Importance of Disaster Management

 Introduction Earth prone to disaster Disaster happens every now and then Disaster leads to colossal loss of life and Property Pre-empting disaster is technically very complicated So, the best way to avoid disaster is to engineer a better disaster management plan.  Different kinds of Disaster y Floods y Train Accidents y Airplane Crash y Tsunami y Earthquakes y Wild Fires y Rock and Snow Avalanches y Nuclear Accidents y Oil spillovers y Drought y Cyclones, Tornadoes, Typhoons  Ravages due to Disaster Loss to y y y y y y y

Infrastructure Transport Network Property Economy Agriculture Human and Animal life Education Sector 

Disaster Management It is an effort to minimize loss of human and animal life, Infrastructure, Transport Network, Property, Economy, Agriculture and Education Sector. Disaster Management has four phases namely, y Mitigation y Rescue y Relief

poor planning and geomorphical agents contribute to disaster. Intensity of earthquake can be detected by a Richter scale and its impact and origin can be recorded by a seismograph. Oil spill. Earthquake is caused by the movement of tectonic plates at the surface of earth s crust and tectonic forces acting on rocks below the earth surface. agriculture. Tornado. Every year disaster occurs in many forms. Disaster Management is of pivotal importance in many ways. Since disaster can occur at any time and early warning systems prove helpful only to a small extent. Many a geological activities. Geologic information has enabled scientists to investigate the interior of the Earth but pre-empting an earthquake still remains a challenge. Cyclone. human negligence.y y y Rehabilitation Building of Disaster Management Institutions at National and International Level International Cooperation and Framework on Disaster Management  Disaster Management in the wake of 2010 Floods in Pakistan  Disaster Management and Government Preparedness  Disaster Management and Japanese Mega-Earthquake  Conclusion Essay: Earth is vulnerable to disasters which wreak wide-scale devastation and inflict colossal loss of life. Wild fire. So far they have identified areas that are prone to earthquakes due to seismic activity taking place along the plate boundaries. damage to national economy. Earthquake. Nuclear Plant Accident. The unavoidable onslaught of unanticipated disaster has augmented manifold the need of a well conceived and contemplated disaster management plan. Tsunami. It can ravage cities. Flood. climatic variations. Rock and snow avalanche. technical flaws. Disasters have been frequent throughout the globe and are unavoidable. . Drought. It not only diminishes the impact of disaster but also tries to pre-empt it and arrange for all contingency plans that could reduce loss of precious human and animal life. Airplane crash. Train Accident are different form of disaster. Typhoon. Aid agencies and Governments and International Organizations to spring into action. The sheer devastation wrought by disasters has jolted Humanitarian Groups. there has been mounting interest in disaster management. transport and infrastructure and personal property. life and infrastructure. A disaster is a calamity of an incredibly large scale that affects large swathes of land. annihilate thousands of people in no time and contribute immensely to loss of economy and distress. Land slide. batters Earth and leads to misery. distress and grave suffering. Yet the only viable solution to reducing the impact of an earthquake is to take pre-cautionary measures.

