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Chemistry Regents Reference Table

Chemistry Regents Reference Table

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Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 1

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK • THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • ALBANY, NY 12234
2002 Edition • Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry
Table A
Standard Temperature and Pressure
Table B
Physical Constants for Water
Table C
Selected Prefixes
Table E
Selected Polyatomic Ions
Table D
Selected Units
Name Value Unit
Standard Pressure 101.3 kPa kilopascal
1 atm atmosphere
Standard Temperature 273 K kelvin
0°C degree Celsius
Heat of Fusion 333.6 J/g
Heat of Vaporization 2259 J/g
Specific Heat Capacity of H
2
O (ᐍ) 4.2 J/g•K
Factor Prefix Symbol
10
3
kilo- k
10
–1
deci- d
10
–2
centi- c
10
–3
milli- m
10
–6
micro- µ
10
–9
nano- n
10
–12
pico- p
Symbol Name Quantity
m meter length
kg kilogram mass
Pa pascal pressure
K kelvin temperature
mol mole
amount
of substance
J joule
energy, work,
quantity of heat
s second time
L liter volume
ppm part per million concentration
M molarity
solution
concentration
H
3
O
+
hydronium
Hg
2
2+
dimercury (I)
NH
4
+
ammonium
C
2
H
3
O
2

acetate
CH
3
COO
–}
CN

cyanide
CO
3
2–
carbonate
HCO
3

hydrogen
carbonate
C
2
O
4
2–
oxalate
ClO

hypochlorite
ClO
2

chlorite
ClO
3

chlorate
ClO
4

perchlorate
CrO
4
2–
chromate
Cr
2
O
7
2–
dichromate
MnO
4

permanganate
NO
2

nitrite
NO
3

nitrate
O
2
2–
peroxide
OH

hydroxide
PO
4
3–
phosphate
SCN

thiocyanate
SO
3
2–
sulfite
SO
4
2–
sulfate
HSO
4

hydrogen sulfate
S
2
O
3
2–
thiosulfate
2 Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry
Ions That Form
Soluble Compounds Exceptions
Group 1 ions
(Li
+
, Na
+
, etc.)
ammonium (NH
4
+
)
nitrate (NO
3

)
acetate (C
2
H
3
O
2

or
CH
3
COO

)
hydrogen carbonate
(HCO
3

)
chlorate (ClO
3

)
perchlorate (ClO
4

)
halides (Cl

, Br

, I

) when combined with
Ag
+
, Pb
2+
, and Hg
2
2+
sulfates (SO
4
2–
) when combined with Ag
+
,
Ca
2+
, Sr
2+
, Ba
2+
, and Pb
2+
Ions That Form
Insoluble Compounds Exceptions
carbonate (CO
3
2–
) when combined with Group 1
ions or ammonium (NH
4
+
)
chromate (CrO
4
2–
) when combined with Group 1
ions or ammonium (NH
4
+
)
phosphate (PO
4
3–
) when combined with Group 1
ions or ammonium (NH
4
+
)
sulfide (S
2–
) when combined with Group 1
ions or ammonium (NH
4
+
)
hydroxide (OH

) when combined with Group 1
ions, Ca
2+
, Ba
2+
, or Sr
2+
Table F
Solubility Guidelines
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Temperature (°C)
S
o
l
u
t
e

p
e
r

1
0
0

g

o
f

H
2
O

(
g
)
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
KI
NaNO
3
NH
3
HCl
NaCl
KNO
3
NH
4
Cl
KCl
SO
2
KClO
3
Table G Solubility Curves
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 3
Table H
Vapor Pressure of Four Liquids
0 25 50 75 100 125
200
150
100
50
0
V
a
p
o
r

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
k
P
a
)
Temperature (°C)
101.3 kPa
propanone
ethanol
water
ethanoic
acid
4 Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry
Table I
Heats of Reaction at 101.3 kPa and 298 K
Table J
Activity Series**
Reaction !H (kJ)*
CH
4
(g) + 2O
2
(g) CO
2
(g) + 2H
2
O(ᐍ) –890.4
C
3
H
8
(g) + 5O
2
(g) 3CO
2
(g) + 4H
2
O(ᐍ) –2219.2
2C
8
H
18
(ᐍ) + 25O
2
(g) 16CO
2
(g) + 18H
2
O(ᐍ) –10943
2CH
3
OH(ᐍ) + 3O
2
(g) 2CO
2
(g) + 4H
2
O(ᐍ) –1452
C
2
H
5
OH(ᐍ) + 3O
2
(g) 2CO
2
(g) + 3H
2
O(ᐍ) –1367
C
6
H
12
O
6
(s) + 6O
2
(g) 6CO
2
(g) + 6H
2
O(ᐍ) –2804
2CO(g) + O
2
(g) 2CO
2
(g) –566.0
C(s) + O
2
(g) CO
2
(g) –393.5
4Al(s) + 3O
2
(g) 2Al
2
O
3
(s) –3351
N
2
(g) + O
2
(g) 2NO(g) +182.6
N
2
(g) + 2O
2
(g) 2NO
2
(g) +66.4
2H
2
(g) + O
2
(g) 2H
2
O(g) –483.6
2H
2
(g) + O
2
(g) 2H
2
O(ᐍ) –571.6
N
2
(g) + 3H
2
(g) 2NH
3
(g) –91.8
2C(s) + 3H
2
(g) C
2
H
6
(g) –84.0
2C(s) + 2H
2
(g) C
2
H
4
(g) +52.4
2C(s) + H
2
(g) C
2
H
2
(g) +227.4
H
2
(g) + I
2
(g) 2HI(g) +53.0
KNO
3
(s)
H
2
O
K
+
(aq) + NO
3

