This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1) INTRODUCTION TO MEASUREMENT WHILE DRILLING
Measurement While Drilling (MWD) refers to a technique of making down hole measurements of borehole position, tool face orientation, formation parameters and drilling information using sensors located in the bottom hole assembly adjacent to the drill bit. These measurements are made during drilling and can be recorded down hole and/or transmitted to surface. MWD systems measure formation properties. (E.g. resistivity, natural gamma ray, porosity), well bore geometry (inclination, azimuth), drilling system orientation (tool face), and mechanical properties of the drilling process. Traditionally MWD has fulfilled the role of providing well bore inclination and azimuth in order to maintain directional control in real time. From the mid 1980s to the present time, formation evaluation MWD has paralleled and surpassed other aspects of drilling technology to the extent that it is now possible to replace very sophisticated wire line logs with real-time and memory-stored measurements while drilling.
MWD can be defined as the evaluation of physical properties, usually including pressure, temperature and well bore trajectory in three-dimensional space, while extending a well bore. MWD is now standard practice in offshore directional wells, where the tool cost is offset by rig time and well bore stability considerations if other tools are used. The measurements are made down hole, stored in solid-state memory for some time and later transmitted to the surface. Data transmission methods vary from company to company, but usually involve digitally encoding data and transmitting to the surface as pressure pulses in the mud system. These pressures may be positive, negative or continuous sine waves. Some MWD tools have the ability to store the measurements for later retrieval with wire line or when the tool is tripped out of the hole if the data transmission link fails. MWD tools, which measure formation parameters (resistivity, porosity, sonic velocity, gamma ray), are referred to as logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. LWD tools use similar data storage and transmission systems, with some having more solid-state memory to provide higher resolution logs after the tool is tripped out than is possible with the relatively low bandwidth, mud-pulse data transmission system.
The rise in the pressure broadcasts upward inside the drill string through the mud to the surface where it is perceived by a pressure transducer in the standpipe.Mud-pulse telemetry system to transmit the data (no wire line) is utilized by Teleco MWD system. After performing a survey. This system is composed of down hole assembly that contains sensors and transmitters mounted on a non-magnetic drill collar (MWD collar) and some equipments are located on the surface. Electrical power for the down hole assembly is produced a mud-driven turbine in the transmitter. BENEFITS Retrievable MWD System The system is built on MWD System. which is strategically mounted above the resistivity collar to ensure easy retrieval and less rig downtime. . the sensor acquaints with the transmitter to encode the directional data into a series of positive pressure pulses periodically moving a valve that partially restricts mud flow. and similarly accelerometers are incorporated in order to measure the inclination and the tool face. The existence or absence of a pulse in a given time interval shapes a binary code which is deco in to a directional angle and displayed on the surface equipment. A magnetometer is incorporated by a sensor in order to measure direction.
measurement range. . and antenna design also work to secure reliable performance. or above it in the MWD tool string to promote easy retrieval. This flexible instrument can be run above the resistivity extension.Optimal Measurement Quality and Performance Reliability Because Centerfire is built around a dual receiver/quadruple transmitter array. Centerfire’s vertical resolution. Complemented by the Gamma Module Gamma Module accompanies Centerfire to further enhance its formation evaluation capabilities. This capacity provides more accurate measurements over a range of formations and borehole fluid types. The array provides measurement redundancy through two frequencies and two independent sets of transmitterreceiver spacings. it is able to achieve effective compensation. Greater Operator Flexibility Add the formation evaluation to your toolkit and execute MWD projects that fit your budget and schedule. Compatible with virtually all drilling operations Improved Depths of Investigation Centerfire enables as many as eight different depths of investigation. even in challenging down hole conditions.
