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/ Obatala Tehuti - Thursday / Orúnmila/Ifá Sekher(t) - Saturday / Babalu Aye Maat - Thursday / Ochosí Herukhuti - Tuesday / Ogun Heru - Sunday / Shango Het-Heru - Friday / Oshun Sebek - Wednesday / Eshu/Ellegba Auset - Monday / Yemaya Geb - Every day / Osanyin Shu & Tefnut / Ibeji Oro Ra / Aganyu Nut / Olocún Nekhebet/Uatchet / Oya "Today's mathematics is 'Culture'. " Overall, it's Peace Ausar = Osiris = Orishas (Language can show us the origins) Kemetian NTRU/Yoruban Orishas (TREE OF LIFE) Ausar=Obatala Tehuti=Orunamila/Ifa Seker=Babulu Aye Maat=Aje Chagullia Herukhuti=Ogun Heru=Shango Het Heru=Oshun Sebek=Eshu Auset=Yemaya Nekhebet/Uatchet=Oya Q: I have heard of the Dogon, Yoruba, and I have heard of Kemet but I thought they were different
things. How are they related? How can they all be the same? A: There are misconceptions surrounding the Dogon, Yoruba, and Kemet. KMT is a territory much larger than just Ancient "Egypt". KMT is a determined by value and spiritual system. The Dogon and Yoruba are made up of certain bloodlines, Tribes, and People - DOING THE AF RA KA METAPHYSICAL SYSTEM (KMT), whose job it was to protect the highest knowledge of the universe. The bloodlines are dispersed through Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger and in which some turned into Vodou and IMO why there's so much warring and killing amongst our brothers. Q: Is this connected to Voodou or Yoruba? A: Yes the origins of these spiritual systems can be found within the AF RA KA Initiation KMT System, but be careful some of these religions, they were changed into witchcraft or paganism. (and to the untrained eye it's hard to see) *Christianity, Europe, and the Roman Catholic Church influence played a huge role in the development of Vodou. Voudun is a mixture of our ancient spiritual practices and those who have conquered us (SETH/Set-AN -Satan). The Tree of Life can't be attributed to any one part of Afrika "first" although we know it was used and perfected there before the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For those that read Twi, you will notice a number of Ghanian writers, mostly elders have written some obsure books on the Akan-Kemetic connection. There is already plenty of info about how the Yoruba Priest and Kemetic Priests traded spiritual science. I do not endorse the superiority of any African family, town, culture or tribe over another. This goes against the African spiritual concept, unfortunately, forgotten during years of the British divide and rule policy. What this article will show, and the point of this blog is to share the similarities OF cosmic orgins and the Tree of Life, in ALL Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut (Africans) BUT how some of these changed into Paganism and Witchcraft. (Materialism & Sensationalism) "Voodoo is the Dahomey word for Spirit. It is often spelled as Vodou, or Vodoun - the typical Haitian spelling. *Any spirit found in the natural world is vodou. Voodoo is a derivative of KMT, the world's oldest known AF RA KA religions which have existed in Africa since the beginning of human civilization civilizations and religions estimated to be over 40,000 years old. Voodoo is a direct descendent of the religions of these ancient civilizations. Vodou originates from the western nations of Africa, primarily from the ancient kingdom of Dahomey, which is now present day Benin. Vodou also came from the peoples of the Kongo as well as the Central African regions, including Bakongo, and the Yoruba of Nigeria."
Yes the Dark path...with that old black magic ...imo these are some of the worst - black people killing black people, Vodoun (also Voodoo) The religion of Vodoun AND yORUBA as currently practiced bears little resemblance to its ancestral practice. Presently there are an estimated 50 million worshippers worldwide. The central belief of the religion is in spirit possession. Ownership of the gods and which i contribute to black on black crime and murder. This is an nhoma for, by, and about Afurakanu/Afuraitkaitnut (Africans~Black People). Those of you who are Yoruba, Dogon, Akan, Igbo, Ewe, Fon, Bakongo, Bambara, inianka, Goromantche, Ovambo, Kenesu-Kamau (Nubian-Egyptian) as well as all of us others will benefit from the information as well, being that Amen and the TREE OF LIFE is know by all, by different but similar names in our various Afurakani/Afuraitkaitnit (African) traditions. "Once man-god realizes that I AM is not the flesh, or the senses, or the mind, or the intellect: the oppressor [who can only threaten the body, senses, mind, and intellect] looses all power to cause harm." KMT
and this day should be honored and celebrated by all of mankind. If you dont have your new Sidereal Calendar. The Sidereal Calendar is the calendar that was used by the entire world before the invasion of religions and sects.it is the day the seventy-seven commandments were given to us by the Gods. Instead of eating meat. but those who are more knowledgable recognize that the timing of this event is much more than a mere coincidence. and passers-by. murder. call The Earth Center at 773-722-7001 or order online at www. bleed red blood.000 years. Tehuti 9th is the day that mankind decided not to eat any animal that walks on Earth (his world). and have an expression of a creature that is advancing towards Gods. Day of Tehuti The 19th of Tehuti is an extremely important day in human spirituality and history. eat fish instead of meat. friends. According to ancient knowledge. neighbors. With the new year comes a new seasonal cycle and many traditional holy days to observe. It is a day of reconciliation between humans and animals that share the Earth (land). We wish all Rising Firefly readers a happy and prosperous new year. we are all equal! Traditionally called the day of Sebbit. A coincidence? Those unfamiliar with the realities of the world will think so. all of mankind traditionally eat fish on this day to symbolize the equality of all human beings in front of Gods . breathe with lungs. 2005) marks the first day of the new spiritual year under the Sidereal Calendar. One who is unfamiliar with the Sidereal Calendar usually notices that the beginning of the year is usually September 11th. humanity has been celebrating Fish Day on Tehuti 9th as a way of symbolizing that each and every human being is equal in the eyes of Gods. the same day that the twin towers were bombed by ?terrorists? in the USA.theearthcenter. Those who do not understand the reasons behind this important spiritual day will still benefit from practicing the Sebbit day restrictions.Kemetic Spiritual Days by Bouneith Inejnema Naba New Years Day Happy New Year! Tehuti 1st (September 11. and evil . . and share it with family. and is still used throughout the world today. especially in traditional African spiritual communities. Today. This day is a spiritual fest based on initiation values and teachings. The calendar lists all important holy days as well as Gods of the weeks and months.from the Pharaoh to the street-cleaner. everyone eats fish with grains and vegetables.com. The 19th of Tehuti is the day that humanity decided to bring themselves out of barbarism. Fish Day For the last 45.
Aisia. This celebration also gives new initiates a chance to come close to sacred practices and beings and also exposes them to the powerful powers that are held by those who have spent a longer time in the initiation.then one eats the honey-dipped fruit. She is the Mother Goddess and the wife of Wsr. On this day. It is a period of joy and reconciliation between human beings and their ancestors and Gods. because these commandments are what give us access to the world of the Gods. the God-father of all humans. justice is our path? or ?goodness is sweet. the God-father. and she has always been a helpful Goddess with many magical powers. Maata is our light? or ?The truth is sweet. and a clean/purified body. Every human being can look to Aishat as a mother and protector. or ?justice is sweet. honey. Ai. Aicha. Coronis. Aishat has many names. as Aishat brought her husband. The 6th of Penipt is dedicated to Aishat. although many people who worship her do not know that it is Aishat they are worshipping. Alcmene. including Aissiata. his day is very important for every human being that considers themselves to be on a divine path. etc. and logic rather than on emotion. It is by way of Aishat?s love and magic abilities that the God-son Heru (and thus. Danae. humanity as a whole vowed in front of the Gods to follow the seventy-seven commandments and to be good and pure beings instead of the barbaric and evil beings that we were before receiving this precious gift. Isis. The celebration of the Charm of Aishat is a happy occasion. Assietou. one needs only fruit.The God Wsr (renamed Osiris by the Greeks). One who does not follow the commandments will have no way to reach the Gods. If one does not reside in a place that officially celebrates this day. back from death using her abilities. To celebrate this day. goodness is our path? . Mary. and is often seen in festivals that are dedicated to God-mothers. greed.one that was based on values. Following the seventy-seven commandments allowed humanity to build a world that was different from the animals . Because Aishat transcends geography and culture. Leto. as these laws are what ensure our purity and goodness! The 19th of Tehuti is the day that human beings received enlightenment from the Gods and should be celebrated by all. the truth is our path?. Wsr. spirituality. One dips the fruit in honey and says ?Maata is sweet. This day is traditionally the date that paranormal or magic powers are shown by every human being that possesses these abilities. instinct. and corruption. corruption. this day is celebrated under diverse names and festivals throughout the world. After commissioning the Gods to provide us with their rules for living a pure life. Setou. one can still take part in this . Wsr presented the seventy-seven commandments to us as a way of helping us out of an animalistic way of life that was based on emotion. every human being on earth) was conceived. Charm of Aishat Aishat is perhaps the most popular Goddess in the world. The seventy-seven commandments are available in poster form and can be obtained by contacting The Earth Center. decided to help humanity by convincing the Gods to provide us with a blueprint of how to base our lives. Minerva. Europ. Semele. and filth. Isthar.
We bury our dead because of our knowledge (subconscious) of the existence of the underground World of the Dead so that the dead person?s body will not be far from where the . which he threw into the sea. and one can practice a meditative retreat from the rest of the world. This is why people tend to have depressive tendencies during this period! We tend to think winter is a period of sadness because of the lack of sunlight. This is the kingdom that all human beings will enter when they die to be judged for their actions. Seth nailed it shut and tossed it into the Nile River. The expression ?sun stick? is an analogy of an elder using a cane or a stick to help them walk . Wsr then became Wsr-Unefer. Every judgement story from all religions is based on this original event. Sunstick Day Penipt 23 is the day that the distance between the Earth and the sun becomes greater than the distance in the equinoxes and the summer solstice.the sun has now lost its vigor! Death of Wsr Wsr is an extremely important God. He is also the one who has given us the seventy-seven commandments. etc from sunrise to sunset) and then ending the fast with a feast in the name of Aishat. who traveled the world searching for her husband. as he is the God-father of all human beings. and when Wsr got in the coffin. This time is the beginning of a dangerous distancing of the Earth from the sun. This day is an astronomical day that is named Sunstick day because it is the date that the sun starts moving away from the Earth. won a victory over the forces of good. The heart has a more difficult time pumping blood throughout the body due to the increased pull of gravity. Seth tricked Wsr into laying in a coffin that was built especially for him. in this period. having sex. and because he is the first God to die. which will lead to a poor irrigation of our brain. Traditional wisdom tells us that. These astronomical occurances affect our lives in ways that are easy to observe if one chooses to look. and Wsr was not found until many months later by his wife Aishat. but Seth found it and cut it into fourteen pieces. It is on this day that a battle between evil (Seth) and good (Wsr and Heru) was won by evil. the sun is entering its phase of age and is getting old. which enabled us to come out of barbarism and corruption and be moral human beings with values and direction. swearing. who is also Wsr?s brother.holy celebration. smoking. This distancing also comes with an interference of the energies from the celestial bodies and an increase in the gravitational forces of the Earth. which slows down the rotation and speed of the planet while cooling it down. One can also celebrate this day by fasting (not eating. Ateeri 17th is the date that the jealous God. but this phenenomon is really due to a physical consequence of gravity and the fact that the Earth?s rotation has slowed down considerably. Aishat hid his body to recruit help. Wsr is dead. he had the task of creating an eternal kingdom of the dead. The Nile took the coffin to the sea. A sequence of prayers to Aishat is usually spoken. the merciful God that not only brought life to Earth. drinking. which have a profound effect on the lives of Earthly beings. but allowed life after death. Seth.
. sex. brushing teeth. She reassembled them and resusciated her husband. One must fast from sunrise to sunset (no eating. This day. etc) and spend time for lamentations and prayers before breaking the fast after sunset. swearing. This is a mourning day and a day of sadness. because Wsr has died.soul must go after death. drinking. the 17th of Ateeri. smoking. is considered the saddest day of mankind. setting the path for human reincarnation. Aishat eventually found thirteen of the fourteen pieces of Wsrs body.
he is represented by a metal chalice topped with a rooster. He is depicted as a leprous beggar on crutches accompanied by two dogs. he has the honor of bringing the iyawo out of his throne and presenting him to the drums. It is a very powerful experience. Abata¶s color is clear blue. In Matanzas province. Inle¶s colors are a rich blue with some green and a little bit of yellow. He is the owner of iron. Elegua. Babaluaye Known in Cuba as San Lázaro. Ogun If Elegua is the messenger of the Orishas. Babaluaye is generally received by a Santero from a priest of Babaluaye and the ceremonies are conducted in the Arara style. and always received with him. Known as the Trickster. Inle Known as the ³Doctor of Ocha. In Matanzas his colors are a rich blue and forest green with a little amber. he is the messenger and is always honored first in any ceremony. ³The Warriors´ are Osun. particularly Perico. and therefore of the knife. Thus. In the Egwado branch of the Lucumi religion.´ Inle is the owner of medicine as well as the patron of fisherman. with a little red. Ogun¶s colors are most often represented as green and black. Elegua is like a mischievous child who delights in making trouble. telling them of the ceremonies we are performing in their honor. No Santeria initiation can be performed without his aid. In Matanzas. in Matanzas. Sometimes spelled Elegba. there are many priests of Babaluaye made in the Arara style. Babaluaye (or Obaluaye) is the owner of infectious diseases. His colors are most often represented as red and black. Korinkoto . Ogun (or Oggun) is the worker. Abata is Inle¶s companion.Orishas of the Santeria (Lucumi) Religion Echu or Elegua The Orisha who opens our doors and our roads. particularly of those transmitted sexually. Osun The Orisha of personal stability. and the Orisha of justice. and Ochosi. He makes his home where the river meets the sea. Ogun. Ochosi Ochosi is the hunter. and is invoked to protect us from illness.
He is sometimes known as "the owner of all heads. Chango also owns the Makagua Bembe drums. whose color is pure white. Korinkoto breaks up the rocks that are unearthed as Orishaoko plows his furrows and uses them to build the walls that protect Orishaoko¶s seedlings from animals. Ayaguna. whereas in Havana and the US the child of Agayu is made to Chango with songs sung for Agayu (³oro Agayu´)." and he personifies peace and tranquility and humility. the roots of the Earth. The owner of cultivated land and all its products. and was present to witness Chango¶s gift of the divining table to Orula. His colors are a balance of fiery red and cooling white. from the oldest. who helped him when he was so ill he could not walk. Yewa . exemplify Chango¶s power. Chango Chango (Shango) is arguably the most vibrant and forceful of the Orishas. with their driving rhythms. He owns thunder and lightning. Orishaoko A pair of oxen pulling an old-fashioned plow is a common site in rural Cuba. For this reason he is considered to be the first among Orishas. whose colors are white with a little red. Agayu is pictured as carrying the Earth or Elegua on his shoulders. the sword. Agayu is made directly. known as Ayaguna. Obatala Obatala was charged by Olodumare (God) with creating the Earth and humankind. which marks the rhythm for the other two drums). and this is the image associated with Orishaoko. and the thunderstone.Orishaoko¶s companion. and coral²there should be nine colors in all. His symbols are the double-headed hatchet. and is the owner of the sacred Aña (his is the smallest drum. Agayu Agayu owns the volcano. he is also at home beneath the shade of the sacred ceiba tree. to the youngest. he shares many of Chango¶s characteristics. Agayu¶s necklace can also include accent beads in red. Dada Dada is the companion of San Lázaro. including fire and the double-headed hatchet. but he also has a warrior aspect. There are many roads of Obatala. yellow. He is also the strong friend of Chango. Ochan-la). In the Egwado branch of the Lucumi religion. Orishaoko¶s colors are a medium pink (the same color as Yewa) and green with a little blue. Known as the father of Chango. okonkolo. with accents in orange. green. light and dark blue. These drums. Ochan-la (the only female road). His colors are deep brown and milky white. virility and warlike character. Obatala is generally depicted as an old man (or woman.
Ochun Ochun (or Oshun) personifies sweetness and love. she is identified with the Caridad del Cobre. When she was discovered. When she grew old. she returned to the cave. Obba Obba was the first wife of Chango. Olokun Owner of the depths of the ocean. but without any of the accent colors that those two Orishas use. Obba¶s color is a deep brown. although these beads are very difficult to find in Cuba. She is the true owner of the cemtary. She was the second wife of Chango and his equal as a warrior. The ultimate coquette. and there met Death. She went to the feet of Olofi and became his secretary. . from the gentle shoreline (Asesu. In Cuba. in the case of Ibu Kole).As a young girl. by dancing seductively by the river and smearing his lips with honey. Out of respect. The preferred brown bead has a thin red and black stripe in it. Yewa¶s color is a medium pink and she lives very quietly behind a many-colored curtain and mariwo (palm fronds strung together in a skirt). no one knows Olokun¶s secrets. Yemaya Yemaya is the mother of us all. a paradigm for the world of commerce. Olokun¶s necklace is made of light blue and clear crystal beads. convinced her to cut off her ear and serve it to him in his favorite dish to keep his love. she has been romantically involved with almost all of the male Orishas. It was she who lured Ogun out of his forest to help mankind with his iron. Although she is the owner of nine colors. whose colors are deep blue with a little red and a touch of clear greenish-blue like the color of churning waves). In Matanzas. Olofi (another name for God) took her out of her cave and blessed her. and in the beginning the entire Earth was hers. She is the owner of the sweet water of lakes and rivers. the same shade as Agayu and Oya. Ochun¶s color is yellow (or amber. Cuba¶s patron saint. in the Egwado branch of Fermina Gomez. her necklaces only carry brown with a little red or maroon. who was also in love with Chango. Oya¶s color is a deep brown. the warrior aspect of Yemaya. Oya. When a new initiate leaves the throne. She owns the gates to the cemetery and the marketplace. Oya Oya is the wind and the rain. Oya¶s market is the first place he or she goes. whose color is pale blue) to the raging depths (Okute. Yewa was abandoned by her parents and went to live in a cave. sometimes gentle and sometimes tempestuous but always powerful. but she can also be fierce and proud. like Agayu and Obba. There are seven roads of Yemaya which represent all of her aspects. as she owns the bones in the ground. Her songs and her dances are reminiscent of the unceasing undulation of the sea. When Chango saw Obba¶s disfigurement he was so disgusted that he cast her away from him. She owns the seas and the oceans. She records the life story of each individual when he or she dies.
. is the Diviner. often called Orula in Cuba. Orula¶s colors are green and yellow.. His priests are known as babalawos (³the father of the secrets´) and are renowned for their knowledge of the sacred stories that serve as the foundation of the divination process.Orunmila (Orula) Orunmila.
