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Chapter 2 Product Profile • • • • • • Production and Manufacturing of H.C.B. Particulars of the product In fracture of the product Process Details-Hollow Concrete Blocks Requirement of Raw Materials & Consumables Cost of Production
Chapter 3 Firm Profile – Asma Traders • • • • • History of Factory Nature of Factory The Regular Manpower Working Organization Chart Manpower recruitment
Chapter 4 Methods of Construction • • • • • • • • Methods of Construction Traditional Wall construction Puddle soil construction Unburnt Bricks Construction Burnt Bricks Construction Bamboo reinforce mud wall Introduction of Hollow Blocks in structures Advantages and disadvantages
Chapter 5 Market Potential • • • Demand And supply Marketing and Distribution Market Arrangement
Chapter 6 Data Analysis and Interpretation Chapter – 7 Findings, Suggestions and Conclusion Annexure • • Questionnaire Bibliography
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
Introduction Objective of the Study Scope of the study Methodology Limitation
B and C. So as the construction industries too. Another material. faster in construction. which is now. Concrete blocks are the composite mixture of cement. The reasons are being machine made mostly is more uniform in dimensions. which is growing in all trades at a good speed. As we need an alternative to every item hollow blocks are the answer for the conventional bricks. Economy is the word. The grade A and B are load bearing blocks. Blocks are made in three grades namely Grade A. sand and stone aggregates. Grade C is non-load bearing. as greater degree of reliability and quality. 4 . which sounds in everybody and anybody who wants to build his house. faster construction method the so called concrete blocks are the subjects chosen to make people their mind towards the usage of these blocks. Hence to achieve this hollow blocks are the only solution.INTRODUCTION Shimoga is a city. In the year 1979 BSI approved the usage of concrete blocks. used masonry increasingly in the concrete blocks. Hence in order to make this industry in par with other developing cities in economy.
various problems towards achieving efficiency with the conventional materials.Objectives of the study: This project report on manufacturing and marketing of hollow blocks has the following objectives. To study the possible decrease of construction time. userfriendly aspects. 5 . comparison of economy. To suggest measures. To study the advantages and disadvantages over the conventional materials which are being used. Scope of the study: The scope of this project report is confined to the usage of new construction materials. To study the various construction material with their implications on their economy. To know about the alternate construction material and implementation of these material practically. to improve the performance of both men and material.
Secondary data comprises of journals. it is rather difficult to deal and understand each and every step of manufacturing of hollow blocks. books. 6 . and newspapers and IS code. Primary data has been collected from many practicing engineers. professional qualified contractors. and practical observations. magazines. The inferences have been drawn and the information collected from the firm.Methodology: The date collected for the preparation of this project report include both primary and secondary data. Limitation of the study: As this is more technical and professional subject. consultants. manufacturers.
B.2 PRODUCT PROFILE Production and Manufacturing of H.C. Particulars of the product In fracture of the product Process Details-Hollow Concrete Blocks Requirement of Raw Materials & Consumables Cost of Production 7 .CHAPTER .
Process flow chart for the Hollow Concrete Blocks are given below Matching of raw materials ↓ Mixing in concrete mixer with water ↓ Molding a blocks ↓ 8 . These blocks are left on the yard for a period of 24 hours of initial setting and later the blocks are stacked to 6 to 8 layers for curing. After each lying of the blocks. Quarry Dust. The technology of manufacture cement hollow concrete blocks is in vibratory compaction and “Egg laying’’ type which comes along with the molding machine. Portland Cement. After curing the blocks are removed from the curing yard for dispatch. fitted on the machine.PRODUCT PROFILE Production and Manufacturing of Hollow Concrete Blocks The raw material viz. the machine moves forward for next laying. Granite aggregates are mixed in the required proportion with adequate water in the hydraulic concrete mixer. which moulds the concrete mix into concrete blocks on the casting yard as per the mould. Sand. The concrete mix is fed to the “Minato” molding machine. Jelly. sprinkling water for the period of 21 days and left for drying for a period of one week does curing.
and granite.Stacking for curing ↓ Dispatch of finished goods Requirement of Raw Materials and consumables: The Major raw materials required are Portland cement.330 bags for 4.5% VAT) Total= 200 per bag (2) Sand: - The requirement of sand will be about 58. sand. The landed cost of cement at the works is 175 + 25 (12.50 lakhs Hollow Concrete Blocks of the given product mix.50 lakhs hollow concrete blocks of the given product mix. 5 per cft. 9 . Presently Portland cement is available in the open market from dealers as well as from the manufacturers as non-lavvy cement. The sand is available from the nearby river beds and the transportation cost will be minimum and ten the cost of sand is Rs.135 cft for 4. aggregate: (1) Portland Cement: The requirement of Portland cement will be about 9.