(aq) +34.89
NaOH(s)
H
2
O
Na
+
(aq) + OH

(aq) –44.51
NH
4
Cl(s)
H
2
O
NH
4
+
(aq) + Cl

(aq) +14.78
NH
4
NO
3
(s)
H
2
O
NH
4
+
(aq) + NO
3

(aq) +25.69
NaCl(s)
H
2
O
Na
+
(aq) + Cl

(aq) +3.88
LiBr(s)
H
2
O
Li
+
(aq) + Br

(aq) –48.83
H
+
(aq) + OH

(aq) H
2
O(ᐍ) –55.8
*Minus sign indicates an exothermic reaction.
Metals Nonmetals Most Most
Least Least
Li
Rb
K
Cs
Ba
Sr
Ca
Na
Mg
Al
Ti
Mn
Zn
Cr
Fe
Co
Ni
Sn
Pb
**H
2
Cu
Ag
Au
F
2
Cl
2
Br
2
I
2
**Activity Series based on hydrogen standard
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 5
Table K
Common Acids
Table L
Common Bases
Table N
Selected Radioisotopes
Table M
Common Acid–Base Indicators
Formula Name
HCl(aq) hydrochloric acid
HNO
3
(aq) nitric acid
H
2
SO
4
(aq) sulfuric acid
H
3
PO
4
(aq) phosphoric acid
H
2
CO
3
(aq)
or carbonic acid
CO
2
(aq)
CH
3
COOH(aq)
ethanoic acid
or
HC
2
H
3
O
2
(aq)
(acetic acid)
Formula Name
NaOH(aq) sodium hydroxide
KOH(aq) potassium hydroxide
Ca(OH)
2
(aq) calcium hydroxide
NH
3
(aq) aqueous ammonia
Approximate
Indicator pH Range for Color Change
Color Change
methyl orange 3.2–4.4 red to yellow
bromthymol blue 6.0–7.6 yellow to blue
phenolphthalein 8.2–10 colorless to pink
litmus 5.5–8.2 red to blue
bromcresol green 3.8–5.4 yellow to blue
thymol blue 8.0–9.6 yellow to blue
Nuclide Half-Life Decay Nuclide
Mode Name
198
Au 2.69 d "

gold-198
14
C 5730 y "

carbon-14
37
Ca 175 ms "
+
calcium-37
60
Co 5.26 y "

cobalt-60
137
Cs 30.23 y "

cesium-137
53
Fe 8.51 min "
+
iron-53
220
Fr 27.5 s # francium-220
3
H 12.26 y "

hydrogen-3
131
I 8.07 d "

iodine-131
37
K 1.23 s "
+
potassium-37
42
K 12.4 h "

potassium-42
85
Kr 10.76 y "

krypton-85
16
N 7.2 s "

nitrogen-16
19
Ne 17.2 s "
+
neon-19
32
P 14.3 d "

phosphorus-32
239
Pu 2.44 × 10
4
y # plutonium-239
226
Ra 1600 y # radium-226
222
Rn 3.82 d # radon-222
90
Sr 28.1 y "

strontium-90
99
Tc 2.13 × 10
5
y "

technetium-99
232
Th 1.4 × 10
10
y # thorium-232
233
U 1.62 × 10
5
y # uranium-233
235
U 7.1 × 10
8
y # uranium-235
238
U 4.51 × 10
9
y # uranium-238
ms = milliseconds; s = seconds; min = minutes;
h = hours; d = days; y = years
Name
General
Examples
Formula
Name Structural Formula
alkanes C
n
H
2n+2
ethane
alkenes C
n
H
2n
ethene
alkynes C
n
H
2n–2
ethyne
6 Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry
Table O
Symbols Used in Nuclear Chemistry
Table P
Organic Prefixes
Table Q
Homologous Series of Hydrocarbons
Name Notation Symbol
alpha particle
4
2
He or
4
2
# #
beta particle (electron)
0
–1
e or
0
–1
" "