Obatala is also said to represent ethical purity. Elegba. For example. according to Baba Ifa Karade's "The Handbook of Yoruba Religious Concepts. Ife is said to have been founded around a thousand years ago and there was some mention that the Yorubas might have descended from some Middle Eastern heritage. Yorubas are located basically in the southwestern part of Nigeria and in some parts of Benin and Togo. Yemoja. For example.Yoruba Traditional Religion Written by IfaBite Wednesday. Karade also argues that there are many striking similarities between the ancient Egyptians and the Yorubas. Such purity is represented by pure whiteness. Each of these gods has a specific purpose when dealing with the human spirit. Many of the sources which I encountered did not attempt to even approach the topic of the origin of the Yorubas Orisa (Orisha)." are probably derived from the name of the God" (p. and sha which is the ultimate potentiality of that consciousness. There was really no mention of when the religion started or much about the origin of the people because the beginning of their existence was always noted as being in Ife. Oshun (Osun). There is great measure taken to carry out the importance ." This gives a strong example of how strong language is tied to religion. The actual word "Orisha" has a deep meaning itself. The history of the Yoruba religion seems to be somewhat of a controversial subject in most sources that deal with this topic. Being that the language of the Yorubas is so strongly tied to the culture there are many comparisons analyzed as to why there is a belief that Yoruba religion has been derived from Ancient Egyptian religion. Obatala represents the embodiment of true purity of one's soul.. The Orisa. "holy or sacred. That religion is said to be from the Ancient Egyptian±Religion otherwise known as Khamet or Kemet. This Ori is the aspect of the human that is in a sense in control of their spiritual actions. the word ori is the "reflective spark of human consciousness embedded on human essense. it is only referred to as a surviving religion of a "higher" religion. mimon. The Orisha are ". It is an example of the many deep rooted meanings of the religion of the Yorubas. the center where the Yoruba people descended from heaven.21). As far as dealing with the actual origin of the religion itself. in Lucas' "The Religion of the Yorubas" word comparisons are made. and Oya. The ori apari represents the internal spiritual head and the ori apere represents the sign of an individuals personal protector. Shango (Sango). Olorun or Oludumare. Such a comparison is made with the Ancient Egyptian God Amon: "The God Amon is one of the Gods formerly known to the Yorubas". The ori is divided into two which can be known as the ori apari and the ori apere. The common Orisa which seem to come up time after time are these major ones: Obatala. one must look at the entire area of Yoruba cultural existence.. The Orisa is one of the key spiritual elements of traditional Yoruba religion. Each of the orisas has a specific color and natural environment associated with them." are a series of Gods or divinities under the Yoruba's main±God.23). 17 December 2008 16:17 To examine the Yoruba religion. Ogun. The Yoruba words mon. an expression of the principles and functions of divine power manifesting on nature"(p.
His natural environment happens to be any place that has been struck by lightning. She is the water or ambiotic fluid in the mother's womb and the breasts which nurture a new born child. He was said to be the ruler of old Oyo that was hung (legend has it that he committed suicide by hanging himself to a tree after his failure to amass all the political powr to himself) because of his greed for power. Ogun is considered to be the holder of divine justice and truth. Elegba is not evil. He is also said to be the executioner of the world. Osun (Oshun) is the deity of diplomacy and all giving or unconditional love. Elegba is the one who tests the human souls. Sango or Shango to non Yoruba speakers is said to be a human that was made into a deity. and the base of trees. Elegba can both punish and reward and is known for having great wisdom. Natural environment are in the woods. Yemoja is said to be the mother of all the Orisha. he is what the western world would call the devil. . the clothing of those involved with the worship in the temples are white. Although he does not match the role exactly. He is also the divinity who takes the body upon death and the divinity that saves. Obatala is said to be the father of the Orisha and the divinity in charge of the carving of humans out of clay into the form they are today. cures for sickness and so on. Sango is the god of lightning in addition to being the Orisha of drum and dance. She is a river deity because she symbolizes clarity. There is much confusion concerning the subject matter as to who is the chief female divinity because the different sources represent different view points on this subject matter and this was really unclear. She is the Matriarchal head of the entire universe. Her natural environment are the salt water±oceans and the lakes and the colors associated with her are blue and crystal. all the emblems are kept in white containers and the ornaments are white as are the beads for the priests and priestesses. Yemoja is the divinity that governs over all the waters or oceans. Even when worhsipping other divinities. She is the divinity of fertility and feminine essence. In addition. She is considered to be the wife of Sango. She is also the deity that is in charge of guarding the cemetary. He is worshiped or appeased by his followers when they want children. he is also worshipped because of his important role in the Yoruba religion. It is said that no god is more feared for malevolent action than sango. Ogun is said to be the god of iron and basically everything that becomes iron.of this pure whiteness because the temples which worship the divinity Obatala have the color of white in all the instruments of worship. He is in charge of giving from the humans to the divinities. making bad situations better. It is she who is appeased when it comes time for a mother to give birth. He is also known to change things into pure and valuabe objects. Elegba is the messenger of the deities and his major role is to negotiate between the other orishas and the humans and is very close to all the forces of the deities. Oya is also known as the god of storms and hurricanes and has power over the winds. For example. His followers come to him for legal problems. revenge for wrong doings. and protection from enemies. Oshun is said to represent the strenght of feminine love and the power of motherhood. He is known for building or clearing paths for the building of civilizations and is the divinity of mechanization. Oya is the divinity that is associated with the death or the rebirth into a new life. and forges. railroads.
Osun has also been credited to give infertile women children. life is circular. there is no such thing as death. It is in this time period that the individual learns and experiences life's most difficult lessons. The Yorubas have a deep and symbolic meaning attached to each of the divinities which is exhibited through prayer and worhsip. It would be tedious and quite boring to examine and give an account of every single festival and the villages in which they take place because the Yoruba religion covers so many (actually all) towns in Yorubaland. The life cycle of the Yorubas is very complex. Long life and family are the two most important blessings in Yoruba religion. The purpose of this is for the individual to learn and gain wisdom for life in the spiritual plain. These divinities give the reader some idea of the powerful belief system of the Yorubas. the reason why the people of Osogbo worship osun may be because their town was founded near a river and osun's natural environment is in fresh rivers and lakes. In Yoruba traditional religion. The time period from the age of fifty until the transition into the spirit realm is called the evening. However. This is extremely important because it shows the diversity of Yoruba culture and futhermore the facets of traditional Yoruba religion. Before an individual is born into the world. Certain Yoruba towns have certain orisas which are honored. The Yoruba traditional religion believes in predestination. Morning of one's life spans from the time of birth to the age of fifty. may see this religion as "superstitious" or "pagan". The Yorubas believe that no one is a master in any area of life until they reach age fifty. the early cycle of life is called "morning".It is particularly important to discuss the dieties because they represent such an important aspect of Yoruba traditional religion. This also is the time when the Yorubas raise their families. . The goal is to fulfil the destiny. the Orisa Osun is the center of the town¶s attention even though it is worshipped by the people in all areas of Yorubaland. There is one exception. The Yorubas have many festivals to give honor and praise to the many divinities within the Orisa system of belief. The Yoruba believe that all of one's wrong doings will be paid for and all good deads will be rewarded. I will give one account of this widely practiced aspect of Yoruba religion. once a child is born he or she forgets the destiny he or she has chosen. The Yoruba festivals are extremely elaborate and have much deep rooted meaning in practice related to them. Under the orisa system. It is also important to point out that there is no hell in traditional Yoruba religion. What is meant by this that in the Yoruba religion. It is in this time period that individuals enjoy life the most. Many scholars or anyone not familiar with the Yoruba system of worship which is based in the belief in more than one god. they choose a destiny with God (Olodumare) in heaven. The historical legend or belief behind the worship of osun is that the people of Osogbo found it hard to find any fresh drinking water for the village. It was the divinity osun who gave the people of Osogbo fresh water. The discussion could go on forever. Death is seen as a transition from the physical plain to the spiriitual plain. Each orisa has a natural environment and a different emphasis may be put on a different orisa. Among the people of Osogbo. The reason for this vast diversity may be due to the fact that there are major differences in the landscape of each of the villages where the Yorubas settled. For example. The evening is a time period when the Yorubas prepare for their transition. By this time most Yoruba men and women would have raised their children and have much free time to enjoy the fruits of their labor.
by his knowledge and training. His role is one of great respect and experience. people who assist achievers. The babalawo is the most important figure in Yoruba religion on the physical plain. The Babalawo's training is long and indepth.The Yoruba believe that there are three types of people: achievers. Whichever role one chooses dictates the type of life that the person will live. is the link between the divinities and man. and bystanders. . It is said in some temples of Yoruba divination that Babalawos are said to stay in their temples for seven years before being released into the world to pracitce Orisha. The babalawo.
the king of the town. wanted to find out who owned the lands that had belonged to Biague. he feed and clothed them. When they appeared before him. and prove ownership. there lived several other children. Many came forward and made a claim on the lands.The story of Casting Obi (coconuts) Written by IfaBite Wednesday. this is the most firm response Otagua. One day Biague died. Three pieces with white mass upwards and one with the crust. Alafia. he said: "The lands belong to me. Biague had taught this son his only secret. requiring another throw to rectify. I will go to the plaza in front of the wall and from there I will throw coconuts in the method my Father showed me. two pieces with white mass upwards and two with the crust. Oba-Rey. Some others view it as questionable. have a limited role in divination This role is limited to questions that can be answered with a simple yes or no It should not be used to ask other more complex subjects. 17 December 2008 17:18 There was an Awo called Biague who had a son named Adiatoto. Adiatoto heard the news that the king's men had been asking about him. Thus is was. the four pieces with the white mass upwards. Definitely an affirmative Eyeife. But only Adiatoto the smallest was his son. After a time. He ordered his men to find this out. The message given by consulting the Obi depends on which pieces fall facing up. A method to cast Obi (coconut) In the house of Biague. They obeyed Biague.The coconuts will fall facing up which is the proof that is needed. and robbed him of all his belongings. including the adoptive brothers but no one could pass the test. they asked him to show the secret that proved the lands had been passed on to him. Adiatoto experienced much difficulty. and the adoptive children conspired against Adiatoto. . and the King gave Adiatoto all the lands and belongings that had been taken from him The coconuts (obi). All lived as brothers. and which face down. Some consider this to be an affirmative response.
Four crusts. Three pieces with crust upwards and one with the white mass. and requires more question to isolate and problems that need immediate attention. Ocanasorde. . a definite negative.Ocana.
But Iku must swear not to take any of Orumila's children before there full time has passed. but you are gathering them when you want. and demanded the hammers return. The Orishas worried about this. . Ifa devotees wear the Irde on the left wrist. the earth will die. until Orumila said he would resolve this matter. He rushed back to Orumila's house.The Story of the Irde Written by IfaBite Wednesday. Iku answered. and from this day. prior to thier predetermined death. Orumila and Iku aggreed. One day when Iku was busy. When I see the Irde Ifa on a persons left wrist. Orumila went and took his hammer Iku became furious when he discovered the Hammer missing. Orumila said. Iku answred. Oludumare had assigned you the task of gathering humans when thier time had come. Orumila began to see the logic of Iku's task Orumila aggred to return the Hammer. Orumila answered "you are not right to take humans before their time. After a long discussion. if humans do not die. 17 December 2008 17:17 Death (Iku) was gathering humans before there full time on earth had passed. unless it is there predetermined time to die. as a sign of the pact between Iku and Orumila. I will pass over them.
good and bad. 17 December 2008 17:15 One day Echu began a journey wearing a hat. His punishment is swift but he is also kind. red on one side. and showed them his hat . as each man professed to know the right answer and demanded to be acknowledged as the victor in the violent discussion. white on the other. he provides the lesson of making the right choices in life. Taking pleasure in testing the strengths and weaknesses of mankind. . they began to argue about the color of the hat. watchs what people do. ruining their long-standing friendship in the process. He is found at the crossroads. can see in all directions. White! Red! The quarreling turned to blows. now bloodied and angry. Later in the day the two friends spoke to one another about the mysterious man in the hat. one seeing the white side of his hat. Immediately. guarding the entry. the other seeing the red.red on one side and white on the other. He was delighted by the fact they would fight about something as ridiculous as the color of another mans hat.The Trickster Eshu chuckled at the sight and walked over to the men. Making not a sound he walked between two friends. Eshu sits at the threshold to your home.A Favorite Elegua Story Written by IfaBite Wednesday.
Some said it was blue. The arguing became fighting and chaos erupted in the courtyard of the king. . Now Eshu became very indignant at this. When the king ordered that the man wearing a blue head covering be brought forward . The crowd began to argue heatedly with one another.again the crowds began arguing and fighting bitterly with one another. Ifa then equipped Eshu with this head covering and sent him on his way. Eshu had a plan. others yellow. Some claimed the others were mad or had been in on the deed and were now trying to cover it up. Presenting this beast to his people.then slip out before he could be seized. wearing the head covering. two situated on top of it's head and two others at the back. all of the time . Many people had seen this exchange and were shocked that anyone would be so bold and foolish to assault the kings number one wife.Eshu and the four eyed goat Written by IfaBite Wednesday. Eshu (again disguised in his four colored head covering) took the opportunity to strike down the minister in front of everyone . the king proclaimed that this amazing goat would be able to watch all of the people all of the time. even throwing horse dung onto her dress. Ifa proceeded to remodel the hat and make it into a head covering with four faces. others white. and made a sacrafice of a hat and four different colored pieces of cloth. king Metolofi would become revered as the bringer of perfect justice to his realm. without any fear of the goat reporting his actions. each one a different color.the goat would immediately report the event back to the king. 17 December 2008 17:15 One day Eshu heard that king Metolofi had come into possession of a goat with four eyes.but they each described a different colored head covering. No consensus could be reached. Those that saw one color called the others liars and traitors. The king then sent his minister to the people to calm them down. and still others agreed with the goat that it had been red.even the king! So. but this time by someone wearing a blue head covering. Eshu declared loudly that he would be able to act freely. Again. The king then called together all of the people who had seen the deed and asked them to report on who had done this . While the minister was in the midst of the crowd. and to find out who was behind all of this trouble. and in public! The goat saw the exchange and immediately reported it to the king. Eshu found the spirit Ifa. The goat would watch what everyone was doing. but could only say that the assailant was wearing a red head covering. He found it unacceptable that anyone should know all of his actions. the goat saw the deed and reported to the king that the minister had been slain. Now. and if anyone disobeyed the king or broke the kings laws . Eshu found the kings number one wife traveling on the road between the temple and the palace and assaulted her with rude and ribald comments. Thus.
And so it went round and round with each believing his own eyes and disbelieving the report of his neighbor. the king could not and was humbled before his people. it was neither blue nor read. it was yellow!" cried another. Finally. Eshu arrived without his disguise on. Surely with such a remarkable goat the solution would be trivial. . So he offered the goat up as a sacrifice to Eshu and hid his face away his angry people and regretted his previous boasting. and called for the king to settle the matter. But. "No you imbecile."The murderer was not wearing blue! It was red!" cried one observer.
he had directions on what to do to receive favor from Ajala. 17 December 2008 17:15 Oriseeku. the other two noticed that things were going well for Afuwape while they were having difficult times. They reacted with a song: Emi o mo bi olori n yan ri o M ba lo yan temi N go mo bi Afuwape yan ri o M ba lo yan temi I do not know where people with good destiny picked theirs I would have picked mine there too I do not know where Afuwape picked his good destiny I would have gone there To which Afuwape replied: Eyin o mo bi olori n yan ri o E ba lo yan teyin Ibikan na la gbe yan ri o Kadara o papo ni. The first two did as they were told while Afuwape. Orilemere and Afuwape . On their arrival in the world.Choice of Destiny (ori) Written by IfaBite Wednesday. The other two were not assisted in their choice. but Afuwape was assisted because as a result of the sacrifice he performed. and the result was good for him. You do not know where good destiny is picked You would have gone there for yours We picked our destinies from the same source Only their contents are not identical . he met two of his fathers divination priests who advised him to offer some sacrifice. the maker and custodian of inner heads. He did. They had a warning from Orisa-nla to go straight to the house of Ajala without changing course. It turned out to be a good decision because in his fathers house. The last rite to perform was the choice of ori (destiny). These three were about to begin their earth-bound journey from their pre-natal existence. the son of Orunmila decided to see his father before making a choice.
17 December 2008 17:14 According to Yoruba (YOUR-a-bah) mythology. Oduduwa created the magnificent Ife (EE-fay) kingdom. which grew into a proud tree with 16 branches. lowered a great chain from the heavens to the ancient waters. Over time he crowned his 16 sons and grandsons and sent them off to establish their own great Yoruba kingdoms. In the center of this new world. a special five-toed chicken. Oduduwa brought with him a handful of dirt. and a group of birds are commonly appear on a Yoruba king's crown. Oduduwa (oh-doo-DOO-wah). Only they could wear special veiled crowns that symbolized their sacred power. Long. He planted the palm nut. As descendants of the sky god. symbolizing the 16 sons and grandsons of Oduduwa. Down this chain climbed Oduduwa. Olorun (OH-low-run). The chicken busily scratched and scattered the dirt until it formed the first dry earth. and a palm nut. these first Yoruba rulers and their direct descendants were divine kings. the first Yoruba kings were the offspring of the creator. Oduduwa was the first ruler of the kingdom and the father of all Yoruba.Yoruba Creation Story Written by IfaBite Wednesday. . the sky god. long ago. a large face. A veil. He threw the dirt upon the ancient waters and set the chicken on the dirt. A Yoruba king's crown identifies the status of its wearer and gives the king the power to interact with the spirit world in order to benefit his people. Olorun's son.
the farmer accused Orunmila of the theft. Twice he cast the nuts. Orunmila and Eshu passed one another." Orunmila said. "Enter the city without fear. This close to his journey's end. the orisha of chance. where Orunmila would be certain to find them. Orunmila met Eshu. Once more. On the fourth day. and slept by the side of the road that night. "Eshu. He despaired that he would always be known in Owo as a thief. he cast sixteen divining nuts to see what lay ahead. I always considered you a friend. and there are no trees nearby. whom he greeted as a friend. but I think you have made my trip to Owo difficult." The kola farmer saw Orunmila when he entered Owo with Eshu. Eshu then spoke for Orunmila. and again on the third. though he had never in his life taken another man's property. he met Eshu. in the middle of the trail." But the angry farmer did not believe Orunmila. and tried to take back his fruit. and twice they told him nothing. In their struggle. and began his journey. Orunmila met Eshu. As he did so." Eshu replied.How Orumila and Echu meet Written by IfaBite Wednesday. as he had promised." "That is not possible. Once again. Orunmila did not feel the need to consult his divining nuts. "I found these fruits here. "Those kola fruits are from my tree. Orunmila thought it very odd to have met Eshu three times. and Orunmila was in a hurry to reach Owo. Orunmila decided that he would complete his journey. Before beginning his trip. and picked them up and began to eat. Orunmila turned away from Owo. Eshu took some fresh kola fruits and left them in the middle of the trail just outside of the city. But Eshu was rather odd in any case. During the night. who ordered the stranger brought before him. Again. If there is any trouble. Eshu entered the house of all the people of Owo--including the Oba and the farmer--and cut everyone's palms. But he ignored the matter. since Orunmila was the father of divination." "Quite the contrary. On the first day." Eshu said simply. so he ignored the matter. Orunmila found the kola fruits. The next day. "I am coming from Owo. and he went to complain to the Oba. a farmer came out onto the path. I will speak for you. coming from the opposite direction. On the second day. the farmer cut Orunmila's palm with his bush knife. which was odd. 17 December 2008 17:13 One day Orunmila decided to journey to the city of Owo. "This stranger has come to Owo only today: .
there was a fresh red cut. then all of Owo is guilty. we will see the evidence of his crime. "If a cut is a sign of guilt. Let them be examined as well. both despite and because of Eshu's actions. and had all the people of Owo come forth and display the palms of their hands. and the Oba agreed. Orunmila was welcomed in Owo. And across each one." the farmer said. The people of Owo brought the mistreated stranger gifts of goats and wine and kola fruits. "I am sure that many of the people in Owo had the opportunity to steal your kola fruit. If he opens his hand." Eshu said." The Oba consented." "And why should he be the only one examined?" Eshu demanded. And so it was that. and proclaimed Orunmila's innocence.how can he already have enemies? What evidence do you have that this man stole your fruit?" "We struggled outside the city. . "and I cut the palm of his hand.