550 2. grease.90.695cft Price 135/bag 5/cft 12/cft Total 12.No.675 8. that are required for cleaning the moulds etc.340 10 .86.36.135cft 69. 1 2 3 Materials Quantity Portland 9330 bags cement Sand Granite aggregate Total Other 23. and waste etc.695 cft for 6 lakhs hollow concrete blocks of the given product mix. (4) Other Consumable: The consumable are oil.86565 has been made at 100% capacity utilization. The lump sum provision of 1% of 23.(3) Granite aggregate: Granite aggregate of size 10mm and below is required to an extent of 69.59. cotton. The requirements of the above raw materials have been worked out at recommended concrete mix of 1:5:6: for hollow concrete blocks and also taking into account 2% breakage and wastage in the process as recommended by the manufacturer of the machinery Annual requirements of raw materials and consumables at 100% capacity utilization: Sl.565 58.
430 11 .865 24.consumable 1% Total at 23.10.
16828 4 12.284.00 0.16828 4 73.4 12. size Block y Quantit Concrete requirement Total requirement concrete cft 53.429.No .82 18.500(per year) Sl.25246 12 .284.00 0.3.000 0.82.679.000 73.4 per block cft of 1 2 8”*8”*16 6”*8”*16 1.5 8 3 4 4”*8”*16 0 Other blocks solid 0 73.36767 0.Total requirement of concrete at 100% capacity utilization: No. Of blocks: .46.
200-(4.200-1.006cc = 0.203cc = 0.3603155cft Assuming 2% wastage. -.5cm*15.4”*8”*16 (22mm shell thickness) 13 .2*17.36767cft (2) Size: -6”*8”*16 (22mm shell thickness) Volume= Volume of blocks-volume of voids = 1.25246cft concrete per block (3) Size: .8*16. .2474145cft Assuming 2% wastage.0.5cm*17.000-5797cc = 10.7) 4cc = 1.000-(5.Explanatory solution: (1) Size: – 8”*8”*16 (30mm shell thickness) Volume = Volume of blocks-volume of voids = 16.0cm) 4cc = 16.994cc = 7.The requirement of concrete for the above size block = 0.
670cc = 0.8*16. It is assumed that the plant functions for 300 days in a year.500 hollow concrete blocks per day of 8 hrs shifts.330bags Sand = 58.000-3.135 cft Granite Aggregate = 69.6*17. Hence the total requirement of raw material at 100% capacity is as follows— Cement = 09.0.16828cft concrete required per block For 353cft of ready concrete in the ratio 1:5:6. This capacity is decided by the block- 14 . 176cgt of sand and 2121cft of granite aggregate.25 bags of cement.695 cft Particulars of the product: (1) Capacity The capacity of proposed unit will be to produce 1.7) 4cc = 8. the requirement is 28.Volume = Volume of blocks-volume of voids = 8.1649194cft Assuming 2% wastage .000-(5.330cc = 4.
material surface-texture.66% capacity utilization in the first year and 73. Indian standards institutions has brought out on issued vide is 2185-1967. the capacity of the entrepreneur to invest and here managerial capacity. The machines are so balanced that none of the machine are kept idle. (3) Nature of products Normally hollow concreter blocks are produced in two ranges of shell thickness of 22mm and 30mm.molding machine (capacity – 200 blocks per hour of size 8”*8”*16”) in case of hollow concrete blocks. A unit of above-mentioned capacity has been found to be an economically viable size. tolerances. mix visual examination and other physical requirements for load bearing hollow concrete blocks. (2) Economic factors The proposed unit has been envisaged in tiny scale units.33% capacity utilization in the second year of operation. (5) Marketing Demand 15 . further revised as is 2185-part 1 in 1979. Prescribing requirements regarding dimensions. (4) Product Planning The unit envisages operating a single shift basis with and working hours per day. The utilized capacity is proposed to be built unto maximum of 80% from the third year and onwards with 66.
profitability and cash flow has been projected for period of 8years from the implementation of the project and the same are given.11.00 Rs. From this projection.00 Solid Concrete Blocks (a) 8”*8”*16 – 40% (b) 6”*8”*16 – 35% (c) 4”*8”*16 – 25% 100% 16 .00 Rs. Sl.11.Based on the general demand pattern. 1 2 3 Size per block 8”*8”*16” 6”*8”*16” 4”*8”*16” Weight block 23kgs 18kgs 18kgs per Rate per block Rs.13. it is evident that the unit will be in a position to pay back borrowings comfortably.No. the following product mix is assumed in working out the project report. Concrete Blocks Hollow Concrete Blocks (a) 8”*8”*16 – 55% (b) 6”*8”*16 – 45% (c) 4”*8”*16 – 00% 100% Cost of Production: Cost of Production & Profitability Cost of production.