They destroy road networks. The pacific ring of fire in the Pacific Ocean comprises the most active volcanoes in the world. floods can be controlled through early warning systems. In comparison to earthquakes. Health problems mushroom with . The ravages of disasters are manifest from the fact that they contribute to loss of human and animal life. houses and electricity and telephone lines. Avalanche. Travelling on highways passing through mountains becomes difficult and perilous. Adjoining areas to the pacific ring of fire frequently face the onslaught of lava flows and volcanic ash storms. Volcanic eruptions cause huge destruction. irrigation reduces and precipitation decreases. Drought is a silent natural disaster. Early warning systems to detect volcanic eruptions have not been devised because it is difficult to predict when a volcano will erupt. But there are many attending dangers related to nuclear energy. it is easier to predict change in wind and atmospheric systems through weather satellites and give early warning.Floods are the show of strength of mighty rivers when they go berserk. Nuclear energy is an efficient form of energy that can be tapped to produce Electrical energy. Every year floods straddle different parts of earth. tornadoes and typhoons are all atmospheric wind and pressure disturbances in a particular geographical area. These earthquakes generate huge waves sometimes as high as 30-60 meter. A major tsunami in the Indian Ocean caused widespread loss of life by killing more than 100. Detection of radioactive rays and screening of individuals to ascertain the amount of radiation absorbed is a painstaking process. livestock. loss to crops and property. However. They are also responsible for population displacements. a nuclear plant s reactors may get damaged and lead to leakage of highly hazardous nuclear radiations. Cyclones. The fact of the matter is that in case of any disaster such as a fire on the nuclear plant. poultry and economy of a country. They become recurrent if the forest cover around mountains is reduced due to lumbering and hewing of trees. Tsunamis occur when earthquakes occur at the bottom of sea floor due to movement of tectonic plates. rock falls and landslides are common in mountainous regions. tremors. It turns vast tracts of arable land into barren swathes. It has grave implications on food security. These nuclear radiations can cause skin cancers. It occurs when rivers change their course. Many people die instantly and other succumb to fatal injuries or suffer due to lack of medical facilities and timely evacuation from affected area. In the start of 2011 worst floods in the history of Australia inundated millions of acres of land and destroyed enormous property. bridges. deepens the water table and reduces green pasture that could be used cattle to graze. In the last year floods in Pakistan swept more than one third of the country and affected 20 million people. They cause widespread devastation. permanent cell damage and abnormal tissue growth. They cause wild fires. The paradox of disposal of highly radioactive nuclear waste generated during fission reaction makes nuclear energy dirty and hazardous.000 in the coastal regions surrounding it. earthquake or flood.

These steps vary according to the nature of disaster. They amply reveal the importance Governments give to disaster management. no construction activity should be allowed in flood plains of the river. An inspection team . destroy Electricity infrastructure and frustrate resumption of daily life and commercial and financial activities. bridges. scorch forests and destroy vegetation. Disaster management institutions should be established at the following tiers i. Disasters remain unpredictable and incalculably destructive. Lack of potable water. provincial and local government level. proper diet and shelter facilities makes life miserable. Economy takes a heavy toll and exports. and water-borne diseases. Disaster risk reduction or mitigation steps are preemptory steps taken to lessen the impact of disaster. highways. railways. Job losses. compulsory and short-service programs. college and school level. rescue efforts will be launched. They contribute to power outages. inundate arable land. This approach will imbibe people with requisite skills and flair for humanitarian work. Disasters spoil standing crops. At each tier recruitment should be made on merit and necessary training should be imparted to candidates by trained experts. To reduce the damage due to floods. skin infections. It will also add new talent to a pool of resources. Second. First. difficult and existing networks become overstrained. Disaster management should be taught as a multi-disciplinary course at university. underpasses and canals. It will also utilize the potential of people living in disaster prone areas and harness their skills. epidemics. This will go a long way in making people aware of their surroundings.e. trading and business receive a ruthless setback. fever. The best way to avoid disasters is to prepare for them in advance and lay down a comprehensive institutional framework for disaster management. The composition of disaster management institution at each tier should be such that it employs indigenous workforce and utilizes their potential. Travelling and transport becomes costly. An institutional cover. repatriation and rehabilitation of people will be initiated. training. disaster management institutions should arrange for voluntary. poor wages and volatile conditions add to economic instability and insecurity. workshops and awareness campaigns should be launched at international and national level. inherent risks of disaster and planning that should be done to escape the destruction. They raze transport network such as roads. disaster risk reduction will come into effect. Third. relief will be provided to victims of disaster. Seminars. and coordination between different departments. increase water-logging and salinity. national. railway tracks. Fourth. prepare volunteers and professionals which could be utilized at a time of emergency. expertise and requisite skills will make disaster management a specialized field. Disaster management at institutional level should work in the following four phases. Such a practice will launch disaster management as a permanent career.the spread of common cold. buildings. Moreover. They also expose the structural flaws and non compliance with the standard practices in the design of buildings.