" Orshilana created humans out of the earth and got Olurun to blow life into them. Obatala. there was only water and chaos. Olurun named earth "Ife" and the first city "Ile-Ife. The rooster scratched the metal and spread it out to create land. some iron. Then he planted the palm seed and from it grew the earth's vegetation. and a palm kernel. 17 December 2008 17:10 The Yoruba creator is called Olurun or Olodumare and is often assisted by the lesser god. Yorubaland .Yoruba Creator Written by IfaBite Wednesday. The supreme being sent Obatala or Orishanla down from the sky to create some land out of the chaos. In the beginning. he put the metal on the earth and the rooster on top of that. First. He descended on a long chain (umbilical cord) and brought with him a rooster.
yams. The Iroko-man thought that this was Oluronbis child. goats. fruit. 17 December 2008 17:07 In a certain village no children had been born for many years. When the wood-carver heard the birds song. promised to bring her first child. and with a small gold chain round its neck. and sheep. fruit. to the magic tree. Alas! one day as Oluronbi passed through the forest. like a real child in size and appearance. he laid it at the foot of the tree. After thinking for many days. and the people were greatly distressed. he began to carve a large wooden doll. Oluronbi joyfully returned home. and tried to find some means of regaining his wife. and was careful never to stray into the forest again. The other women took their promised gifts of corn. the Iroko. . At last all the women of the village went together into the forest. and the women eagerly promised him corn. One promised a goat. the tree. But Oluronbi promised her child. and sheep. and the most beautiful of all the children was the one born to Oluronbi. the young wife of a wood-carver. goats. he realized what had happened. so he transformed the little bird once more into a woman and snatched up the child into the branches. and implored the spirit of the tree to help them. Covering it with a beautiful native cloth. One promised fruit. but Oluronbi took nothing to propitiate. but Oluronbi. yams. She and her husband so greatly loved their child that they could not consent to give it up to the Iroko-man. the Iroko-man seized her and changed her into a small brown bird. In due course children came to the village. The Iroko-man asked what gifts they would bring if he consented to help them.Oluronbi Written by IfaBite Wednesday. which sat on the branches of the tree and plaintively sang: One promised a sheep.
Feeling sure that nobody could be aware of his return. However. which is known as the Staff of Oranyan. he left his son in charge of the capital during his absence. . is still to be seen. but which King? Do you not know that the son of Oranyan is King. and for some time he ruled them wisely and happily. the old King retraced his steps. 17 December 2008 17:06 Oranyan a brave and warlike King. he asked a man working in the fields for whom the trumpet was being sounded. asked the travel-worn stranger. As it was necessary for him to lead an expedition to a distant part of his kingdom. Desiring his sons happiness more than his own. erected an obelisk over the spot where he died. Yes.Oranyan Written by IfaBite Wednesday. founded the city of Oyo. and the monument. For the King. But the King was away for such a long period that it was thought he and his soldiers must have perished. grieving at his noble fathers sacrifice. The young Prince. and at last the people made his son King. now King. replied the man. and settled down with his few friends in humble retirement in a remote part of the country. As he approached the city he was startled to hear the notes of the Kakaki trumpet. Only at Oranyans death was his presence made known to his son. and after many delays and hardships he again drew near to Oyo with his few surviving followers. Oranyan was not dead. which is sounded for the King alone. and rules over us wisely and well? His father was killed in battle many months ago.
Oshun Sensuality. he possesses the ability to transform base substance into that which is pure and valuable. Helps to enhance the power of herbs.Orisha Atributes Written by IfaBite Wednesday. Progression. Holder of Ashe (pover) among the Orisha. Ogun Orisha of Iron. 17 December 2008 16:35 Obatala Creator of Human Form. she is the deity of rebirth as things must die so that new beginnings arise. Beauty. she is fond of babies and is sought if a baby becomes ill. Storms. Sexuality. she is known for her love of honey. Guardian of the Cemetery. Masculinity. as well as. she symbolizes clarity and flowing motion. Women appeal to her for child-bearing and for the alleviation of female disorders. the breasts which nurture. Gracefulness. Oya Tempest. Fire. Cures illness and deformities. Lightning. enforces the "law of being". he is the liberator. she is usually in the company of her counterpart Shango. he expands. she has power to heal with cool water. Primal Waters. specifically in respect to blockages or interruption of the flow vital energy at various points in the body. Nurturer. he is prime negotiator between negative and positive forces in body. Stones. . She is the protective energies of the feminine force. Winds of Change. She is the amniotic fluid in the womb of the pregnant woman. Protector/ warrior. Shango Kingly. White purity. Yemaya Mother of Waters. he is divinity of clearing paths. she is also the divinity of fertility and feminine essence. Elegua Messenger of the Orisha. Magnetism. Virility.
leaf.The population can usually obtain herbs either by private practice or from the marketplace in town. and religious artifacts. Here the priest. . 17 December 2008 16:35 The use of herbs and plants. Nigerians and people from other African countries have begun to set up herbal businesses in increasing numbers. In the Americas and the Caribbeans. called ewe in Yoruba. Because of the wide-spread practice of Osain in the New World. Osain based practitioners are also directed to use herbs as medicine. and capsule form. Adherents to the traditional practices of Osain are usually advised to use herbs as medicine before going to Western allopathic drugs for healing. as well as devotees alike gather herbs for medicine.Use of Plants Written by IfaBite Wednesday. It is best that novices seek out divination before attempting to get and prepare herbal formulas. baths. Herbs are picked for medicinal. More and more indigenous herbs are now being made accessible to devotees here in the Americas. researching the possibilities of herbal use is recommended. and the spiritual powers they possess. It is also advisable to rely on priests and qualified herbalists to begin the healing process before getting involved with the properties and powers of herbs yourself. Therefore. It is said that ewe (herbs) are for the "healing of Nations" and many health food stores provide them in powder. There are many books written on the subject of herbology. is of great importance.
Again. the meaning of Ase is extraordinarily complex. The ethical-evaluative meaning represents a qualitative judgment of how good or bad is their iwa. the energy. the purpose of creation. In Yoruba "art" cannot be defined outside of the context of the processes of creation. One of the most important meanings is the "vital power. (2) Ori is the "inner spiritual head" in humans or "personal destiny. (5) Ona means "art" or it can refer to an artist's ability to create or design." Ase also refers to the "authority" by which one speaks or acts. Ase is used in a variety of contexts. (1) Ase means "power" or "authority". the great strength of all things. and the skill of the artist in capturing the first two contextualities in order to produce a physical object that embodies meaning. and is a source for all creative activity. (3) Iwa can mean "character" or "essential nature. referring in some contexts to physical beauty of a person or object. a person's essential nature. The term can be used to describe how a work of art captures the essential quality of the subject. (4) Ewa is an aesthetic term as well as an expression of iwa.Yoruba Concepts Written by IfaBite Wednesday. However. Ewa means "beauty"." not mind or soul as these terms are used in the West. But Ori can mean the enabling power that represents the potential that life contains." Two classifications of usage of Iwa are generally recognized: the ontological-descriptive and the ethical evaluative. Ase invests all things."11 Ase also refers to a divine energy manifest in the process of creation and procreation. exists everywhere. but mostly to the qualities of beauty of a person or object. the "lifestyle" or manner in which they exist in the world. Ase often refers to the inner power or "life force. 17 December 2008 16:32 Five ancient concepts are essential to an understanding of Yoruba aesthetics. The ontologicaldescriptive meaning enables one to identify the quantitative existence of a person as revealed by their behaviour. .
liver. bone marrow. digestive organs. bones. tendons. life force or chi Oya lungs. elimination system.Obatala brain. pubic area (female) Ogun heart. and sinews Shango reproductive system (male). para sympathetic nervous system Yemaya womb. buttocks Oshun circulatory system. breasts. bronchial passages. mucous membranes . white fluids of the body Elegua sympathetic nervous system. kidney (adrenal glands).
called Ifa Corpus. which uses medicinal ingredients that imitates pathological symptoms. personal. invisible "germs" or insects (kokoro) and also worms (aron) which inhabit small bags within the body. germs and worms in the body can overflow their "bags" in the body if they are given too much ³sweet´ (tasty) food.Yoruba Medicine Written by IfaBite Wednesday. It started from a religious text. menstrual blood the female body. meditation.Yoruba medicine is quite different from homeopathic medicine. 17 December 2008 16:26 The Yoruba are one of the largest tribes in Africa. Buckley claims that traditional Yoruba ideas of the human body are derived from the image of a cooking pot. The last 400 years saw individuals in the Caribbean and South America practice the Yorubic healing system as a token of their past when the first wave of African slaves arrived in the Americas. ³African herbal medicine is commonly called Yorubic or Orisha medicine on the African continent. in a similar manner to mainstream European medicine. He also advised them on spiritual baths. and communal elevation. to evoke the properties of the plants implied by the name of the plant. to bring money or love and for other purposes too. so women in the marital household tend to overflow and return to their natal homes. As germs overflow their bag. According to tradition. and palm oil the cooking pot. prayer. Medicinal incantations are in some ways like the praise songs addressed to human beings or gods: their purpose is to awaken the power of the ingredients hidden in the medicine. killed or driven out with bittertasting plants contained in medicines. with 30 million individuals throughout the region of West Africa. now known as Yorubaland. however. dance. around 4. For the Yoruba. Yorubic medicine is Orisha-based medicine practiced by many other groups in Africa. Yoruba herbalists also use incantation (ofo) in medicines to bring good luck (awure). As well as using bitter plants to kill germs and worms. The female body overflows dangerously but necessarily once a month. for example. symbolic gestures. they must be controlled. fertility etc. The Ifa Corpus is considered to be the foundation of divine herbology. Most medicinal incantations use a form of word-play. The household is understood in a similar way. Contents Basic Philosophies According to A D Buckley. Some early writers believed that the Yoruba people are actually an East African tribe who moved . susceptible to overflowing. aiding digestion. the Ifa Corpus was revealed by the mystic prophet. and herbal medicine in particular.´. Orunmilla. However.000 years ago in the ancient city of Ile-Ife. mostly due to the slave Diaspora. Orunmilla taught the people about the customs of divination. these germs and worms perform useful functions in the healthy body. if they become too powerful in te body. similar to punning. Yoruba medicine is similar to European medicine in that its main thrust is to kill or expel from the body tiny. the Caribbean and others. it strives to destroy the agencies that cause disease. Rather.
Kola Nut. to make clear their position. The psychosomatic method of healing disorders used primarily by psychiatrists today is based loosely on this ancient custom. Creator of Human Form. he is prime negotiator between negative and positive forces in body. Some plants have to be gathered at certain times of the day or night. during antiquity. it is therefore inevitable that African herbal medicine became associated with magic. and he is the liberator. Osain rules over all wild herbs. See the diagrams below: Orishas Attributes Physical Correspondences Herbs (Ewe) Obatala Deity of Creation and custodian of the Ifa Oracle. lived in ancient Egypt before migrating to the Atlantic coast. each affecting one another. Parsley. he is divinity of clearing paths. Orishas in Yoruba Medicine The Yoruba religion has a multitude of Deities. For example. Primal Waters. such as it is in modern times. She is the amniotic fluid in the womb of the . But it must be recognized that to the Yorubas it is a system. in fact the word medicine and magic are the same. Messenger of the Orisha. and sinews Eucalyptus. White Willow. Yorubic medicine is not merely medicine. Certain plants have to have certain prayers said to them and certain offerings made in order to correctly work. Garlic Yemaya Mother of Waters. Nurturer. As said before there are a multitude of Orisha¶s. it is a medicine. In diagnosing illness each one of the orisha¶s has physical qualities and herbal attributes. Motherwort. The Osainista knows how to correctly gather the herbs and plants. that only someone trained for life can competently perform the function. Blue Vervain. the major of which are called Orisha. Valerian Èshù or Elegua Gateman of the Heavens. Hyssop. Bones. Sage. heart. enforces the "law of being". Purity. The plants and herbs of Osain have their purely medicinal value as well as their magical value. In the Yoruba tribe a sort of staff is given to the herb gatherer of the community. Priests. specifically in respect to blockages or interruption of the flow vital energy at various points in the body. to modern westerners the medicine practices of the Yoruba may seem to be too magical/mystical. Hawthorn. tendons. considered diseases as possession by evil demons and could be treated using incantations along with extracts from the roots of certain plants. Helps to enhance the power of herbs sympathetic nervous system All Herbs Ogun Orisha of Iron. Alfalfa.from the Nile River to the Niger area. the magic of a religion and a science. In Africa there are so many herbs and plants that are used in healing. This being said." ³With Egypt at its roots. kidney (adrenal glands). White fluids of the body Skullcap. Bloodroot. Amulets and charms were more common than pills as preventions or curatives of diseases. and he is considered the greatest herbalist who knows the powers of all plants. Olumide J. who were from the earliest days the forefathers of science and medicine. Cures illness and deformities. Lucas claims that "the Yoruba. Basil. source of knowledge. His priests are the Babalawo Brain. Osain is one of the most important Orisha¶s.
Oloogun is one of several terms for a medical practitioner. Yarrow. They are obvious criticizers of modern western medicine where we try to mask problems with drugs. Lotus. breasts. she is fond of babies and is sought if a baby becomes ill. etc. Echinacea Chango Kingly. Damiana. circulatory system. in addition to analyzing symptoms of the patient. Cherrybark. bone marrow. Progression. he possesses the ability to transform base substance into that which is pure and valuable reproductive system (male). elimination system. Cayenne Oya Tempest. Buchu. Sarsaparilla. liver. Spirulina. bronchial passages. look for the emotional and spiritual causes of the disease to placate the negative forces (ajogun) and only then will propose treatment that he/she deems appropriate. Yarrow. Guardian of the Cemetery. Nettles. she is known for her love of honey. Comfrey. Cinnamon. Cohosh. This may include herbs in the form of an infusion. as well as with a variety of external forces and beings which inhabit our realm and require the inner vision and wisdom of the priest to interpret. womb. completely secret to the outside world. buttocks Kelp. .´ The Yoruba tribe are large believers is preventative medicine. she is the deity of rebirth as things must die so that new beginnings arise lungs. she is also the divinity of fertility and feminine essence. enema. An Oloogun practitioner in Yoruba. Disease to the Yoruba is seen as a disruption of our connection with the Earth. Chickweed Titles and Processes An Onisegun is an herbalist. symbolic sacrifice. Mints. Passion Plower. Masculinity. Fire. Raspberry. Dandelion. she has power to heal with cool water. pubic area (female) Yellow Dock. They also believe that the only true and complete cure can be a change of ³consciousness´ where the individual can recognize the root of the problem themselves and seek to eliminate it. even obtaining an education in medicine may require becoming an initiate of one of these societies. life force or chi Plantain. Aloe. Anis. or high priests. ³Physicians are often priests. Beauty. Chamomile. as well as. the breasts which nurture. song/prayer. mucous membranes Mullein. if we listen to our bodies they will provide us with the preparation and appropriate knowledge we need to regain our balance with the Earth. In their communities. Saw Palmetto. Lightning. Horehound. Wild Yam Root Ochun Sensuality. spiritual baths. Squawvine. priestesses. In Yoruban medicine they also use dances. She is the protective energies of the feminine force. and a change of diet to help cure the sick. Virility. Burdock. According to the medicine men of Yoruba. Protector/Warrior. Hibiscus. and a Babalawo is a ceremony priest/priestess. Stones. digestive organs. Winds of Change. Gracefulness. she is usually in the company of her counterpart Shango. rather than cure the whole of the person. Myrrh. Storms. Foti. Magnetism. she symbolizes clarity and flowing motion. Elecampane.pregnant woman. Women appeal to her for child-bearing and for the alleviation of female disorders. Pleurisy Root. or belong to a guild-like society hidden within tribal boundaries. Uva-Ursi. The world view of a priest involves training and discipline to interpret events that are indicative of the nature of the patient's alignment internally with their own conscious and unrecognized issues.
Orunmila is not Ifa. Isefa (adolesants rites) and Itefa coming of age. Priests of Ifa are called babalawo (the father of secrets) Olodumare sent Orunmila to Earth with Oduduwa to complete the creation and organization of the world. the embodiment of knowledge and wisdom and the highest form of divination practice among the Yoruba people.Orunmila Written by IfaBite Wednesday. Orunmila is known as Orula. Worshippers of the traditional religious philosophy of the Yoruba people all receive one hand of Ifa (called Isefa) regardless of which Orisa they may worship or be an Orisa Priest. it is called to receive "Kofa de Orula". Orunla and Orumila. Throughout Cuba and some of the other New world countries. Among West Africans. . The same procedure exist in Yoruba land. 17 December 2008 16:24 Orunmila is an Irunmola and deity of destiny and prophecy. In present-day Cuba. during visits to earth in physical form or through his disciples. the procedure is called to receive "Mano de Orula" and for women. Orunmila is also referred to as Ifá ("ee-FAH"). Orula can be received by individuals regardless of gender. but he is the one who leads the priesthood of Ifa and it was Orunmila who carried Ifa (the wisdom of Olodumare) to Earth. with esentaye (birthing rites). Orunmila is recognized as a primordial Irunmole that was present both at the beginning of Creation and then again amongst them as a prophet that taught an advanced form of spiritual knowledge and ethics. it is that same Isefa that will direct all followers to the right path and their individual destines in life. The title Iyanifa is in suspect since it is not used by either the Cuban or most of the West African practitioners of IFA. He is recognized as "ibi keji Olodumare" (second only to Olodumare (God)) and "eleri ipin" (witness to creation). A woman will not be allowed to divine using the tools of IFA. to make it habitable for humans. For men.
her favorable day of the week is Saturday and the number she is associated with is five. and experience as ecstasy. the god of thunder. because of how quickly and effectively she . however. She is also known as Laketi. beauty. Oshun is beneficient and generous. Osun according to the ancients was the only female Irunmole amongst the 401 sent from the spirit realm to create the world. she is revered as "YeYe Cari yamori yeyeo" . She has been syncretized with the Catholic Saint: Our Lady of Charity (La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre). One of his other wives. They are the goddesses of the un and Oba rivers. In one story. She does. peacock feathers. Oshun is the force of harmony. Oshun is known as Ya-lorde. Olodumare. metals gold and copper. Oshun is the "unseen mother present at every gathering". and is his favorite wife because of her excellent cooking skills. It was not until visiting with the Supreme Being. which meet in a turbulent place with difficult rapids. Harmony we see as beauty. Therefore she is omnipresent and omnipotent. She is married to Chango. it eventually turned yellow. have a horrific temper. she had to become a prostitute to feed her children and the other Orishas removed her children from her home. the great conduit of ashe in the Universe and also the eternal and trickster. because Oshun is the Yoruba understanding of the cosmological forces of water. as well as her followers. with the name spelled Oxum. and begging Oshun pardon under the advice of Olodumare that the world could continue to be created.the sweet mother of us all. Cuba's patron saint. due to her business acumen. moisture. mirrors.the mother of things outside the home. she who has ears. from the project of creating the world and all subsequent efforts at creation were in vain. As such. She is associated with the color yellow. wealth and diplomacy. But not until Oshun had given birth to a son. maternity and marriage.Oshun Written by IfaBite Wednesday. When the male Irunmole attempted to subjegate Oshun due to her femaleness she removed her divine energy. 17 December 2008 16:24 Oshun (pronounced [ ún]) is a spirit-goddess (Orisha) who reigns over love. Oshun (sometimes spelled Ochún or Ochun) is an Orisha of love. feel as love. called ashe by the Yoruba. was her rival. According to the Yoruba elders. This son became Elegua. and anything of beauty. Her power is represented in another Yoruba scripture which reminds us that "no one is an enemy to water" and therefore everyone has need of and should respect and revere Oshun . She is worshipped also in Brazilian Candomblé Ketu. and very kind. though it is difficult to anger her. Oshun went insane from grief and wore the same white dress every day. Oba. In Santería. intimacy. and attraction.
.because no one can love her enough and the world is not as beautiful as she knows it could be. When she possesses her followers she dances.answers prayers. flirts and then weeps.