(3) Labor and supervisory charges are assumed to increase every year by an amount equal to 5% of salaries of the first year and the provision of 20% of salaries is made towards social benefits.000. 80% in the second year of operation and 85% from 3rd year and onwards. second and third year of operation respectively.000 and 12. (9) A lump sum provision of Rs.000 is made towards miscellaneous expenses for the first.000 is provided towards selling and distribution overheads during first.000.999 is made towards postage telegram and telephone expenses for the first.000 is made towards taxes.000 and 15.000. 10.000 is made towards repairs and maintenance of plant and machinery for the first. (8) A sum of Rs. and second and thirds year of operation respectively. 5000 is provided towards profession and consultancy fees in each year of operation. (6) A sum of Rs.000 is also provided towards insurance on plant and machinery. 20.000. 12. 10. (5) A provision of Rs. second and third year of operation respectively. (7) A provision of Rs.Explanatory note on cost of production and profitability: (1) The unit will be operating at a capacity utilization of 70% in the first year of operation. 9.000 and 30. 8. (4) A lump sum provision of Rs. 5. 4. 25.000 and 9. second and third year of operation respectively. (10) A sum of Rs. 17 . (2) The cost of raw material and consumables has been calculated in previously. 7.
(13) Depreciation on plant and machinery is taken at 13.(11) The rate o interest on term loan is taken at 14. 18 .5%per annum (12) An interest rate of 15% per annum is taken on working capital loan.57%.
CHAPTER .3 FIRM PROFILE – ASMA TRADERS • History of Factory • Nature of Factory • The Regular Manpower Working • Organization Chart • Manpower recruitment 19 .
Established in the year 2006. 20 . Nature of Factory: The Asma Traders Concrete blocks manufactures are manufacture.two kind of blocks they are (1) Hollow Concrete Blocks (2) Solid Concrete Blocks. 4”*8”*16” – 2880 blocks per 6Hrs. Byepass road. Sri Ram Petrol Bunk. the Asma Traders manufactures more than 36. in a year.1440 blocks per 6Hrs.000 blocks per year.72. builders and contractors in and around shimoga. Name of the Proprietor is Mohammed Rafiq. Now it has developed wide market with the help of good relation with public and leading civil engineers. Opp.FIRM PROFILE History and nature of Factory History of Factory Asma Traders is situated in Uragadur. 6”*8”*16” – 1800 blocks per 6Hrs. The installed capacity is • • • 8”*8”*16” . The total working days per months are 25days. 12th May. Simoga 577 203.
Asma Traders cover (1) Shimoga district. (2) Chickmagalure.12% The raw materials required for the manufacturing of concrete blocks are – cement. The sizes of concrete blocks manufactured by Asma Traders factory are as follows: (1) 8”*8”*16 . jelly. sand and water.45% (2) 6”*8”*16 . quarry dust.43% (3) 4”*8”*16 . The Regular Manpower Working – (a) Machine Operator – 2 (b) Concrete Mixing Operator – 1 (c) Trolley Operator – 2 (d) Loaders for mixer – 4 (e) Curing Purpose – 2 (female) (f) Supervisor and technicians The 50”*100” minimum area (Platform) required is – 21 .
Organization Chart Proprietor Supervisor Supervisor Storekeeper Storekeeper Skilled Labors (a) Masons (b) Mortar mixers (c) Machine Operators (d) Drivers Unskilled Labors (a) Helper (b) Waterman (c) Male coolies (d) Female coolies 22 .
/month 3.800 7.000 Labors-supervisory Number of workers 1 2 1 Total Rs.Manpower recruitment: Following are the labors – Supervisory and personnel requirements for the unit Sl.400 1.700 3. 1 2 3 4 Supervisor @ 3500/month Machine Operator @ 1.500 2.800 1.No .000/month Unskilled workers • Molding machine • Mixer • Batching • Curing • Handling Each at Rs.200/month Mixer Operator @ 1.200 23 .200/month Semi skilled operator for moldings machine and mixer (sandy) @ 5 1.200 2 2 8 3 4 1.600 1 1. 900/month Total 24 25.200 2.
Vehicle IV. Contingencies @ 5% on office And Machinery X. Working capital XI.20 0.31 1.04 0. Plant and Machinery (a) Machinery (b) Rain and Moulds (c) Mixer (d) Electrification (e) Generator (20Kva) III.22 05.The following were the major activities in the implementation of this manufacturing unitCost of the project and means of finance (Rupees in lakhs) I. Interest during implementation IX.35 0.85 0.50 0. Civil works (a) Godown for cement store (b) Platform for pressing (c) Water supply for curing V.50 2.055 0.50 5. M/s on fixed deposits Total cost of the project Proprietors investment – 25% Bank Loan – 75% = 15. Preliminary and pre operative Expenses VIII.45 1.93 0.70 0. Deposits with telephone VII.24 Own 24 . Land II.13 21. Bore well VI.91 5.08 1.20 0.
service charges towards the preparation of feasibility report. 4. (6) Contingencies 25 . postage. (3) Deposit with telephone A sum of Rs. 4. a sum of Rs.04 lakhs. 20.000 is provided for this purpose in the project cost. 25. stationery. (2) Miscellaneous fixed assets It is proposed that to procure office equipment’s table. chairs. printing. (5) Interest during implementation A sum of Rs.000 is earmarked in the project costs towards deposit to be 0paid to telephone department. telephones and other miscellaneous expenses.Explanatory note on cost of the project: (1) Plant and Machinery The estimated cost of plant and machinery works out to Rs. (4) Preliminary and pre operative expenses A sum of Rs.000 is included in the project cost to cover the following expenses like traveling.000 has been provided towards interest during the pre-commission period. almirahs etc. 20.
