You are on page 1of 53

ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

THE ANALOGY QUESTION

· Testing Tactics
· Long-Range Strategies
· Practice Exercises
· Answer Key

Analogy questions ask you to determine the relationship in a pair of words


and then recognize a similar or parallel relationship in a different pair of voids.
You are given one pair of words. You must choose from the five pairs given as
answer choices another pair that is related in the same way. The relationship
between the words in the original pair will always be specific and precise; the
same is true for the relationship between the words in the correct pair.

Here are the standard directions for the analogy questions. Learn them now.
The test time you would spend reading the directions can be better spent
answering questions.

Each question below consists of a related pair of words or phrases, followed


by five lettered pairs of words or phrases labeled A through E. Select the pair
that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.

Example: CRUMB : BREAD


A. ounce : unit
B. splinter : wood
C. water : bucket
D. twine : rope
E. cream : butter

Just as a crumb is a fragment of bread, a splinter is a fragment of wood.


The one is broken off from the other. Choice B is correct, Choice E is not.
Though cream and butter, like bread, are things people eat, cream, is the
substance out of which one makes butter. One makes bread out of flour or meal
mixed with liquid, not out of crumbs.

Note how an SAT I (or any competitive test in Bangladesh) analogy


question is set up. First you have the two capitalized words linked by a symbol.
Take a look at a few examples.

JAHANGIR ALAM -2- E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

ACTOR : STAGE
An actor is related to a stage. How? An actor works or performs on a stage.
SCRIBBLE : WRITE
Scribble is related to write. How? To scribble is to write hastily, even crassly.
DOG : POODLE
Dog is related to poodle. How? A poodle is a kind of dog.

Notice the wording of the tats sentence. You could equality have said
“One kind of dog is a poodle” and maintained the word order of the analogy.
However, as in the discussion of CRUMB : BREAD, it sometimes is easier to
express a relationship if you reverse the order of the words.

Some of the analogy questions on SAT I are as clear-cut as the ones


above. Others are far more complex. In some questions, for example, you are
asked to carry an analogy from a concrete example to more abstract or less
tangible one.

SURGEON : SCALPEL :: SATIRIST : WORDS

A surgeon literally uses a scalpel to make an incision, to cut. A satirist (a


writer of literary satire) uses words to cut and ridicule the pride and folly of his
subjects.

As you can see, answering such questions correctly involves more than
knowing single meanings of words. You’ll find practice exercises containing
both straightforward and tricky analogies at the end of this chapter.

Analogy questions are a bit like riddles; they’re a kind of word game. At
first analogies may seem a strumming block to you, but once you master my
tactics for solving them you may even find them fun.

JAHANGIR ALAM -3- E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Tactic – 01

BEFORE YOU LOOK AT THE CHOICES, TRY TO STATE THE


RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CAPITALIZED WORDS.

In answering an analogy question, your first problem is to determine the


exact nature of the relationship that exists between the two capitalized words,
Before you look at the answer pairs, make up a sentence that snows how these
capitalized words are related. Then test the possible answers by-seeing how
well they fit in your sentence. Take, for example, this analogy question:

CONSTELLATION : STARS
A. prison : bars
B. assembly : speaker
C. troupe : actor
D. mountain : peak
E. flock : shepherds

A constellation is made up of stars. A troupe (not troop but troupe) is


made up of actors. Choice C is correct.

JAHANGIR ALAM -4- E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Tactic – 02

IF YOU ARE STUMPED BY AN UNFAMILIAR WORD, TRY


THINKING OF IT IN A CONTEXT.

Don’t let unfamiliar-looking words puzzle you, If you come across a


word you don’t recognize, try to think of a phrase or sentence in which you
have heard it used. The context may help you come up with the word’s
meaning.

COMPOSER : SYMPHONY
A. porter : terminal
B. writer : plagiarism
C. coach : team
D. painter : mural
E. doctor : stethoscope

First, come up with a test sentence: “A composer creates a symphony.”


You are looking for a relationship between a worker and something he or she
has created. Here Choice C is correct. Because “A coach creates a team.”

JAHANGIR ALAM -5- E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Tactic – 03

IF MORE THAN ONE ANSWER FITS THE RELATIONSHIP


IN YOUR SENTENCE, LOOK FOR A NARROWER
APPROACH.

When you try to express the relationship between the two capitalized
words in sentence form, make sure you include enough details to particularize
your analogy. Otherwise, more than one answer may fit the relationship, and
you will have to go back to the original pair of words and study them more.

Don’t let Choice E fool you: a flock is made up of sheep, not a shepherds.

Note, by the way, the characteristics of the analogy you have just analyzed.

CONSTELLATION : STARS (in the Tactic-02)


It is a good analogy. The relationship between the words is built-in; if
you look up constellation in a dictionary, you will see that a constellation is a
group of stars. The words are related by definition.

Your correct answer choice has got to have the same characteristics as
the original pair. The words must have a clear relationship. They must be
related by definition. If you substitute them in your test sentence, they must fit
it exactly.

Generally eliminate A and E: a porter works at a terminal; a doctor works


with a stethoscope. You can also eliminate choice C: no coach literally creates a
team in the same way that a composer creates a symphony.

Writers and painters, however, both create works of art. Which answer
is better, B or D? If you know the meanings of plagiarism is a crime (passing off
someone else’s work as your own), not a created work. “Colorful murals.” A
mural is a picture painted on a wall. The correct answer is Choice D.

Consider this actual analogy from a recent SAT I.

JAHANGIR ALAM -6- E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

TENTACLES : OCTOPUS
A. petals : flower
B. tadpoles : frog
C. claws : crash
D. algae : seaweed
E. quills : porcupine

Suppose your original sentence is “An octopus has tentacles.” That


sentence is far too broad. If could equally well fit Choices A, C, and E

Go back to the original pair of words for more details. How does an
octopus use its tentacles? What function do they serve? “An octopus uses its
tentacles for grasping.” Try the answer choices in this new test sentence. “ A
flower uses its petals for grasping.” That is false. “A porcupine uses its gullies
for grasping.” It is false too. “A crab uses its claws for grasping.” Choice C
clearly is best.

Note, by the way, that in making your test sentence it was easier to
express the relationship of TENTACLES : OCTOPUS by switching the order of
the words. Whenever you do so, you must be sure to switch the order of the
words in the answer choices when you try them out in your test sentence.

Whether or not you reverse the order of the words in your test sentence,
your sentence should reflect the relationship between the two capitalized
words exactly. If it doesn’t, try again.

JAHANGIR ALAM -7- E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Tactic – 04

WATCH OUT FOR ERRORS CAUSED BY EYE-CATCHERS.

Sometimes the test-makers set out to tempt you into making a mistake.
They come up with incorrect answer choices designed to catch your eye. These
eye-catches can distract your attention from the real answer – but not if you’re
aware of the test-makers’ game.

Try this next SAT I analogy question to see just how an eye-catcher works.

EBB : TIDE
A. receive : radio When you look at these answer choices,
B. splash : wave does Choice B seem to leap right off the
page? If it does, watch out –
C. blossom : flower
D. wane : moon
E. hibernate : bear

JAHANGIR ALAM -8- E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Tactic – 05

WATCH OUT FOR ANSWER CHOICES THAT REVERSE THE


ORIGINAL RELATIONSHIP.

In an analogy you have two capitalized words that relate in a set way. In
setting up the answer choices, the SAT-makers will often tempt you with pairs
that relate in a grammatically or logically opposite way. See how it works in an
example from a recently published SAT I.

PERCEPTIVE : DISCERN
A. determined : hesitate
B. authoritarian : heed
C. persistent : persevere
D. abandoned : neglect
E. restrained : rebel

At first glance, several of these answers may seem to work, “A perceptive


person is someone who disarms or sees. Here is another recent SAT I question
to examine.