gamma radiation
0
0
$ $
neutron
1
0
n n
proton
1
1
H or
1
1
p p
positron
0
+1
e or
0
+1
" "
+
Prefix Number of
Carbon Atoms
meth- 1
eth- 2
prop- 3
but- 4
pent- 5
hex- 6
hept- 7
oct- 8
non- 9
dec- 10
H
H H
H
H H
C C
C C H H
H
C C
H H
H
n = number of carbon atoms
O
R C H
O
R C O R%
O
CH
3
CCH
2
CH
2
CH
3
2-pentanone
O
R C R%
O
C H
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 7
Table R
Organic Functional Groups
Class of
Compound
Functional
Group
General
Formula
Example
halide
(halocarbon)
alcohol
ether
aldehyde
F (fluoro-)
Cl (chloro-)
Br (bromo-)
I (iodo-)
OH
R X
(X represents
any halogen)
R OH
R O R%
CH
3
CHClCH
3
2-chloropropane
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
OH
1-propanol
CH
3
OCH
2
CH
3
methyl ethyl ether
amide
O
O
C OH
O
C O
O
C NH
N
O
C
O
CH
3
CH
2
C H
propanal
O R%
R C NH
R%
R N R%%
O
R C OH
ketone
organic acid
ester
amine
O
CH
3
CH
2
C OH
propanoic acid
O
CH
3
CH
2
COCH
3
methyl propanoate
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
NH
2
1-propanamine
O
CH
3
CH
2
C NH
2
propanamide
R represents a bonded atom or group
of atoms.
8 Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry
(223)
Fr
87
-18-32-18-8-1
+1 226.025
Ra
88
-18-32-18-8-2
+2 227.028
Ac
89
-18-32-18-9-2
+3 (261)
Rf
104
138.906
La
57
2-8-18-18-9-2
+3 178.49
Hf
72
**18-32-10-2
+4
91.224
Zr
40
2-8-18-10-2
+4
47.88
Ti
22
2-8-10-2
+2
+3
+4
50.9415
V
23
2-8-11-2
+2
+3
+4
+5
51.996
Cr
24
2-8-13-1
+2
+3
+6
95.94
Mo
42
2-8-18-13-1
+3
+6
183.85
W
74
-18-32-12-2
+6
54.9380
Mn
25
2-8-13-2
+2
+3
+4
+7
55.847
Fe
26
2-8-14-2
+2
+3
58.9332
Co
27
2-8-15-2
+2
+3
150.36
Sm
62
+2
+3
(145)
Pm
61
+3 144.24
Nd
60
+3 140.908
Pr
59
+3 140.12
Ce
58
+3
+4
232.038
Th
90
+4 231.036
Pa
91
+4
+5
238.029
U
92
+3
+4
+5
+6
237.048
Np
93
+3
+4
+5
+6
(244)
Pu
94
+3
+4
+5
+6
101.07
Ru
44
2-8-18-15-1
+3
190.2
Os
76
-18-32-14-2
+3
+4
192.22
Ir
77
-18-32-15-2
+3
+4
102.906
Rh
45
2-8-18-16-1
+3 (98)
Tc
43
2-8-18-14-1
+4
+6
+7
186.207
Re
75
-18-32-13-2
+4
+6
+7
92.9064
Nb
41
2-8-18-12-1
+3
+5
180.948
Ta
73
-18-32-11-2
+5
(262)
Db
105
(263)
Sg
106
(264)
Bh
107
(265)
Hs
108
(268)
Mt
109
88.9059
Y
39
2-8-18-9-2
+3
44.9559
Sc
21
2-8-9-2
+3
137.33
Ba
56
2-8-18-18-8-2
+2
87.62
Sr
38
2-8-18-8-2
+2
40.08
Ca
20
2-8-8-2
+2
24.305
Mg
12
2-8-2
+2
9.01218
Be
4
2-2
+2
132.905
Cs
55
2-8-18-18-8-1
+1
85.4678
Rb
37
2-8-18-8-1
+1
39.0983
K
19
2-8-8-1
+1
22.98977
Na
11
2-8-1
+1
6.941
Li
3
2-1
+1
1.00794
H
1
1
+1
–1
**Denotes the presence of (2-8-)
for elements 72 and above
P
e
r
i
o
d
1
2
1
1
2
Group
9 8 7 6 5 4 3
Group
3
4
5
6
7
Periodic Table o
C
12.0111 –4
+2
+4
6
2-4
Atomic Mass
Symbol
Atomic Number
Electron Configuration
Selected O
Relative at
on
12
C = 1
Note: Mas
are mass n
stable or co
KEY
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 9
8.69
Ni
28
-8-16-2
+2
+3
63.546
Cu
29
2-8-18-1
+1
+2
107.868
Ag
47
2-8-18-18-1
+1
65.39
Zn
30
2-8-18-2
+2 69.72
Ga
31
2-8-18-3
+3
26.98154
Al
13
2-8-3
+3
10.81
B
5
2-3
+3 12.0111
C
6
2-4
–4
+2
+4
15.9994
O
8
2-6
–2 18.998403
F
9
2-7
–1 20.179
Ne
10
2-8
0
4.00260
He
2
2
0
28.0855
Si
14
2-8-4
–4
+2
+4
72.59
Ge
32
2-8-18-4
–4
+2
+4
74.9216
As
33
2-8-18-5
–3
+3
+5
78.96
Se
34
2-8-18-6
–2
+4
+6
127.60
Te
52
2-8-18-18-6
–2
+4
+6
126.905
l
53
2-8-18-18-7
–1
+1
+5
+7
131.29
Xe
54
2-8-18-18-8
0
+2
+4
+6
(209)
Po
84
-18-32-18-6
+2
+4
(210)
At
85
-18-32-18-7
79.904
Br
35
2-8-18-7
–1
+1
+5
83.80
Kr
36
2-8-18-8
0
+2
(222)
Rn
86
-18-32-18-8
0
174.967
Lu
71
+3 173.04
Yb
70
+2
+3
168.934
Tm
69
+3 167.26
Er
68
+3 164.930
Ho
67
+3 162.50
Dy
66
+3 158.925
Tb
65
+3 157.25
Gd
64
+3 51.96
Eu
63
+2
+3
243)
Am
95
+3
+4
+5
+6
(247)
Cm
96
+3 (247)
Bk
97
+3
+4
(251)
Cf
98
+3 (252)
Es
99
(257)
Fm
100
(258)
Md
101
(259)
No
102
(260)
Lr
103
30.97376
P
15
2-8-5
–3
+3
+5
32.06
S
16
2-8-6
–2
+4
+6
39.948
Ar
18
2-8-8
0 35.453
Cl
17
2-8-7
–1
+1
+3
+5
+7
118.71
Sn
50
2-8-18-18-4
+2
+4
14.0067
N
7
2-5
–3
–2
–1
+1
+2
+3
+4
+5
112.41
Cd
48
2-8-18-18-2
+2 114.82
In
49
2-8-18-18-3
+3
200.59
Hg
80
-18-32-18-2
+1
+2
204.383
Tl
81
-18-32-18-3
+1
+3
207.2
Pb
82
-18-32-18-4
+2
+4
208.980
Bi
83
-18-32-18-5
+3
+5
121.75
Sb
51
2-8-18-18-5
–3
+3
+5
06.42
Pd
46
-8-18-18
+2
+4
95.08
Pt
78
18-32-17-1
+2
+4
196.967
Au
79
-18-32-18-1
+1
+3
269)
Uun
*
110
(272)
Uuu
111
(277)
Uub
112
(285)
Uuq
114
*The systematic names and symbols for elements of atomic numbers above 109
will be used until the approval of trivial names by IUPAC.
17 16 15 14 13 18
18
Group
10 11 12
of the Elements
xidation States
omic masses are based
2.000
s numbers in parentheses
umbers of the most
ommon isotope.
10 Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry
T
a
b
l
e

