. 9. She can’t have married. Exercitiul 8: l. 2. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. He can’t have passed. 4. 7. because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. 2. 4. 3. I wish it didn’t rain so often. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. 20. You can’t have found the door open. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. 2. 6. would. needn’t. 1 wish I had children. 10. 5. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. I rang you up and nobody answered. wait for a few minutes? 30. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. must have been. 6. 2. should. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. You may not speak during the exam. will. 2. 7. You can’t miss the train. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958. needn’t have got up. can’t have left. I could play the piano when I was a child. 9. You needn’t have made coffee for me. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. didn’t need to answer. needn’t. can’t have done. needn’t. I can’t knit. 16. would. 8. 8. All the children ought to/should do some housework. needn’t have lent. 7. 10. would. mustn’t. 9. Exercitiul 7: 1. as I knew the information was recorded on tape. She may/might have returned. The weather can’t change. He may/might have done. 6. 21. It may/might rain. a porter could help you. I wish you didn’t live so far away. 6. 5. I wish I didn’t have only one child. 5. mustn’t. 3. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. 25. will. needn’t have bought. shall. All the students can and must write this paper. I wish I were a student. shall. 4. I promise you. must have taken. today. must have been. I wish books weren’t so expensive. I wish my friend weren’t ill. 26. 9. can’t have rained. 10. will. needn’t have lent. 19. 9. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. 9.

I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. No matter how hard you may/might try. He suggested that we (should) buy this house. his daughter didn’t get married. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. I had been. you can’t win such a competition. I wish they would sign the contract. 2. too. 19. I stayed. 17. you started. 54 . Exercitiul 6: 1. I wish you would come on holiday with me. 3. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. 3. you may/might be. 7. I were. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. 9. 12. 5. it might not get. Exercitiul 8: 1. I will be at home waiting for you. it should get. 12. 13. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. stopped. 5. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles. 15. Exercitiul 5: l. I would become. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the test-paper! 2. 14. 7. 5. 3. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. S. 2. should have told. watched. 10. 18. 2. 11. 9. 6. Exercitiul 4: 1. 7. I can’t believe you. 9. Exercitiul 9: 1. but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. 3. Whatever the reason may/might be. 2. you shouldn’t lie to me. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. 17. 4. you may/might understand. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in Brasov? 10. 3. 3. 19. 14. 7. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. he were. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. 7. 19. Whatever you may/might tell me. I wish I had money to buy that painting. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. 16. I wish you would take a driving licence. 9. 11. we went. he told. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. 20. 4. 17. you should have. I insist that you (should) accept this job. 8. you didn’t waste. I would find. (should) have. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. I were. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. 13. I wished you hadn’t got a fine.l. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. 4. hadn’t caught a cold. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. 20. It is important that you (should) know English well. I had entered. 9. 5. I would rather you got up earlier. you closed. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 8. 8. 15. 14. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. 4. 6. I hadn’t forgotten. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. 10. 4. 6. he took. you were. 2. 13. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. may attend. 2. 6. 4. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. 8. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. I got. 10. you retired. 10. I would rather you went to the theatre. It is possible that she might be away. 7. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. 6. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. 20. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. 16. 12. 18. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. I wish I had won the Great Prize. you owned. we (should) leave. I wish he would accept my proposal. 8. Whenever you may/might return. you shouldn’t have believed it. 7. 3. 6. 2. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. 6. his book would become. You speak as if you were angry with me. 4. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. 8. 11. 18. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. S. we could go to the beach. 10. might prosper. She looks as if she were a model. he were. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. 16. 9. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. 9. I had. she should have left. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. they (should) divorce. 8. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. Exercitiul 3: 1. 6. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7: 1. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. my telephone worked. we should take. I wish you had won the competition. he would have. 10. 4. hadn’t broken down. 5.

Toata lumea fiind acasa. It is advisable for you to resign. 6. The boy was found breaking the window. 3. 3. It’s time for us to meet again. Concertul fiind terminat. She (was) proved to be a liar. 5. I understand her to be a very good teacher. I think him to be a good husband. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. 4. 8. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. She was found digging in the garden. 4. 8. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. It is necessary for him to be present. 10. 8. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. 5. 4. 55 . 6. 2. They are sure to have had an argument. 13. She was said to be ill. 3. Daca vremea va permite. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. 4. 2. The baby was heard crying. Exercitiul 3: 1. Exercitiul 6: 1. publicul a parasit sala. The child was heard breaking the vase. 2. 10. The plane was seen landing. 5. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. I saw him speaking to his friend. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. 10. 9. Exercitiul 2: 1. It is important for you to come to the office at once. Mother would like me to become a doctor. 2. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. 5. She was seen fainting. 6. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. I rely on you to lend me some money. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. 3. a trebuit sa-i schimb. 2. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. Exercitiul 4: 1. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. She could be heard typing. 7. 4. 3. 8. 6. 5. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. 10. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. She made me understand what had happened. 10. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. 9. Intrucât soarele rasarise. He made me miss the train. It is possible for me to buy a car. The hunters were heard shooting. He was heard to repeat it several times. This is a good book for you to read. It is impossible for him to have said that. Intrucât ploaia incetase. I expected you to come earlier. I saw some children playing in the park. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. 9. This is a strange thing for her to have said. 3. I heard her scold/scolding her child. am plecat acasa linistit. ne-am asezat la cina. John admitted the fault to be his. 14. 6. 5. 7. 7. The peasants were seen working in the field. 7. I watched them playing football. 6. She was seen lying on the beach. am mers sa o pun la posta.LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 1. 11. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. 8. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. Exercitiul 5: 1. He was expected to resign. 10. The people were impatient for the match to begin. This is the main thing for us to do. ne-am grabit spre plaja. 9. It is recommendable for you to read this book. 8. am plecat la cumparaturi. 9. 12. He wanted me to help him. 7. 2. 4. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. 7. 9. She seemed to be satisfied with me. 15. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii.

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