(8) Proprietor Contribution The proprietor’s contribution works out to Rs.000.A sum of Rs. 26 .. 2 weeks finished goods in stock.000 (5% on plant and machinery) is included in the project cost in order to take care of unforeseen expenditures and also escalation in prices and Machinery. 24.31. which is 25% of the cost of the project. 1 month bills receivable and 1 month working expenses. 5. This has also been included in the means of finance. sand and jelly. 3 weeks goods in process. (7) Working capital margin The working capital requirement is utilization has been worked out and is given vide annexThe working capital margin is based on 1-month requirement of raw material like Portland cement and 2 weeks requirement of other raw material viz.
Chapter 4 Methods of Construction Methods of Construction Traditional Wall construction Puddle soil construction Unburnt Bricks Construction Burnt Bricks Construction Bamboo reinforce mud wall Introduction of Hollow Blocks in structures Advantages and disadvantages 27 .
Hence it is essential need to under stand the other Traditional as well as Modern Methods that adopted by our people from the long time. It is one of the material that easily available in every place and low cost and other factors lead to it’s wide spread in allover India. Clay Hollow Bricks. Soil has been used extensively as a material for wall construction in traditional houses in India and abroad. are the new constructional materials. house and other walls. And also some of the other traditional wall construction are easy/simple and they are acquired their importance every were. 28 . Now a day some of the other materials are available in use for the new construction. Concrete Blocks. Some of the other constructional Materials are as follows. (c) Burnt bricks. Table Molded Bricks. (b) Unburnt bricks. (d) Bamboo reinforced mud.Methods of Construction Methods of Construction In an ancient time in Shimoga traditional wall construction is the only the way of construction of the buildings. Soil is used in various forms for wall construction like— (a) Puddle Soil.
0 to 1.5 feet. The height of the wall raised per day will be around 1. The soil preparation consists of mixing the appropriate quantity f water with the soil to get a consistency such it can be easily puddle. (1) Preparation of un burnt bricks using wooden mould: 29 . (b) Susceptibility to erosion. There are bricks made by using wooden moulds and bricks made by cutting a sheet of soil into blocks. (c) Needs frequent maintenance. (b)Un burnt Bricks construction: Unburnt bricks are often used for construction of wall of houses with light roofs such as tiled and thatched roofs. The former type is most commonly used. The thickness of the wall varies between 1. Some times chopped paddy straw or some grasses are added. For the construction of such walls no special skills and tools are required.0 feet. This mix is use for constructing the wall. when exposed to rain.Traditional wall constructions (a) Puddle Soil Construction: - In this type of construction there are mainly two activities-soil preparation and construction of the wall. The major disadvantages of this type of construction are: (a) The wall becomes very thick leading to the reduction of available floor space.5 to 2.
The bricks are left on the ground for a day or two for drying. The soil and water are mixed thoroughly. This process is continued. Then these bricks are stacked and dried in sun for few more days before using for construction of walls. The size of these bricks will be 23cm*11. This plastic soil is then dashed into a wooden mould and kept on the level ground. After drying in sun for a few days the blocks will be ready for wall construction. These blocks are slightly bigger in size than unburnt bricks made by using wooden moulds. These walls are also built using mud mortar.5(“9*41/2*3’’). The walls constructed with these bricks will normally have a minimum thickness of 34cms(13.5inches). The wooden moulds used will have two compartments to permit moldings of tow bricks at a time.4cm*7. such that the soil is in plastic state and easily workable.These bricks are made on fairly level ground. The top of the mould is finished with hand and it is then immediately removed leaving the fresh bricks on the ground. (2) Unburnt Bricks made without using wooden moulds: In this case the plastic soul (prepare by thoroughly mixing water and soil) is spread on the fairly level ground in the form of a sheet of uniform thickness. These walls are normally constructed using mud mortar. (2) The walls need frequent maintenance and 30 . The Major disadvantages are: (1) Poor erosion resistance against rain. This sheet of soil is then cut into blocks by slicking in two mutually perpendicular directions using a knife.