S
P
r
o
p
e
r
t
i
e
s

o
f

S
e
l
e
c
t
e
d

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
A
t
o
m
i
c

S
y
m
b
o
l
N
a
m
e
I
o
n
i
z
a
t
i
o
n

E
l
e
c
t
r
o
-
M
e
l
t
i
n
g
B
o
i
l
i
n
g
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
*
*
A
t
o
m
i
c

N
u
m
b
e
r
E
n
e
r
g
y
n
e
g
a
t
i
v
i
t
y
P
o
i
n
t
P
o
i
n
t
(
g
/
c
m
3
)
R
a
d
i
u
s

(
k
J
/
m
o
l
)
(
K
)
(
K
)
(
p
m
)
1
H
h
y
d
r
o
g
e
n
1
3
1
2
2
.
1
1
4
2
0
0
.
0
0
0
0
9
2
0
8
2
H
e
h
e
l
i
u
m
2
3
7
2

1
4
0
.
0
0
0
1
7
9
5
0
3
L
i
l
i
t
h
i
u
m
5
2
0
1
.
0
4
5
4
1
6
2
0
0
.
5
3
4
1
5
5
4
B
e
b
e
r
y
l
l
i
u
m
9
0
0
1
.
6
1
5
5
1
3
2
4
3
1
.
8
4
7
7
1
1
2
5
B
b
o
r
o
n
8
0
1
2
.
0
2
5
7
3
3
9
3
1
2
.
3
4
0
9
8
6
C
c
a
r
b
o
n
1
0
8
6
2
.
6
3
8
2
0
5
1
0
0
3
.
5
1
3
9
1
7
N
n
i
t
r
o
g
e
n
1
4
0
2
3
.
0
6
3
7
7
0
.
0
0
1
2
5
9
2
8
O
o
x
y
g
e
n
1
3
1
4
3
.
4
5
5
9
0
0
.
0
0
1
4
2
9
6
5
9
F
f
l
u
o
r
i
n
e
1
6
8
1
4
.
0
5
4
8
5
0
.
0
0
1
6
9
6
5
7
1
0
N
e
n
e
o
n
2
0
8
1

2
4
2
7
0
.
0
0
0
9
5
1
1
1
N
a
s
o
d
i
u
m
4
9
6
0
.
9
3
7
1
1
1
5
6
0
.
9
7
1
1
9
0
1
2
M
g
m
a
g
n
e
s
i
u
m
7
3
6
1
.
3
9
2
2
1
3
6
3
1
.
7
3
8
1
6
0
1
3
A
l
a
l
u
m
i
n
u
m
5
7
8
1
.
6
9
3
4
2
7
4
0
2
.
6
9
8
1
4
3
1
4
S
i
s
i
l
i
c
o
n
7
8
7
1
.
9
1
6
8
3
2
6
2
8
2
.
3
2
9
1
3
2
1
5
P
p
h
o
s
p
h
o
r
u
s
1
0
1
2
2
.
2
4
4
5
5
3
1
.
8
2
0
1
2
8
1
6
S
s
u
l
f
u
r
1
0
0
0
2
.
6
3
8
6
7
1
8
2
.
0
7
0
1
2
7
1
7
C
l
c
h
l
o
r
i
n
e
1
2
5
1
3
.
2
1
7
2
2
3
9
0
.
0
0
3
2
1
4
9
7
1
8
A
r
a
r
g
o
n
1
5
2
1

