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The Age of Augustus. by Werner Eck (1st Edition)

The Age of Augustus. by Werner Eck (1st Edition)

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The Age of Augustus

Werner Eck

Translated byDeborah Lucas Schneider
New materialby Sarolta A.Takács

© 1998 by Verlag C.H.Beck oHG,München
Additional material for this edition copyright © 2003 Sarolta A.Takács
Translation copyright © 2003 Deborah Lucas Schneider

350 Main Street,Malden,MA 02148-5018,USA
108 Cowley Road,Oxford OX4 1JF,UK
550 Swanston Street,Carlton South,Melbourne,Victoria 3053,Australia
Kurfürstendamm 57,10707 Berlin,Germany

The right of Werner Eck to be identified as the Author of this Work
has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright,Designs,and
Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system,or transmitted,in any form or by any
means,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording or otherwise,
except as permitted by the UK Copyright,Designs,and Patents Act
1988,without the prior permission of the publisher.

First published in German under the title Augustus und seine Zeit1998
First published in English 2003 by Blackwell Publishers Ltd,a
Blackwell Publishing company

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Eck,Werner.
[Augustus und seine Zeit.English]
The age of Augustus / Werner Eck;translated by Deborah Lucas
Schneider;new material by Sarolta A.Takács.
p.cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-631-22957-4 (hbk) – ISBN 0-631-22958-2 (pbk)
1.Augustus,Emperor of Rome,63 bc–14 ad.2.Rome – History –
Augustus,30 bc–14 ad.3.Emperors – Rome – Biography.
I.Schneider,Deborah Lucas.II.Takács,Sarolta A.III.Title.
DG279 .E2513 2003
937¢.07¢092 – dc21

2002005373

A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.

Set in 11.5 on 13.5 pt Bembo
by SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd.,Hong Kong
Printed and bound in the United Kingdom
by MPG Books Ltd,Bodmin,Cornwall

For further information on
Blackwell Publishing,visit our website:
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