Eshu is involved within the Orisha-Ifá system of the Yoruba as well as in African diasporic faiths like Santeria/Lukumi and Candomble developed by the descendants of enslaved West Africans in the Americas. The similarities between the two are that they both respond to red and black. Eshu was walking down the road one day. as well as in Africa. and they both are very tricky. they both are fed on the road. originating among the people of Angola. As an example. white & black. the spirit of the crossroads and the divine messenger. Exu de Quimbanda is a Nkuru. particularly crossroads where 3 roads meet. deity of roads. Eleggua also known as Eshu is an orisha. he can be ³bought´ or ³controlled´ by the Quimbanda practitioner to go and do many sorts of deeds. while the Candomble Exu must only be petitioned. or White Red and Black Eshu is a trickster-deity. Sometime after he departed.Elegua Written by IfaBite Wednesday. and that one can be easily fooled. While the Exu de Candomble is an Orisha. the Exu of Quimbanda is like a Lordly or Kingly Spirit. the deity with the power over fortune and misfortune. a spirit of the forest. and plays frequently tempting choices for the purpose of causing maturation. not the Yoruba of Nigeria. teaching the villagers about how one¶s perspective can alter a person¶s perception of reality. . Eshu is sometimes identified with Saint Anthony. He has a wide range of responsibilities: the protector of travellers. He is a difficult teacher. the villagers who had seen him began arguing about whether the stranger¶s hat was black or red. The veneration Eshu is widespread in the New World. and the colors red & black. but he is an entirely different entity. Saint Michael or The Child of Atocha . depending on the situation or location. He is often identified by the number three. such as in the colours he likes. The villagers on one side of the road had only been capable of seeing the black side. * Eleggua: Ellegua is another name used among Lukumi for Eshu. They nearly fought over the argument. wearing a hat that was red on one side and black on the other. and unlike the Candomble Orishas. while Exu of Candomble is a universal elemental spirit. Exu de Quimbanda has a few similarities in how he is worshipped. Beyond that the similarities cease. and he is venerated under many different names and attributes: Exu de Quimbanda: The Exu who is the messenger of the deities in Candomble is not Exu de Quimbanda. until Eshu came back and cleared the mystery. and the villagers on the other side had only been capable of seeing the red half. 17 December 2008 16:24 Elegua. but a good one. and one of the most known deities of the Yoruba and New World traditions.
Lucero (also Nkuyo\Mañunga\Lubaniba) is the deity of balance and guidance through paths. as among the Ewe tribes. and Bara is perhaps Oba-ra. the corpse is disembowelled. receives a share of every sacrifice offered to the other gods. Is the oldest Esu. The derivation of agongo is less easy to determine. after the head has been struck off. In such a case. to rub one thing against another). who dance round it. The image of Elegua. towards the end of July. Turkeybuzzards are sacred to Elegua and are considered his messengers. seated with his hands on his knees. The name Elegua seems to mean. who is always represented naked. Papa Legba is the intermediary between the divine and humanity. often called Esbu. evacuate. and the entrails placed in front of the image in a large calabash or wooden dish. Once a year these cowries are swept up by the priests. throw out. Because he bears this club he has the title of Agongo ogo. tip. It is with reference to this that the proverb says: "As Eshu has a malicious disposition. if no tree be at hand. * Esu: In Yorubaland. or Eleguara (Elegua-Bara). it is derived from go. to emit. partly through want of skill on the part of the modellers of the images. * Lucero: In Palo Mayombe. originally intended to be a rude representation of the phallus. His own proper sacrifices are. while at certain festivals it is paraded in great pomp. has. Eshu also resembles the Voudon loa Simbi who is both the god of magic and the intermediate between humanity and Papa Legba. while Kalfu is his Petro manifestation. extremity. There is a noted temple Lo Elegua in a grove of palms near Wuru. his house is made for him in the street" (instead of indoors). cocks. this is an energy that rose out of the Yangi (sacred red rock) and allows people to communicate with the Irunmole. and partly through the growing belief in Elegua's malevolence. and each vendor throws a few cowries on the ground as a thank-offering. The market of Wuru is under his protection. and with the sum thus collected a slave is purchased to be sacrificed to the god. Ogo is the name of the knobbed club. and is seen in almost every public place. to hide in a bending or stooping posture. Orisa. The propensity to make mischief. "Lord of the rubbing" (Ra. Elegua. a village situated about ten miles to the east of Badagry. and so on. and pointed towards the young girls. The rude wooden representation of a phallus is planted in the earth by the side of the hut. Also important in the African diaspora. In ancient time on very important occasions a human victim was offered. from a scaffolding of poles. or. Eshu appears to be from shu. He is supposed always to carry a short knobbed club. chosen on account of their amorous propensities. protected by a small hut roofed with palm-leaves. come to be regarded as a weapon of offence. and is most probably a euphemism for the phallus. no doubt because they devour the entrails and bodies of the sacrifices. is the same phallic divinity who was described in the volume on the Ewe-speaking Peoples. but it seems to be from gongo. is found in front of almost every house. in consequence of the bargain he made with Ifa. who thus more nearly approaches a personification of evil. to Elegua in the town of Ondo. is much more prominent in the Yoruba god. Orunmila. the . "He who seizes" (Eni-gba). after which the body is suspended from a tree.* Legba: In Vodou. which we noted as a minor characteristic of the Ewe Elegua. dogs and he-goats. which. Elegua. A slave is also sacrificed annually.
Elegua's principal residence is said to be on a mountain named Igbeti. and ikeya. the foreskin. as among the Ewes. it being fixed for each individual by Ifa. that is. A similar operation is performed on girls. a circuit). the former of which means "the circular cutting" (ike. or ikola. No woman would have connection with an uncircumcised man. erotic dreams are attributed to Elegua. and the latter. Circumcision is ileyika. who are excised. To circumcise is dako (da-oko) da. but usually it is done early in life. is connected with the worship of Elegua. either as a female or male. Circumcision among the Yorubas.capital of the state of the same name. to ensure the wellbeing of the remainder. Except among the Mohammedans there is no special time for performing the rite of circumcision. that which saves). consorts sexually with men and women during their sleep. and ola. the act of cutting. . and a large number of attendants. Here he has a vast palace of brass. to be acceptable as a sacrifice. and appears to be a sacrifice of a portion of the organ which the god inspires. between the ages of ten and twelve years. supposed to be situated near the Niger. the act of cutting. As is the case in the western half of the Slave Coast. shortly before puberty. after consultation. by women operators. and so fulfils in his own person the functions of the incubi and succubi of mediaeval Europe. and oko. "the cutting that saves" (ike. who.
and Yemaya. The offspring of the union of Heaven and Earth. and was pursued by Orungan. named respectively Aganju. 17 December 2008 16:22 Yemaja is an orisha. the essence of motherhood. may thus be said to represent Land and Water." It seems to answer to the khekheme. Yemaya is celebrated in Ifá tradition As Iemanja Nana Borocum. Yemaya is a mother goddess. plain. The name Aganju means uninhabited tract of country. or to have become merged in that of his mother. and as she refused to listen to his guilty passion. fish). like it. and gan. Yemaya sprang to her feet and fled from the place wringing her hands and lamenting. to be high. or Nana Burku. one acknowledged. Immediately after the act. that is. There are many stories as to how she became the mother of all saints. earth. to mean the apparent space between the sky and the earth. her fecundity and her reign over all living things. eja. a boy and a girl.Yemaya Written by IfaBite Wednesday. sky. or "Free-air Region" of the Ewe peoples. but she rejected all his proposals . from ga. patron deity of women. and a protector of children. Obatala. The offspring of Land and Water would thus be what we call Air. she is pictured as a very old woman. She is the ocean. especially pregnant women. The worship of Aganju seems to have fallen into disuse. including all of the orishas. They include Ogun. and ravished her. which is still called Oju-Aganju-"Front of Aganju. She is represented by a female figure. he one day took advantage of his father's absence. and Yemaya. Orungan. She was married to Agayu and had one son. who strove to console her by saying that no one should know of what had occurred. and appears to mean "In the height of the sky. Before her amour with the hunter. Africans from what is now called Yorubaland brought Yemaya and a host of other deities/energy forces in nature with them when they were brought to the shores of the Americas as captives. "Mother of fish" (yeye. and the other in secret. Odudua bore to her husband. who has become prominent in many AfroAmerican religion. mother. swamps. and the Ogun river. Olokun. Orungan fell in love with his mother. Her parents are Oduduwa and Obatala." Yemaya married her brother Aganju. Her name is a contraction of Yoruba words: ³Yeye emo eja´ that mean ³Mother whose children are like fishes´. of Obatala and Odudua. yellow in colour. wilderness. He held out to her the alluring prospect of living with two husbands. Yemaya is the goddess of brooks and streams. or forest. This represents the vastness of her motherhood. This name is compounded of orun. but there is said to be an open space in front of the king's residence in Oyo where the god was formerly worshipped. dressed in black and mauve. and declared that he could not live without her. and. and presides over ordeals by water. Nana Buluku is an ancient god in Dahomey mythology. wearing blue beads and a white cloth. Other stories would say that Yemaya was always there in the beginning and all life came from her. originally of the Yoruba religion. and bore a son named Orungan. connected to mud. Shopona and Shango. and fifteen Orishas came forth from her.
Orisha Oko (god of agriculture). at least. enlargement. and we therefore leave for the moment the minor deities who sprung from Yemaya. The Umbanda religion worships Iemanjá as one of the seven orixás of the African Pantheon. The myth of Yemaya thus accounts for the origin of several of the gods. when fishermen celebrate their devotion to . was built on the spot where Yemaya's body burst open. jewelry. and became the holy city of the Yoruba-speaking tribes. Oshosi (god of hunters). Oba (goddess of the river Oba). The streams from Yemaya's breasts joined and formed a lagoon. called the Gift to Iemanjá. A syncretism happens between the catholic Nossa Senhora dos Navegantes (Our Lady of the Seafaring) and the orixá Iemanjá of the African Mithology. but there are other gods. Shankpanna (god of small-pox). Offering to IemanjáSmall boat with Iemanjá image. Another feast occur this day in the Pedra Furada. She is the Queen of the Ocean. the patron deity of the fishermen and the survivors of shipwrecks. and probably still is. Monte Serrat in Salvador. lipsticks. a town which was given the name of Ife (distention. and Oshu (the moon). and her abdomen burst open. but the town was destroyed in 1882. combs. and from her gaping body came the following:-. Sometimes. rapidly gained upon her. Orun (the sun). Chango (god of lightning). Every February 2 thousands of people line up at dawn to leave their offerings at her shrine in Rio Vermelho. Iemanjá or Janaína in Brazilian Candomblé and Umbanda religions. Aje Shaluga (god of wealth). Then her body immediately began to swell in a fearful manner. when she fell backward to the ground. Afterwards a massive street party ensues. Iemanjá is celebrated by Candomblé in the very day consecrated by the Catholic church to Our Lady of Seafaring (Nossa Senhora dos Navegantes). or swelling up). and continued to run away. In Brazil The goddess is known as Yemanjá. two streams of water gushed from her breasts. Bahia. Orungan. To commemorate this event. Oshun (goddess of the river Oshun). Ogun (god of iron and war). The Festa da Conceição da Praia (Feast to Our Lady of Conception of the church at the beach) is a city holiday dedicated to the catholic saint and also to Iemanjá. a feast can honor both. who do not belong to this family group. the feminine principle of creation and the spirit of moonlight. and proceed with the chief gods. by making them the grandchildren of Obatala and Odudua. irrespective of their origin. and was just stretching out his hand to seize her. These are gathered in large baskets and taken out to the sea by local fishermen. flowers and gifts Offering to Iemanjá Small boat with Iemanjá image. flowers and gifts Gifts for Iemanjá usually include flowers and objects of female vanity (perfume. Bahia. mirrors). Iemanjá is also celebrated every December 8 in Salvador. in the war between the Ifes on the one hand and the Ibadans and Modakekes on the other. however.with loathing. Oke (god of mountains). Two. Bahia. and whose genesis is not accounted for in any way. In Salvador.Dada (god of vegetables). Olokun (god of the sea). The place where her body fell used to be shown. Olosa (goddess of the lagoon). Oya (goddess of the river Niger). of the principal gods are in this category.
Her crown (and husband) is the orisha Oshumare. This path lives by the rocky coastliness. Her paths include: * Ogunte: In this path. Small offerings of flowers and floating candles are left in the sea on many nights at Copacabana. . some of them traveling hundreds of miles. millions of cariocas dressed in white gather on Copacabana beach to greet the New Year. Yemaja has several caminos (paths). indigo. She is associated with ducks and still or stagnant waters. Osanyin. dark blue and some red. Her colors are pale blue and coral. and throw flowers and other offerings into the sea for the goddess in the hopes that she will grant them their requests for the coming year. she is a warrior. Rio Grande do Sul State. the image of Nossa Senhora dos Navegantes is carried to the port of Pelotas. Paintings of Iemanjá are for sale in Rio shops. They portray her as a woman rising out of the sea. in a syncretic meeting that is watched by thousand of people in the shores. Iemanjá is elebrated mainly by Umbanda religion. her colors are blue and white (representing water). Some send their gifts to Iemanjá in wood toy boats. whole fried fishes and pork rinds. Thousands of people rally near iemanjá statue in Praia Grande beach. commerce and her shrines are decorated with plates. On New Year¶s Eve in Rio de Janeiro. watch fireworks. She is said to be deaf and answers her patrons slowly. Her colors are teals and turquoises.sugar cane syrup). at February 2. the exact path is determined through divination. Outside Bahia State. with a belt of iron weapons like Ogun. Iemanjá is celebrated in the two first weekends of December in the shores of Praia Grande city. Yemayá is seen as the mother of all living things as well as the owner of all waters. molasses (´melaço´ . Her colors are crystal. She is associated with the marketplace and her shrines are decorated with 21 plates. At the initiation ceremony known as kariocha. * Ibu Aro: This path is similar to Majalewo in that she is associated with markets. * Asesu: This path is very old. Before the closing of the catholic feast. and her favorite offerings include melons. In Pelotas.the Queen of the Ocean. * Majalewo: This path lives in the forest with the herbalist orisha. next to painting of Jesus and other catholica saints. the rainbow. Her colors are darker. In São Paulo State. Her colors are indigo and blood red and her symbolism includes that of pirates. In Santería. Her number is 7 (a tie into the 7 seas). or simply ocha. the boats stop and host the Umbanda followers that carry the image of Iemanjá. During these days many vehicles garnished with Iemanjá icons and colors roam from the São Paulo mountains to the sea littoral. She has been syncretized with Our Lady of Regla. * Okoto: This path is known as the underwater assassin. crystal and red coral. Haiti She is venerated in Vodou as LaSiren.
or Madré D¶Agua²Mother of Waters. she is known as Mà Lango. such as Palo Mayombe. . Kimbisa and Briumba. In the Kongo religions. Palo Monte.* Ashaba: This path is said to be so beautiful that no human can look at her directly.
Any piece of iron can be used as a symbol of Ogun. may gratify his desire with any woman who takes his fancy. which are dried. had to be presented as an offering. 17 December 2008 16:22 Ogun is a primordial Orisha whose first appearance was as a hunter named Tobe Ode. is Osin Imole or the ³first of the primordial Orisha to come to Earth´. A proverb says. and. a slave is purchased at the expense of the town. "An old dog must be sacrificed to Ogun. Ogun is the god of iron and of war. He is said to be the first of the Orisha to descend to the realm of Ile Aiye (the earth) to find suitable habitation for future human life. emblematic of this sacrifice. and who drink the mixture. where he is allowed to say or do anything he pleases (short of escaping his impending fate). The day before that on which he is to be immolated. The reason of his being thus honoured for the twenty-four hours before being sacrificed. The reason of this is that the blood is believed to contain the vital principle. Iron is sacred to him. the Israelites held it. and when swearing by Ogun it is usual to touch an iron implement with the Ilorgue. in a place named Ire-Ekiti. When war has been decided upon. a human victim was offered. Oyo and Ondo States. and. together with fowls. and paraded in the market. like Chango. to ensure success. no one being allowed to eat it under pain of death. and give his tongue every licence. the corpse is treated with the greatest respect by all. In commemoration of this one of his praise names (Oriki). The reason of this is that the heart is believed to be the seat of courage and to inherently possess that quality. The victim is slain by having his head struck off upon the stool of Ogun. then mixed with rum. and a dog's head. Ogun was most likely first worshiped by the Yoruba people of West Africa. and by those who make use of iron weapons or tools. The priests of Ogun usually take out the hearts of human victims. and the ground is sacred to him because iron ore is found in it. to pierce. In ancient times on very important occasions. that the blood of all animals slain. the victim is led with great ceremony through the principal thoroughfares. or thrust with something pointed). and blood was considered to be so peculiarly the portion of their national god. He is specially worshipped by blacksmiths. and. He is worshiped in places like Ekiti. the entrails are exposed before the image and the body suspended from a tree. and offered as a sacrifice to Ogun. The usual sacrifice offered to Ogun is a dog. particularly acceptable to the gods. The name Ogun seems to mean "One who pierces" (gun. palm oil. and that when the heart is devoured or swallowed . This belief appears to be common to most barbarons peoples. after the head has been struck off. Through out his entire life he fought for the people of Ire. whether for sacrifice or food. reduced to powder. is that it is believed he will be born again and become a king. over which the blood is made to gush.Ogun Written by IfaBite Wednesday. and minor articles of food. He is one of those who sprang from the body of Yemaya. He is believed to have (wo ile sun) which means to sink into the ground not to die. as in the case of a sacrifice to Elegua. and therefore to be an offering. however." meaning that Ogun claims the best. and sold to persons who wish to be endowed with great courage. is also a patron of hunters. is always to be seen fastened up in some conspicuous part of the workshops of blacksmiths. or tribe.
Ogun is a loa and orisha. In Dahomey mythology. or effeminate male initiates to whom he takes a liking. hunting. Saint Sebastian is also considered by many homosexuals. he is represented with Saint George in Brazil. he appears in other aspects. such as Ogun Akirun. He is called now to help people obtain a government more responsive to their needs. who presides over fire. Ogun Meji. and the people are quite familiar with each of them. for example in the state of Bahia. Some of these aspects are: Ogun the wounded warrior. Ogun Onigbajamo. In Other Countries In Hiati. Onile. and he has not yet finished this task. especially those belonging to the lower and marginalized classes. As such Ogun is mighty. Ogun may also be represented by Saint Sebastian. rum and tobacco. the latter being a feminine incarnation. led and given power to the slaves for the Haitian Revolution of 1804. However. triumphal. yet also exhibits the rage and destructiveness of the warrior whose strength and violence can turn against the community he serves. Perhaps linked to this theme is the new face he has taken on in Haiti which is not quite related to his African roots. similar to Ares and Hephaestus in Greek mythology and Visvakarma in Hindu mythology. It is Ogun who is said to have planted the idea. Brazil. Ogun Onire.the quality with which it is inspired is also taken into the system. Officially Saint Sebastian is the patron saint of the city of Rio de Janeiro. he has been syncretized with Saint Peter. According to anthropologist Luiz Mott. In the cult of Orishas. Ogun (as this Yoruba divinity is known in the Portuguese language) is often identified with Saint George. Ogun Oloola. He was sent to earth to make it a nice place for people to live. He is the patron of smiths and is usually displayed with his attributes: machete or sabre. Ogun Alara. for example in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. He gives strength through prophecy and magic. Ogun Elemona. Ogun-un. and is for this reason often called upon to heal diseases of the blood. He assumes a Christ-figure pose which the people know well from their Christian associations. politics and war. Ogun Ikole. In the religious tradition of the Afro-Brazilian Candomblé. Ogun is the traditional warrior and seen as a powerful deity of metal work. He can be very aggressively masculine²much like the spirit Shango²but can also rule the head of female. Ogun Alagbede. that of a powerful political leader. state of Rio de Janeiro. . In all his incarnations Ogoun is a fiery and martial spirit. He is also linked with blood. powerful. iron. Gu is the god of war and patron deity of smiths and craftsmen. Ogun comes to mount people in various aspects of his character. as it is often done in the northeast of the country. In Santería and Palo Mayombe.
or much more commonly. He gives strength to the servitors by slapping them on the thighs or back. * Ogun Badagris. His possessions can sometimes be violent. They dress up in green and black. then mounting the blade without piercing his skin. wave a sabre or machete. or even sticking the handle in the ground. . To all the aspects of Ogoun there is the dominant theme of power and militancy. He may lift a person up and carry him or her around to indicate his special attention and patronage.* Ogun Feraille. chew a cigar and demand rum in an old phrase ³Gren mwe fret´ (my testicles are cold). the machete is his weapon and he often does strange feats of poking himself with it. Those mounted by him are known to wash their hands in flaming rum without suffering from it later. Often this rum is poured on the ground then lit and the fumes pervade the peristyle. The sword.
as well as the nature spirits of the forest. 17 December 2008 16:22 Oshosi is the deity or Orisha of the forest. as the Amazon Rainforest brings this element to the fore in Candomblé more than it is found in its cousins. During the period in which the majority orisha venerators in Latin America were slaves to Catholic Europeans. a job or a house for example. which led to his association with the hunter orisha. He is alternately depicted as Saint George in the Bahia region.Oshosi Written by IfaBite Wednesday. San Sebatian is most often depicted tied and shot full of arrows. Hunters. Oshosi is the patron Justice. and his role as an often solitary figure in the wilderness lends him another role as a shaman. . and prayed to when devotees are looking for Justice or something. Oshosi is most important to the people of Brazil in Candomblé (a Latin American religion derived from the traditional spiritual practises of the Yoruba people of West Africa). and one of the three warrior orishas "Ibori" in Yoruba. Oshossi is connected with all hunter cultures as well as the caboclos in Brazil know as the spirits of the native American dead. Master of all air attacks. He also is the patron of those who work with animals. Oshosi is a hunter. the island religions of Cuban Santeria and Haitian Voudoun. The true "GPS". Oshosi came to be identified with Saint Sebastian in the Rio de Janeiro area of Brazil. he is identified with Saint Norbert. and in Cuba. dogs in particular.