This method of construction is similar to wattle and daub construction. This arrangement roughly resembles a grid.(3) The walls are thick leading to sacrifice of available floor space. Modern Method of Construction Burnt Brick Construction: Burning at high temperature renders the soil immune to strength loss saturation ad suppresses the erosion resistance. The space between horizontal bamboos will be around 15cms this forms the main structure of the wall. The major disadvantages are: The bamboo’s supporting structure inside the wall is susceptible to termite attach. Needs frequent maintenance and Bamboo has become scarce and costly. (c) Bamboo reinforces mud walls: The bamboos of 1-to12. Poor erosion resistance against rain. Burning has been 31 . This type of wall construction is faster compared to the puddle soil construction the wall thickness will be approximately 20to30cms. such that if penetrates well into the interstices of the bamboo grid.0cms diameters are stacked until the foundation at spacing of 60cms. This whole bamboo supporting structure is curved with sol this is completely built by hands without using any tools. The plastic soil (soil mixed with water thoroughly) is pressed by hand on wither side of the bamboo grid. Bamboo of smaller diameter (3cm) is interwoven with the vertical bamboos.
In these kilns the heart lost during cooling of the bricks is utilized for preheating of the next set of bricks. as explained earlier. Table Molded Bricks: The preparation of these bricks is almost similar to the country bricks. 2cm*11. Hence these kilns have a better thermal efficient than clamps.4cm*7. equivalent to 2kwh of thermal energy. The burning is carried out in clamps using firewood. The bricks and the firewood are stacked in alternate layers in clamps.5inches).20kgs of coal per 32 . The fresh bricks are immediately removed from the table and stacked in a different place for drying. Each bricks (size This is Sometimes coal is also used for burning.practiced since ancient times to improve the properties of building materials such as bricks and tiles. The performance of well-burnt bricks used for wall construction. These are burnt after drying in sun for a few days. These bricks are burnt in bulls’ trench kilns.5) consumes about 0. The process of manufacturing differs with each type: Country Bricks: The preparation of these bricks is similar to that of unburnt bricks. Mud mortar or cement mortar can be used for the construction of wall thickness will generally be 34cms(13. Here metal moulds are used and the bricks are prepared on table.32kgs of firewood. They are country Bricks and table molded bricks. Normally coal is used as a fuel in such kilns table molded bricks consumed about 0.
bricks. The table-molded bricks have better shape and strength compared to country bricks. Hence constructing bricks houses alone cannot satisfy the present housing demand. Even though the performance of burnt bricks wall is quite satisfactory. the bricks consume significant amount of fuel energy. 33 . Mid mortar or cement mortar can be used for the construction of walls using these bricks. The energy crosses emphasizes on conservation of firewood and coal.
it is cut by trowel only. Very easy to chase the wall for laying electrical and water supply conduits. earth is the chief raw material. Size and Weight are convenient for picking up. placing. thereby less environmental friendly. It can be cut to any shape with very little effort and most of the times. To manufacture bricks. Reasonably resistant against fire. weather and insects. Hence the fertile earth is being used. as it is of the oldest construction methods in practice. chemicals. Elevation treatment is possible with special kind of bricks. Maintenance is easy. Modular construction is possible with less effort. brick wall can be used as load bearing walls. Hence smoke is lot.Advantages and Disadvantages Bricks: Advantages: • • • • • • • • • • • • No specific skilled labor is required. Disadvantages: - 34 . It can be used most conveniently. In the manufacturing process of bricks. Defects in masonry are easily rectifiable. Walls can be nailed. for burring charcoal and coal are being used.
Cement mortar consumption is high. there is a market need to convince people and make them to make their mind to use these blocks for individual houses also. as number of joints is more.• • • Since most of the bricks are manufactured conventionally. Advantages and disadvantages of Hollow Concrete Blocks: Advantages: They are more uniform in dimensions. consume significant amount of fuel energy. Builders concern about quality and reliability of supply is lessened as most of the block manufactures are from organized trade. the dimensions Are non-uniform. Usage of mortar is less. Labors intensive. Even though the load bearing Hollow Blocks can be manufactured. quality and strength. The performance of these walls is not every satisfactory. There is no demand in the market for these blocks as still people are under the pressure that they are weak as they are hollow. Introduction of Hollow Concrete Blocks Hollow Concrete Blocks are mainly used in framed structures for walls in high rise buildings. as a number of joints are less. Direct use of soil (without burning) for construction in any of the explained above has explained above has certain disadvantages. labors shed etc. The performance of burnt bricks wall is quite satisfactory. Hence in this aspect to make the usage of these blocks in structures. industrial sheds and temporary structures like compound walls. However burnt bricks 35 .
quality of workmanship is good. it is environmental friendly. Plaster is not necessary if. As there is no coal and charcoal being used. They are economical. no wastage of fertile earth. sand and aggregates. Offers greater resistance to heat and sound transmission. Disadvantages: (1) Being hollow it is difficult to repair. Less weight for a given volume of masonry. (2) It cannot be used for elevation purposes. Less labor intensive. Since the raw materials is cement. (5) Recession for electrical and water conduits is practically not possible. 36 . (4) It cannot be used for load bearing structures without getting special kind of blocks. (3) Difficult to pickup and place in position as the sizes are large.