8
4
8
7
0
.
0
0
1
7
8
3
8
8
1
9
K
p
o
t
a
s
s
i
u
m
4
1
9
0
.
8
3
3
7
1
0
4
7
0
.
8
6
2
2
3
5
2
0
C
a
c
a
l
c
i
u
m
5
9
0
1
.
0
1
1
1
2
1
7
5
7
1
.
5
5
0
1
9
7
2
1
S
c
s
c
a
n
d
i
u
m
6
3
3
1
.
4
1
8
1
4
3
1
0
4
2
.
9
8
9
1
6
2
2
2
T
i
t
i
t
a
n
i
u
m
6
5
9
1
.
5
1
9
3
3
3
5
8
0
4
.
5
4
0
1
4
5
2
3
V
v
a
n
a
d
i
u
m
6
5
1
1
.
6
2
1
6
0
3
6
5
0
6
.
1
0
0
1
3
4
2
4
C
r
c
h
r
o
m
i
u
m
6
5
3
1
.
7
2
1
3
0
2
9
4
5
7
.
1
9
0
1
3
0
2
5
M
n
m
a
n
g
a
n
e
s
e
7
1
7
1
.
6
1
5
1
7
2
2
3
5
7
.
4
4
0
1
3
5
2
6
F
e
i
r
o
n
7
6
2
1
.
8
1
8
0
8
3
0
2
3
7
.
8
7
4
1
2
6
2
7
C
o
c
o
b
a
l
t
7
6
0
1
.
9
1
7
6
8
3
1
4
3
8
.
9
0
0
1
2
5
2
8
N
i
n
i
c
k
e
l
7
3
7
1
.
9
1
7
2
6
3
0
0
5
8
.
9
0
2
1
2
4
2
9
C
u
c
o
p
p
e
r
7
4
5
1
.
9
1
3
5
7
2
8
4
0
8
.
9
6
0
1
2
8
3
0
Z
n
z
i
n
c
9
0
6
1
.
7
6
9
3
1
1
8
0
7
.
1
3
3
1
3
8
3
1
G
a
g
a
l
l
i
u
m
5
7
9
1
.
8
3
0
3
2
6
7
6
5
.
9
0
7
1
4
1
3
2
G
e
g
e
r
m
a
n
i
u
m
7
6
2
2
.
0
1
2
1
1
3
1
0
3
5
.
3
2
3
1
3
7
3
3
A
s
a
r
s
e
n
i
c
9
4
4
2
.
2
1
0
9
0
8
8
9
5
.
7
8
0
1
3
9
3
4
S
e
s
e
l
e
n
i
u
m
9
4
1
2
.
6
4
9
0
9
5
8
4
.
7
9
0
1
4
0
3
5
B
r
b
r
o
m
i
n
e
1
1
4
0
3
.
0
2
6
6
3
3
2
3
.
1
2
2
1
1
2
3
6
K
r
k
r
y
p
t
o
n
1
3
5
1

1
1
7
1
2
1
0
.
0
0
3
7
5
1
0
3
3
7
R
b
r
u
b
i
d
i
u
m
4
0
3
0
.
8
3
1
2
9
6
1
1
.
5
3
2
2
4
8
3
8
S
r
s
t
r
o
n
t
i
u
m
5
4
9
1
.
0
1
0
4
2
1
6
5
7
2
.
5
4
0
2
1
5
3
9
Y
y
t
t
r
i
u
m
6
0
0
1
.
2
1
7
9
5
3
6
1
1
4
.
4
6
9
1
7
8
4
0
Z
r
z
i
r
c
o
n
i
u
m
6
4
0
1
.
3
2
1
2
5
4
6
5
0
6
.
5
0
6
1
6
0
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 11
A
t
o
m
i
c

S
y
m
b
o
l
N
a
m
e
I
o
n
i
z
a
t
i
o
n

E
l
e
c
t
r
o
-
M
e
l
t
i
n
g
B
o
i
l
i
n
g
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
*
*
A
t
o
m
i
c

N
u
m
b
e
r
E
n
e
r
g
y
n
e
g
a
t
i
v
i
t
y
P
o
i
n
t
P
o
i
n
t
(
g
/
c
m
3
)
R
a
d
i
u
s