TYRANT : GOVERN
A. inspector : examine B. inquisitor : question C. cynic : believe
D. fugitive : escape E. volunteer : work

Suppose your original sentence was “A tyrant by definition rules or


governs.” Again, that framework is too broad; it could work equally well for
choice A(“An inspector by definition investigates or examines”), Choice B(“An
inquisitor by definition inquires or questions”) or choice D(“A fugitive by
definition escapes of flees”). According to the dictionary definition, however, a
tyrant is a very specific sort of ruler, one who governs in a particular manner.
A tyrant governs peoples harshly, even brutally. Likewise, an inquisitor
questions people harshly, even brutally. The correct answer is choice B.

JAHANGIR ALAM -9- E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Remember, in answering analogy questions on SAT I, pay special attention to


how a dictionary would define the words involved.

You’ve run into an eye-catcher. Eye-catchers grab your attention because


they somehow remind you of one (or both) of the capitalized word. In this
case, splash and wave are both related to water, they immediately remind you
to tide. The words feel as if they being together, and your immediate impulse
may be to mark down choice B.

Choice B, however, is wrong. When the tide ebbs, the waters recede or
diminish. When a wave splashes, the water spatters, scattering and falling in
droplets. You are looking for a relationship in which something appears to
diminish. In this case, the correct answer is choice D. When the moon wanes,
it appears to diminish, decreasing in phase or intensity.

Clearly, “An abandoned persons someone who is neglected or forsaken.”


Ask yourself who is doing what to whom? In the origin pair, the perceptive
person is doing something; he or she is activity discoing or seeing something. In
choice D, the abandoned person is not a person actively doing something; he or
she is the person to whom something is being done. The abandoned person is
being neglected; he or she doesn’t get to neglect others. In other words, the
abandoned persons the object of the verb neglect, not the verb’s subject. The
original grammatical relationship is reversed. A similar flaw eliminates Choice
B: an authoritarian person is someone who seeks to be heeded or obeyed; he or
she does not necessarily seek to heed someone else. Again, the original
relationship is tumid inside out.

The correct answer to this question is choice C, By definition, a


perceptive person is someone who discerns. In the same way, by definition, a
persistent person is someone who discerns. In the same way, by definition, a
persistent person is someone who perseveres.

Use this same tactic to rule out any eye-catching incorrect answer to a
second, more difficult SAT I question.

CENSURE : REPREHENSIBLE
A. prize : valuable B. provide : supportive C. applaud :
enthusiastic
D. inquire : informed E. continue : initial

JAHANGIR ALAM - 10 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Tactic – 06

BE GUIDED BY THE PARTS OF SPEECH.

Grammatical information can help you recognize analogy types and spot
the use of unfamiliar or secondary meanings of words.

In SAT analogy questions, the relationship between the parts of speech of


the capitalized words and the parts of speech of the answer choices is
consistent. If your capitalized words are a noun and a verb, each one of your
answer pairs will be a noun and a verb. If they are an adjective and a noun,
each one of your answer pairs will be an adjective and a noun. If you can
recognize the parts of speech in a single answer pair will be an adjective and a
noun. If you can recognize the parts of speech in a single answer pair, you
know the parts of speech of every other answer pair, and of the original pair as
well.

Consider the analogy you faced in the previous tactic, CENSURE :


RESPONSIBLE. If you hadn’t been alert, you might have though you were
dealing, with a noun and an adjective: for your test sentence, you might have
settled on “Something reprehensible deserves censure,” With that test
sentence, you never would have chosen choice A as the correct answer, it
makes no sense to say that something valuable deserves a prize.

Instead, looking at the first word of the other answer choices, you could
see that they were all verbs. Thus, prize and censure had to be verbs as well.
See how this tactic works in a somewhat difficult question the test-makers once
released.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 11 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Tactic – 07

CONSIDER SECONDARY MEANINGS OF WORDS AS WELL


AS THEIR PRIMARY MEANINGS.

How can you tell that you are dealing with an unfamiliar secondary
meaning of an apparently familiar word? Simple, When you come across the
word in an analogy, it makes no sense.

At that point, what do you do? First, try to think of the other contexts for
the problem word. Make up new sentences using it. Reverse the grammatical
order of the pair. If the problem word is part of the capitalized pair, look over
the answer pairs to see whether you can come up with any clues to the
relationship linking the capitalized pair.

Again, ask yourself who is doing what to whom. You censure of


condemn something because it is reprehensible (blameworthy; objectionable).
You applaud something, however, because you are enthusiastic. Choice C has
switched relationships on you. In addition, it is an eye catcher, the words
applaud and censure feel related because they typically occur in the context of
judging something and expressing approval or disapproval of it.

Choice C is incorrect. The correct answer is Choice A, Just as you


censure something because it is reprehensible, you prize of treasure something
because it is valuable.

HUSBAND : RESOURCES
A. conserve : energy
B. spend : salary
C. predict : hurricane
D. analyze : salary
E. revise : story

At first glance, husband and resources seem only vaguely related. After
all, a husband is a married man; he may have resources, or he may not,
however, take a look at the answer pairs. Conserve : Spend, they’re verbs, not
nouns. Husband must be a verb as well.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 12 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

You now know you’re dealing with an unfamiliar meaning of husband.


However, you also know that husbanding is an action that has something to do
with resources or assets. Typically, you do one of two things with resources or
assists; save them or expend them. You’ve just narrowed things down to a
decision between choice A.

conserve : energy, and Choice B, spend : salary. Choice A. To husband


resources is to use them economically, conserving them as much as you can.
This is comparable to conserving energy.

See how this tactic works in handing a recent SAT I question involving
apparently familiar words.

MYSTIFY : UNDERSTANDING
A. nip : maturation
B. insure : disaster
C. rearrange : order
D. intensify : endurance
E. reciprocate : interchange

At first glance, this analogy is simple. To mystify is to bewilder someone


intentionally, to block that person’s understanding. The relationship between
the capitalized words are clear, However, this is the last question of a set,
typically the hardest analogy question in that section. Its simplicity is
deceptive: this is a very easy question to get wrong. The problem lies not in the
original analogy but in the answer pairs.

Consider the answer choices closely. Choices C, D and E seem clear


enough. To rearrange something is to alter the order in which you find it. To
intensify endurance is to increases stamina. To reciprocate is to make a mutual
exchange or interchange. None of these possibilities fit the test sentence.
Choice B is a bit more complex. Two possibilities for the relationship between
insure and disaster exist. One, to insure disaster is to make disaster certain or
inevitable: if you leave your picnic basket and all your food at home, you
ensure disaster for your picnic. Two, to insure oneself is to protect oneself
financially from loss caused by death or some other disaster this second
possible sentence.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 13 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Tactic – 08

IN THE CAPITALIZED PAIRS, THE WORDS ARE ALWAYS


CLEARLY LINKED.

One of your basic SAT strategies is to eliminate as many wrong answer


choices as you can. One way to spot a wrong answer in an analogy question is
to look for answer pairs whose terms are only vaguely linked. In the capitalized
pairs, the words are always clearly linked;

AN OCTOPUS uses its TENTACLES for grasping. A PERCEPTIVE


person is someone who DISCERNS. To MYSTIFY someone is to block that
person’s UNDER STANDING. In the answer pairs, the following relatively
simple analogy from an SAT.

Most of these answer choices are easy to express in clear sentences that
reflect the words dictionary definitions. By definition, a concert is a musical
performance in which musicians play. A pool is a place in which people swim.
A subject is a scene, person or object that an artist chooses to represent or
sketch. But what about choices B and D? A program of schedule of events may
include lecturing, but not necessarily defined as such. There is no necessary,
specific connection to link the words in either of these choices. Therefore,
eliminate Choices B and D. Which of the other answer choices is correct? The
answer is of course choice C. Just as a stage is a place where people act, a pool is
a place where people swim.

