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Page no. 1. Introduction…………………..................2-4 2. What is liquid Lens? ……………...........5-7 3. Working principle. ……………...............8-10 4. Electrowetting. ……………................... 11-14
5. Working difference…………………………15 6. Characteristics. ……………..................16-18 7. Application……..……………................. 18-20 8. Lens for camera…………………………….21-23 9. Conclusion. ……………........................ 24-25 10. Reference. ……………............................26
The theory behind liquid lens is based on the properties of one or more fluids to create magnifications within a small amount of space. Liquid lens can be considered as "infinitely variables" lens with variable focus, and the focus is controlled without using any moving parts. The focus of a liquid lens is controlled by the surface of the liquid. Water forms naturally a bubble shape when adhered to materials such as glass or plastics. This desirable property makes water a very suitable candidate for the production of a liquid lens. To generate a liquid lens, a mixture of two liquids is sandwiched between two pieces of clear plastics or glass. The second liquid needs to encapsulate the water drop and to fill any free space or void. It is well known that water and oil do not mix, and oil is also inexpensive and safe to use. Therefore, oil is chosen to be used as the other liquid mixture for the liquid lens system. The surface profiles of the liquids determine the focal length of the liquid lens system, and ultimately, how the liquid lens focuses light. In other words, by altering the surface profile of the liquids, the focal length can be adjusted. This is done by changing the shape and size of the drop of water within the liquid lens.
but the need for better image quality leads now to the development of mega pixels sensors. The lens is cheaper to make has optical zooming abilities and uses only a fraction of the space of most conventional lenses are called as fluidlens or liquidlens. 3 . but the need for auto focus and zoom compound lenses remains open: no commercial solution exists up to now at reasonable prices for this very large scale market. data storage. security or personal identification. integrating a digital sensor and an optical system altogether. single element lens). Nowadays camera modules. especially incoherent light handling.IMRE has made a breakthrough in lens technology. The camera module were developed first with low count pixels and ultra small format sensors (CIF resolution. have entered into mobile phones and slim digital cameras. 1/4” or less. In the past 2-3 decades. More recently this trend has extended to imaging systems. bringing the need for develop in miniature optical systems. for various applications including communications. the need for miniaturization of optical systems has increased dramatically. These sensors are now commercially available.
Blu-Ray players require highly accurate optical systems capable of adjusting for distortions that naturally occur during dual layer disc reading and writing. which curvature is actuated by electrowetting. The natural interfacial tension between liquids produces a smooth optical interface. 4 . Kuiper believes that FluidFocus lenses could be especially useful for reading from Blu-Ray DVD disks. Several applications will be discussed in the autofocus/macro/zoom optics for CMOS and CCD miniature imagers. such that optical axis remains stable. The liquid-liquid interface forms a drop shape.The liquid lens technology that we present here could be the solution to this demanding application. In addition. Nonetheless. Intrinsic physical limitations will be presented as well as actual performances of the technology. in order to have a usable lens. it cannot be used to make lenses larger than a centimetre in diameter. because the technique relies on the surface tension of the liquids inside the lens. A new principle of variable lenses with tunable focal length will be demonstrated : two iso-density non-miscible liquids are trapped inside a transparent cell. it is necessary to incorporate a centering mechanism. But. This would place a limit on the resolution of images. which store information more densely than ordinary DVDs.
Germany.The FluidFocus lens will be demonstrated at the technology fair CeBit. and oil is also lens? inexpensive and safe to use. What is a liquid To generate a liquid lens. The second liquid needs to encapsulate the water drop and to fill any free space or void. Therefore. 5 . These are not to be confused with liquid-formed lenses that are created by placing a drop of plastic or epoxy on a surface. It is well known that water and oil do not mix. which is then allowed to harden into a lens shape. a mixture of two liquids is sandwiched between two pieces of clear plastics or glass.) There are two primary types Transmissive and Reflective. oil is chosen to be used as the other liquid mixture for the liquid lens system. next week. in Hannover. A liquid lens uses one or more fluids to create an infinitelyvariable lens without any moving parts by controlling the meniscus (the surface of the liquid. Kuiper says the first devices that incorporate fluid lenses be available by 2005.
are contained in a short tube with transparent end caps. The interior of the tube and one of the caps is coated 6 . one an electrically conducting aqueous solution and one a nonconducting oil. a significant reduction from the roughly $100 million cost of what a conventional telescope with a regular solid glass mirror of the same size would require. centripetal force creates a smooth reflective concavity that is ideally suited for telescope applications. The world's 13th largest telescope. to create variable-focus lenses of high optical quality as small as 10 µm (microns). When a container of fluid (in this case. A reflective liquid lens would never suffer from that problem. The telescope costs only about $1 million. each with a different refractive index. Normally. The two fluids. Transmissive liquid lenses use two immiscible fluids. mercury) is rotated.Reflective liquid lenses are actually variable mirrors. and are used in reflector telescopes in place of traditional glass mirrors. as a simple change in rotation speed would change the curve of the meniscus to the proper shape. Scientists at the University of British Columbia (UBC) have built a 236-inch (6-meter) Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT). its reflective surface is made of a flat container of mercury spinning at about 5 RPM. such a smooth curved surface has to be meticulously ground and polished into glass in an extremely expensive and tricky process (remember the Hubble Space Telescope mirror fiasco).