(
k
J
/
m
o
l
)
(
K
)
(
K
)
(
p
m
)
4
1
N
b
n
i
o
b
i
u
m
6
5
2
1
.
6
2
7
4
1
5
0
1
5
8
.
5
7
0
1
4
6
4
2
M
o
m
o
l
y
b
d
e
n
u
m
6
8
4
2
.
2
2
8
9
0
4
8
8
5
1
0
.
2
2
0
1
3
9
4
3
T
c
t
e
c
h
n
e
t
i
u
m
7
0
2
1
.
9
2
4
4
5
5
1
5
0
1
1
.
5
0
0
1
3
6
4
4
R
u
r
u
t
h
e
n
i
u
m
7
1
0
2
.
2
2
5
8
3
4
1
7
3
1
2
.
3
7
0
1
3
4
4
5
R
h
r
h
o
d
i
u
m
7
2
0
2
.
3
2
2
3
9
4
0
0
0
1
2
.
4
1
0
1
3
4
4
6
P
d
p
a
l
l
a
d
i
u
m
8
0
4
2
.
2
1
8
2
5
3
4
1
3
1
2
.
0
2
0
1
3
7
4
7
A
g
s
i
l
v
e
r
7
3
1
1
.
9
1
2
3
5
2
4
8
5
1
0
.
5
0
0
1
4
4
4
8
C
d
c
a
d
m
i
u
m
8
6
8
1
.
7
5
9
4
1
0
3
8
8
.
6
5
0
1
7
1
4
9
I
n
i
n
d
i
u
m
5
5
8
1
.
8
4
2
9
2
3
5
3
7
.
3
1
0
1
6
6
5
0
S
n
t
i
n
7
0
9
2
.
0
5
0
5
2
5
4
3
7
.
3
1
0
1
6
2
5
1
S
b
a
n
t
i
m
o
n
y
8
3
1
2
.
1
9
0
4
1
9
0
8
6
.
6
9
1
1
5
9
5
2
T
e
t
e
l
l
u
r
i
u
m
8
6
9
2
.
1
7
2
3
1
2
6
3
6
.
2
4
0
1
4
2
5
3
I
i
o
d
i
n
e
1
0
0
8
2
.
7
3
8
7
4
5
8
4
.
9
3
0
1
3
2
5
4
X
e
x
e
n
o
n
1
1
7
0
2
.
6
1
6
1
1
6
6
0
.
0
0
5
9
1
2
4
5
5
C
s
c
e
s
i
u
m
3
7
6
0
.
8
3
0
2
9
5
2
1
.
8
7
3
2
6
7
5
6
B
a
b
a
r
i
u
m
5
0
3
0
.
9
1
0
0
2
1
9
1
0
3
.
5
9
4
2
2
2
5
7
L
a
l
a
n
t
h
a
n
u
m
5
3
8
1
.
1
1
1
9
4
3
7
3
0
6
.
1
4
5
1
3
8
E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

5
8

7
1

h
a
v
e

b
e
e
n

o
m
i
t
t
e
d
.
7
2
H
f
h
a
f
n
i
u
m
6
5
9
1
.
3
2
5
0
3
5
4
7
0
1
3
.
3
1
0
1
6
7
7
3
T
a
t
a
n
t
a
l
u
m
7
2
8
1
.
5
3
2
6
9
5
6
9
8
1
6
.
6
5
4
1
4
9
7
4
W
t
u
n
g
s
t
e
n
7
5
9
2
.
4
3
6
8
0
5
9
3
0
1
9
.
3
0
0
1
4
1
7
5
R
e
r
h
e
n
i
u
m
7
5
6
1
.
9
3
4
5
3
5
9
0
0
2
1
.
0
2
0
1
3
7
7
6
O
s
o
s
m
i
u
m
8
1
4
2
.
2
3
3
2
7
5
3
0
0
2
2
.
5
9
0
1
3
5
7
7
I
r
i
r
i
d
i
u
m
8
6
5
2
.
2
2
6
8
3
4
4
0
3
2
2
.
5
6
0
1
3
6
7
8
P
t
p
l
a
t
i
n
u
m
8
6
4
2
.
3
2
0
4
5
4
1
0
0
2
1
.
4
5
0
1
3
9
7
9
A
u
g
o
l
d
8
9
0
2
.
5
1
3
3
8
3
0
8
0
1
9
.
3
2
0
1
4
6
8
0
H
g
m
e
r
c
u
r
y
1
0
0
7
2
.
0
2
3
4
6
3
0
1
3
.
5
4
6
1
6
0
8
1
T
l
t
h
a
l
l
i
u
m
5
8
9
2
.
0
5
7
7
1
7
3
0
1
1
.
8
5
0
1
7
1
8
2
P
b
l
e
a
d
7
1
6
2
.
3
6
0
1
2
0
1
3
1
1
.
3
5
0
1
7
5
8
3
B
i
b
i
s
m
u
t
h
7
0
3
2
.
0
5
4
5
1
8
3
3
9
.
7
4
7
1
7
0
8
4
P
o
p
o
l
o
n
i
u
m
8
1
2
2
.
0
5
2
7
1
2
3
5
9
.
3
2
0
1
6
7
8
5
A
t
a
s
t
a
t
i
n
e

2
.
2
5
7
5
6
1
0

1
4
5
8
6
R
n
r
a
d
o
n
1
0
3
7

2
0
2
2
1
1
0
.
0
0
9
7
3
1
3
4
8
7
F
r
f
r
a
n
c
i
u
m
3
9
3
0
.
7
3
0
0
9
5
0

2
7
0
8
8
R
a
r
a
d
i
u
m

0
.
9
9
7
3
1
4
1
3
5
.
0
0
0
2
3
3
8
9
A
c
a
c
t
i
n
i
u
m
4
9
9
1
.
1
1
3
2
0
3
4
7
0
1
0
.
0
6
0