Centerfire can record measurements from wiper trips or tripping in and out of the hole.200 gpm. Improved rates of penetration ROP’s achieved by reduce in drill string friction against the side of the well bore. In addition. .Higher Operating Circumstances The Centerfire Resistivity Extension can operate in temperatures up to 175°C. resulting in more drilling energy being transferred to the bit.. mud motors.g. bits. Practical Surface equipments of MWD necessitate only one field engineer and 4 square feet of rig space. Additional applications help the driller appropriately adjust both weight-on-bit (WOB) and rotation speed for varying lithologies and optimize the performance of bits and mud motors. there is no RPM limitation and compatible with both duplex and triplex pumps. and flow rates up to 1. and MWD tools) is eliminated. Tripping Application Able to run independently under its own battery power. pressures up to 20000psia. Advantageous to Drilling Contractor and Operator MWD is handy for avoidance of drilling problems because wear and fatigue on drill string components will be reduced and downtime caused by bottom hole assembly (BHA) components failures (e.
As soon as mud motor drilling or jetting. azimuth and tool facing. The Teleco system is a wireless system. The nonmagnetic drill collar. the drill string is not rotation and the TELECO system endow with an update of the maintained. the drill string may possibly be reciprocated. On the condition that the danger of sticking exists. Both high side and magnetic tool facing are available. . stays in the drill string in close proximity to the drill bit.5 minutes at the same time as maintaining mud circulation. This system is composed of a down hole assembly containing a sensor and transmitter mounted in a nonmagnetic drill collar and surface display equipment positioned on the drilling platform. The other component of TELECO system is the sensor. which is a self-contained unit. Subsequently. the data is simultaneously transmitted throughout the next 2. Using this system well bore information is brought to the surface from the bottom of the well.SURVEYING & TELECO SYSTEM In order to perform a survey during rotary drilling the directional driller have to stop the rotation for 1. which utilizes mud-pulse telemetry to transmit data. At some point in this period the sensor measures the inclination.5 minutes.
which is made use of by the geologists and log analysts. A number of MWD packages are available for formation evaluation. MWD FORMATION EVALUATION Formation evaluation jobs are world-widely carried out by MWD gamma ray and resistivity logs to coin lenient or replace wire line logs. and weight or torque at the bit to modular packages of only directional or formation evaluation gamma ray and resistivity sensors. After carrying out a survey. Nowadays. has turn out to be a very cost-effective and important tool in petroleum industry. Electrical power for the down hole assembly is supplied by a mud-driven turbine in the transmitter. The existence or nonexistence of a pulse in a given time interval contributes to a binary code which is deco in to a directional angle and displayed on the surface equipment.It integrates a magnetometer to appraise direction and accelerometers to quantify the inclination and the tool face. Sensor groupings varying from a multi-sensor service with directional. A pressure transducer in the standpipe detects the raise in the pressure which proliferates upward inside the drill string throughout the mud to the surface. the sensor exhibits the transmitter to predetermine the directional data into a series of positive pressure pulses periodically moving a valve that partially restricts mud flow. formation evaluation. gamma ray. Data availability at the . resistivity.
the formation evaluation specialist must be capable of taking an active. MWD gamma ray logs are pretty much alike to their wire line counterparts. Gamma ray log with very fine vertical resolution may be produced as a result of the slow’ logging speed during MWD. case histories and example are chosen to demonstrate not only several applications of MWD to formation evaluation but also the new and unproved measurements available. Generally. Naturally. MWD offers a link between them and helps to the dialogue between the drilling engineer and the formation evaluation specialist in terms of drilling information and formation data collection. Lithologies that contain high . At this point. Drilling process and the evaluation of a well are critically connected to each other. To accomplish these goals. informed role in the drilling process in the course of MWD. or delayed using a microprocessor to record data down hole for processing and plotting when the bit is tripped out of the hole.surface can be either real time using mud pulse telemetry. not all MWD retailers may offer each service mentioned above. This is owing to the statistical measurements and detecting more gamma rays per foot for slow drilling. This type of execution unsurprisingly creates an overall economy regarding good quality drilling and data collection. Almost all service companies effectively diminish the same gamma ray log using either Geiger-Mueller tubes or scintillation crystals as detectors.