One word of caution. There is a difference between words that seem to


be related but are actually only casually linked and words that, at first glance,
seem to have no relationship at all. When you first looked at the answer choice
nip: maturation (in Tactic – 07), it looked completely absurd. You couldn’t
even begin to come up with a sentence linking nip (in the sense of bite or
pinch) and maturation. Don’t automatically eliminate such off-the wall answer
choices, especially if you find them in the harder analogies toward the end of
the set. Study them to see if a secondary meaning is involved.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 14 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Tactic – 09

FAMILIARIZE YOURSELF WITH COMMON ANALOGY


TYPES.

Analogies tend to fall into certain common basic types. Do not go


overboard and try to memorize these types. Just try to get a feel from them, so
that you’ll be able to recognize how each pair of words is linked.
may seem appealing, but Choice B is incorrect. Insuring yourself against
disaster does not prevent the disaster from taking place; it merely reduces the
financial risk involved.

Having eliminated all the other choices, take another look at choice A.
Compared to choices B, C, D and E, it seems far out. How does nipping or
biting relate to maturation, the process of reaching full growth and
development? A puppy nips at his owner’s ankle, but that has nothing to do
with the dog’s growing up!

Coming across such a weird pairing, most people just shrug their
shoulders and skip to the next answer choice. A is the correct answer; to nip
something, as used here, is to destroy its progress or fulfillment (as in the
phrase “nipped in the bud” when the FBI nips a conspiracy in the bud, they
prevent the pilot from achieving completion). Just as to mystify someone is to
black his or her understanding, to nip something is to block its full growth or
maturation.

Play, A pool is a place in which people swim. A subject is a scene, person,


or object that an artist chooses to represent or sketch. But what about choices B
and D? A program of schedule of events may include lecturing, but not
necessarily so. Similarly, solitude may be a time for watching, but it’s not
defined as such. There is no necessary, specific connection to link the words in
either of these choices. Therefore, eliminate Choices B and D, which of the
other answer choices is correct? The answer is of course choice C. Just as a
stage is a place where people act, a pool is a place where people swim.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 15 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

One word of caution. There is a difference between words that seem to


be related but are actually only casually linked and words that, at first glance,
seem to have no relationship at all. When you first looked at the answer choice
nip: maturation (in Tactic – 07), it looked completely absurd. You couldn’t
even begin to come up with a sentence linking nip (in the sense of bite or
pinch) and maturation. Don’t automatically eliminate such off-the wall answer
choices, especially if you find them in the harder analogies toward the end of
the set. Study them to see if a secondary meaning is involved.

Common Analogy Types


Definition
REFUGE :: SHELTER
A refuge (place of asylum) by definition shelters.
NOMAD :: WANDER
A nomad by definition wanders.
HAGGLER :: BARGAIN
A haggler, a person who argues over prices, by definition bargains.

Defining Characteristic
TIGER : CARNIVOROUS
A tiger is defined as a carnivorous or meat eating animal.
ENTOMOLOGIST : INSECTS
An entomologist is defined as a person who studies insects.
HIVE : BEE
A hive is defined as a home for bees.

Class and Member


RODENT : SQUIRREL
A squirrel is a kind of rodent.
SOFA : FURNITURE
A sofa belongs to the category known as furniture.
SONNET : POEM
A sonnet is a kind of poem.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 16 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Group and Member


DANCER : ENSEMBLE
A dancer is a member of an ennoble or troupe.
LION : PRIDE
A lion is a member of a pride or company.
GAGGLE : GEESE
A gaggle is a group or flock of geese.

Antonyms
Antonyms are words that are opposite in meaning. Both words belong to
the same part of speech.

CONCERNED : INDIFFERENT
Indifferent means unconcerned.
WAX : WANE
Wax, to grow larger, and wane, to dwindle, are opposites.
ANARCHY : ORDER
Anarchy is the opposite of order.

Antonym Variants
In an Antonym Variant, the words are to strictly antonyms; however,
their meanings are opposed. Take the adjective nervous. A strict antonym
would put the adjective poised. An variant puts the noun poise. It looks like
this:
WICKED : VIRTUE
Something wicked lacks virtue. It is the opposite of virtuous.
WILLFUL : OBEDIENCE
Willful means lacking in obedience. It is the opposite of obedient.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 17 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Synonyms
Synonyms are words that have the same meaning. Both words belong to
the same part of speech.

MAGNIFICENT : GRANDIOSE
Grandiose is the synonym of magnificent. Or, Grandiose means magnificent.
NARRETE : TELL
To narrate is to tell.
EDIFICE : BUILDING
An edifice is a building.

Synonym Variants
In a synonym Variant, the words are not strictly synonyms: however,
their meanings are similar. For example, take the adjective, willful. A strict
synonym for the adjective willful would be the adjective unruly. However,
where a Synonym would put the adjective unruly, a Synonym Variant would
put the noun unruliness. It looks like this:

WILLFULL : UNRULINESS
Willful means exhibiting unruliness.
VERBOSE : WORDIENESS
Someone verbose is wordy; he or she exhibits wordiness.
FRIENDLY : AMICABILITY
Someone friendly is amicable; he or she shows amicability.

Degree of Intensity
LUKEWARM : BOILING
Lukewarm is less extreme than boiling.
FLURRY : BLIZZARD
A flurry or shower of snow is less extreme than a blizzard.
ANNOYED : FURIOUS
To be annoyed is less intense an emotion than to be furious.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 18 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Part to Whole
ISLAND : ARCHIPELAGO
Many island up an archipelago.
LETTER : ALPHABET
The English alphabet is made up of 26 letters.
FINGER : HAND
The finger is part of the hand.

Function
ASYLUM : REFUGE
An asylum provides refuge or protection.
FEET : MARCH
A function of feet is to march.
LULL : STORM
A lull temporarily interrupts a storm.

Manner
MUMBLE : SPEAK
To mumble is to speak indistinctly, that is to speak in an indistinct manner.
STRUT : WALK
To strut is to walk proudly that is to walk in a proud manner.
STRAINED : WIT
Wit that strained is forced in manner.

Worker and Article Created


POET : SONNET
A poet creates a sonnet.
ARCHITECT : BLUEPRINT
An architect designs a blueprint.
MASON : WALL
A mason builds a wall.

Worker and Tool


PAINTER : BRUSH
A painter uses a brush.
GOLFER : CLUB
A golfer uses a club to strike the ball.
CARPENTER : VISE
A carpenter uses a vise to hold the object being worked on.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 19 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Worker and Action


ACROBAT : CARTWHEEL
An acrobat performs a cartwheel.
FINANCIER : INVEST
A financier invests money for his business.
TENOR : AREA
A tenor sings an aria.

Worker and Workplace


TEACHER : CLASSROOM
A teacher works in a classroom.
SCULPTOR : STUDIO
A sculptor works in a studio.
DRUGGIST : PHARMACY
A druggist works in a pharmacy.

Tool and Object it Acts Upon


KNIFE : BREAD
A knife cuts bread.
PEN : PAPER
A pen writes on paper.
RAKE : LEAVES
A rake gathers leaves.

Tool and Its Action


SAW : CUT
A saw is a tool used to cut wood.
CROWBAR : PRY
A crowbar is a tool used to pry thing apart.
SEVE : SIFT
A sieve is a tool used to strain or sift.

Action and Its Significance


HUG : AFFECTION
A hug is a sing of affection.
NOD : ASSENT
A nod signifies assent agreement.
WINCE : PAIN
A wince is a sing that one feels pain.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 20 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Less Common Analogy Types Cause and Effect


VIRUS : INFLUENZA
A virus causes influenza.

Time Sequence
FIRST : LAST
First and last mark the beginning and end of a sequence.