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

9
0

a
n
d

a
b
o
v
e

h
a
v
e

b
e
e
n

o
m
i
t
t
e
d
.
*
B
o
i
l
i
n
g

p
o
i
n
t

a
t

s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
*
*
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

a
t

S
T
P

12 Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry
Table T
Important Formulas and Equations
DET (7–01-450,000)
91-80515 91-109 CDC
d = density
Density d = m = mass
V = volume
Mole Calculations number of moles =
Percent Error % error = × 100
Percent Composition % composition by mass = × 100
parts per million = × 1 000 000
Concentration
molarity =
P = pressure
Combined Gas Law = V = volume
T = temperature (K)
M
A
= molarity of H
+
M
B
= molarity of OH

Titration M
A
V
A
= M
B
V
B
V
A
= volume of acid V
B
= volume of base
q = mC!T q = heat H
f
= heat of fusion
Heat q = mH
f
m = mass H
v
= heat of vaporization
q = mH
v
C = specific heat capacity
!T = change in temperature
Temperature
K = °C + 273 K = kelvin
°C = degrees Celsius
fraction remaining =
( )
t = total time elapsed
Radioactive Decay
T = half-life
number of half-life periods =
t
T
t
T
1
2
P
2
V
2
T
2
P
1
V
1
T
1
moles of solute
liters of solution
grams of solute
grams of solution
mass of part
mass of whole
measured value – accepted value
accepted value
given mass (g)
gram-formula mass
m
V
Gas Laws
• =
• =
= =
=
= = = =
=