He is supposed to remain upright at all times. so that he can watch for danger.Osun Written by IfaBite Wednesday. Hanging from the lip of the cup's lid. or the foundation for your higher self or Orí. Osun should be immediately turned upright and the primary godparent should be notified of what happened. 17 December 2008 16:21 Osun Duru Ganga la Bosi Osun is a small staff that is packed with magical substances that acts as a person's personal guard or watchdog.the symbol for Osun. on top of the lid is a metal rooster . This is the scaled down modern version of the original that was found in Africa. . Many people say that he is your spiritual head. and if he ever falls over. are four jingle bells hanging from little chains. He is lidded and sealed metal cup with a stem and is about 9 inches tall. Osun is supposed to be placed in a high place in the house preferably above the initiate's head with the rooster facing the front door. it is an indication that something very bad has either been thrown at the initiate or is on it's way to harm the initiate.
and the flash of the marketplace. She creates hurricanes and tornadoes and guards the underworld. Oyá is also called "the one who puts on pants to go to war" and "the one who grows a beard to go to war". Oba (Obba). Oya has been syncretized in Santeria with the Catholic images of Our Lady Of Candelaria (Our Lady of the Presentation) and St. fire and magic. but most especially Shango/Changó. Her full name is Oya-Yansan. the faithful often salute her by saying "Hekua hey Yansa. and death is not as arbitrary as it may seem." She is closely associated with many Orishas. Theresa. which means "mother of nine. while in Cuban-derived Yórùbá traditions. Oggun. lightning. Oya manifests in Creation in the forms as sudden and drastic change." In Brazil. In Brazilian Umbanda she is represented by Saint Barbara. Oya's representation of wind. fertility. Her feast day is February 2. strong storms. Oya has a sister named Ayao that is received by her initiates. She is seen in aspects of warrior-goddess of wind. 17 December 2008 16:21 Oya is the Goddess of the Niger River. . creation. Yewá/Euá and Ochún/Oxum.Oya Written by IfaBite Wednesday. As the Spirit of the Wind. in candomble she is generally saluted with the phrase "Èpa heyi!.
the Festa do Bonfim. but never taste palm wine. the Supreme Being. 17 December 2008 16:20 through the power of God. Before he could return to heaven and report to Olodumare however. In the Bahia State (Brazil).He who has divine authority Baba Arugbo . Orishanla or Orishainla) or Oshanla . but until that individual is initiated into the priesthood of that orisha. A great feud ensued between the two that is re-enacted every year in Ile Ife. "people of Obatala". He is always dressed in white. often described as his younger brother. According to legend Obatala created "defective" (handicapped) individuals while drunk on palm wine. Eleda. (called by various names in the Yoruba language such as Olodumare. He is also referred to as the orisha of the north. Ultimately.Old Master or Father Baba Araye . made human bodies. which takes place in January in the city of Salvador. Obàtálá is also the owner of all ori or heads. Obàtálá still owns that head. His worshippers may eat palm oil and salt. In Santería Obàtálá has been syncretized with Our Lady of Mercy. Oduduwa and his sons were able to rule without Obatala's consent. In Yoruba theology. Obatala (King or ruler of the white cloth). referring to spiritual purity and pure light.Obàtálá Written by IfaBite Wednesday. usurped his position by taking the satchel and returning to heaven. Any orisha may lay claim to an individual. Nigeria.Master or Father of all human beings (lit. Obatala must never be worshipped with palm wine. making him the patron deity of such people. and Olorun). According to mythical stories Obatala is the eldest of all orisha and was granted authority to create the earth.The arch divinity . citizens of the earth) Orisanla (also spelt Orisainla. Oodua. Olofin-Orun. People born with congenital defects are called 'eni orisa': literally. palm oil or salt. Obatala has been syncretized with Our Lord of Bonfim and is the subject of a large syncretic religious celebration. and Olorun (God) breathed life into them.Lord of the Earth Alabalase . his rival Oduduwa (also called Oduwa. both physically and symbolically as in the "light" of consciousness). Oluwa Aiye or Oluwa Aye . Eledumare. hence the meaning of his name. Obatalá (Oxalá) is the oldest "Orixa funfun" ("white deity"). His worshippers strive to practice moral correctness as unblemished as his robe. This stems from the belief that the soul resides in the head. In Candomblé. Odudua or Eleduwa).
and stone implements. and has no connection either with iron (irin) or a chain (ewon). stone). god of the river Ogun. his symbol is the oshe (double-headed axe). He rules the color red and white. "Hurler of stones. he is a Sky Father. is. to fight. the god of thunder and lightning. which have long ceased to be used in West Africa. god of thunder and lightning. From his palace. not to yet have made much progress. He dwells in the clouds in an immense brazen palace. and Chango is purely anthropomorphic. He is owner of the Bata (3 double-headed drums) and of music in general. The Oni-Chango. Chango hurls upon those who have offended him red-hot chains of iron. and also known as Jakuta is perhaps the most popular Orisha. His name appears to be derived from shan. moreover. The iron-chain notion. to hurl from aloft. He has the epithet of Jakuta. for. Contents Chango. as they take it with them secretly. This ceremony survived the Middle Passage and is considered to be the most complete to have arrived on Western shores." and to have reference to peals of thunder. The energy given from this Deity of Thunder is also a major symbol of African resistance against an enslaving European culture. he is also the god of the chase and of pillage." and go. which represents swift and balanced justice. which are forged for him by his brother Ogun. while the name Jakuta shows that Chango is believed to hurl stones and not iron. The notion we found amongst the Ewes that a birdlike creature was the animating entity of the thunderstorm has no parallel here. in their chants always speak of Chango as hurling stones. forged by Vulcan. "to bewilder. 17 December 2008 16:20 Often known as Xangô or Shangó in Latin America and the Caribbean. he was the second to spring from the body of Yemaya. of iron and of war. This variation of the Yoruba initiation ceremony became the basis of all Orisha initiations in the West." or "Fighter with stones" (Ja. besides being the thunder-god. but this. and. and okuta. The Oyo Kingdom was sacked and pillaged as part of a jihad by the Islamic Fulani Empire. or Priests of Chango. Puerto Rico and Venezuela for the last few hundred years) are based on the traditional Shango ceremony of Ancient Oyo. and whenever a house is struck by lightning they rush in a body to pillage it and to find the stone. Chango was a royal ancestor of the Yoruba as he was the third king of the Oyo Kingdom. and the red-hot chains furnished by Ogun have a suspicious resemblance to the thundefbolts of Jupiter. next to Obatala. are believed to be his thunderbolts. All the major initiation ceremonies (as performed in Cuba. as well as the Art of Dance and Entertainment. "to strike violently. the most powerful god of the Yorubas. which are supposed to be produced by violent blows. it should be observed. they always succeed in doing. therefore. which. a making of fire). appears to have been borrowed from some foreign source. or ja.Chango Written by IfaBite Wednesday. A chant of the Oni-Chango very commonly . his sacred number is 6. The Yoruba word for lightning is mana-mana (ma-ina. where he maintains a large retinue and keeps a great number of horses. is seemingly a modern notion.
the accident being regarded as proof positive that Chango requires them. the priests usually allow the corpse to be redeemed and buried. Great King! Chango is the lord and master. All three accompany their husband when he goes out. those which he with the back uppermost being favourable. the old ideas respecting Chango. Everything that they strike is destroyed. In the storm he hurls his fiery stones against his enemies." "May Chango's stone strike you. which is so hard that a proverb says. the river of the same name. it is held. which rises in Ijesa and flows into the water-way between Lagos and the Lekki lagoon. smaller in size. This Chango was King of Oyo. He usually goes armed with a club called oshe. during which he thumps and bangs overhead." and the lay-worshippers of Chango flock into the streets during a thunderstorm crying. Oxen. which are thrown on the ground. and fowls are the offerings ordinarily made to Chango. with the exception of the myth of the fiery chains. Chango married three of his sisters: Oya. A common idea is that Chango is subject to frequent outbursts of ungovernable temper. and the chief priest is called Magba. Oya taking with her her messenger Afefe (the Wind. the tree is sacred to him. and Oshun and Oba carrying his bow and sword. but if the relations of the deceased offer a sufficient payment. Individuals rendered insensible by lightning are at once despatched by the priests. or Gale of Wind). His colours are red and white. the Rainbow. near Emina." whom he sends out with a loud noise. in ancient times on important occasions. but on to them are now rapidly becoming grafted some later myths. thou art the master. and those with the back downward the reverse. The priests and followers of Chango wear a wallet. and their track gleams in the midst of the darkness. Their fire eats up the forest. emblematic of the plundering propensities of their lord. to punish the guilty and satisfy thine anger. an earthly king who afterwards became a god. in accordance with the custom that has already . Chango." As amongst the Ewe tribes. and is surrounded by images. and his worshippers profess to be able to understand its cry. which rises in Ibadan and flows into the Kradu Water. human beings. "Chango. and Oba. and tyranny. Persons who are killed by lightning may not. cruelty. and became so unbearable through rapacity. A small bird called papagori is sacred to Chango. "The Receiver. The image of Chango generally represents him as a man standing. with the palms of their hands joined together in front of the bosom. Oshumare. is the servant of Chango. also a river. a house struck by lightning is at once invaded and plundered by the disciples of the god. who. He is consulted with sixteen cowries. of his three wives. "Thunder-clap. the trees are broken down. According to some natives. that the chiefs and people at last sent him a calabash of parrots' eggs." is a very common imprecation. and a fine imposed on the occupants. his office being to take up water frorn the earth to the palace in the clouds. and all living creatures are slain. who are also represented as standing up. which make Chango. and hurls down stones at those who have given him cause for offence. capital of Yoruba. must have offended him.heard is. The foregoing are. the Niger. properly speaking. and. "Oh Chango." In consequence of his club being made of this wood. Shaugo's slave Biri (Darkness) goes in attendance. made of the wood of the ayan tree. Thou takest in thy hand thy fiery stones. Oshun. be buried. "The ayan tree resists the axe. sheep. He has a messenger named Ara.
but were unable to find it. and also left him. this myth is rapidly becoming blended with the older ones. defied public opinion and endeavoured to assemble his adherents. when in the morning Chango found himself lost in the midst of a pathless forest. and was accompanied only by one wife and one slave. The fact of the ayan being sacred to the god Chango. the rest of his household having deserted him. seeking in vain for a path which would lead them out of the forest. and lives among the dead people. "Chango is dead. and he has burned your houses with his fiery stones because you did not vindicate his honour. shouting. though why such a king should usurp the functions of the thunder-god. He is angry because they laughed at him. and. because they feared to be held responsible for his death. did not believe the story. and before long found his corpse hanging by the neck from an ayan-tree. He left the palace by night. They searched in every direction. and at last found a deep pit in the earth. he killed many of the scoffers with his fiery stones. They wandered about without food for some days. During the night the wife repented of her hasty action. Chango hanged himself. Chango. and leaving some priests there to propitiate the new god. He has descended into the earth. so. and set the town on fire. with a terrific thunderstorm. for it was no longer on the tree. The place where Chango descended into the earth was called Kuso. Then the priests and elders ran about -among the burning houses. and establish a worship." Some of the townspeople. which was his mother's native place. He has become an orisha. from which the end of an iron chain protruded. and his anger turned away. for it makes the chiefs and elders alarmed at the suicide of Chango. "Chango did not hang himself. yet they would have been equally responsible had he complied with established custom. sought safety in flight. as his master did not appear. for many people went to dwell there. beyond the Niger. intending to endeavour to reach Tapa. They at once erected a small temple over the pit. in consequence of these events . Chango has become an orisha." In consequence of this wicked conduct. saying. he had no one with him but his slave. in company. When the chiefs and elders heard that Chango had hanged himself they were much alarmed. Chango came in person. so that Chango was appeased. where they proclaimed: "Chango is not dead. See what these bad men have brought upon you by their unbelief. They went. They stooped over the pit and listened. and. fearing that they would be held responsible for his death. to punish them for their behaviour. Eventually the slave succeeded in extricating himself from the forest. with a message that he must be fatigued with the cares of government. Perhaps this myth really does refer to some former King of Oyo. in order to show his power. instead of allowing himself to be quietly strangled by his wives. On receiving this intimation. went in search of him. and could hear Chango talking down in the earth. returned to Oyo. and when the criers cried. and that it was time for him to go to sleep. being ignorant and foolish. and we will then try further. "Wait here till I return. "Chango is not dead. when this failed. As we have said." Then the populace fell upon the scoffers and beat them to death. and finding himself in a part of the country he knew. It is inconsistent in part. and committed suicide when he received the parrots' eggs they sent him." After waiting a long time. made his way towards Oyo. is not at all clear. no doubt caused that tree to be selected for the legendary suicide of the king Chango. and at last Chango. and the iron chain which protruded from the hole in the ground was probably suggested by the notion of red-hot chains of lightning. with whom we have heard him conversing. however. and soon became a town. the slave. to the place where the slave had left the body.been mentioned. with the priests. where he told the news. left his slave. and." they laughed and shouted in return.
but reigning as an earthly king at Oyo. but the end of the chain was left protruding from the ground. and to hide when the Sun looked round. and then gave the rest to Oya to keep for him. and took refuge with her brother the Sea-God (Olokun). terrified at his violence. a thunder-god must. now more furious than ever. and the palace was deserted. is to place him in a situation where he could not exercise the functions of his office. as a god. when down in the earth. The genii. Chango now saw that he was." Another myth makes Chango the son of Obatala. possessing attributes of each. following him in his course all the day. as we read of them in the "Arabian Nights. so calling his three wives to him. and so descended with him into the territories of his brother Olokun. Next morning the chiefs and elders assembled at the palace as usual. nearly out of sight. and to make him descend into the bowels of the earth. and married to the three river goddesses Oya. and all fled in terror. the end of which is left above ground. when she began to scold ber women in the palace. One day. "King of Kuso. he made a great noise and commotion. and we find nothing of the sort in the groups cognate to the Yoruba. When Chango reached Olokun's palace and saw his wife Oya there. The story relates that one day Chango obtained from his father Obatala a powerful charm." are frequently described as breathing forth flames to destroy their opponents. but when it came to Chango's turn to speak. and. flames burst forth from his mouth. These ideas do not appear to be ones at all likely to have arisen spontaneously in the negro mind. live above the eaxth amongst the clouds.having taken place at Kuso. Chango ate most of the medicament. for Chango had been careful to keep behind him all the time." and she. which opens when stamped upon. Next morning he came up from below with the Sun. inferior to none. ate the rest herself. as soon as his back was turned. who had stolen some of his "medicines. to judge the affairs of the people. and a descent into the earth. arrived with him in the evening at the place where the sea and sky join. Since his descent into the earth with his three wives at Oyo. ran after . when eaten. Chango has often come back to the world. The earth closed again over them. but Olokun held him. and is probably only another version of the same event. too. the result being a kind of compound Chango. from the very nature of his being. These remarks equally apply to the following myth. but the descent into the earth with the iron chain. As soon as Chango discovered where she had gone. and Oba. ran away. is like the legendary descent of the deified king. This myth well exemplifies the confusion that has now been created in men's minds between the thunder-god proper and the demi-god. Oshun. he stamped on the earth till it opened under him. Moreover. Oya. who. which. The Sun had not knowingly shown Chango the road across the sky to Olokun's palace. Chango has the title of Oba-Kuso. but she. after they had gone down. and while the two were struggling together Oya escaped. and each spoke in his turn. he swore a great oath to beat her so that she would never forget it. and taking in his hand a long iron-chain. It is probable that contact with Mohammedans has had something to do with the invention of this myth. and ran to bide with her sister Olosa (the Lagoon). He rushed towards her to seize her. The Chango of this story resembles in his marital relations the thunder-god. and descended into it with his wives. is a mode of exit often found in the same collection. so that everybody ran away. When Olokun saw that Oya had gone he released Chango. similarly belched forth flames. he quarrelled with Oya. would enable him to vanquish all who opposed him.
who had become a god by virtue of the "medicine" he had eaten. As has . Lastly. roaring and yelling. claimed protection of a man whom she found there. In his rage he tore up the trees by their roots. Oya. Oya had fled to Lokoro. tossing them here and there. Obatala retreated and turned himself into a beautiful woman. saw him coming along the banks of the lagoon. whose name was Huisi. ran out again. and at last Chango. Legends of Chango Chango was the fourth king of Oyo in Yorubaland. on the spot where he had fought with Chango. Stories about Chango¶s life exemplify some major themes regarding the nature of character and destiny. brandished it in the air. rushing into it. his favorite (because of her excellent cooking) is Oshun. a river goddess. could do against Chango. In further patakis Chango goes in search of Aganju. As she was running. His other wife. In this myth Oya steals the medicine and gives it to Huisi. He is a major character in the divination literature of the Lukumi religion. promised to protect her. being thus made an orisha. and he. and. Aganju. Flames burst from their mouths. as he ran along. which opened under him. looking out from her sister's house. and deified after his death. but Oya gave him to eat of the "medicines" she had stolen from her husband. She begged Huisi to defend her. striking together. and feeling his strength failing. He scorned her and she became the Oba River. There being no other tree there. ³all that glitters is not gold´. As Chango approached. Obatala. of course there are several myths regarding the birth and parentage of Chango. he (along with 14 others) burst forth from the goddess Yemaya¶s body after her son. At the commencement of the combat. This tension between reason represented by Obatala and fire represented by Aganju would form the foundation of Chango¶s particular character and nature. knowing that Olosa could not protect her. Then the two oiishas wrestled together. and the two weapons. and tearing up a large tree by the roots. and fled along the shores towards the place where the Sun goes down. but ate it herself. The story of Chango and Oba carries the familiar refrain. and the people built a temple in her honour. and. attempted to rape her for the second time. and Chango coming behind. refused him passage. and he descended into it. Chango was the result of this uneasy union. Oya was Chango¶s third wife. Chango seized Huisi's canoe. Orungan. filled with fury at being baffled. He returned to the river and traded his/her body for passage. and the two of them play out a drama of conflict and resolution that culminates with Chango throwing himself into the fire to prove his lineage. dragging Huisi down with him. the ferryman and god of fire. the king of the white cloth was travelling and had to cross a river. shook it like a club. she saw a house near at hand. and stole the secrets of his powerful magic. He has three wives. Huisi ran from his house down to the banks of the lagoon. and defied Chango. As the story goes. mythologically. stamped on the earth. another river goddess. In one set of stories Chango is the son of Aganju and Obatala. In each case it caused flames to burst from the mouth. and their feet tore great fissures in the earth as they dragged each other to and fro. Huisi asked what he. she remained there. Huisi. in the former one she also stole it. offered Sango her ear to eat.his wife cursing and threatening her. a man. This struggle lasted a long time without either being able to gain the mastery. also had a temple erected in his honour. which merges with the Oshun River to form dangerous rapids. All of the stories regarding Chango revolve around dramatic events such as this one. Oba. were shattered to pieces. his father.