Navy and Air Force contains a huge pool of logistics. New guidelines should also include information about the nature of earth surface and material available in the market. In far flung places where transport network has been destroyed helicopters should be used to uplift people. In case of an earthquake. Air-Force and local Police network to rescue and uplift people from marooned areas. In the same vein it is important that coastal areas should be planted with trees and residential area should be placed at a safe distance. Motor boats. For the safety of highways in the wake of floods. In 2010 bush fire destroyed huge swathes of forest cover and threatened residential areas in Russia. checks the strengths of river embankments and determines the exact course of a river. Tsunamis also called sea-quakes are produced due to earthquakes in the ocean and send shock waves in the form of huge sea waves to the coastal areas. mobile and television broadcasts should be used to inform people about the . During flood and tsunami rescue-workers should try to get people away from hazardous area that could be hit by flood or tsunami. In such a case special dress to shield against radiation and irradiating rays used to remove any traces of radiation. trees should be planted along the banks of the highway to reduce the run-off of flood water. When a disaster has struck government must utilize its different emergency services such as Fire Brigade. Leakage of nuclear radiations can wreck havoc. Paramedics and Army. to keep soil around the banks intact and hence protect highways and transport network against landslides. Moreover. Forest cover should be increased and forestation campaigns should be launched. An early flood warning system should also be placed on major barrages and rivers to allow constant monitoring of river flow and discharge. Army. residential areas should be planned at a safe distance. life-jackets. Rescue efforts depend on the nature of disaster. debris flow and avalanches. Every year forest conflagrations destroy timber worth billion of dollars. Tsunamis can be predicted to some extent but there is no way to escape them. people are advised to stay away at a distance where radiations can t affect them. A priority should be set to reach-out to people who are in dire need and could be rescued at the earliest possible time. A comprehensive plan should be devised to evacuate victims from disasterstruck place in the shortest possible time. helicopters should be utilized to evacuate people to safe areas. earthquakes and landslides. To avoid huge devastation due to landslides. it is contingent upon disaster management authority to work in liaison with Civil and Construction authorities of disaster prone area and to give builders specific standard codes for building by-laws and introduce new earthquake resistant structures. incendiary substances should not be placed in close proximity to forests. and proper filling of highways to act as shock-absorber in case of earthquakes.should be constituted that looks after the building activity in flood plains. Ambulances. An accident at a nuclear plant can have devastating consequences at a nuclear power plant. The second phase of disaster management entails rescue efforts. To avoid wild fires. The best shield against tsunamis is building of concrete structures near the coasts to slow down the speed of gigantic sea waves and reduce risk to coastal areas. In case of wild fires people should be evacuated at earnest as well as radio. Its resources and expertise should be utilized readily to rescue marooned people.

National and international aid should be utilized to employ the services of experts and to make assessment of the overall relief efforts. food cans and perishable items should be provided forthwith. the notion of disaster management has gained more traction. provincial and local authorities should engage with departments of education. For efficacious provision of relief to victims of disaster international aid agencies and donors should step in to address the colossal misery of people. . construction. International Red Cross association and EU disaster management agency to facilitate rescue measures. Heavy machinery should be put to use to remove the collapsed building debris and to safely remove people who are trapped. medicines and 24 hour care should be provided to people. A comprehensive roadmap should be thoroughly mooted to discuss building of schools. supply of potable water. provincial and local disaster management institutes should collaborate with UN agencies. life. Indubitably disaster management is the first step towards effectively diminishing the pernicious effects of disaster. In the rehabilitation phase the primary task is to make an accurate assessment of the damage done to buildings. Government should also announce financial aid and relief packages. Makeshift arrangements for temporary living such as tents. Rescue efforts necessitate a well-coordinated participation of national and international organizations that deal with disaster management. Government should ensure victims of disaster that it will do its utmost to address their predicaments. Earthquakes lead to collapse of building and infrastructure. economy and arable land. NGOs and Governments have sat together and mooted the different aspects of disaster management. infrastructure and making available materials required for construction at subsidized rates. Federal. Federal. Government should mobilize all of its internal as well as external resources and engage in active cooperation with international organizations to gear up the rehabilitation phase. Basic health facilities. canals. crops. Third phase of disaster management is the provision of relief to victims of disaster. The repatriation phase will require of the government to arrange special trains. International organizations. infrastructure and arable land. Since disasters are a permanent feature on the earth. houses. Damaged rail tracks can be restored in a smaller time as compared to roads. Vaccination against infectious. buses and caravans for facilitating their return. planning commission and banks to start the rehabilitation and repatriation phase. Disaster management is of pivotal importance because it will reduce loss to property. Soft loans should also be delivered to national institutions to help them cater to the demands of the untoward situation. blankets. water-borne and skin disease and epidemics should be carried out immediately to prevent their outbreak.upcoming calamity. The last phase of disaster management is rehabilitation and repatriation of the disaster-stricken people.

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