Spatial Sequence
ATTIC : BASEMENT
The attic is the highest point in the house; the basement, the lowest point.

Gender
DOE : STAG
A doe is female deer and a stage is male deer.

Age
COLT : STALLION
A colt is a young stallion.

Symbol and Abstraction it Represents


DOVE : PEACE
A dove is the symbol of peace.

Long – Range Strategies


Not many words of the vocabulary in the analogy section come from
Latin. Generally speaking the words are more concrete than abstract. You need
to know the names of everyday objects and parts of objects, name that the
tentmakers assume are in your everyday vocabulary but that nonetheless may
be unfamiliar to you. You need to know that hawks have talons and trout have
gills, that a group of islands is called an archipelago and a group of lions is
called a pride. You need to know that calipers measure and that augers bore,
that painters paint murals, and that write odes.

How can you build up the sort of wide – ranging, concrete vocabulary you
need to see the variety of relationships possible between words? The words are
there; they’re yours.............

JAHANGIR ALAM - 21 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Words for the Taking


To meet new words, branch out in your reading. Try magazines in fields
you haven’t pursued before. Geology, geography, natural history, astronomy,
art-terms from these disciplines appear again and again. Branch out in your
viewing as well. You can watch National Geographic specials and other
documentaries on television and build vocabulary by attaching the names of
objects to the things themselves: people need pictures as well as words.

Unabridged dictionaries, often provide pictures of everyday objects: color


plates of insects and flowers, birds and fish; line drawings of tools and
machines. Picture dictionaries also exists. There is ever a splendid visual
glossary entitled what’s what, consisting of hundreds of illustration of everyday
objects-from paper clips to passenger ships-carefully labeled to identify every
part.

Learn by Doing
As you expand your vocabulary, Try construction some analogies using
your new words. Look up one of the words on our High-Frequency of Hot
Prospects World Lists in an unabridged dictionary. See if you can spot a key
word in the definitions given. Use it to construct an analogy of your own, for
example, if you look up amorphous, you will find it defined as “without form of
shape.” Based on this definition, a good analogy would be ANMORPHOUS :
SHAPE. Something amorphous lacks shape.

Go through the list of analogy types, modeling your analogies on the samples
given. You should have no difficulty constructing innumerable variants on
synonyms and antonyms. Challenge yourself. Try to construct analogies where
the relationship is one of cause and effect or one of a part to the whole. The
better able you are to create good analogies of your own, the better able you
will be to analyze the analogies others.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 22 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Practice Exercises
Use the exercises that follow to practice handing analogy questions.
When you’ve completed an exercise, check your answer against the answer key
on page 24, then, read the answer explanations for any questions you either
answered incorrectly or omitted.

The answer explanations will show you how to state the relationship in each
analogy in a good sentence; they provide definitions for words you might not
have known; and they’ll point out the analogy type for each question. So, it you
missed a question because you didn’t understand the relationship between the
words, you’ll see what that relationships was.

Spot the Analogy


For each of the following pairs of words, name the common analogy type
to which it belongs. Use you dictionary if you need to check a definition before
you decide on an analogy type. Than check your answers against the answers
on pages 15 & 16. Any given analogy type may be to used once, twice, or not or
all.

01. SURGEON : SCALPEL


________________________________________________________

02. BARK : TREE


________________________________________________________

03. FLOWER : PEONY


________________________________________________________

04. DRILL : BORE


________________________________________________________

05. MINUTE : HOUR


________________________________________________________

06. COW : HERBIVOROUS


________________________________________________________

07. TENT : SHELTER


________________________________________________________

JAHANGIR ALAM - 23 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

08. EWE : RAM


________________________________________________________

09. SHOAT : PIG


________________________________________________________

10. LAUREL : VICTORY


________________________________________________________

11. FAWN : DEER


________________________________________________________

12. MEAL : LUNCH


________________________________________________________

13. SCULPTOR : STATUE


________________________________________________________

14. TELLER : BANK


________________________________________________________

15. DISPERSE : ASSEMBLE


________________________________________________________

16. DREMCHED : MOIST


________________________________________________________

17. ADORE : LOATHE


________________________________________________________

18. SCULPTOR : MALLET


________________________________________________________

19.VERACIOUS:TRUTHFUL
________________________________________________________

20. ANGLER : FISH


________________________________________________________

JAHANGIR ALAM - 24 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

21. BUTCHER : CLEAVER


________________________________________________________

22. RIDDLE : CRYPTIC


________________________________________________________

23. KAYAK : BOAT


________________________________________________________

24. BROOM : CREAVER


________________________________________________________

25. SOPORIFIC : SLEEP


________________________________________________________

Answer the spot the Analogy practice


01. Worker and tool. A surgeon works with scalpel.
02. Part of object. Bark is a part of a tree.
03. Class and member. A peony is a kind of flower.
04. Tool and its action. A drill is a tool used to bore holes.
05. Part to whole. A minute is part of an hour.
06. Defining characteristic. A cow is defined as herbivorous.
07. Class and member. A tent is a kind of shelter.
08. Gender. A ewe is a female sheep and a ram is a male sheep.
09. Age. A shoat is a young pig.
10. Symbol and what it represents. The laurel is the symbol of victory.
11. Age. A fawn is a young deer.
12. Class and member. One example of a meal is lunch.
13. Worker and article created. A sculptor creates a statue.
14. Worker and workplace. A teller works in a bank.
15. Antonyms. Disperse (scatter) and assemble are opposites.
16. Degree of intensity. Drenched means extremely wet; moist, only
moderately so.
17. Antonyms. Adore and loathe (hate) are opposites.
18. Worker and tool. A sculptor uses a mallet.
19. Synonyms. Veracious and truthful have the same meaning.
20. Function. Angler tries to catch fish.
21. Worker and tool. A butcher uses a cleaver.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 25 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

22. Defining characteristic. A riddle is by definition cryptic (mysterious).


23. Class and member. A kayak is a kind of boat.
24. Tool and object. A broom is a tool used to sweep.
25. Cause and effect. Something soporific induces sleep.

Analogy Exercise – A

Each question below consists of a related pair of words or phrase, followed by


five lettered pairs of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that best
expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.

Example:
YAWN : BOREDOM ::
(A) dream : sleep
(B) anger : madness
(C) smile : amusement
(D) face : expression
(E) impatience : rebellion

01. FISH : TROUT ::


(A) ocean : wave
(B) mammal : whale
(C) bird : aviary
(D) antenna : insect
(E) stag : doe

02. FISH : SCALES ::


(A) book : education
(B) bird : feathers
(C) cat : claws
(D) snake : fangs
(E) song : notes

JAHANGIR ALAM - 26 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

03. FISH : SCHOOL ::


(A) book : education
(B) team : practice
(C) dog : sled
(D) bear : lair
(E) lion : pride

04. CLOCK : TIME ::


(A) watch : wrist
(B) odometer : speed
(C) hourglass : sand
(D) yardstick : distance
(E) radio : sound

05. DOCTOR : DISEASE ::


(A) moron : imbecility
(B) pediatrician : senility
(C) psychiatrist : maladjustment
(D) broker : stocks
(E) charlatan : truth

06. SCISSORS : SEVER ::


(A) scales : average
(B) barrel : roll
(C) eraser : drudge
(D) millstone : grind
(E) varnish : sticky

07. HONE : SHARP ::


(A) polish : shiny
(B) whet : blunt
(C) memorize : minor
(D) erode : moist
(E) varnish : sticky

JAHANGIR ALAM - 27 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

08. PATRON : SUPPORT ::


(A) spouse : divorce
(B) restaurant : management
(C) counselor : advice
(D) host : hostility
(E) artist : imitation

09. DIMMED : LIGHT ::


(A) muffled : sound
(B) muffled : sound
(C) measured : weight
(D) fragrant : smell
(E) garish : color