When he finally glanced down he saw an ear floating in the stew. The axe symbolizes that this devotee is possessed by Chango. created in the beginning of time by the Great God. Once it was done she decided that if a little piece of Oshun¶s ear produced such an effect her whole ear would drive Chango mad with desire for her and he would forget Oshun forever. and mellow Orisa.a great deal of power and self-control. From this she made a powder she would sprinkle on Chango¶s food. Oshun. At that time and in that place they would live in a compound. where she is still worshipped today. Other ³hot Orisa´ include Ogun. Chango had his own house and each wife had her own house surrounding his. Her children would not have nearly the same status. leaving behind imprints of stone axe blade on the Earth¶s crust. In that compound. drove her from his house. Chango. The woman¶s expression is calm and cool. stones. As he ate it. calm. lord of leaves and medicine. are Yoruba ancestors or incarnate natural forces. and Oshun his concubine. Chango brought prosperity to the Oyo Empire during his reign.been stated Chango had three wives. the initiation ceremony dictates that this same prosperity be bestowed upon followers. was filled with resentment. or gods. or lightning. Oba. ran home to prepare Chango¶s amala. god of iron and Obaluaye. on a personal level. Chango altars often contain a carved figure of a woman holding a gift to the god with a double-bladed axe sticking up from her head. She decided to play a trick on Oba. Worship of Chango enables. Chango hurls bolts of lightning at the people chosen to be his followers. Historically. but there are a few females. Oba ran from the compound. out of jealousy. for she is expressing the qualities she has gained through her faith. After deification. Oya is also included as a ³hot Orisa´. lord of pestilence. This group of gods mostly consists of males. . she told Oba. being asked this.according to Yoruba belief. When Chango came to eat he sat down and began eating without looking at his dish. Orisha may be considered natural forces such as rivers. According to Yoruba and Vodou belief systems. She told Oba that many years ago she had cut a small piece of her ear off and dried it. As children of the first wife. Oba. decided to ask Oshun how she kept Chango so happy. symbolically white divinities´. Worship of Chango The religious ritual of Chango was possibly designed in order to help the devotees of Sango gain self-control. Ollorun. There are two categories of Orisa. and fell to earth to become a river. Chango¶s wife. Oba noticed that when Chango went to the house of Oshun he would eat all of the food that she prepared for him but when he came to her home he would just pick. These are the gentle. the divine sculptor. mountains. Oba¶s children would inherit Chango¶s kingdom. thunder. hostile and quick to anger. These blades can be seen easily after heavy rains. his second wife. This Orisa tends to be harsh. demanding. which are grouped according to personalities and modes of action. As an Orisha she is the patron of matrimony and is said to destroy marriages that abuse either partner. being born from his concubine. The second category of Orisa are the Orisa funfun²³the cool. temperate. She is the queen of the whirlwind. She sliced off her ear and stirred it into Chango¶s food. Chango would desire the food and Oshun all the more. The orisha. Oba. Osooli/Eyinle. They include: Obatula/Orisonla. He would then visit his wives in their houses to eat and to sleep with them. crying. his favorite meal. excited by this information. Oya. his first and legitimate wife. lord of hunting and water. wanting a closer relationship with her husband. Some of them are ancient. Osanyin. thinking Oba was trying to poison him.
but also a hero of the Oyo Empire. Puerto Rico and Venezuela . in Brazilian Candomblé Ketu (under the name Xangô). The deity. first king of Ile Ife. . The ibori is the symbol of a person¶s inner spiritual essence or individuality known as iponri. In art. Barbara. and in Cuba. is represented by lightning and thunder. Orisa are divine but also deified ancestors of Yorubaland. drumming and dance . Chango is depicted with a double-axe on his three heads. in Umbanda. He is associated with the holy animal. as the very powerful loa Nago Shango.the Santeria equivalent of St. as a god of thunder and weather.Oduduwa. a traditional colonial disguise for the Deity known as Changó. the ram. Worship in different Countries Chango is worshipped in Haitian Vodou. for his is not only the embodiment of thunder. The ibori is cone shaped and repeats throughout Yoruba culture. This tip is made from the person¶s placenta and symbols of deities or ancestors. Sango. Chango fits both of these descriptions. and the holy colors of red and white. The top of an ibori is called the oke iponri. in Trinidad as Shango God of Thunder.
Pleurisy Root. Bloodroot. Spirulina. Parsley.Orisha Herbs Written by IfaBite Wednesday. Sage. 17 December 2008 16:19 Obatala Skullcap. Uva-Ursi. Hawthorn. Squawvine. Yarrow. Nettles. Lotus. Burdock. Hibiscus. Saw Palmetto. Anis. Echinacea Yemaya Kelp. Kola Nut. Damiana. Valerian Elegua All Herbs Oshun Yellow Dock. Motherwort. Blue Vervain. Cayenne . Elecampane. Yarrow. Aloe. White Willow. Fo-ti. Dandelion. Basil. Comfrey. Garlic Oya Mullein. Mints. Cinnamon. Myrrh. Sarsaparilla. Cohosh. Chamomile. Buchu. Passion Flower. Wild Yam Root Ogun Eucalyptus. Hyssop. Horehound. Cherrybark. Alfalfa. Raspberry. Chickweed Shango Plantain.
That religion is said to be from the Ancient Egyptian±Religion otherwise known as Khamet or Kemet. There was really no mention of when the religion started or much about the origin of the people because the beginning of their existence was always noted as being in Ife. the word ori is the "reflective spark of human consciousness embedded on human essense. It is an example of the many deep rooted meanings of the religion of the Yorubas. Ogun. Karade also argues that there are many striking similarities between the ancient Egyptians and the Yorubas. The common Orisa which seem to come up time after time are these major ones: Obatala. Ife is said to have been founded around a thousand years ago and there was some mention that the Yorubas might have descended from some Middle Eastern heritage. Shango (Sango). The actual word "Orisha" has a deep meaning itself. Many of the sources which I encountered did not attempt to even approach the topic of the origin of the Yorubas Orisa (Orisha). "holy or sacred. in Lucas' "The Religion of the Yorubas" word comparisons are made." are a series of Gods or divinities under the Yoruba's main±God. The Orisa is one of the key spiritual elements of traditional Yoruba religion. Each of these gods has a specific purpose when dealing with the human spirit. There is great measure taken to carry out the importance .. The Yoruba words mon.21). 17 December 2008 16:17 To examine the Yoruba religion. an expression of the principles and functions of divine power manifesting on nature"(p. This Ori is the aspect of the human that is in a sense in control of their spiritual actions. As far as dealing with the actual origin of the religion itself. Such purity is represented by pure whiteness. The ori apari represents the internal spiritual head and the ori apere represents the sign of an individuals personal protector. For example. Yorubas are located basically in the southwestern part of Nigeria and in some parts of Benin and Togo. it is only referred to as a surviving religion of a "higher" religion. The history of the Yoruba religion seems to be somewhat of a controversial subject in most sources that deal with this topic. The ori is divided into two which can be known as the ori apari and the ori apere. mimon.23). Yemoja. and Oya. according to Baba Ifa Karade's "The Handbook of Yoruba Religious Concepts." This gives a strong example of how strong language is tied to religion. Obatala represents the embodiment of true purity of one's soul." are probably derived from the name of the God" (p. Each of the orisas has a specific color and natural environment associated with them. Olorun or Oludumare. Obatala is also said to represent ethical purity. The Orisa. Oshun (Osun). one must look at the entire area of Yoruba cultural existence. The Orisha are ". For example. Elegba.Yoruba Traditional Religion Written by IfaBite Wednesday. and sha which is the ultimate potentiality of that consciousness.. Being that the language of the Yorubas is so strongly tied to the culture there are many comparisons analyzed as to why there is a belief that Yoruba religion has been derived from Ancient Egyptian religion. the center where the Yoruba people descended from heaven. Such a comparison is made with the Ancient Egyptian God Amon: "The God Amon is one of the Gods formerly known to the Yorubas".
of this pure whiteness because the temples which worship the divinity Obatala have the color of white in all the instruments of worship. Obatala is said to be the father of the Orisha and the divinity in charge of the carving of humans out of clay into the form they are today. She is considered to be the wife of Sango. Even when worhsipping other divinities. She is the Matriarchal head of the entire universe. Elegba is the one who tests the human souls. Yemoja is the divinity that governs over all the waters or oceans. railroads. . Yemoja is said to be the mother of all the Orisha. Osun (Oshun) is the deity of diplomacy and all giving or unconditional love. Ogun is considered to be the holder of divine justice and truth. He was said to be the ruler of old Oyo that was hung (legend has it that he committed suicide by hanging himself to a tree after his failure to amass all the political powr to himself) because of his greed for power. She is the water or ambiotic fluid in the mother's womb and the breasts which nurture a new born child. For example. Her natural environment are the salt water±oceans and the lakes and the colors associated with her are blue and crystal. She is a river deity because she symbolizes clarity. Sango is the god of lightning in addition to being the Orisha of drum and dance. Elegba is not evil. Natural environment are in the woods. His followers come to him for legal problems. Elegba is the messenger of the deities and his major role is to negotiate between the other orishas and the humans and is very close to all the forces of the deities. He is also said to be the executioner of the world. and forges. His natural environment happens to be any place that has been struck by lightning. He is known for building or clearing paths for the building of civilizations and is the divinity of mechanization. Oshun is said to represent the strenght of feminine love and the power of motherhood. he is also worshipped because of his important role in the Yoruba religion. She is also the deity that is in charge of guarding the cemetary. He is also known to change things into pure and valuabe objects. He is in charge of giving from the humans to the divinities. She is the divinity of fertility and feminine essence. Oya is the divinity that is associated with the death or the rebirth into a new life. It is said that no god is more feared for malevolent action than sango. He is worshiped or appeased by his followers when they want children. cures for sickness and so on. and protection from enemies. Elegba can both punish and reward and is known for having great wisdom. It is she who is appeased when it comes time for a mother to give birth. In addition. Ogun is said to be the god of iron and basically everything that becomes iron. Although he does not match the role exactly. making bad situations better. Oya is also known as the god of storms and hurricanes and has power over the winds. He is also the divinity who takes the body upon death and the divinity that saves. and the base of trees. the clothing of those involved with the worship in the temples are white. all the emblems are kept in white containers and the ornaments are white as are the beads for the priests and priestesses. he is what the western world would call the devil. Sango or Shango to non Yoruba speakers is said to be a human that was made into a deity. There is much confusion concerning the subject matter as to who is the chief female divinity because the different sources represent different view points on this subject matter and this was really unclear. revenge for wrong doings.
It is particularly important to discuss the dieties because they represent such an important aspect of Yoruba traditional religion. The Yorubas have a deep and symbolic meaning attached to each of the divinities which is exhibited through prayer and worhsip. These divinities give the reader some idea of the powerful belief system of the Yorubas. Many scholars or anyone not familiar with the Yoruba system of worship which is based in the belief in more than one god, may see this religion as "superstitious" or "pagan". The Yorubas have many festivals to give honor and praise to the many divinities within the Orisa system of belief. The Yoruba festivals are extremely elaborate and have much deep rooted meaning in practice related to them. Certain Yoruba towns have certain orisas which are honored. This is extremely important because it shows the diversity of Yoruba culture and futhermore the facets of traditional Yoruba religion. It would be tedious and quite boring to examine and give an account of every single festival and the villages in which they take place because the Yoruba religion covers so many (actually all) towns in Yorubaland. The discussion could go on forever. However, I will give one account of this widely practiced aspect of Yoruba religion. Among the people of Osogbo, the Orisa Osun is the center of the town¶s attention even though it is worshipped by the people in all areas of Yorubaland. The reason for this vast diversity may be due to the fact that there are major differences in the landscape of each of the villages where the Yorubas settled. Each orisa has a natural environment and a different emphasis may be put on a different orisa. For example, the reason why the people of Osogbo worship osun may be because their town was founded near a river and osun's natural environment is in fresh rivers and lakes. The historical legend or belief behind the worship of osun is that the people of Osogbo found it hard to find any fresh drinking water for the village. It was the divinity osun who gave the people of Osogbo fresh water. Osun has also been credited to give infertile women children. In Yoruba traditional religion, life is circular. What is meant by this that in the Yoruba religion, there is no such thing as death. Death is seen as a transition from the physical plain to the spiriitual plain. The life cycle of the Yorubas is very complex. Before an individual is born into the world, they choose a destiny with God (Olodumare) in heaven. The goal is to fulfil the destiny. There is one exception, once a child is born he or she forgets the destiny he or she has chosen. The purpose of this is for the individual to learn and gain wisdom for life in the spiritual plain. The Yoruba traditional religion believes in predestination. It is also important to point out that there is no hell in traditional Yoruba religion. The Yoruba believe that all of one's wrong doings will be paid for and all good deads will be rewarded. Under the orisa system, the early cycle of life is called "morning". Morning of one's life spans from the time of birth to the age of fifty. It is in this time period that the individual learns and experiences life's most difficult lessons. This also is the time when the Yorubas raise their families. The Yorubas believe that no one is a master in any area of life until they reach age fifty. The time period from the age of fifty until the transition into the spirit realm is called the evening. It is in this time period that individuals enjoy life the most. By this time most Yoruba men and women would have raised their children and have much free time to enjoy the fruits of their labor. The evening is a time period when the Yorubas prepare for their transition. Long life and family are the two most important blessings in Yoruba religion.
The Yoruba believe that there are three types of people: achievers, people who assist achievers, and bystanders. Whichever role one chooses dictates the type of life that the person will live. The babalawo is the most important figure in Yoruba religion on the physical plain. His role is one of great respect and experience. The Babalawo's training is long and indepth. It is said in some temples of Yoruba divination that Babalawos are said to stay in their temples for seven years before being released into the world to pracitce Orisha. The babalawo, by his knowledge and training, is the link between the divinities and man.
The Warriors / Los Guerreros Written by IfaBite Wednesday, 17 December 2008 16:16 The Guerreros (warriors) are a set of orishas that an initiate receives usually after having received their Elekes and it is usually an indication that the person is on their way to Kariocha. The warriors consist of Elegba, Ogún, Ochosi and Osun. The warriors are received in a person's life in order to protect them, strengthen their spiritual framework, teach them the importance of hard work and to open their spiritual road. This is strictly a Lukumí initiation in that it evolved out of the environment that the Lukumí people were subjected to when they were brought to the new world as slaves. Originally, in the motherland, these orishas were worshipped and propitiated in communal outdoor shrines that belonged to the entire village or tribe. The exception would have been Elegba, which was received as an Eshu (a stone) by individuals when they were crowned, along with their crowning orisha. Elegba's shrine was a large stone or collection of stones, Ogún's shrine contained his iron implements, Ochosi's included animal horns and the like, and Osun was a special staff that was much taller than today's version and it was kept outside the home, staked into the ground - yet its function is still preserved in the modern version. All of the modern warriors are usually kept behind the front door, near the front door or facing the front door - indicating their importance in opening a person's spiritual path, protecting the home from negativity and intruders, and still hinting at their closeness to the outdoors. The modern Lukumí version evolved because the tribes of Lukumí people were split up and intermixed with other tribes and there was no possible was of having an outdoor public shrine at which offerings could be given without making it known to the slave masters. Thus each individual was to receive their own Elegba - which consisted of an otán (stone) and usually a cement head packed with magically charged substances that is essentially used like Elegba's tools with which he can affect the physical and spiritual worlds. Here is a typical depiction of an Elegba to the right. But Elegbas vary from road to road, and each is unique and personal to the initiate in its own way. Usually Elegba that is received with the warriors is not a complete Elegba in that he does not have diloggún shells - usually these are added and empowered at the Kariocha. (But I have heard of ilés where they give diloggún with the warriors version of Elegba, but the diloggún are not yet fully empowered to speak.) Ogún that is received in the warriors set is actually a smaller, less complete version of Ogún. This does not mean that Ogún is less effective, merely that he still has room to grow. He is received in an iron cauldron, with his otán, his tools that quite literally look like the tools that a blacksmith or a warrior would use and other iron implements. He does not usually come with diloggún either - these are usually received either in a separate ceremony, or at the time of Cuchillo. Inside of Ogún's cauldron living with him, is Ochosi (his best friend or brother depending on which version of the legend you have heard.) Ochosi is also received in a very scaled down form, with the warriors. He is merely a metal crossbow that is empowered and lives within Ogún's pot. Ochosi is received in complete form, in a separate ceremony. Often when Ogún is made full - by giving him diloggún and feeding him four legs, Ochosi is given full at the
Hanging from the lip of the cup's lid. as a reward. The warriors.same time. but it also strengthens the presence of the warriors in that home and in effect lets them know that it is their new home and they are bound to protect it from any enemies or negativity. Osun is supposed to be placed in a high place in the house preferably above the initiate's head with the rooster facing the front door. on top of the lid is a metal rooster . or the foundation for your higher self or Orí. offering them rum. have to go through a special ebbó called the ebbó de entrada (the offering of entry. Often this occurs at Cuchillo if it has not yet been done for an individual to that point.the symbol for Osun. the orisha can guide them spiritually. Many ilés call the initiate an Aborisha (follower of the Orishas) after having received the warriors. Some ilés offer candies to Elegba. In my ilé we do not give candy to Elegba until he has completed something for us. and occasionally cigar or a candle. are four jingle bells hanging from little chains. or when the initiate moves into a new home. He is supposed to remain upright at all times. Ogún. He is lidded and sealed metal cup with a stem and is about 9 inches tall. open their psychic senses and their doors to evolution and in general assist them through life. The initiate is then to tend to his new orishas in his home by cleaning them from time to time. Many people say that he is your spiritual head. so that he can watch for danger. Ochosi and Osun at the door to the house (Shilelekun. . Osun should be immediately turned upright and the primary godparent should be notified of what happened. There are human-sized Osuns but they are received for different purposes and in a separate initiation.) This involves eyebale to Elegba. coating them lightly with epó (palm oil). Now that the initiate has received Elegba.) This not only empowers and strengthens the door to the house for protection. or fruits and toys. This is the scaled down modern version of the original that was found in Africa. and if he ever falls over. when received into a home for the first time. it is an indication that something very bad has either been thrown at the initiate or is on it's way to harm the initiate. Osun is a small staff that is packed with magical substances that acts as a person's personal guard or watchdog. and a bit of honey.
