APUSH Chapter 27 Empire and Expansion

● US desires expansion ○ reasons ■ markets; starting to overproduce ■ “yellow press” - foreign exploits = great adventure ■ missionary targets ● following Josiah Strong’s Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis ■ social Darwinism: US is fit, it should conquer (TR, Con/Sen Henry Lodge) ● Africa and China ○ desire fueled by the new steel navy ■ Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 (1890) ● helped inspire worldwide naval race ■ control of sea = word dominance Latin America ○ Sec of State James G. Blaine pushed “Big Sister” Policy ■ unite LA under US ■ open all LA markets to US ○ 1889: Blaine lead first Pan-American Conference in DC ■ first of many assemblages ○ see Cuba US foreign crises ○ many such problems in late 1880s and early 1890s ○ 1889 - US vs Germany for South Pacific Samoan Islands ■ almost came to navies fighting ■ 1899 - land divided between two countries ● German Samoa later became republic ● US Samoa is in US possession ○ 1891 - 11 Italians lynched in New Orleans ■ US and Italy at brink of war ■ US agreed to pay compensation ○ 1892 - two US sailors dead in port of Valparaiso if Chile ■ US made many demands ■ hostility seemingly inevitable ■ Chileans paid indemnity ○ 1893 - US vs Canada over seal hunting ■ in Pribilof Islands off Alaska ■ solved with arbitration ○ US showed aggressiveness (war over small matters) Britain changes its treatment of US ○ 1895-1896: long time boundary conflict of British Guiana and Venezuela

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■ gold discovered: conflict intensified Pres. Cleveland + Sec of State Richard Olney invoked Monroe Doctrine ■ Olney said US was “boss” of the West ■ ignored by the British; not the business of the US Cleveland asked Congress for commission of experts to determine boundary ■ US would fight for this line all citizens united for this issue ■ no parties, ready for war US and British consented to arbitration ■ problems in Europe: Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany, Boers of S. Africa Great Rapprochement (reconciliation) ■ British sought US friendship ■ foreign policies later influenced by this

Hawaii ○ 1820s: first New England missionaries arrived ■ did well, made Hawaii known for sugar production ○ 1840s: State Department warn other countries ■ Hawaii was the US’s ○ 1887: treaty with Hawaii - got Pearl Harbor ○ natives killed off through diseases ■ 1 / 6 times population compared to at first European contact ■ US bosses hired Asians ● by 1900, Asians outnumbered both whites and natives ○ 1890: McKinley Tariff made Hawaiian products expensive ■ planters wanted to annex Hawaii ○ Queen Liliuokalani against annexation ● for: self-rule ● wrote many songs (“Aloha Oe”) ● 1893: whites successfully revolted, dethroned queen ○ annexation treaty rushed to DC ■ Rep. Harrison out, Dem. Cleveland in ■ Cleveland felt sorry for Liliuokalani ● could not restore her, withdrew treaty ■ fact: majority of natives against annexation ○ Hawaii annexed on July 7, 1898, full status in 1900 ■ feared Japan taking islands ■ needed coaling/provisioning station ● US had taken Philippines from Spain Cuba ○ Cuba fed up with Spanish rule, revolted in 1895 ■ misgoverned ■ sugar industry crippled by US tariff of 1894 ○ pre-US war ■ insurrectos used scorched-earth policy

● burned down sugar mills, dynamited passenger trains, etc. ● helped by Cuban citizens ■ Spain sent General “Butcher” Weyler ● moved civilians to reconcentration camps ○ no more help to insurgents ● camps had no sanitation ○ pestholes, many deaths US rationale to join war ■ US business invested $50 million in Cuba ● $100 million annually ■ lay next to upcoming Panama Canal ● Sen. Lodge: control Cuba, control Gulf of Mexico ■ yellow journalism ● interesting news, not always true ○ written for a certain response ● by William Randolph Hearst, Joseph Pulitzer ○ Hearst hired Frederic Remington to sketch Cuban images ○ manipulated facts ○ published letter from Spanish minister in US ■ Dupuy de Lome letter ■ harshly criticized McKinley ● infuriated public, wanted to help Cubans ■ Maine explosion ● early 1898, battleship sent to protect Americans ● Feb. 15, 1898, mysteriously blew up ○ 260 sailors killed ● Spain said accident, US said sabotage ○ still no real answer ● US wanted revenge: war ■ McKinley conflicted ● Madrid already agreed to end camps + armistice ● McKinley did not want conflict ○ did not want Cuba independent or with Spain ● TR wanted action; believed McKinley weak ● Apr. 11, 1898 - asked Congress for war (“free Cubans”) ○ added Teller Amendment ■ leave Cuba after overthrowing Spanish The War ■ Spain sent substandard warships to Cuba ● frightened US vacationers ● moved to Santiago Harbor ○ blockaded by US fleet ■ US decided to go in the rear to drive out Spanish ships ● under General William R. Shafter

troops unequipped, unready included Rough Riders ○ volunteers from convicts to cowboys ○ under Colonel Leonard Wood, formed by TR ■ mid-June: 17,000 US men went from Tampa, FL ● distraction by Cuban insurrectos ● Shafter’s troops landed near Santiago, little opposition ■ July 1: fighting started at El Caney + Kettle Hill ● heavy casualties ■ US closed in on Santiago ● July 3: Spanish came out harbor, meeting US fleet ■ US rushed to capture Puerto Rico ■ armistice signed Aug. 12, 1898 Looking Back ■ US suffered: malaria, typhoid fever, dysentery, yellow fever ● would have lost in months ■ unhealthy canned meat ■ 400 dead from bullets, 5,000+ dead to other reasons

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