10. STETHOSCOPE : PHYSICIAN ::


(A) kaleidoscope : mortician
(B) microscope : astronomer
(C) plot : author
(D) studio : sculptor
(E) transit : surveyor

11. DAUNTLESS : COURAGE ::


(A) ruthless : compassion
(B) affable : suspicion
(C) unruffled : composure
(D) energetic : indifference
(E) dutiful : sympathy

12. CUMULONIMBUS : CLOUD ::


(A) grasshopper : insect
(B) rainbow : shower
(C) twilight : dusk
(D) omnibus : road
(E) bough : tree

JAHANGIR ALAM - 28 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

13. OCEAN : BAY ::


(A) archipelago : atoll
(B) island : inlet
(C) headland : promontory
(D) continent : peninsula
(E) derelict : duty

14. INTREPID : VALOR ::


(A) clever : ingenuity
(B) boisterous : grief
(C) timorous : haste
(D) frivolous : fervor
(E) derelict : duty

15. LEOPARD : CARNIVOROUS ::


(A) tiger : ominous
(B) cat : feline
(C) cow : herbivorous
(D) quadruped : four-legged
(E) crab : crustacean

16. VACCINE : PREVENT ::


(A) wound : heal
(B) victim : attend
(C) antidote : counteract
(D) diagnosis : cite
(E) antiseptic : infect

17. ANARCHY : GOVERNMENT ::


(A) penury : wealth
(B) chaos : disorder
(C) monarchy : republic
(D) verbosity : words
(E) ethics : philosophy

JAHANGIR ALAM - 29 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

18. CIRCUITOUS : DIRECTNESS ::


(A) cautious : duplicity
(B) religious : faith
(C) faulty : impropriety
(D) inexact : accuracy
(E) sentimental : hypocrisy

19. IMPECUNIOUS : MONEY ::


(A) generous : charity
(B) impeccable : flaws
(C) honest : integrity
(D) bankrupt : industry
(E) mendacious : dreams

20. DELUGE : SHOWER ::


(A) ecstasy : joy
(B) sophistication : naiveté
(C) opinion : notion
(D) breeze : air
(E) inception : termination

21. ROBIN : NEST ::


(A) horse : stall
(B) antelope : gazelle
(C) alligator : swamp
(D) clam : shell
(E) rabbit : burrow

22. SILO : STORAGE ::


(A) sanctuary : refuge
(B) oasis : mirage
(C) restaurant : corkage
(D) fine : damage
(E) butcher : carnage

JAHANGIR ALAM - 30 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

23. TIRADE : ABUSIVE ::


(A) diatribe : familiar
(B) satire : pungent
(C) panegyric : laudatory
(D) eulogy : regretful
(E) butcher : carnage

24. PRICK : STAB ::


(A) point : thrust
(B) lend : borrow
(C) sip : gulp
(D) thread : sew
(E) push : shove

25. INTEREST : FASCINATE ::


(A) vex : enrage
(B) vindicate : condemn
(C) regret : rue
(D) appall : bother
(E) weary : fatigue

26. INDUSTRIOUS : ASSIDUOUS ::


(A) affluent : impoverished
(B) mendacious : beggarly
(C) fortuitous : fortunate
(D) impecunious : poor
(E) impartial : biased

27. INDUSTRY : BEAVER ::


(A) ferocity : lion
(B) cowardice : tiger
(C) indolence : wolf
(D) forgetfulness : elephant
(E) pride : peacock

JAHANGIR ALAM - 31 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

28. KANGAROO : MARSUPIAL ::


A) rose : hybrid
(B) antelope : gazelle
(C) bee : drone
(D) quail : bevy
(E) mushroom : fungus

29. HELMET : HEAD ::


(A) insignia : office
(B) amulet : shoulder
(C) scepter : bee
(D) gauntlet : hand
(E) planet : sun

30. VENISON : DEER ::


(A) bison : cattle
(B) mutton : sheep
(C) mallard : duck
(D) antler : stag
(E) fawn : doc

31. SOLDIER : REGIMENT ::


(A) colonel : martinet
(B) dancer : balletomane
(C) singer : chorus
(D) trooper : rifle
(E) student : professor

32. LIGHT YEAR : DISTANCE ::


(A) decibel : sound
(B) black hole : proximity
(C) meteor : intensity
(D) microphone : volume
(E) heat wave : brightness

JAHANGIR ALAM - 32 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

33. DEBATER : LARYNGITIS ::


(A) actor : stage fright
(B) pedestrian : sprained ankle
(C) doctor : tonsillitis
(D) writer : thesis
(E) swimmer : aquacade

34. TEAM : ATHLETES ::


(A) gainer : series
(B) alliance : nations
(C) delegates : alternates
(D) congregation : preachers
(E) term : holidays

35. ENTREPRENEUR : PROFITS ::


(A) laborer : wages
(B) manager : employees
(C) moonlighter : debts
(D) arbitrator : complaints
(E) financier : mortgages ***scholar : knowledge

36. ANATHEMA : CURSE ::


(A) benedictions : song
(B) admonition : reproach
(C) supposition : proof
(D) exhortation : flattery
(E) homage : disrespect

37. GUSTATORY : TASTE ::


(A) kinesthetic : sight
(B) olfactory : smell
(C) hortatory : hearing
(D) myopic : vision
(E) palpable : touch

JAHANGIR ALAM - 33 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

38. STUBBORN : MULISH ::


(A) coy : kittenish
(B) fierce : doglike
(C) contrite : lionhearted
(D) devoted : sheepish
(E) glib : fishy

39. RUSE : DECEIVE ::


(A) policy : change
(B) argument : persuade
(C) contrite : lionhearted
(D) strategy : gamble
(E) denial : confuse

40. DRAB : COLOR ::


(A) resonant : sound
(B) insipid : flavor
(C) pungent : smell
(D) pert : liveliness
(E) dismal : size

41. RATTLE : COMPOSE ::


(A) spatter : spill
(B) apron : chef
(C) disperse : collect
(D) crash : collide
(E) clatter : knock

42. LARIAT : COWBOY ::


(A) rink : skater
(B) apron : chef
(C) disperse : collect
(D) crash : collide
(E) snare : trapper

JAHANGIR ALAM - 34 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

43. PREAMBLE : CONSTITUTION ::


(A) amendment : bill
(B) prologue : play
(C) episode : serial
(D) by-line : article
(E) premonition : omen

44. DISBAND : ARMY ::


(A) convene : assembly
(B) muster : platoon
C) dissolve : corporation
(D) abandon : navy
(E) countermand : order

45. DETRITUS : GLACIERS ::


(A) thaw : snowfall
(B) snow : ice cap
(C) silt : rivers
(D) range : mountain
(E) foliage : trees

46. DECREPIT : RENOVATION ::


(A) enervated : invigoration
(B) languid : confrontation
(C) pallid : purification
(D) gullible : vehemence
(E) tearful : reconciliation

47. SILO : CORN :: ::


(A) mill : grain
(B) reservoir : water
(C) acre : wheat
(D) paddy : rice
(E) furrow : seed

JAHANGIR ALAM - 35 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

48. STATIC : MOVEMENT ::


(A) humdrum : excitement
(B) chronic : timeliness
(C) ecstatic : decay
(D) antenna : insect
(E) diligent : industry

49. SIDEREAL : STARS


(A) ethereal : planets
(B) central : earth
(C) chimerical : matter
(D) horticultural : plants
(E) supernatural : heavens

50. DESCRY : DISTANT ::


(A) mourn :lost
(B) whisper : muted
(C) discern : subtle
(D) destroy : flagrant
(E) entrap : hostile

Analogy Exercise – B

Each question below consists of a related pair of words or phrase, followed by


five lettered pairs of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that best
expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.