The devotees to each orisa can usually relate their past to their respective god. Religion is a part of Yoruba daily life. hills. and rivers. and the gates of the cemetery. is the central force of the Yoruba traditional religion. All the Orishas are said to have transcended from Olodunmare. with several hundred lower deities. and became deified. Yoruba religion is monotheistic. Oya. Ogun is the god of iron and war. He is said to have established land and given life and breath. the god of arch divinity of Yorubaland. Even though there are over a thousand. A legend that illustrates Ogun's importance tells of the orisas trying to carve a road through a deep jungle. there are at least four hundread and one recognized Orisas in the Yoruba pantheon. . Orishas. To be forgiven for his sins. Ogun is identified by the colors green and black. Obatala. He is a hot blooded and strong-willed orisa with a quick temper and wit. Sango's devotees regard him as the embodiment of great creative potential. sixteen other orisas came down from heaven to accomplish the task of creating human beings to live on Earth. Some of the most important Orisas are: Ogun. The Yoruba consider Ogum fearsome and terrible in his revenge. the goddess of the winds. also known as Olorun. and dance. Sango. the goddess of love and fertility. the god of crossroads. Blacksmiths.Yoruba Religious Figures Written by IfaBite Wednesday. Ogun also presides over deals and contracts. They can be natural phenomena. Orisas are best understood by observing the forces of nature they rule over and the endeavors of humanity. Oduduwa to descend from the sky to create the first Earth at Ile-Ife. He had a charm that could cause lightning. in fact. and all who use metal in their profession are said to be patrons of this orisa. His dedication to power over life is evident in his shrines. who are personified aspects of nature gods and ancestral spirits. he hanged himself. Yemoja. the god of iron and war. and it went to Obatala. He tried to exceed his own limits and thereby destroyed what he cherished most. fire. meaning that a single God (Olodunmare) rules over the universe. the god of thunder. Myths say that Olodumare asked Orisanla's brother. Ogun was the only one with proper implements for the task and won the right to be king of the orisa. The deities are worshipped either annually or at fixed times. thunder. and Osun. devotees of the faith swear to tell the truth by kissing a piece of iron or a machete that is sacred to Ogun. warriors. rules over lightning. in Yoruba courts. Then. They can also be recognized through numbers and colors which are their marks. Olodumare. Elegba. which resembles his virility. 17 December 2008 16:14 In Yoruba society. the god of thunder. the goddess of the oceans and otherhood. He did not want the position though. Sango. Sango's storms and lightning being a purifying moral terror with bodlness. religion is equally important as politics and kinship. His colors are red and white. drums. the whirlwinds. One myth about Sango tells of when he ruled as the fourth king of the ancient Yoruba. such as mountains. with which he inadvertently killed his entire family.
the avenging of wrongdoing. and black which exemplify his contradicting nature. Everything on Earth that is pure belongs to him. Sopona (Shokpona). moon. however. Yemoja (Yemalla) is the goddess of the sea. Priests of Sopona wielded immense power. wisdom. These children are called Eni Orisa. and compassion. He is always honored first before any other orisa because he opens the doors between the worlds and opens the door for life. Devotees give offerings and honor to him on mondays and on the third day of every month. . nothing could be done. the priests of Sopona have lost power and the cult has all but vanished. Her worship is indeed ancient and annual or at fixed times. Known as the "King of the White Cloth". They would pour the potion in an enemy's house or a neighboring village to spread the disease. and giving. He is said to be the force in nature who brings magic into reality. Therefore. boils. He is a child-like messenger between the orisas and human beings. A pregnant woman who speaks negatively of Obatala is likely to have a defective child.they used instead such names as Elegbana ("hot earth") and A-soro-pe-leerun ("one whose name it is not propitious to call during the dry season"). apparently became an important god in the smallpox plagues that were transmitted by various inter-tribal wars. He is known to be the creator of the world and humanities. meaning he is the owner of opportunity and the roads and doors into the world. As the sculpture-god. and motherhood. Obatala is the source of purity. Obatala represents the spiritual unity and interrelationship of all things. His colors are red. or the children of Obatala. the god of smallpox. peacefulness. but does not give her power away. and in fact the priests sometimes made a potion from the powdered scabs and dry skin of those who died from smallpox. the Yoruba also blamed Sopona's wrath for high temperatures. All life started in the sea. yet his tricks are simply opportunities to learn lessons. generous. the Yorubas say that human deformities are often a result of his errors. smallpox has been all but eradicated. Obatala has the responsibility to evolve human bodies. Sopona once terrified some Yoruba so greatly that they feared to say his name. and the cure of deformities. He is responsible for the normal and abnormal characteristics. Yemalla also owns the collective. Her name. His followers appeal to him for children. Elegba (Eleggua) is the god of crossroads. white. a shortened version of Yeye Omo Eja means "Mother Whose Children are the Fish" reflects the fact that her children are unaccountable. is a form of sea where the embryo must transform and evolve through the form of a fish before becoming a human baby. carbuncles. subconsciousness. the amniotic fluid inside the mother's womb. Without his approval.Obatala is the god of arch divinity of Yorubaland. it was believed that they could bring the plague down on their enemies. With his child-like behavior he is known as a trickster. Today. She is said to be the mother of many Orisha. and other diseases that resemble small-pox symptoms. She represents the mother who gives love.
and is then buried. he kills. This superstition still lingers among the negroes of the Bahamas of Yoruba descent. those who injure the buildings. and disappears. and enables man to gratify his hate in secret and without risk to himself. The name appears to mean "something short and bulky. "like hot. uponwhich Sbigidi leaps off. The word nightmare is itself a survival from a similar belief once held by ourselves. and an earthen saucer placed on the summit to receive occasional sacrifices." but it often happens that the tutelary deity of the sufferer comes to the rescue and wakes him. If a man experiences this when he is falling asleep. it behoves him to get up at once and seek the protection of the god he usually serves. made of clay. boiled rice." said a native. When a site has thus been placed under the protection of Shigidi. mare being the Anglo-Saxon mære." and the god. who talk of being "hagged. must remain awake till the god returns. who thereupon proceeds at night to the house of the person indicated and kills him. In order to do this a hole is dug in the earth and a fowl. or Shugudu. or raises a wind to waft him along. which is ornamented with cowries. falls upon the earthen floor. in his typical manner. When a man wishes to revenge himself upon another he. Houses and enclosed yards can be placed under the guardianship of Shigidi." and believe that nightmare is caused by a demon that crouches upon the breast of the sleeper. blunted cone of clay. in ancient times with exceptional cases. so that the blood drains into the hole.Shigidi Written by IfaBite Wednesday. Shigidi is an evil god. or demon. for if he were to fall asleep Shigidi would at that moment turn back. A short. offers a sacrifice to Shigidi. or. and the mission would fail. a human victim was slaughtered. or. by a thick. for he only has power over man dur ing sleep. is a feeling of heat and oppression at the pit of the stomach. or who trespass there with bad intentions. more commonly. The first symptom of being attacked by Shigidi. 17 December 2008 16:14 Shigidi. and sends him out to kill. sheep. and is no doubt emblematic of the head. His mode of procedure is to squat upon the breast of his victim and "press out his breath. Shigidi either travels on the wind. on this point opinions differ. The person -who employs Shigidi. is represented by a broad and short head. is deified nightmare. conical mound of red earth is next built over the spot. . elf or goblin.
or Ida.Dada Written by IfaBite Wednesday. more properly Eda. on which is placed a ball of indigo. Dada is represented by a calabash ornamented with cowries. The name appears to mean natural production. He is one of those who came from the body of yemaya. 17 December 2008 16:14 Dada. is the god of New-born Babes and Vegetables. anything produced or brought forth by natural process. .
the small-pox god of the Ewe tribes. with a view to keeping him away from habitations. of the marks he makes on the bodies of his victims. As is the case with Sapatan. and akpania. who also came from the body of yemaya. flies and mosquitos are the messengers of Sbankpanna. or Shakpana. strove to infect them with small-pox. From that day Shankpanna was forbidden to associate with the other gods. who have perhaps adopted the notion from the Yorubas. which probably has reference to the pustules with which a small-pox patient is covered. Shan-kpanna is old and lame. Shankpanna endeavoured to join in the dance. He is much dreaded. as the price of their mediation. drove Shankpanna away. a man-killer. . All the gods and goddesses thereupon burst out laughing. The name appears to be derived from shan. According to a myth he has a withered leg. to daub. smear. is the Small-pox god. One day. owing to his deformity. but. in revenge. but Obatala came to the rescue. at some little distance from a town or village. and his emblem is a stick covered with red and white blotches. He is accompanied by an assistant named Buku. and Shankpanna. To whistle by night near one of Shankpanna's haunts is believed to be a certain way of attracting his notice and contracting the disease. Temples dedicated to Shankpanna are always built in the bush. symbolic. and when there is an epidemic of small-pox the priests who serve him are able to impose almost any terms they please upon the terrified people. who kills those attacked by smallpox by wringing their necks. it seems. homicide.Shankpanna Written by IfaBite Wednesday. stumbled and fell. and. 17 December 2008 16:13 Shankpanna. or plaster. and were dancing and making merry. when the gods were all assembled at the palace of Obatala. and is depicted as limping along with the aid of a stick. and he became an outcast who has since lived in desolate and uninhabited tracts of country. seizing his spear.
where offerings of fowls and sheep are made to her to render her propitious. and many of them become sufficiently tame to come for the offering as soon as they see or hear the worshippers gathering on the bank. and the principal wife of her brother Olokim. selected by the priests on account of certain marks borne by them. Crocodiles ate Olosa's messengers. to induce her to return within her proper limits. Food is regagularly supplied to these reptiles every fifth day. owner of the laaoon) is the goddess of the Lagos Lagoon. and there are several temples dedicated to her along the shores of the lagoon. the sea-god. She sprang from the body of yemaya. In ancient times when the lagoon is swollen by rain and overflows its banks she is angry. and may not be molested. They are supposed to bear to the goddess the offerings which the faithful deposit on the shores of the lagoon or throw into the sedge. Some crocodiles. and have rude sheds. Like her husband she is long-haired. Olosa supplies her votaries with fish. 17 December 2008 16:13 Olosa (oni-osa. are treated with great veneration. erected for their accommodation near the water's edge. thatched with palm leaves. . and if the inundation is serious a human victim was offered to her-. or festival.Olosa Written by IfaBite Wednesday.
Olarosa Written by IfaBite Wednesday. and to keep elegua from entering the house. . and his image is found in almost every household guarding the entrance. 17 December 2008 16:12 Olarosa (?Alarense. His office is to drive away sorcerers and evil spirits. He is represented as armed with a stick or sword. helper) is the tutelary deity of Houses.
as on the Gold Coast at the present day. considered quite independent. who are chiefly worshippers of Olokun. while others partake more or less of the nature of fish.Olokun Written by IfaBite Wednesday. It is said that such sacrifices have been made in recent times. but with long flowing hair. Olokunsu is an example of a local sea-goddess. He is one of those who came from the body of yemaya. however. the inland tribes pay little or no attention to Olokun. the chief god of fishermen and of all others whose avocations take them upon the sea. and resides in a vast palace under the sea. A man who should be so ill-advised as to attempt to fish on the bar would run a great risk of being thrown overboard by the other canoemen. he who owns the sea). "Lord of the Sea. The fish in the waters of the bar are sacred to her. The sacrifice was of course secret. has reference to some former encroachment of the sea upon the low-lying sandy shores. being attached to the general god of the sea. In ancient times a human victim was offered to appease him. and should anyone catch them. where he bound him with seven iron chains till he promised to abandon his design. some of whom are human in shape. Olokun has a wife named Olokun-su. upsets boats or canoes. Olokun is not the personally divine sea but an anthropomorphic conception. As man worships that from which he has most to fear. He is of human shape and black in colour. and accounted for as belonging to him. becoming enraged with mankind on account of their neglect of him. and had drowned large numbers when Obatala interfered to save the remainder. who lives in the harbour bar at Lagos. . by the people of the Isaleko quarter. but when the condition of the surf prevents canoes from putting to sea for many days at a time. or from which he hopes to receive the greatest benefits. or Elusu." is the sea-god of the Yorubas. On ordinary occasions animals are sacrificed to Olokun. she takes vengeance by upsetting canoes and drowning the occupants. perhaps. even at Lagos. and it is he who drowns men. and forced Olokun back to his palace. This. She is white in colour and human in shape. endeavoured to destroy them by overflowing the land. but is covered with fish-scales from below the breasts to the hips. who is. and causes shipwrecks. and according to native report the canoemen used to watch by night till they caught some solitary wayfarer. where he is served by a number of sea-spirits. 17 December 2008 16:11 OLOKUN (oni-okun. whom they gagged and conveyed across the lagoon to the sea-shore. When Olokun is angry he causes the sea to be rough and stirs up a raging surf upon the shore. originally. A myth says that Olokun. which are even now liable to be submerged at spring-tides. where they struck off his head and threw the body into the surf.
plantation) is the god of Agriculture. however. to which those who disturb the soil in the process of cultivation are particularly liable.Orisha Oko Written by IfaBite Wednesday. the priestesses give themselves indiscriminately to all the male worshippers of the god. apparently. restricted the application of this privilege. primarily a garden-god. he is also -the god of natural fertility in general." One of his functions is to cure malarial fevers. or women of the lowest order. garden. At this festival general licence prevails. and is one of those who sprang from the body of yemaya. who are really at the disposal of the public.) An emblem of Orisha Oko is an iron rod. . Tibullus."the erect personage. At this festival all kinds of vegetable productions are cooked and placed in vessels in the streets. and he has a large number of priests and priestesses in his service. As the natives chiefly depend upon the fruits of the earth for their food. held when the yam crop is ripe. although a phallic deity. and honey bees are his messengers. 17 December 2008 16:11 Orisha Oko (oko. who fostered and protected crops. was. Orisha Oko is much honoured. It is probably with reference to his phallic attributes that he has the title of Eni-duru. He thus resembles Priapus. and it is now only slave-girls. who. i. xix. Social prejudices have. xx. There is an annual festival to Orisha Oko. theoretically. and all then partake of new yams. There is scarcely a town or village that has not a temple dedicated to him. I. Although his first care is to promote the fertility of the earth. and then only if they are consenting parties.. farm. and. every man has a right to sexual intercourse with every woman he may meet abroad. (Catullus. and his image is always provided with an enormous phallus. for general use. for he is a phallic divinity.
water. to cease from raining). a blissful condition according to their ideas. a state of being. man on his side does not waste time in endeavouring to propitiate him. or personal sky. The former seems to mean that thanks are due to the sky for letting the sun enter it. curving over the earth so as to cover it with a vaulted roof. and though. just as the missionaries have caused Nyankupon. or affliction. "He who controls the rain. Since he is too lazy or too indifferent to exercise any control over earthly affairs. however. Nyankupon and Nyonmo thunder and lighten as well as pour out rain. to interfere in the affairs of the world. such occasions are rare. The natives say that he enjoys a life of complete idleness and repose. occurs in one or two set phrasesor sentences." literally "he who possesses breath. (2) Olowo (ni-owo) "Venerable one. and the latter to be an invocation of the firmament. and he consequently has suffered some reduction in importance. to remain above and protect the earth during the night.alive. symbols. or temples. orun. the roof of the world. Rainbow. perhaps. Olorun is considered too distant. because his master's breath is at his mercy. wonder. he is the deified firmament. and it is in this sense also that it is used to Olorun. but reserves his worship and sacrifice for more active agents. and aye. Olorun!" just as we say. "Have you risen well?" is O yin Olorun. We find the same termination in Oshumaye or Oshumare. firmament. but Olorun. and it is perhaps compounded of omi. which has become the function of a special thunder-god. that is." It is a title applied to a servant or slave. because." (3) Eleda (da. "Olorun. which appear to show that at one time greater regard was paid to him. praise). as a last resource. The derivation of this epithet is obscure. disposed. possessing brooks). distinguished or brave person. and Mawu . but it probably means "Replenisher of brooks" (0lodo. The name Olorun. It may be mentioned that. if he were evilly. or too indifferent. images. in times of calamity. ogo. Sometimes natives will raise their hands and cry. (5) Olodumaye or Olodumare. Olorun has the following epithets:-(1) Oga-ogo (Oga. and the sky is believed to be a solid body. Nyonmo. "a living man. "Thanks to Olorun. he could let fall the solid firmament and crush the world. does not wield the thunderbolt. sky. whjen the other gods have turned a deaf ear to his supplications." (4) Elemi." and the phrase "May Olorun protect you" is sometimes heard as an evening salutation. like the Ewe Mawu. "Heaven forbid!" and with an equal absence of literal meaning. a native will. Water Lily. invoke Olorun. Hence Olorun has no priests. 17 December 2008 16:11 Olorun is the sky-god of the Yorubas. For instance. and in Osamaye or Osamare.Olorun Written by IfaBite Wednesday. and passes his time dozing or sleeping. cloud). The name Olorun means "Owner of the Sky" (oni. the proper reply to the morning salutation. and as a general rule the god is not worshipped or appealed to. one who possesses.
made to all mankind.to be confused with the Jehovah of the Christians. whom they consider to be a survival from a primitive revelation. But Olorun is merely a nature-god. his own duties. and while he is perfectly independent in his own domain. that being the function of the god Obatala." so have they done with Olorun. whom we shall next describe. so Olorun cannot form a child in the womb. has. by translating these names as "God. This is well exemplified by the proverb which says. as it were. Olorun included. he cannot trespass upon the rights of others. In fact. and Olorun cannot give you a child. just as a man cannot perform the functions of Olorun and cause rain to fall. . in the childhood of the world." which means that. and he only controls phenomena connected in the native mind with the roof of the world. the personally divine sky. each god. "A man cannot cause rain to fall. He is not in any sense an omnipotent being.
) His emblem is a large cowry. to recur. or gainer. . "He who while walking finds a cowry is favoured by Aje Shaluga. He came from the body of yemaya. "Aje Shaluga often passes by the first caravan as it comes to the market." or "the sorcerer who makes to recur. the small white cowries being alone used for that purpose. The name appears to mean either "the gainer who makes to recur. One proverb says. emblematic of Aje Shaluga. has no value as." (Aje. earner. and confers riches on his worshippers. sorcerer.Aje Shaluga Written by IfaBite Wednesday." and another. a medium of exchange. and shalu." The large cowry. 17 December 2008 16:10 Aje Shaluga is the god of Wealth. aje. He is the patron of dyes and of colours generally. and loads the last with benefits.
who was so handsome that the ardent temperament of the goddess at once took fire. The phallus and yoni in juxtaposition are often seen carved on the doors of the temples both of Obatala and Odudua. The word Ado means a lewd person of eithersex. or Heaven and Earth. and. when once shut. the lower one. and its selection for the name of this town is accounted for by the following legend. Other natives. and having become weary of the hunter. and almost universally. which they constructed of branches at the foot of a large silk-cotton tree. The advances which she made to him were favourably received. the goddess became still mora enamoured. and nursing a child. and uncomfortable. situated about fifteen miles to the north of Badagry." is the chief goddess of the Yorubas. the upper one of which represents the concave firmament stretching over and meeting the earth.Odudua Written by IfaBite Wednesday. glossy. which. or Odua. say the priests. the principal town of the state of the same name. Her chief temple is in Ado. Obatala being in the upper part and Odudua in the lower. The name means "Black One" (dit. black skin a great beauty. she lived with him for some weeks in a hut. dudit. At the end of this time her passion had burnt out. as described in a myth which we shall come to shortly. In return she cursed him. married to the anthropomorphic sky-god. . two large cut-calabashes. and a tail terminating in a sphere. because she would not bridle her tongue. to be black. hungry. Then Odudua began complaining. placed one covering the other. and many stories are told of her adventures and amours. say that she came from Ife. in common with most of the other gods. The myth does not state how they came to be in this situation. however." which is the reason why snails are now offered to Obatala. in a frenzy of rage. symbolises this. blaming her husband for the confinement. she left him. unable to tear herself away from her lover. According to a myth Odudua is blind. regarded as two distinct persons. and they say that an image which is sufficiently common. as was her husband. at the horizon. and they forthwith mutually gratified their passion on the spot. Odudua is patroness of love. After this. Odudua represents the earth. In the beginning of the world she and her husband Obatala were shut up in darkness in a large. but she was coeval with Olorun. can never be opened. is not one commonly held. however. and not made by him. Obatala and Odudua represent one androgynous divinity. since they are also found similarly depicted in other places which are in no way connected with either of these deities. but they remained there for many days. and the Yoruba consider a smooth. Obutala and Odudua being generally. and a violent quarrel ensued. closed calabash. Odudua is the wife of Obatala. resemble. in the course of which. Odudua was once walking alone in the forest when she met a hunter. She is always represented as a woman sitting down. Obatala tore out her eyes. but this does not seem to have any reference to androgyny. 17 December 2008 16:09 Odudua. According to some priests. The mother who receives. of a human being with one arm and leg. who has the title of Iya agbe. black). cramped. saying "Naught shalt thou eat but snails. and far superior to one of the ordinary cigar-colour. Obatala and Odudua. This notion. This is symbolised in the temples by two whitened saucer-shaped calabashes. the holy city.
which was named Ado. and a town gradually grew up.but before doing so she promised to protect him and all others who might come and dwell in the favoured spot wliere she had passed so many pleasant hours. to commemorate the circumstances of its origin. on her feast days. . A temple was built for the protecting goddess. and women abandon themselves indiscriminately to the male worshippers in her honour. In consequence many people came and settled there. and there. sacrifices of cattle and sheep are made.