The EWR is compatible to operate in any type of drilling fluid. and by a very sham vertical resolution. In view of the fact that it is often contrasted. such as illite and feldspathic sands can be counted another characteristic of MWD gamma ray log. together with oil base mud and air.000 parts per million (ppm) sodium chloride.concentrations of potassium. The EWR is an induction-type resistivity sensor which operates at two megahertz. technically six inches. . This might be the reason for the potassium prejudice. which is coupled with the typically shallow invasion prior to the measurement. The thick steel drill collar attenuates radiation from uranium and thorium more than it does the radiation emitted from potassium. NL scales its gamma ray log in Apparent API (AAPI) units in view of the fact that the API gamma ray unit is not applicable to MWD. It is described by a diameter of investigation of from 30 to 50 inches depending upon formation resistivity. This sensor is more or less insensitive to borehole effects for hole size of 14 ¾ inches or less. A direct measurement of Rt can habitually be caused by the depth of investigation of the EWR sensor. the good vertical resolution of the EWR log is also remarkably evident in the example logs. and mud salinities lower than 60.
and . Gradually sophisticated resistivity. With the advent of high deviation. MWD measurements often provide only evaluating reservoirs. gathering data from the gamma and directional modules. In the 1980s. but also geosteering and geological interpretation from MWD imaging. Today. density and neutron porosity logs have been added to MWD arsenal.MWD DESIGN & TOOLS It is hard to believe that MWD has come such a long way over the last decade. horizontal and now slim multilateral wells. formatted formatting it for transmission. Telemetry Module (TM) The telemetry module communicates with other modules. MWD measurements were restricted to simple resistivity curves and gamma ray logs used more for correlation than formation evaluation. applications not only include petrophysical analysis. The quality and the diversity of MWD tools have quickly continued to meet this demand.
The unit is composed of two subassemblies: a detector assembly and a high voltage power supply. Detecting natural gamma radiation down hole while drilling is essential to enable geologists to establish and verify formation “markers. When power is applied. The TM also conditions the electric power from the pulser/ generator for use by the other modules.storing it. the repetition rate of which is proportional to the amount of detected natural gamma radiation.” or boundaries between classes of formations. Gamma Module (GM) GM is a high-efficiency scintillation detector for use with wire line and MWD tools. the output is an inverted pulse train. The FDS surrounds and protects both the module’s . Flexible ensures Dynamic that the Sleeve accuracy (FDS) and stability of the gamma sensor is maximized. both in the first well and in subsequent wells drilled in the same reservoir.
75 and 8. 6. CR has recently introduced the latest in propagation wave resistivity systems. By diminishing the scintillation assembly’s exposure to vibration. is mounted above the resistivity collar for easy retrieval and data transmission to the surface. the vibration-induced counts can be reduced an average of 98%. Available in outside tool diameters of 4.75.25 inches. . absorbing external shock and vibration while maintaining concentric position within the pressure housing.scintillation and over all assembly. Centerfire Resistivity (CR) To complement our fleet of MWD Systems.200 circulating hours. MWD System. The Centerfire Resistivity Extension has successfully completed full-system testing of more than 500 drilling hours and more than 1. used in conjunction with Centerfire. Centerfire is designed to deliver the performance advantages you demand. Using radial springs. the system is flexible and can be used in a wide range of hole sizes. Vibration is further minimized through our proprietary Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) support system. a known factor of interference in gamma readings. a custom resonant frequency is tuned to significantly minimize movement.
The TM controls the pulser operations and encodes data into the pulses that are received and decoded at the surface using a pressure transducer and computer. The hydraulic pump is used to operate a poppet valve that blocks the flow of mud in the drill string. Rugged Surface Components (RSC) A pressure transducer on the standpipe detects the mud pulses and converts them to electrical signals on the surface. The pulser contains turbine blades that are driven by the flowing mud to turn a generator and a small hydraulic pump. the PC also monitors the condition of the instrument probe and the system’s electrical . Additionally. thereby creating a pressure pulse. It is always connected to the TM and is unique among the modules in this aspect. Battery Module (BM) The battery module provides power to the tool when there is no flow of drilling fluid to operate the generator. using high temperature lithium batteries. A PC translate s these signals.Pulser/Generator The pulser module generates electrical power and restricts drilling mud flow to create a pressure pulse that can be detected at the surface. then spreads the information to the driller’s readout on the ii floor.