Example:
YAWN : BOREDOM ::
(A) dream : sleep
(B) anger : madness
(C) smile : amusement
(D) face : expression
(E)impatience : rebellion

JAHANGIR ALAM - 36 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

01. TELLER : BANK :: 03.DEGREE : TEMPERATURE ::


(A) artist : museum (A) ounce : weight
(B) cashier : check (B) fathom : volume
(C) waiter : restaurant (C) mass : energy
(D) borrower : loan (D) time : length
(E) mourner : funeral (E) light : heat

02. INNING : BASEBALL :: 04. PICK : GUITAR ::


(A) round : boxing (A) peg : ukulele
(B) cashier : check (B) string : banjo
(C) touchdown : football (C) pipe : organ
(D) serve : tennis (D) bow : violin
(E) outing : hiking (E) head : tambourine

05. FRAGILE : BREAK :: 12. MILDEW : DANKNESS ::


(A) vital : destroy (A) gangrene : infection
(B) hostile : invite (B) dew : sunshine
(C) vivid : grow (C) dawn : darkness
(D) flexible : bend (D) canker : blossom
(E) fertile : smell (E) rust : hardness

06. SPOKE : WHEEL :: 13. CALLOW : MATURITY ::


(A) square : circle (A) fallow : productivity
(B) balance : lever (B) crusty : incivility
(C) door : latch (C) eager : anxiety
(D) book : shelf (D) spoiled: common sense
(E) rung : ladder (E) callous : growth

07. VESSEL : FLEET :: 14. ENIGMA : PUZZLING ::


(A) wolf : pack (A) dilemma : compelling
(B) forest : clearing (B) labyrinth : disorienting
(C) vehicle : truck (C) sphinx : massive
(D) carriage : horse (D) riddle : humorous
(E) matador : squadron (E) maze : extensive

JAHANGIR ALAM - 37 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

08. PICADOR : BULL :: 15. KERNEL : CORN ::


(A) heckler : speaker (A) neck : bottle
(B) executioner : victim (B) eye : storm
(C) shepherd : sheep (C) grain : wheat
(D) singer : song (D) stem : carrot
(E) matador : cow (E) nose : bouquet

09. CORPULENCE : STOUT :: 16. FLABBY : FIRMNESS ::


(A) baldness : hirsute (A) definite : accuracy
(B) erudition : learned (B) tired : fatigue
(C) gauntness : beautiful (C) solvent : wealth
(D) steadfastness : mercurial (D) defiant : strength
(E) competence : strict (E) humble : arrogance

10. ASYLUM : SHELTER :: 17. ARCHIPELAGO : ISLAND ::


(A) harbor : concealment (A) peninsula : strait
(B) palisade : display (B) cluster : star
(C) stronghold : defense (C) border : nation
(D) hospice : exile (D) nucleus : atom
(E) cloister : storage (E) skyscraper : building

11. MOTION PICTURE : SCENARIO :: 18. HOBBLE : WALK ::


(A) drama : setting (A) gallop : run
(B) play : plot (B) stammer : speak
(C) theater : program (C) stumble : fall
(D) ballet : pirouette (D) sniff : smell
(E) recital : review (E) amble : stroll

19. INCUBATOR : INFANT :: 26.UNEMPLOYED : WORKER ::


(A) henhouse : chicken (A) unknown : artist
(B) greenhouse : plant (B) fallow : field
(C) archives : document (C) renovated : house
(D) cooler : wine (D) observant : spectator
(E) hive : bee (E) unconscious : sleeper

JAHANGIR ALAM - 38 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

20. MINISTER : SERMON :: 27. DISCONSOLATE : GRIEF ::


(A) politician : promises (A) fatuous : weight
(B) heckler : interruptions (B) incurable : disease
(C) doctor : diagnosis (C) explicit : statement
(D) lecturer : speech (D)perfunctory : sympathy
(E) curator : museum (E) solitary : confinement

21. HOBNOB : COMPANIONS :: 28. CATCALL : DERISON ::


(A) conspire : plotters (A) wolf whistle : admiration
(B) kowtow : servants (B) horselaugh : dismay
(C) blackmail : police C) snort : approval
(D) kidnap : victims (D) mutter : indifference
(E) quarrel : friends (E) sputter : sympathy

22. GOURMET : DELICACY :: 29. CRACK : CIPHER ::


(A) clairvoyant : séance (A) break : platter
(B) connoisseur : masterpiece (B) divide : number
(C) socialite : seclusion (C) strike : hammer
(D) commoner : aristocracy (D) unbridle : mystery
(E) chef : scullery (E) detonate : revolver

23. INADVERTENT : THOUGHT :: 30. PAN : CAMERA ::


(A) gauche : grace (A) ban : book
(B) clandestine : secrecy (B) tune : radio
(C) lugubrious : gloom (C) charge : battery
(D) wealthy : money (D) filter : lens
(E) curious : opinion (E) rotate : periscope

24. GAGGLE : GEESE :: 31. HAIR : SCALP ::


(A) coop : chickens (A) dimple : cheek
(B) muzzle : dogs (B) elbow : knee
(C) gill : fish (C) tooth : gum
(D) swarm : bees (D) beard : moustache
(E) waddle : ducks (E) waist : torso

JAHANGIR ALAM - 39 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

25. TIFF : QUARREL :: 32. BUSTLE : MOVE ::


(A) conflagration : fire (A) hum : sing
(B) truce : battle (B) shuffle : walk
(C) peccadillo : offense (C) lope : run
(D) reconciliation : divorce (D) glide : dance
(E) stag : doe (E) chatter : talk

33. TOLERANCE : BIGOTRY :: 40. GEOLOGIST : FELDSPAR


::
(A) prodigality : ribaldry (A) meteorologist : orbit
(B) magnanimity : parsimony (B) botanist : zinnia
(C) exigency : urgency (C) architect : monolith
(D) emulation : rivalry (D) cosmetologist : space
(E) patience : conformity (E) philanthropist : stamp

34. BUNGLER : COMPETENCE :: 41.FELON:PENITENTIARY ::


(A) beggar : influence (A) perjurer : perjury
(B) jester : wit (B)conniver : constabulary
(C) meddler : patience (C) malefactor : sanctuary
(D) grumbler : satisfaction (D)juvenile delinquent : reformatory
(E) cobbler : leather (E) hedonist : confessional

35. ABHOR : DISLIKE :: 42. TRAVELER : ITINERARY


::
(A) calcify : petrify (A) tourist : vacation
(B) torture : discomfort (B) lecturer : outline
(C) rebuke : ridicule (C) pedestrian : routine
(D) admire : disdain (D) explorer : safari
(E) magnify : enlarge (E) soldier : furlough

36. BULLY : BLUSTER :: 43. AERIE : EAGLE ::


(A) coward : rant (A) hawk : falcon
(B) charlatan : snivel (B) viper : reptile
(C) cutthroat : mutter (C) venom : rattlesnake
(D) stool pigeon : squeal (D) lair : wolf
(E) blackguard : cringe (E) fang : adder

JAHANGIR ALAM - 40 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

37. CARESS : AFFECTION :: 44. IMPROMPTU : REHEARSAL ::


(A) curtsy : respect (A) practiced : technique
(B) salute : admiration (B) makeshift : whim
(C) handshake : indifference (C) offhand : premeditation
(D) wink : suspicion (D) glib : fluency
(E) wave : agitation (E) numerical : calculation

38. FOOLHARDY : CAUTION :: 45. EVANESCENT : VANISH AWAY ::


(A) hardhearted : fear (A) volatile : vaporize
(B) careworn : anxiety (B) incandescent : flee
(C) high-strung : tension (C) ethereal : drift
(D) thick-skinned : sensitivity (D) celestial : disappear
(E) spendthrift : resource (E) transient : gravitate