Only 0. which causes the aqueous solution to form a hemispherical lens-shaped mass at the opposite end of the tube. Tiny drops of epoxy are placed on each pixel.1 micro joules (µJ) are needed for each change of focus. The aforementioned liquid-formed lenses are a cool technology as well. They are also used on novelty items to create a magnifying effect. which then form individual lenses to increase light-capturing ability. such a lens is capable of seamless transition from convex (convergent) to concave (divergent) lens shapes with switching times measured in milliseconds. and used mostly on image sensors. 7 . making liquid lenses of a quality suitable for endoscopic medical imaging and other space-constrained highresolution applications like micro cameras and fiber-optic telecommunications systems. The shape of the lens is adjusted by applying a dc voltage across the coating to decrease its water repellency in a process called electrowetting. Extremely shock and vibration resistant.with a hydrophobic material. changing the radius of curvature in the meniscus and thereby the focal length of the lens. In addition. Electrowetting adjusts the liquid's surface tension. the boundary between the two fluids forms an extremely smooth and regular surface.
Our eye ball(pupil) has the ability to contract or expand itself depending upon the position of the object. 8 . the light which comes from the object falls on our eye ball. Which then leaves the perfect light ray to fall on the retina which results visibility of the object.WORKING PRINCIPLE: The magnifying principle of a liquid lens is similar to that of our eye.The liquid lens acts on the same principle.If the pupil can’t adjust itself then we are not able to see the object. When we try to see an object.
The lens has an actuator which is driven by the dielectric power. The two liquids were injected inside a 3mm thick PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) chamber that was sealed 9 . The liquid lens consists of a 15μL (liquid) droplet with a low dielectric constant and a sealing liquid with a high dielectric constant. The figure below depicts the configuration of a liquid lens actuated by the dielectric force. The bottom diameter of the droplet was 7mm when no voltage was applied. hence we are able to take the picture. Which results in adjustment of the lens.
The mass density of the sealing liquid was adjusted to match that of the droplet to minimize the gravitational effect. The dielectric force induced is described by equation given below where ε0 is the permittivity of free space. The width and spacing of the ITO electrodes was 50μm. The dielectric force shrunk the droplet. causing optical aberrations. since the gravitational effect may induce no uniform deformation of the droplet profile. respectively.between two ITO glass substrates. As the voltage was applied. ε1 and ε2 are dielectric constants of the sealing liquid and the droplet. increasing the droplet's contact angle and shortening the focal length of the liquid lens. The concentric ITO electrodes on the bottom glass substrate were coated with 1μm thick Teflon® to reduce friction between the droplet and the glass substrate. a dielectric force arose on the droplet due to the difference in the dielectric constant between the two liquids. E denotes the electric field intensity across the interface of the two liquids 10 .
A typical liquid lens) Electro wetting Principle: 11 .( fig.
This condition is necessary for suppressing any optical distortion of the gravity on the liquid-liquid interface.This principle states that whenever no voltage is applied to the drop of liquid then it is “phobic “of the surface. which enables to use the lens in every orientation. In current electrowetting experiments. Two non miscible liquids of same density instead of having a water drop in air. As the voltage increases the liquid wets the surface more. • Inversion of the conducting and non conducting fluid. one works with water and oil. the water is used as a drop immersed in 12 . This principle helps in adjusting the lens which can make the lens to behave like concave & convex as per the requirement.
as in former publications it is mentioned that contact could be made through the insulating . Nevertheless. in practical realization the inversion of oil and water is preferable. the drop can freely move in the transverse directions while the focal length is changed. The following are given as example. but if this lens has to be inserted in a more complex system. it needs precise alignments of optical lenses. This inversion is not strictly necessary. We have the experience of such random displacements which prevent to use the lens. For application. • Centering mean : some publications have mentioned in the past how to use small liquid droplets as optical lenses . This is to avoid any optical perturbation of the liquid-liquid interface due to the liquid meniscus at the electrode touching the conducting fluid.the non conducting fluid (air). The liquid-liquid interface thus needs then to be precisely controlled and any physical realization of lenses have to incorporate such a centering mean This centering of the liquid-liquid interface can be obtained by several ways. It is preferable to use an oil drop immersed into a conducting fluid (water based solution) which can be connected to the outside without perturbing the liquid—liquid interface. The fig 1 shows that if no centering mean is applied. and many others can be found: 13 . it will be preferable to work with a drop of the insulating fluid (oil) immersed in the conducting fluid (water).