MWD tool’s three accelerometers and three magnetometers offer sensor resolution of ±0. Directional Module (DM) The directional module uses magnetometers and accelerometers to measure the compass direction of the bottom-hole assembly and the angle of the hole. and MWD operator.connections and power. Proven Sensors The solid-state. tri-axial probe is adapted from Eastman Whipstock’s proven Directional Orientation Tool. These data. the chemicals added to cause the mud to “air-tip” can interfere with data transmissions. . this situation can congeal and plug tool internals.10 of inclination and ±0. If the viscosity building materials are added too quickly.10 of azimuth. Moreover. company representative. Minimizing the potential problems of mud additives can be discussed among the mud engineer. are used to calculate the trajectory of the well. along with depth.
respectively. The 1 ¾ in probe seats in a mule shoe assembly. the pulses are converted to electrical signals by the transducer. which is housed in a protective barrel. Most excellent results are achieved when the transducer is attached directly to the standpipe. and then they are transmitted to the system computer for decoding. Therefore. Utilizing standard non-magnetic drill collars simplifies make-up. The EWR Electromagnetics Wave Resistivity tool has a 2-MHz transmitter and two receivers. MWD tools detect pulses or waves by means of a pressure transducer mounted on the standpipe. First. and makes MWD tool easier to transport. MWD tool‘s design allows optimum sensor spacing within the non-magnetic collars to minimize magnetic interference. is run immediately below a standard nonmagnetic drill collar. reduces tool costs. Mud System Modifications As it has been discussed in previous sections. The high frequency makes it an electromagnetic wave propagation tool . 5) CASE STUDIES & INNOVATIONS IN MWD 1983 NL Industries introduced LWD tool to tackle induction type of environments.
the EWR tool uses only phase shift. one of the earliest wire line logging tools. measure amplitude and phase differences between the receivers. Its principles were adapted by many MWD companies in the . All measurements can be transformed into resistivity readings. However. however. Induction tools measure the difference in magnetic field between the two receivers that is caused by induced information eddy currents. Propagation tools. 1987 Laterologs have their roots in a tool called the short normal.rather than an induction tool.
Exploration on the hort normal is the laterolog technique is commonly used in wire line logging. . Rt. measure the current and the voltage drop between the electrodes and Ohm’s law to derive formation resistivity. The idea is fairly straight forward: Force current from a source electrode to a return electrode trough the formation. Exploration Logging introduced a laterolog resistivity tool in 1987 based on the laterolog tool of the early 1950s.early 1980s to provide a simple resistivity log for correlation.
1990 New Generation of MWD Tools. Measurements at the Bit .
Increased our drilling motor fleet by over 30% since mid-2001 Doubled our drilling motor manufacturing capacity .2001 Special Enhancements Expansion of our LWD and MWD global job capacity Added directional drilling services to PathFinder’s operations in North America Commercial release of the Drilling Formation Tester (DFT) tool which provides formation pressure data while drilling Commercial release of our Gravity MWD service which minimizes the adverse impact of magnetic interference while conducting directional surveying.
warehousing. and transportation services Nearly doubled our coiled tubing revenue capacity and increased our geographic reach into the Texas marketplace Increased our cased-hole wire line revenue capacity by over 30% Commercial release of the Sensor Spool used to detect the precise location of pipe tool joints andconnections during tripping.Expanded the geographic reach of our rental tooloperations through a new integrated operating facility in South Texas Added new and patented drilling fluid products Increased geographic coverage of our drilling fluids distribution. snubbing or removal of pipe through the well bore .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?