39. VERTEX : CONE :: 46. RILE : ANGER ::


(A) perimeter : rectangle (A) intimidate : fear
(B) whirlpool : pond (B) suppress : rebellion
(C) pod : seed (C) disappoint : expectation
(D) peak : mountain (D) avenge : insult
(E) step : staircase (E) soothe : annoyance

47. STICKLER : INSIST :: 49. RAREFY : DENSE ::


(A) mumble : enunciate (A) amplify : loud
(B) haggler : risk (B) inoculate : infectious
(C) haggler : concede (C) mystify : obscure
(D) laggard : outlast (D) condense : compact
(E) braggart : boast (E) soften : hard

48. PLUMAGE : BIRD :: 50. ABOLITIONIST : SLAVERY ::


(A) foliage : horse (A) capitalist : commerce
(B) fleece : sheep (B) militarist : war
(C) forage : cattle (C) pugilist : victory
(D) hive : bee (D) conservationist : wildlife
(E) carnage : beast (E) prohibitionist : liquor

JAHANGIR ALAM - 41 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Answer Key
Analogy Exercise – A

01. B 11. C 21. E 31. C


41. C
02. B 12. A 22. A 32. A
42. E
03. E 13. D 23. C 33. B
43. B
04. D 14. A 24. C 34. B
44. C
05. C 15. C 25. A 35. A
45. C
06. D 16. C 26. D 36. B
46. A
07. A 17. A 27. E 37. B
47. B
08. C 18. D 28. E 38. A
48. A
09. B 19. B 29. D 39. B
49. D
10. E 20. A 30. B 40. B
50. C

JAHANGIR ALAM - 42 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Analogy Exercise – B

01. C 11. B 21. A 31. C


41. D
02. A 12. A 22. B 32. E
42. B
03. A 13. A 23. A 33. B
43. D
04. D 14. B 24. D 34. D
44. C
05. D 15. C 25. C 35. B
45. A
06. E 16. E 26. B 36. D
46. A
07. A 17. B 27. B 37. A
47. E
08. A 18. B 28. A 38. D
48. B
09. B 19. B 29. D 39. D
49. E
10. C 20. D 30. E 40. B
50. E

JAHANGIR ALAM - 43 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

Answer Explanations
Analogy Exercise – A

01. B. trout is a kind of fish. A whale is a kind of mammal.


(Class and Member)
02. B. The body of a fish is covered with scales. The body of a bird is
covered with feathers.
(Defining Characteristic)
03. E. A school is a group of fish. A pride is a group of lions.
(Part of Whole)
04. D. A clock measures time. A yardstick measures distance.
(Function)
05. C. A doctor attempts to treat a disease. A psychiatrist attempts to treat
maladjustment.
(Function)
06. D. Scissors by definition cut or sever. A millstone by definition grinds.
(Tool and Action)
07. A. One hones or sharpens something to make it sharp. One polishes
something to make it shiny.
(Cause and Effect)
08. C. A patron by definition provides patronage or support. A counselor by
definition provides
advice.
(Defining Characteristic)
09. B. Light that is dimmed is lessened in brightness. Sound that is muffled
is lessened in volume.
(Manner)
10. E. A stethoscope is the tool of a physician. A transit (measuring
instrument) is the tool of a surveyor.
(Worker and Tool)
11. C. Someone dauntless (unable to be frightened) possesses courage.
Someone unruffled (not
flustered) possesses composure (poise).
(Synonym Variant)
12. A. A cumulonimbus is a kind of cloud. A grasshopper is a kind of insect.
(Class and Member)
13. D. A bay is an inlet, part of an ocean or sea that projects out into the
land. A peninsula is a point
of land, part of a continent that projects out into the water.
(Part to Whole)
14. A. Someone intrepid (brave) shows valor (bravery). Someone clever
shows ingenuity (cleverness).
(Synonym Variant)

JAHANGIR ALAM - 44 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

15. C. A leopard is a carnivorous (meat-eating) animal. A cow is a


herbivorous (grass-eating)
animal.
(Defining Characteristic)
16. C. A vaccine’s purpose, is to prevent the harmful development of
disease-causing micro
organisms. An antidote’s purpose is to counteract the harmful effects
of poison.
(Function)
17. A. Anarchy is the absence of government. Penury (poverty) is the
absence of wealth.
(Cause and Effect)
18. D. Something circuitous (roundabout) is lacking in directness.
Something inexact (inaccurate)
is lacking in accuracy.
(Antonym Variant)
19. B. Impecunious (impoverished) means without money. Impeccable
(flawless) means without
flaws.
(Antonym Variant)
20. A. A deluge (flood; drenching rain burst) is more intense than a shower.
Ecstasy (rapture) is
more intense than joy.
(Degree of Intensity)
21. E. A robin constructs a nest to live in. A rabbit digs out a burrow to live
in.
(Defining Characteristic)

22. A. The function of a silo is to provide storage space. The function of a


sanctuary is to provide
refuge or shelter.
(Function)
23. C. A tirade (bitter, condemnatory speech) is by definition abusive. A
panegyric (speech of
praise) is by definition laudatory.
(Defining Characteristic)
24. C. To prick someone is not as extreme as to stab him. To sip something
is not as extreme as to
gulp it.
(Degree of Intensity)
25. A. To fascinate (interest strongly) is to involve more intensely than
merely to interest. To
enrage (anger deeply) is more intense than merely to vex (annoy).
(Degree of Intensity)

JAHANGIR ALAM - 45 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

26. D. Industrious (hard-working) and assiduous are synonyms.


Impoverished and poor are
synonyms also.
(Synonyms)
27. E. The beaver is a symbol of industry (“busy as a beaver”). The peacock
is a symbol of pride
(“proud as a peacock”).
(Symbol and Abstraction It Represents)
28. E. A kangaroo is a kind of marsupial. A mushroom is a kind of fungus.
(Class and Member)
29. D. A helmet protects the head. A gauntlet (armored glove) protects
the hand.
(Function)
30. B. Venison is the meat of a deer. Mutton is the meat of a sheep.
(Defining Characteristic)
31. C. A soldier is part of a regiment (military unit). A singer is part of a
chorus (singers unit).
(Part to Whole)
32. A. A light year is a measure of distance. A decibel is a measure of
sound.
(Function)
33. B. Laryngitis is a physical ailment that could prevent a debater (public
speaker) from
functioning. A sprained ankle is a physical ailment that could
prevent a pedestrian.
(Cause and Effect)
34. B. A team is made up of athletes. An alliance is made up of nations.
(Group and Member)
35. A. An entrepreneur (organizer of a business) works for profits. A
laborer works for wager.
(Person and Objective)
36. B. An anathema is a curse. An admonition is a reproach or scolding.
(Synonyms)
37. B. Gustatory by definition means related to the sense of taste.
Olfactory by definition means
related to the sense of smell.
(Defining Characteristic)
38. A. A stubborn and mulish are synonyms. Coy (flirtatious; artfully shy)
and kittenish are
synonyms.