some surfaces having an inward high insides and cylinder edges have also been proposed. a decentering force can be applied through angular sector electrodes. which could play this role too. Although this was not explicitly discussed in the publications of Lucent. On curvature are not suited for centering the liquid-liquid interface. it can also be obtained as a result of the geometry of the supporting surface for the two fluids. cylinder and some toroidal shapes are centering surfaces for the liquid-liquid interface. 14 . • the natural gradient present at the edge of an electrode can be used. such that the balance between the decentering forces and the centering forces can bring a stable equilibrium. Such decent ring force can only be used if a centering force (restoring force) exists. we believe that in their case the centering effect comes either from the edge effect of the ring electrode. Cylinder the contrary. In the case of lenses developed by Lucent.• applying electric field gradient using variable thickness of the insulator film. if well designed. or from the gap between sector electrodes. It has been shown that inwards cones.
WORKING DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL & LIQUID LENS • Liquid lens working like human eye. 15 . So here we compare conventional lens with human eye.
and focal spot size. Further. The intrinsic contact angle of the droplet was measured to be 25°. focal spot size and spherical aberration were verified using simulation tools and theory. focal length tuning.Lens characterizations: The optical characteristic of the liquid lens that were measured experimentally included the droplet's contact angle and its hysteresis. the conic constant of the droplet. The contact angle of the droplet in the packaged liquid lens was measured at various voltages as shown in Figure 2(a). focal length tuning. The contact 16 .
When the applied voltage was switched off. 17 .5° at 120 volts. Hence. the surface profile of the droplet could be assumed to be spherical during actuation. Right: the droplet was actuated at 200V. The rise time was measured to be about 650ms when the liquid lens was actuated from the rest state to 200 volts. The measured receding contact angles and advancing contact angles of the droplet in a liquid lens versus the applied voltages. Left: the droplet was at the rest state. The insets show the droplets actuated at various voltages. The actuation of the droplet in the liquid lens was captured by a highspeed CCD camera. the measured fall time was 300ms. Figure 2(b) shows that the conic constants of the droplet were close to zero at various voltages.angle began to significantly increase at voltages over 50 volts and reached 58° at 200 volts. implying that the droplet maintained a spherical profile at all focal lengths. Fig. Hysteresis of the droplet's contact angle was observed and its maximum was found to be 12.
Further. When the voltage increased from zero to 200 volts. The focal length was determined for advancing actuation based on the minimum spot size resolved along the optic axis.Focal length measurement of the liquid lens was conducted using a laser with a wavelength of 532nm and a beam scanner (0180XY/LL/SW/1μm/5Hz. The measurement results and the paraxial approximation were in good agreement (see Fig. the liquid lens shortened its focal length from 34mm to 12mm. the measured advancing focal lengths were compared with the paraxial approximation based on the advancing contact angles in Fig. Features: 18 . Photon Inc. The electric power consumed was determined to be less than 1mW.). 3). 2.
The very small power consumption (less than one mW dissipated in the lens) is also a great advantage compared to conventional motorized systems. All electronic sets integrating optics could benefit from the simplicity of this technology. cameras. The liquid ends 19 . using the current technology. Typical possible sizes for the lens pupil range from less than a millimeter to one centimeter. Of course photonic professional applications could also present good opportunities for our technology. computers etc.and microscopic systems. Again the size under consideration is well fitted between macro. Many other applications could be envisaged. This makes this technology ideal for millimetrtic lenses needed now in the mobile phone applications.. displays.Applications: Applications of the liquid lenses based on electro wetting can be found in many areas.. Optical pickups.
as endoscopes develop on many complex optical functions including confocal microscopy or Optical Coherent Tomography . Directly every application where Z scanning is required could be of interest: the dynamic behavior shown in this paper demonstrates s possible to apply to the lens a triangular ramp (eventually damped in order to avoid shocks generated at the reversing of the ramp) in order to use the full range of dioptric correction upon very fast scans. Medical applications could also be very promising. but rather limited flexibility on the pattern of phase shifts. with a huge amplitude. Telemetry could use focus information in order to produce 2D and 3D images at quite good resolutions. limited to what can be done with a liquid liquid interface. 20 .is one adaptive optical components.