1Augustus’Career in Overview:The Res Gestae

1

2Modest Origins,Powerful Relatives

6

3Seizing Power and Legalizing Usurpation

9

4The Triumvirate:Dictatorship Sanctioned by Law

15

5The Path to Formal Legitimation as a Ruler

22

6The Final Battles for Power:Actium and Alexandria31

7A New Political Order:The Principate Takes Shape

41

8The Principate Develops Further

52

9The Princeps and the Roman Elite

67

10The Practical Implementation of Political Power:
Governing the Empire

77

11A Standing Army

85

12War and Peace:Expanding the Empire

93

13Rome,the Augustan City

105

14The Quest for Political Continuity:The Succession113

15Augustus’Death and the Future of the Empire

121

Time Line

127

Contents

v

Appendix:The Res Gestaeof Augustus

131

The Res Gestaeof Augustus by Sarolta A.Takács

134

Bibliography

153

Index

159

Contents

vi

BRITANNIA

GALLIA

COMATA

GALLIA
NARBONENSIS

Massilia

Tarraco

Emerita

Gades

LUSITANIA

BAETICA

Astures

Cantabri

CORSICA

SARDINIA

UMBRIA

SAMNIUM

SICILIA

CAMPANIA

Roma

1

2

3

4

5

6

98

10

12

13

7

11

L

IGURIA

ETHISTRIA

VENETIA

T

R

ANSPADAN

A

GALLIA

E

T
R
U

R
IA

Mogontiacum

Marktbreit

Carnuntum

NORICUM

RAETIA

PANNON

I

A

IL
L
Y

R

IC

U

M

Kalkriese
Haltern

Oberaden

Taunus

G

E

RMANIA

HISPAN

IA

T

A

R

R
A

C
O

N

E
N

S

I
S

E
bro

Tajo

Duero

Loire

M

o

selle

S
eine

Danube

M

ain

E
lb
e

N
e
c
k
a
r

R

h

in

e

North Sea

Atlantic Ocean

0

500 km

G a e t u l i

G a r a m a n t e s

A
F

R
I
C

A

P

R

O

C

O

N

S

U

L

A

R

IS

D

rau

S
ave

Rubicon

Ubii

Cherusci

Batavi

S
ugambri

M

arcomanni

Mediterranean Sea

1Mantua
2Mutina
3Bononia
4Perusia
5Velitrae
6Circei
7Beneventum

8Nola
9Misenum
10Tarentum
11Brundisium
12Naulochus
13Mylae

A

d

r i a t i c

Map 1The Roman Empire

MACEDONIA

Byzantium

Ancyra

Kyme

Samus

Miletus

Philippi

Limyra

Apollonia

Corcyra

Nicopolis

Actium

Athens

Alexandria

CYPRUS

CRETA

RHODOS

Carrhae

?Artagira

Taurus

ASIA

MOESIA

THRACE

IBERIA

ARMENIA

Caucasus

PAPHLAGONIA

G

A

LATIA

PONTUS

SYRIA

PAMPHYLIAC

ILICIA

Lycia

I
U
D
A
E
A

AEGYPTUS

Nile

J
o
rd
a
n

T

igris

E

uphrates

Albani

Parthians

Danube

T

i

s

z

a

A

CHALA

Black Sea

Mediterranean Sea

Antiochia

Apollonia

1.Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus
2.Basilica Aemilia
3.Basilica Iulia
4.Forum of Caesar
5.Forum of Augustus
6.Temple of Apollo
7.Circus Maximus
8.Sublician bridge
9.Aemilian bridge
10.Cestian bridge
11.Fabrician bridge
12.Bridge of Agrippa
13.Theater of Marcellus
14.Portico of Octavia
15.Portico of Philip

16.Theater of Balbus
17.Circus Flaminius
18.Theater and portico of Pompey
19.Baths of Agrippa
20.Pantheon
21.Saepta Iulia
22.Portico of the Argonauts
23.Amphitheater of Statilius Taurus
24.Horologium of Augustus
25.Altar of Peace
26.Mausoleum of Augustus
27.Portico of Livia
28.Market of Livia
29.Naumachia of Augustus

26

25

24

23

20

22

21

19
18

17

15

16

14

12

11

4

5

2

3

1

13
9

10

8

7

29

27

28

Defense wall said to
be of Servius Tullius

Rome’s sacred boundary
(pomerium) from the
time of Augustus

C

a

m

p

u

s

M

a

r

t

i

u

s

PALATINE
6

AVENTINE

FO

R

U

M

CAELIAN

Q

U

IR

N

A

L

V

IM

IN

A

L

E
S
Q

U
I
L
I
N

E

T

i

b

e

r

Parks and gardens

0

500 m

Map 2Rome in the Augustan period (from J.-P.Martin,La Rome
ancienne,PUF,1973)

1

1

Late in the year ad14 a large parcel from Rome arrived in
Ancyra (present-day Ankara),capital of the Roman province
of Galatia-Pamphylia in the heart of Anatolia.It was addressed
to the provincial governor and had been sent by the consuls
– still the highest-ranking officials of the Roman state,at least
in name.They informed the governor that after the princeps
Augustus had died and been deified,his last will and testament
had been read aloud in the Senate.The will included the
princeps’own account of his accomplishments and the gifts he
had made to the Roman people from his own funds – an
account now known as the Res GestaeDivi Augusti(“The
Accomplishment of the Divine Augustus”).The consuls
reported that,as Augustus had directed,the text of the Res
Gestae had been engraved on two bronze pillars and placed in
front of his mausoleum.This seemed insufficient,however,
since the tribute would be limited to Rome.Therefore the
Senate had decreed that its contents should also be made
known to residents of the provinces,and the recipient would
find a copy enclosed.
How the governor carried out the Senate’s decreein the
short term is not known.Perhaps he summoned the residents
of the capital to the theater or the marketplace to hear a

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