Chapter – 5 MARKET POTENTIAL Demand And supply Marketing and Distribution Market Arrangement 37 .
with If. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are of poor quality having a comprehensive strength of 30kgs per sq. For making first class burnt clay bricks. these growing impacts given to industrialization. Due to this the bricks produced in the states of Madhya Pradesh. The laterite is non-plastic and can not be molded in plastic form. The alluvial belt suitable for making good quality bricks is mainly confined to the plans of North India. it will demand a production of 85. 00 corers 38 .7 million dwelling units. excepting isolated pockets near to the coastal region. Other area. requirements are to be met. the demand for construction from the commercial sector is also on the increase. Wet soils are of low plasticity and succumb to lime bursting upon firing.cm and above for the bricks manufactured I the northern region.cm.MARKET POTENTIAL Demand and Supply It has been estimated that the housing requirement cater to the net addition in the population in the seventh plan period will be 16. are comprised of different grades of black soils. Maharashtra. as these soils swell enormously when wetted and consequently shrink upon drying producing cracks in the bricks. or laetrile soils which are either unsuitable for making bricks or render bricks of poor quality. Black soils and its derivatives and mixture do not make good bricks. compared to the strength of 70kgs per sq. In addition to this. of bricks by 2010.2 million dwelling units which over and above the already existing backlog of 24. clay soil of Celtic aluminum are best suited. red soils.
which results in reduction in loading on the Also the quality of the burnt bricks available in these areas being poor the concrete blocks can compete as 39 . due to its superiority and easy availability compared to that of bricks. Hollow concrete blocks being a variable alternative for bricks can easily capture the market for bricks. In such areas. The estimate on production and demand for burnt clay bricks show that the demand and supply gap will persist for years to come. The substitution of brick by hollow concrete blocks has been cosseted due to inconsistent capacity of conventional bricks are savings in material viz. It is interesting to note that a good number of cement plants are situated in areas identified as having soils unsuitable for making good bricks. steel and cement on an account of use of cement hollow concrete blocks. a suitable walling material.Coal is another important input for the manufacture of bricks and this important input is becoming scarce and costly which inturn results in the frequent hike in the cost of bricks. This saving in cement at the construction site is on an account of lesser thickness of plastering required on the wall constructed of hollow concrete blocks. Shimoga. the proximity of the cement plant ensures regular supply of cement to the units manufacturing these blocks. There is also saving in steel due to lighter weight of the hollow concrete blocks as compared the conventional burnt bricks. Also even though housing activity is more intense around union centers the brick-manufacturing unit are pushed away for urban areas due to scarcity of suitable and resulting in shortage leading to high prices in certain urban areas in particular.
multi-storied buildings and very little household construction. Presently there are about five manufacturers of hollow concrete blocks in Shimoga district. On the basis of the market data collected from the experts in the field it was found that about 1. compound walls.e. In addition to this three other manufacturers will be shortly setting up plants in the near future. The present installed capacity is 5 lakhs of hollow concrete blocks per annum.60 lakhs of hollow concrete blocks are required every month for construction activity in and around Shimoga. 40 . heats insulation. How ever due to increased shortage and poor quality of bricks the demand from the household sector is also on the increase. Taking into account the fact that the manual machines run at 40% efficiency. Market information reveals that hollow concrete block utilization by residential individual houses is less. Presently hollow concrete blocks are being used effectively for the construction of factory sheds. This property is accomplished on account of air packets I the cavities of the hollow concrete blocks which act as the isolations. There is an additional desirable quality of hollow concrete blocks i. The resultant overall savings will be of the order of 30% to 40% in the masonry and hence preferred in the construction of buildings. This primarily includes demand arising from the commercial sector like office structure and business shops.columns and beans in a framed structure.
Market Arrangements: As mentioned earlier. the construction activity of residential and commercial buildings are increasing day by day on account of nonavailability of local bricks or good quality bricks in and around Shimoga.The demand being 1-lakh hollow blocks per month. there are as such no middlemen in the distribution process. The sudden spurt in construction activity coupled with the preferential acceptability of hollow concrete blocks over bricks has created a gap in demand and supply. 41 . Hence there is good scope for the unit. it is clear that there exits a gap between supply and demand. builders and contractors in and around Shimoga an hence no problem is envisaged in marketing hollow concrete blocks. The contractors place the order directly to the manufacturers and the delivery is made directly to the site. One important aspect of hollow concrete blocks is that the public contractors have gradually accepted the concept. The proprietor has good public relations and contacts with many of the leading civil engineers. It should be noted that there is no competition growing in Shimoga and no necessity to do some marketing to push the product I the market. Marketing and Distribution Presently. The proposed unit could function to fill this gap partially to certain extent.