As a final remark. Liquids can sometimes produce interesting properties as materials. Difficulties: Far from being a fully developed product. Easy to mass produce: manufactured using lithography. It has Dyamic field of view. lasers could be monitored or controlled by the liquid lens. Lens for cameras: 21 . even in high power pulsed laser systems. which could be of use.
wide operating temperature 22 . which in turn leads to a change of the focal length of the lens. faster response. A liquid lens uses two liquids with the same density. electrowetting) The Varioptic oil and water lens uses a phenomenon called "electrowetting" to focus the system. (Oil and replaces water traditional lens uses mechanical lens focusing systems. The voltage applied to the substrate modifies the contact angle of the droplet. A water droplet is deposited on a metal substrate covered by an insulating layer. Liquid lenses have many advantages over their mechanical counterparts. The variation of voltage leads to a change of curvature of the liquid-liquid interface. which has no moving parts. including ruggedness (no moving parts). excellent optical quality. The oil and water lens. one is an insulator while the other is a conductor.Varioptic and Sunny Optics announced last week that they were making the Varioptic Arctic 416 auto focus oil and water lens available in high-end camera phones.
000 lenses per month in addition to the production in its plant in Lyon. Read more in the 2MP Autofocus Camera Module with Varioptic Liquid Lens press release and Varioptic comes into focus with liquid phone camera lenses.range and very low energy consumption (ideal for small mobile devices). France. The design consists of four liquid lenses and three fixed plastic lenses and offers a magnification of 2. Schreiber and colleagues worked with Varioptic. Science fiction fans have been waiting for this since Frank Herbert wrote about oil lenses in his 1964 classic Dune: Paul lay . 23 . (Story submitted 2/18/2007) .5-times magnification.. see Philips FluidFocus: Variable Focus Fluid Lens. Scroll down for more stories in the same category. eye fixed to the collector of a Fremen telescope. Varioptic is ramping up production in (where else) Shanghai and expects to produce 100. The oil lens was focused on a starship lighter exposed by dawn in the basin below them. while when all four lenses are at their flattest there is no magnification. to come up with a design that switches from a normal view to 2. French pioneers of liquid lenses.5 times.. (Read more about oil lens from Dune) Philips is also working on this technology (there may be some patent fights involved). in a slit of rock high on the shield wall rim.
but it should be possible to reduce that. 24 . this is probably another new technology which won’t find its way into DSLR cameras for a few years yet. green and blue images must be recorded in sequence and then combined digitally. For smaller lenses such as camera phones it could find a market. “The lenses are arranged to prevent image distortion while minimising colour distortion. “finding less distorting liquids to build the lenses out of is the answer to that problem. Red.” says Schreiber.”So although it potentially sounds like great news. a process that would increase exposure times. but we’ll have to see how this one pans out. Varioptic is now considering how to take the design on to then prototype stage.” says Schreiber.“The complete length of the system from outer lens to image sensor is 29mm.
But now-a-days we want to save power as much as possible. especially incoherent light handling.Conclusion: We might have seen in digital cameras that when it becomes on or captures or zooms the lens make two and fro. here liquid lens shows its ability. Nikon & cell phone company Sony Ericson have already tested and might be in the final process to apply.Major camera production companies like Canon. The lens is cheaper to make has optical zooming abilities and uses only a fraction of the space of most conventional lenses are called as fluidlens or liquidlens. the need for miniaturization of optical systems has increased dramatically. This lens uses most of the power of the camera. for various applications 25 . It needs very less power as compared to the typical motor driven lens. In the past 2-3 decades. IMRE has made a breakthrough in lens technology. So. This is done by the internal motor inside the camera.But the problem is that as liquids are used so there may be problem in the extreme conditions. it may be the best alternative of typical motor driven lens. So.
The aforementioned liquid-formed lenses are a cool technology as well. and used mostly on image sensors. but the need for better image quality leads now to the development of mega pixels sensors. which then form individual lenses to increase 26 . security or personal identification. These sensors are now commercially available. The transmissivity after high-temperature aging improved. Nowadays camera modules. More recently this trend has extended to imaging systems. Tiny drops of epoxy are placed on each pixel. but the need for auto focus and zoom compound lenses remains open: no commercial solution exists up to now at reasonable prices for this very large scale market. single element lens). The chemical reaction and by-products were predicted. data storage. 1/4” or less. By using molecular simulations The structure of interface between liquid layers and molecular arranges have been understood. integrating a digital sensor and an optical system altogether. The liquid lens technology that we present here could be the solution to this demanding application.including communications. have entered into mobile phones and slim digital cameras. bringing the need for develop in miniature optical systems. The camera module were developed first with low count pixels and ultra small format sensors (CIF resolution. By modifying the liquid ensemble composition of the interface depth decreased.
Reference:. Berge and J.com Nikoncameras. B.light-capturing ability. Peseux. 27 .com Electronictech.com an external voltage: an application of electrowetting”. They are also used on novelty items to create a magnifying effect. "Variable focal lens controlled by Howstuffworks.
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