beads.The Yoruba Kingdom Written by IfaBite Wednesday. and was rich and prosperous through his grandfather¶s inheritance. The resourceful Oranyan spread upon the water his pieces of iron. cattle. and on his death he divided among them all his possessions. But his youngest grandson. and when he returned home he learned that his brothers and cousins had inherited the old King¶s money. a cock. and on the soil the cock. He thus became King of all the Yorubas. was at that time away hunting. At that time the whole earth was covered with water. Now Oranyan¶s brothers and cousins all desired to live on the land. The pieces of iron became the mineral wealth hidden under the ground. . so that the ocean was partly filled up and islands appeared everywhere. and upon the cloth the soil. Oranyan. 17 December 2008 15:50 The ancient King Oduduwa had a great many grandchildren. native cloths. The cock scratched with his feet and scattered the soil far and wide. and crowns. and upon the iron he placed the scrap of cloth. but that to himself nothing was left but twentyone pieces of iron. on the surface of which the people lived. and Oranyan allowed them to do so on payment of tribute. and some soil tied up in a rag.
then went to Olorun for permission to create dry land for all kinds of living creatures to inhabit. All the gods contributed what gold they had. When he reached the end of the chain he saw he still had some distance to go. and to immediately release the white hen. and the goddess Olokun ruled what was below. planted the palm nut. Without his assistance. in a fit of rage.The Great Flood Written by IfaBite Wednesday. He dug into the sand and soon found clay with which to mold figures like himself and started on his task. Many months passed. another god. From above he heard Orunmila instruct him to pour the sand from the snail's shell. He dug a hole. Obatala returned to his task of fashioning the new beings. and one god [Olokun]. reflected upon this situation. whereupon the hen landing on the sand began scratching and scattering it about. tired of living on earth and went to dwell in the firmament. He did as he was told. He made wine from a nearby palm tree. Without realizing this. but he soon grew tired and decided to take a break. [Kelsen. water and marshland below. Obatala hung the chain from a corner of the sky. . mankind couldn't interpret the desires of the gods. The dry land now extended as far as he could see. and drank bowl after bowl. and Orunmila supplied the articles for the bag. When all was ready. oldest son of Olorun and the god of prophecy. because of his condition he fashioned many imperfect figures. Wherever the sand landed it formed dry land. Obatala. and he grew bored with his routine. Not realizing he was drunk. in Dundes] In the beginning was only the sky above. destroyed nearly everybody in a great flood. The next day he realized what he had done and swore never to drink again. Ifa. 17 December 2008 15:49 Yoruba: A god. Obatala jumped to a hill and named the place Ife. and saw it grow to maturity in a flash. He was given permission. placed the bag over his shoulder. and started the downward climb. so he sought advice from Orunmila. a snail's shell filled with sand. he called out to Olorun to breathe life into his creatures. He decided to create beings like himself to keep him company. thus becoming Protector of the Deformed. The mature palm tree dropped more palm nuts on the ground. and to take care of those who were deformed. The chief god Olorun ruled the sky. Obatala settled down with the cat for company. a white hen. all of which he was to carry in a bag. and a palm nut. the bigger piles becoming hills and the smaller piles valleys. a black cat. each of which grew immediately to maturity and repeated the process. He was told he would need a gold chain long enough to reach below.
When Orunmila heard the news he climbed down the golden cahain to the earth. to return to the sky and report what was happening to them. Wave after wave she unleashed. So ended the great flood. The people sacrificed some goats. When Obatala returned to his home in the sky for a visit. Eshu demanded sacrifice be made to Obatala and himself before he would deliver the message. and visited the land often. She had not been consulted by Obatala and grew angry that he had usurped so much of her kingdom. Olokun summoned the great waves of her vast oceans and sent them surging across the land. and Eshu returned to the sky.The new people built huts as Obatala had done and soon Ife prospered and became a city. the ruler of all below the sky. except for Olokun. All the other gods were happy with what Obatala had done. Those that had fled to the highest land beseeched the god Eshu who had been visiting. and cast many spells which caused the flood waters to retreat and the dry land reappear. until much of the land was underwater and many of the people were drowned. .
17 December 2008 15:49 1 ení 2 èjì 3 èta 4 èrin 5 àrún 6 èfà 7 èje 8 èjo 9 èsán 10 èwá .Numbers in Yoruba Written by IfaBite Wednesday.
Our Lady of Mercy * Oddudua -.Saint Barbara * Oya -.Our Lady of Regla.Holy Guardian Angel and The Child of Atocha * Orunla -.Saint Lazarus * Eleggua -.Saint Isidro Oggun -.Saint Anne. Theresa * Oshun -.Our Lady of La candelaria and St.Saint Peter * Babalu-Aye -. Francis of Assisi * .St.Wed Dec 8 2010 02:25:16 Yoruba Orisha and the syncretized Catholic Saint Written by IfaBite Wednesday.The Infant Jesus Chango -. God the Creator Obatala -. Virgen de la Regla Orungan -. La Caridad del Cobre * Ochosi -.Our Lady of Charity.Saint Joseph Yemaya -. Saint Claire * Aganyu -. 17 December 2008 15:48 Olorun/Olofi.
Wed Dec 8 2010 02:26:38 Tribal Marks Written by IfaBite Wednesday, 17 December 2008 15:47 A King named Chango sent two slaves to a distant country on an important mission. In due course they returned, and he found that one slave had achieved successfully what he had been sent to do, while the other had accomplished nothing. The King therefore rewarded the first with high honours, and commanded the second to receive a hundred and twenty-two razor cuts all over his body. This was a severe punishment, but when the scars healed, they gave to the slave a very remarkable appearance, which greatly took the fancy of the King¶s wives. Chango therefore decided that cuts should in future be given, not as punishment, but as a sign of royalty, and he placed himself at once in the hands of the markers. However, he could only bear two cuts, and so from that day two cuts on the arm have been the sign of royalty, and various other cuts came to be the marks of different tribes.
Orisa Oko Written by IfaBite Wednesday, 17 December 2008 15:46 ORISHA OKO was a poor hunter, solitary save for his fife and his dog. If ever he lost his way out in the fields or the forest, he would begin to play some plaintive melody on his fife, and the sounds would lead the faithful dog to his side to guide him home. He earned a meagre living by trapping in his nets guinea-fowls on the land of rich farmers, but because of his solitary life and his habit of silence, he was respected as a man possessed of secret knowledge which he did not care to divulge. As years went by, he grew too old for hunting, and took up his residence in a cave. People now thought him more mysterious than ever, and came to him for advice about the future, so that in a short time he won great renown as a soothsayer. From far and near people came to consult him, and in this way he managed to live very comfortably. In those days witchcraft was punished by death, and it became the custom in the country that anyone suspected of the evil art should be dragged to Orisa Oko¶s cave. If the soothsayer found him innocent, he led him forth by the hand, but if he were judged guilty, his head was cut off and thrown to the waiting crowd by the demon Polo, which Orisa Oko kept in the cave. This went on until the old hunter¶s death. His followers now wished to continue the practice, and so they hid in the cave a very strong man to act as the demon Polo. When anyone accused of witchcraft was brought to the cave, his head was usually cut off and thrown out as before. However, it once happened that a very tall and muscular man was suspected of magic arts, and his accusers succeeded in dragging him to the cave. A large crowd waited with eagerness to learn the result. What was their dismay to see the head of the supposed ³demon´ come rolling out of the cave, for the strong man had proved too much for him, and soon reappeared unharmed and triumphant The people were indignant to learn how they had been deceived, and from that day the cave of Orisa Oko was deserted.
Destiny Written by IfaBite Wednesday, 17 December 2008 15:46 The Yoruba (Nigeria) believe that the success or failure of a man in live depends on the choices he made in heaven before he was born. If a person suddenly becomes rich, they will say that he chose the right future for himself, therefore poor people must be patient because even if they have chosen the right life, it may not have arrived yet. We all need patience. The word ayanmo means 'choice', and kadara means 'divine share for a man'; ipin means 'predestined lot'. The Yoruba believe that there is a god, Ori, who supervises people's choices in heaven. Literally, ori means 'head' or 'mind', because that is what one chooses before birth. If someone chooses a wise head, i.e. intelligence, wisdom, he will walk easily through life, but if someone chooses a fool's head, he will never succeed anywhere. Ori could be considered as a personal god, a sort of guardian angel who will accompany each of us for life, once chosen. Even the gods have their Ori which directs their personal lives. Both men and gods must consult their sacred divination palm-nuts daily in order to learn what their Ori wishes. In this way, Ori is both an individual and a collective concept, a personal spirit directing each individual's life, and also a god in heaven, who is feared even by Orunmila. In heaven, there is a curious character called Ajala, a very fallible man whose daily work is fashioning faces (ori) from clay. Sometimes he forgets to bake them properly, so they cannot withstand the long journey to earth prior to the beginning of life; especially in the rainy season the clay might be washed away and there would be a total loss of face!
and started the downward climb. and drank bowl after bowl. placed the bag over his shoulder. He decided to create beings like himself to keep him company. a black cat. thus becoming Protector of the Deformed. then went to Olorun for permission to create dry land for all kinds of living creatures to inhabit. The new people built huts as Obatala had done and soon Ife prospered and became a city. another god. all of which he was to carry in a bag. but he soon grew tired and decided to take a break. He dug into the sand and soon found clay with which to mold figures like himself and started on his task. All the gods contributed what gold they had. whereupon the hen landing on the sand began scratching and scattering it about. All the other gods were happy with what Obatala had done. Without realizing this.Creation Written by IfaBite Wednesday. and to take care of those who were deformed. From above he heard Orunmila instruct him to pour the sand from the snail's shell. because of his condition he fashioned many imperfect figures. and he grew bored with his routine. he called out to Olorun to breathe life into his creatures. and visited the land often. and saw it grow to maturity in a flash. The chief god Olorun ruled the sky. Wherever the sand landed it formed dry land. and the goddess Olokun ruled what was below. He was given permission. Not realizing he was drunk. The mature palm tree dropped more palm nuts on the ground. . He was told he would need a gold chain long enough to reach below. except for Olokun. Obatala hung the chain from a corner of the sky. the bigger piles becoming hills and the smaller piles valleys. so he sought advice from Orunmila. Many months passed. and to immediately release the white hen. He made wine from a nearby palm tree. each of which grew immediately to maturity and repeated the process. Obatala settled down with the cat for company. a white hen. and Orunmila supplied the articles for the bag. water and marshland below. Obatala jumped to a hill and named the place Ife. and a palm nut. reflected upon this situation. When he reached the end of the chain he saw he still had some distance to go. the ruler of all below the sky. The next day he realized what he had done and swore never to drink again. The dry land now extended as far as he could see. Obatala. 17 December 2008 15:45 In the beginning was only the sky above. He dug a hole. a snail's shell filled with sand. When all was ready. He did as he was told. Obatala returned to his task of fashioning the new beings. oldest son of Olorun and the god of prophecy. planted the palm nut.
the King employed the charm: a storm suddenly arose. his people came to the spot and gave him an honourable funeral. When they heard of the deed. and in despair he decided to put an end to his life. which was at the foot of a hill. One by one his friends deserted him on the way. accompanied by a few friends. until he was left alone. Some of his courtiers agreed with him. and above all his sons. among all the Yorubas. 17 December 2008 15:45 King Chango was acquainted with many deadly charms. Ascending the hill with his courtiers.Wed Dec 8 2010 02:29:45 Why People cry God save the King Written by IfaBite Wednesday. they remember Chango¶s rage after the destruction of his palace. together with Chango¶s whole family. when people see the flash of lightning followed by the sullen roar of thunder. and others tried to dissuade him from the plan. he left the place and started on his long journey. which he rashly did. and exclaim: Kabo Kabiosile ³Long live the King!´ . and he was ever afterwards worshipped as the god of thunder and lightning. the impetuous King resolved to retire to a corner of his kingdom and to rule no more. but Chango in his rage executed a hundred and sixty of them²eighty who had disagreed with him. and he once happened to discover a preparation by which he could attract lightning. He foolishly decided to try the effect of the charm first of all on his own palace. Overcome with grief at having lost his possessions. and eighty who had agreed too eagerly! Then. So. the palace was struck by lightning and burnt to the ground.
17 December 2008 15:44 Yoruba Alphabet and English Equivilant a b d e English word 'ahh' English word 'bee' English word 'dee' English letter 'a' Yoruba e English sound of 'e' in 'let' f English word 'fee' g English sound of 'g' in 'get' gb Very 'hard sounding' 'b'. listen h English word 'he' i English letter 'e' j English letter 'g' k English word 'key' l English word 'lee' m English word 'me' n 'nee' o English letter 'o' yoruba o English sound 'au' as in word 'fault' p Very hard-sounding 'p'. listen r 're' s English word 'see' Yoruba s English word 'she' t English word 'tea' u English sound of 'oo' in word 'loose' w English word 'we' y English word 'ye' .Alphabet Written by IfaBite Wednesday.
yet those that survived persisted. And they were also abikus who . This is the way it went on. they went. µIt is a bad omen. This way you will be tormented to the end. but he was not persuaded by what the adahunse had told him. that is to say. µThere is danger and misfortune ahead because of your continual killing of the monkeys. They lived on briefly and again they departed. He will be born. Each time your wife becomes pregnant he will be there in her womb. he hunted them in the bush. They were the original twins to come among the Yorubas. Still the monkeys came and had to be driven away with stones and arrows. he hunted them in the forest. He said. They are wise in many things. and then die. They can cause an abiku (born to die-after birth) child to enter your wife¶s womb. After one of them became pregnant.¶ But the monkeys fed while the rain fell. of the town of Isokun came to the farmer to warn him. He hunted them in the fields. He and his sons took turns watching over the fields. But the monkeys refused to depart from the region. and they continued their forays on the farmer¶s crops. Because of his desperation and anger the farmer went everywhere to kill the monkeys. Two monkeys transformed themselves into abikus and entered the womb of the farmer¶s pregnant wife. Again two children were born instead of one. stay a while. The monkeys also resorted to juju. They have great powers. hoping to end the depredations on his farm. Because his fields produced good crops. Time passed. There they waited until the proper time. and each time he is born he will stay a while and then depart. and there he or one of his sons stood guard even when water poured from the sky. When the farmer discovered this he built a shelter in the fields. µwhat good fortune. The monkeys became a pestilence to the farmer.¶ The farmer listened. He went on guarding his fields and hunting monkeys in the bush. He will be born again and die again. twins. They died and returned to reside among those not yet born. monkeys came from the bush and fed there. While the farmer and his sons attempted to drive them off. They made the rain fall so that whoever was guarding the fields would go home.¶ Others said. In this contest many monkeys were killed. The farmer had several wives. Cease hunting them in the bush. They even devised ways of distracting the farmer and his sons. They decided that they would send two abikus to the farmer. Therefore do not drive them away anymore. The farmer could not leave his fields unguarded. thinking µsurely the crops will be safe in such weather. other monkeys went into fields to feed on corn. They attracted much attention. They emerged. Only monkeys give birth to twins. Let them come and feed. 17 December 2008 15:43 ³There was a farmer who was known everywhere as a hunter of monkeys. first one then the other. they returned again to feed. A few of them would appear at a certain place to attract attention. an adahunse. The monkeys discussed ways of retaliating for their sufferings. Some people said. Each time the woman bore children they were ibeji. Again the woman became pregnant.¶ As the twins were abikus they did not remain long among the living.Wed Dec 8 2010 02:32:15 Ibeji Twins Written by IfaBite Wednesday. He tried to drive them away. But they came. or seer. The monkeys are capable of sending you an abiku.
Whatever the twins asked for. He no longer drove the monkeys from his fields. Perhaps they will relent. In time his wife again gave birth to twins. The diviner cast his palm nuts and extracted their meaning. Neither twins nor their families may eat the flesh of monkeys. Prosperity came to the farmer of Isokun and his family. If they said to their mother.¶ the mother carried them to the marketplace and begged alms. the parents gave it. do everything to make them happy in this world. Because twins were sent into the world by the monkeys. Their protector is the orisa Ibeji.¶ The farmer returned to Isokun. µGo to the marketplace and beg alms for us. If they said they wanted sweets they were given sweets. It is they who sent twin abikus into your wife¶s womb in retaliation for their suffering.lived on a while and died. He said. good luck and prosperity will come to their parents. The diviner cast his palm nuts and read them.¶ When the farmer returned to Isokun after consulting the diviner he told his wife what he had learned. Let them eat in your fields. die and return. They have great power to reward or punish other humans. But twins are not ordinary people. He went to consult a diviner at a distant place to discover the reason for his children¶s constantly dying.¶ she carried them in her arms and danced. µThis time the twins are not abikus. give it to them. They lived on. Make sacrifices to the orisa Ibeji.¶ The twins are pleased with life. He was fortunate in every way. µYour troubles come from the monkeys whom you have been harassing in your fields and in the bush. and he went again to the diviner for knowledge. This is what the palm nuts tell us.´ . Whatever they say to do. If a person abuses or neglects a twin. The farmer became desperate over his succession of misfortunes. monkeys are sacred to them. The children will not die and return. µdance with us. The farmer¶s other wives also gave birth to twins. do it. but allowed them to come and go as they pleased. If they said. He said. Therefore. He no longer hunted them in the bush. The monkeys have relented. He who treats the twins well will be rewarded with good fortune. Whatever they want. They did not die. They all lived on. the orisa Ibeji will strike such a person with disease or poverty. Bring your killing of the monkeys to an end. But still the farmer did not know for certain whether things had changed.
the Cuban traditions are more complex and encompassing than that in any one region. the personifications of Elegua. it resembles many things. It was a know tactic for these missionaries to incorporate local beliefs and festive days. Spanish Catholic missionaries were more tolerant of native systems than in Protestantism. In the Caribbean. and interweave them with Catholic scripture. Their languages were banned. In Cuba the Yorubas became Lucumi and Santeria became their religion and the black slaves prayed both to Saint Barbara and Chango and asked favors to Saint Anthony or the Holy Child of Atocha. And slaves in the other English. Slaves kidnapped from the African coast. there is really no one definition. they were forced to seek a substitute for their spirituality in the images of the new religion. and Dutch colonial territories that where predominately Protestant. tribe or country of Africa. Brought to the new World to work in the sugar plantations that dotted the coasts of the Americas and the Caribean islands. Since the first day of slavery and Santeria. In many ways. the French and the Portugese. . Teachings from the Kongo. These people carried with them their own spiritulism. These Men and Women brought a rich culture. A prayer to a Catholic Saint was also a prayer to an African Deiety. the Caribbean identity has always had this spiritual duality. secrets from Togo. Masters and slaves mingled in celebrations that had Catholic Saints dancing to African rhythms. But denied to European Catholics.Story of Santeria Written by IfaBite Wednesday. and so was their religion. They could sculpt wood and stone with great ability. This was also true in Central America. or sold to slave traders. including a tradition of possession trance for communicating with the ancestors and deities. In those settlements the following of Biblical rules and rigid religious mandates were more strickly enforced. but also the teachings of many of the tribes along the western coast of Africa. and they were also excellent weavers. 17 December 2008 12:49 What is Santeria. So what is Santeria. In this sense Cuba and the Americas due to the mingling of different beliefs and traditions is the New World of Santeria. fortresses and churches. The master masons taught the African Slaves to reproduce every European detail. They were forced to adopt Catholicism by the Spaniards. streets. Benin and Ghana all became interwoven into the Santeria tapestry. During Catholic feast days the slaves were allowed to display a religious fervor that was further reinforced by the beat of the drums. They also provided the manpower to build palaces. A tolerance given to potential new devotees. by other Africans. the use of animal sacrifice and the practice of sacred drumming and dance. and the oral traditions of their forefathers. It is a religion and a way of life that was brought to the new world by African slaves. not only the ways of the Yoruba of Nigeria.