38.00 for 6”*8”*16”Rs.25.20.000 42 .500 1.00.13. The proprietor has also planned to offer an attractive package of incentives to the contractors.500 1. which will motivate them to place their orders with the proposed unit.352 1.250 2.458 2.42.000 1.00for 8”*8”*16” 11.The proprietor intends selling hollow concrete blocks at Rs. It is proposed to appoint an experienced sales officer on commission basis whose duty is to travel extensively to procure orders for the unit.00 per block of 4”*8”*16” size which is lesser than the price of market leader thus gaining customer preference for this product. Demand and Supply of Hollow concrete Blocks during last four years: year Particulars Production Demand 2010 2009 2008 2007 2.11.05.000 2.39.50.
Chapter -6 Data Analysis and Interpretation 43 .
Data Analysis and Interpretation Today as we all very well known “ Consumer is the King”. It was observed that Hollow Concrete Blocks was famous enough with masses and most of them posses Hollow Concrete Blocks competition mainly from Molded Bricks . he is the judge and the final decider for the product to purchase or not. In the market. and other kind of Bricks 44 . The total number of Blocks user is interview by this survey the result is more than 87 respondents were selected on a random basis in different areas. However it ids clear that consumer is the one and all for all the area. Burnt Bricks. Because he is the final consumer satisfaction should be ultimate aim of the producer and the marketer consumer interest should be taken into consideration while taking decisions.
Table showing respondents occupation Occupation Government servants Businessmen Agriculturist Others Total No.1. of respondents 46 27 04 10 87 Percentages 53 31 05 11 100 Analysis: From the above table it is clear that number of respondents from the side of government servants and then the businessmen occupies the second place in the respondents area. 45 .
Graph showing respondents occupation Agriculturist 5% Others 11% Businessmen 31% Government servants 53% 46 .
2.25000 Total No. Graph showing Income group 30 30 25 25 20 15 15 10 7 5 0 Below – 5000 5000 – 10000 10000 – 25000 Above .25000 47 . Table showing Income group Income Below – 5000 5000 – 10000 10000 – 25000 Above . Of Respondents 25 30 15 7 87 Percentage 32 40 19 9 100 Analysis: The above clearly and numerically suggest that maximum number of persons from the second groups only.
3. 48 . Table showing type of bricks used Type of bricks Bricks Hollow Concrete Blocks Unburnt Bricks Solid Concrete Blocks Total Analysis: No of respondents 33 44 03 07 87 Percentage 38 51 3 8 100 From the survey it is clear that maximum number of respondents used the Hollow Concrete Blocks only and then the Bricks occupies the second place in the table.
Graph showing type of bricks used 44 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 7 10 5 0 Bricks Hollow Concrete Blocks Unburnt Bricks Solid Concrete Blocks 3 33 49 .
From the above table it is clear that the second higher group will be quality respondents. 50 .4. Table showing reasons for buying Hollow Concrete Blocks Reasons No.of Respondents Less in price 55 Quality Others 12 Uniformity in size of 9 blocks Others Total 11 87 Percentages 63 14 10 13 100 Analysis: Maximum respondents prefer only less in price.
Graph showing reasons for buying Hollow Concrete Blocks 13% 10% 14% 63% Less in price Quality Others Uniformity in size of blocks Others 51 .
No. Table showing the Special feature for buying Asma Traders Concrete Blocks Special feature Low price High performance High quality Others Total Analysis: quality.of Respondents 27 33 20 07 87 Percentages 31 38 23 8 100 From the above table it is clear that the customer of the above firm identified the performance of the firm as compared to other 52 .5.
Graph showing the Special feature for buying Asma Traders Concrete Blocks 35 27 33 30 25 20 20 1 5 7 1 0 5 0 Lowprice High performance High quality Others 53 .
6. Table showing on what basis or what made to buy Asma Traders Concrete Blocks Factor Goodwill No. of respondents the 09 45 16 10 07 87 Percentage 10 53 18 11 8 100
company Service provided by the company Price Service quality Other factors total Analysis:
Maximum respondents came buy the Blocks on the basis
of service provided by the Asma Traders Concrete Blocks.
Graph showing on what basis or what made to buy Asma Traders Concrete Blocks
45 45 40 35 30 25 20 1 5 9 1 0 5 0 Goodwill of the company Service provided by the company P rice Service quality Other factors 1 6 1 0 7
7. The table showing satisfaction about Asma Traders Concrete Blocks
Particulars Satisfactory Not Satisfactory Total Analysis:
No.of respondents 69 18 87
The maximum numbers of respondents are satisfied with
service provided by the Asma Traders Concrete Blocks.
The Graph showing satisfaction about Asma Traders Concrete Blocks Not Satisfactory 21% Satisfactory 79% 57 .
SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION 58 .Chapter – 7 FINDINGS.