PV nRT
M
DRT
P
D density M molar mass
Constants
R
S P atm kPa torr mm Hg
GMV
L atm
mol K
L
mol
;
.
. . . .
.
00821
1 1013 760 760
22 4
U
V
∆G = ∆H – T∆S
STANDARD ENERGIES OF FORMATION
OF COMPOUNDS AT 1 atm AND 298 K
Compound
Heat
(Enthalpy) of
Formation *
kJ/mol (∆H
f
E)
Free Energy
of Formation
kJ/mol (∆G
f
E)
Aluminum oxide Al
2
O
3
(s)
Ammonia NH
3
(g)
Barium sulfate BaSO
4
(s)
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)
2
(s)
Carbon dioxide CO
2
(g)
Carbon monoxide CO(g)
Copper (II) sulfate CuSO
4
(s)
Ethane C
2
H
6
(g)
Ethene (ethylene) C
2
H
4
(g)
Ethyne (acetylene) C
2
H
2
(g)
Hydrogen fluoride HF(g)
Hydrogen iodide HI(g)
Iodine chloride ICl(g)
Lead (II) oxide PbO(s)
Magnesium oxide MgO(s)
Nitrogen monoxide NO(g)
Nitrogen dioxide NO
2
(g)
Potassium chloride KCl(s)
Sodium chloride NaCl(s)
Sulfur dioxide SO
2
(g)
Water H
2
O(g)
Water H
2
O(R)
–1674.1
–46.0
–1471.8
–985.2
–393.3
–110.4
–770.8
–84.4
52.3
226.6
–270.9
26.3
18.0
–215.3
–601.1
90.3
33.0
–436.4
–410.9
–296.4
–241.6
–285.5
–1580.9
–16.3
–1361.0
–897.9
–394.2
–137.1
–661.3
–33.0
68.1
209.0
–273.0
1.7
–5.4
–188.1
–568.9
86.5
51.4
–408.8
–383.7
–299.7
–228.2
–237.0
* Minus sign indicates an exothermic reaction.
Sample equations:
2AI(s) +
3
/
2
O
2
(g) ÿ Al
2
O
3
(s) + 1674.1 kJ
2AI(s) +
3
/
2
O
2
(g) ÿ Al
2
O
3
(s) ∆H = –1674.1 kJ/mol
W
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ CHEMISTRY 9 8 Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ CHEMISTRY
(223)
Fr
87
-18-32-18-8-1
+1 226.025
Ra
88
-18-32-18-8-2
+2 227.028
Ac
89
-18-32-18-9-2
+3 (261)
Rf
104
138.906
La
57
2-8-18-18-9-2
+3 178.49
Hf
72
**18-32-10-2
+4
91.224
Zr
40
2-8-18-10-2
+4
47.88
Ti
22
2-8-10-2
+2
+3
+4
50.9415
V
23
2-8-11-2
+2
+3
+4
+5
51.996
Cr
24
2-8-13-1
+2
+3
+6
95.94
Mo
42
2-8-18-13-1
+3
+6
183.85
W
74
-18-32-12-2
+6
54.9380
Mn
25
2-8-13-2
+2
+3
+4
+7
55.847
Fe
26
2-8-14-2
+2
+3
58.9332
Co
27
2-8-15-2
+2
+3
58.69
Ni
28
2-8-16-2
+2
+3
63.546
Cu
29
2-8-18-1
+1
+2
107.868
Ag
47
2-8-18-18-1
+1
65.39
Zn
30
2-8-18-2
+2 69.72
Ga
31
2-8-18-3
+3
26.98154
Al
13
2-8-3
+3
10.81
B
5
2-3
+3 12.0111
C
6
2-4
–4
+2
+4
15.9994
O
8
2-6
–2 18.998403
F
9
2-7
–1 20.179
Ne
10
2-8
0
4.00260
He
2
2
0
28.0855
Si
14
2-8-4
–4
+2
+4
72.59
Ge
32
2-8-18-4
–4
+2
+4
74.9216
As
33
2-8-18-5
–3
+3
+5
78.96
Se
34
2-8-18-6
–2
+4
+6
127.60
Te
52
2-8-18-18-6
–2
+4
+6
126.905
l
53
2-8-18-18-7
–1
+1
+5
+7
131.29
Xe
54
2-8-18-18-8
0
+2
+4
+6
(209)
Po
84
-18-32-18-6
+2
+4
(210)
At
85
-18-32-18-7
79.904
Br
35
2-8-18-7
–1
+1
+5
83.80
Kr
36
2-8-18-8
0
+2
(222)
Rn
86
-18-32-18-8
0
174.967
Lu
71
+3 173.04
Yb
70
+2
+3
168.934
Tm
69
+3 167.26
Er
68
+3 164.930
Ho
67
+3 162.50
Dy
66
+3 158.925
Tb
65
+3 157.25
Gd
64
+3 151.96
Eu
63
+2
+3
150.36
Sm
62
+2
+3
(145)
Pm
61
+3 144.24
Nd
60
+3 140.908
Pr
59
+3 140.12
Ce
58
+3
+4
232.038
Th
90
+4 231.036
Pa
91
+4
+5
238.029
U
92
+3
+4
+5
+6
237.048
Np
93
+3
+4
+5
+6
(244)
Pu
94
+3
+4
+5
+6
(243)
Am
95
+3
+4
+5
+6
(247)
Cm
96
+3 (247)
Bk
97
+3
+4
(251)
Cf
98
+3 (252)
Es
99
(257)
Fm
100
(258)
Md
101
(259)
No
102
(260)
Lr
103
30.97376
P
15
2-8-5
–3
+3
+5
32.06
S
16
2-8-6
–2
+4
+6
39.948
Ar
18
2-8-8
0 35.453
Cl
17
2-8-7
–1
+1
+3
+5
+7
118.71
Sn
50
2-8-18-18-4
+2
+4
14.0067
N
7
2-5
–3
–2
–1
+1
+2
+3
+4
+5
112.41
Cd
48
2-8-18-18-2
+2 114.82
In
49
2-8-18-18-3
+3
200.59
Hg
80
-18-32-18-2
+1
+2
204.383
Tl
81
-18-32-18-3
+1
+3
207.2
Pb
82
-18-32-18-4
+2
+4
208.980
Bi
83
-18-32-18-5
+3
+5
121.75
Sb
51
2-8-18-18-5
–3
+3
+5
106.42
Pd
46
2-8-18-18
+2
+4
195.08
Pt
78
-18-32-17-1
+2
+4
196.967
Au
79
-18-32-18-1
+1
+3
101.07
Ru
44
2-8-18-15-1
+3
190.2
Os
76
-18-32-14-2
+3
+4
192.22
Ir
77
-18-32-15-2
+3
+4
102.906
Rh
45
2-8-18-16-1
+3 (98)
Tc
43
2-8-18-14-1
+4
+6
+7
186.207
Re
75
-18-32-13-2
+4
+6
+7
92.9064
Nb
41
2-8-18-12-1
+3
+5
180.948
Ta
73
-18-32-11-2
+5
(262)
Db
105
(263)
Sg
106
(264)
Bh
107
(265)
Hs
108
(268)
Mt
109
(269)
Uun
(272)
Uuu
111
(277)
Uub
112
(285)
Uuq
114
88.9059
Y
39
2-8-18-9-2
+3
44.9559
Sc
21
2-8-9-2
+3
137.33
Ba
56
2-8-18-18-8-2
+2
87.62
Sr
38
2-8-18-8-2
+2
40.08
Ca
20
2-8-8-2
+2
24.305
Mg
12
2-8-2
+2
9.01218
Be
4
2-2
+2
132.905
Cs
55
2-8-18-18-8-1
+1
85.4678
Rb
37
2-8-18-8-1
+1
39.0983
K
19
2-8-8-1
+1
22.98977
Na
11
2-8-1
+1
6.941
Li
3
2-1
+1
1.00794
H
1
1
+1
–1
*The systematic names and symbols for elements of atomic numbers above 109
will be used until the approval of trivial names by IUPAC. **Denotes the presence of (2-8-)
for elements 72 and above
P
e
r
i
o
d
1
2
1
1
2
Group
17 16 15 14 13 18
18
Group
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 11 12
Group
3
4
5
6
7
Periodic Table of the Elements
C
12.011 –4
+2
+4
6
2-4
Atomic Mass
Symbol
Atomic Number
Electron Configuration
Selected Oxidation States
Relative atomic masses are based
on
12
C = 12.000
Note: Mass numbers in parentheses
are mass numbers of the most
stable or common isotope.
KEY

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