JAHANGIR ALAM - 46 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

(Synonyms)
39. B. The purpose of a ruse (trick or stratagem) is to deceive. The
purpose of an argument is
to persuade.
(Function)
40. B. Drab (dull, colorless) means lacking in color. Insipid (bland) means
lacking in flavor.
(Antonym Variant)
41. C. To rattle or fluster is the opposite of to compose or calm. To
disperse or scatter is the
opposite of to gather or collect.
(Antonyms)
42. E. A lariat or lasso is a tool a cowboy uses to catch animals. Similarly,
a snare is a tool a
trapper uses to catch animals.
(Worker and Tool)
43. B. A preamble or preface introduces a constitution. A prologue or
introduction introduces a
play.
(Part to Whole)
44. C. To break up an army is to disband it. To break up a corporation is
to dissolve it.
(Function)
45. C. Detritus is disintegrated debris found deposited in the path of a
glacier. Silt is
disintegrated rock particles found deposited in the path of a river.
(Defining Characteristic)
46. A. Something decrepit (worn out; broken down) needs renovation.
Someone enervated
(exhausted; tired out) needs invigoration.
(Antonym Variant)
47. B. A silo is built to store or hold corn on grain. A reservoir is built to
store or hold water.
(Function)
48. A. Something static (unmoving) lacks movement. Something
humdrum (dull) lacks
excitement.
(Antonym Variant)

JAHANGIR ALAM - 47 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

49. D. Sidereal means pertaining to the stars. Horticultural means


pertaining to the cultivation
of plants.
(Defining Characteristic)
50. C. To descry something is to make out or see something that is
distant. To discern something is to make out or see something that is subtle.
(Defining Characteristic)

Answer Explanations
Analogy Exercise – B

01. C. A teller works in a bank. A waiter works in a restaurant.


(Worker and Workplace)
02. A. An inning is a division of a baseball game. A round is a division of
a boxing match.
(Part to Whole)
03. A. A degree is a measure of temperature. An ounce is a measure of
weight.
(Function)
04. D. A pick is a device used to pluck or sound the strings of a guitar. A
bow is an instrument
used to play or sound the strings of a violin.
(Tool and Action)
05. D. Something fragile or delicate is able to break. Something flexible is
able to bend.
(Definition)
06. E. A spoke is part of a wheel. A rung is part of a ladder.
(Part to Whole)
07. A. A fleet is made up of vessels. A pack is made up of wolves.
(Part to Whole)
08. A. A picador physically jabs at a bull to annoy it. A heckler verbally
jabs at a speaker to
annoy him.
(Function)
09. B. Corpulence (fatness) is the state of being stout. Erudition
(scholarliness) is the state of
being knowledgeable or learned.
(Synonym Variant)
JAHANGIR ALAM - 48 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com
ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

10. C. An asylum provides refuge or shelter. A stronghold or fortress


provides defense.
(Function)
11. B. A scenario is the story line of a motion picture. A plot is the story
line of a play.
(Defining Characteristic)
12. A. Dankness or dampness leads to mildew (spreading discoloration, as
of fabric) Infection
leads to gangrene (spreading tissue rot).
(Cause and Effect)
13. A. A callow (immature) person is lacking in maturity. A fallow
(uncultivated) field is lacking
in productivity.
(Antonym Variant)
14. B. An enigma or puzzle is by definition puzzling. A labyrinth or maze
is by definition
disorienting.
(Defining Characteristic)
15. C. A kernel is a seed of corn. A grain is a seed of wheat.
(Defining Characteristic)
16. E. Flabby means lacking firmness. Humble means lacking arrogance
(modest).
(Antonym Variant)
17. B. An archipelago is a group of islands. A cluster is a group of stars.
(Part to Whole)
18. B. To hobble is to walk laboriously and with difficulty. To stammer is
to speak laboriously
and with difficulty.
(Manner)

19. B. Incubator is a machine that take care of immature infants.


Greenhouse is a house that
take care of plants.
(Object and its Action)
20. D. A sermon is a religious discourse delivered by a minister. A speech
is a formal discourse
delivered by a lecturer.
(Defining Characteristic)

JAHANGIR ALAM - 49 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

21. A. Companions by definition socialize or hobnob with one another.


Potters by definition
conspire or scheme with one another.
(Defining Characteristic)
22. B. A gourmet is an appreciator and judge of food delicacies. A
connoisseur is an appreciator
and judge of masterpieces of art.
(Defining Characteristic)
23. A. Something inadvertent or unintentional is lacking in thought.
Something gauche or
clumsy is lacking in grace.
(Antonym Variant)
24. D. A gaggle is a group of geese. A swarm is a group of bees.
(Group and Member)
25. C. A tiff is a slight or petty quarrel. A peccadillo is a slight or petty
sin or offense.
(Degree of Member)
26. B. A worker that is unemployed by definition is not being productive.
A field that is fallow
(uncultivated) by definition is not being productive.
(Function)
27. B. A grief that is disconsolate is not able to be cased or consoled. A
disease that is incurable
is not able to be cured.
(Manner)
28. A. A catcall expresses derision or disapproval. A wolf whistle
expresses admiration.
(Action and Significance)
29. D. To crack a cipher (code) is to solve or decode it. To unbridle a
mystery is to puzzle it out
or solve it.
(Function)
30. E. To pan a camera is to rotate it to get a comprehensive view. To
rotate a periscope is to
turn it to get a comprehensive view.
(Function)
31. C. Hair grows from the scalp. A tooth grows from the gum.
(Location)

JAHANGIR ALAM - 50 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

32. E. To bustle is to move in a hurried manner, with more fuss than


productivity. To chatter
is to talk in a hurried manner, with more sound than sense.
(Function)
33. B. Tolerance is the opposite of prejudice or bigotry. Magnanimity
(greatness of spirit;
generosity) is the opposite of parsimony or stinginess.
(Antonyms)
34. D. A bungler (fumbler; person who botches things) lacks competence
or skill. A grumbler
(complainer) lacks contentment or satisfaction.
(Antonym Variant)
35. B. To abhor (greatly hate) someone is more intense than to dislike
him. To torture someone
is more intense than merely to discomfort or disturb or bother
him.
(Degree of Intensity)
36. D. A bully by definition is someone who blusters or storms around
uttering threats. A stool
pigeon (informer or tattletale) by definition is someone who
squeals.
(Definition)
37. A. A caress or embrace is a sign of affection. A curtsy is a sign of
politeness or respect.
(Action and Significance)
38. D. Someone foolhardy (rash, unthinking) lacks caution. Someone
thick-skinned lacks
sensitivity.
(Antonym Variant)
39. D. The vertex is defined as the top part of a cone. A peak is defined as
the top part of a
mountain.
(Part to Whole)
40. B. A geologist studies rocks; feldspar is a kind of rock. A botanist
studies plants; a zinnia is
a kind of plant.
(Defining Characteristic)
41. D. A felon (major offender) is confined in a penitentiary. A juvenile
delinquent (youthful

JAHANGIR ALAM - 51 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

offender) is confined in a reformatory.


(Function)
42. B. A traveler follows an itinerary (plans of journey). A lecturer
follows an outline (lecture
plan)
(Defining Characteristic)
43. D. An aerie is the resting pace of an eagle. A lair is the resting place of
a wolf.
(Function)
44. C. Something impromptu or improvised is performed without
rehearsal. Something offhand
is said or done without premeditation or advance thought.
(Antonym Variant)
45. A. Something evanescent tends to vanish away or disappear.
Something volatile tends to
vaporize or evaporate.
(Definition)
46. A. To rile someone is by definition to arouse anger. To intimidate
someone is by definition
to arouse fear.
(Defining Characteristic)
47. E. A stickler (person who insists on something) by definition insists.
A braggart (boaster) by
definition boasts.
(Definition)
48. B. A bird’s plumage is its feathery outer covering. A sheep’s fleece is its
wooly outer
covering.
(Antonym Variant)
49. E. To rarefy something is by definition to make it less dense (like a gas).
To soften something is
by definition to make it less hard.
(Antonym Variant)
50. E. An abolitionist is a person who seeks to put an end to the practice of
slavery. A prohibitionist
is a person who seeks to put an end to the use of hard liquor.
(Defining Characteristic)

JAHANGIR ALAM - 52 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com


ENGLISH::ANALOGY BBA(MGT)-RU

JAHANGIR ALAM
BBA (pursuing)
Department of Management
University of Rajshahi
Rajshahi.

THE LARGEST UNIVERSITY OF ASIAN


SUBCONTINENT PROVIDING ACADEMIC
EXCELLENCE.
JAHANGIR ALAM - 53 - E-mail: orionru10@gmail.com