I studied about willingness of people to buy the Hollow concrete bricks. The most common attitude of human being are concentration on price factor same in the case of Hollow bricks 55%of despondence of on price factor because it is tower in price. As per survey of monthly income the people majority are will as to buy the bricks are who earn income from 5000-10000 means 60%of respondents As per survey on the types of bricks used in people In that hollow concrete bricks are commonly used by all that is 65%of respondents and reaming 35%is other. In occupation sector there are many types of respondents like government servant Business and others. As per survey has been conducts government servant are majority of respondents of 45% and next to him businessmen.15%. advantages and satisfaction.SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION Findings: The survey has been conducted to different kinds of sectors. factors influence to purchase. As per survey of publicity the people were current know about Asma Traders Association by the held of engineers [i. Customer according to them occupation monthly income types of bricks reasons. other respectively 30%.e 45%] and 59 . agriculture. 10%.
If we see throughout out the table of survey on an average the people who gave positive response towards Hollow bricks is 80% and they are satisfied and remaining are unsatisfied because of some reason may be transport. At lost advantages of bricks advantage in the people set good and strong quality of bricks.reaming were came to know from advertisements. To rise the portion of ingredients and thus helps to use for multi storied buildings 60 . goodwill. advertisement ect. others. Suggestion It ha to maintain to supply the concrete blocks as early as possible door delivery It has to make mere advertisement to Know the firm’s popularity It is to be made easily available to the poor class with low price as far as possible Blocks should be readily available in large numbers and blocks should be made available by door delivery Smaller width blocks could be more useful for walls By reducing the quantity of dust and increasing in quantity of cement helps the blocks in better strength and also useful for load bearing walls. friends. price. which gives long life to buildings and secondary factor of low price.
technician. The different aspect of improving the quality. common people can use this It should maintain uniform size and specifications The manufacturer of Hollow Concrete Blocks. Thank you one and all. so that. project. It has been a great experience to work with the proprietor of Asma Traders I have really enjoyed doing this 61 . Conclusion I hereby conclude by saying that Hollow Concrete Blocks will be ultimate in construction technology in the near future and construction without it will be inevitable. strength. Experts in the field engineers. and traders can be asked to gather for symposiums. marketability. and popularity of Hollow Concrete Blocks can be discussed so that it could be competitor for the traditional burnt bricks. It needs vast publicity to show and demonstrate the work at size.
Annexes Questionnaire Bibliography 62 .
Your’s Syed Khadeer 1. I am conducting the survey on the Marketing of Hollow Concrete Blocks -a case study of Asma Traders Uragadur. Monthly Income Below – 5000 05000 – 10000 10000 – 25000 Above 25000 : [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Government Servant 63 .Questionnaire Dear Sir or Madam I am a student of Sahyadri arts and Commercrce collage Shimoga. Occupation Businessman Agriculturist Others 4. Address : : 3. Therefore I request you to spend for me a few minutes to answer the question in the questionnaire. Shimoga and preparation of project report. studying in final year BBM for the partial fulfillment of my course. Name 2.
If yes. What are the advantages and disadvantages you found in the bricks? 10.How do you come to know about Hollow concrete Blocks? Advertisements [ ] 64 . If yes.5. Have you ever used Hollow Concrete Blocks? 8. Have you ever involved in construction of any premises? Yes [ ] No [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 6. what type of Bricks you have used? Burnt Bricks Unburnt Bricks Solid Blocks Others Yes Hollow Concrete Blocks [ ] Please Mention ------[ ] No [ ] 7. which of the following factor you consider while purchases Hollow Concrete Blocks? Less in price[ ] Quality Others Others Advantages Uniformity in size Strength More savings Less Labour intensive Others [ ] [ ] Disadvantages Difficult repaid More weight Others Uniformity in size[ ] 9.
Which of the following factor you consider while purchasing Asma 15.If yes. Have you ever heard of Asma Traders Yes [ ] No [ ] [ ] 13.In case you are planning to buy a Hollow Concrete Blocks.If yes.Friends Engineers Others [ ] [ ] [ ] 11. which company would you prefer first? 12. Do you find any advantages in using Asma Traders? Yes [ ] No [ ] [ ] 16. what are the advantages you found Low price High 65 . how did you come to know about it? Advertisement Goodwill of Company Engineers Friends Others Traders ? Goodwill of the company Service provided by the company Price Good quality Others [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 14.
If yes.If no. concrete Blocks? Yes Blocks --------------------------------------------------------------Place: Date: [ ] No 21. 66 .Performance High quality High price Bad service [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 17. Was the service provided by Asma Traders Concrete Blocks satisfactory Yes [ ] Very high Cost of service Price level Speed of service quality No [ ] High Low Very low 19. Would you recommend your friends/relatives to purchase Asma [ ] Traders Concrete Blocks. disadvantages are ? Other. Suggestion for Improvement of Asma Traders Concrete Blocks. Satisfactory level after using Asma Traders Concrete Blocks 20. Please mention [ ] 18.
Signature 67 .
Inside Outside – a magazine 2. Architectural Design 3.Bibliography Marketing Management .Phillip Kotler Marketing Management . Building Materials 68 .Sherleker Human Resource Management . Raman Journals 1.S.B.
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