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Acupuncture is a technique of inserting and manipulating fine filiform needles into specific points on the body to relieve pain and for therapeutic purposes. There are many variations of acupuncture, involving different kinds of needles, different insertion points, different techniques, and the use of various accompaniments such as electricity or moxibustion.
Willem ten Rhijne -Dutch physician who visited Nagasaki in Japan in the early part of the 17th century (Latin) acus = "needle´ pungere = "to prick" George Soulié de Morant The French who first used acupuncture connected with Qi. yin and yang (20th century) . meridians.
Yin Yang Health = balanced state Disorder/Disease = imbalance leading ti blockade of Qi . the body is seen as a delicate balance of two inseparable.In Traditional Chinese Medicine. opposing yet complementary forces.
bedwetting. arthritis. People go to acupuncturists for treatment of pain. diarrhea. fatigue. paralysis. flu. epilepsy. high blood pressure. depression. . correct imbalances of flow at identifiable points close to the skin. vision problems. sinus problems. nausea. it has been theorized. stroke.Acupuncture may. stress. allergies. just about anything else that might ail a human being. headaches. smoking. bladder and kidney problems. In short. constipation. migraines. sexual dysfunction. dizziness. asthma. drug addiction.
scientists and practitioners argue as to where and when acupuncture started. archaeologists. . Historians.HISTORY Acupuncture's origins are uncertain and controversial.
it was accidentally discovered by warring soldiers.500 years ago but some authorities claim that it has been practiced in China for some 4.000 years.China Component of the health care system of China that can be traced back at least 2. . According to one legend.
Mongolia Stone acupuncture needles dating back to 3000 B. have been archeologists in Inner Mongolia.C. found by .
.Europe Some scientists believe that acupuncture was practiced elsewhere in Eurasia during the early Bronze Age. A treatment modality similar to acupuncture thus appears to have been in use long before its previously known period of use in the medical tradition of ancient China.. .200 years ago. This raises the possibility of acupuncture having originated in the Eurasian continent at least 2000 years earlier than previously recognised.The Lancet . We hypothesised that there might have been a medical system similar to acupuncture (Chinese Zhenjiu: needling and burning) that was practiced in Central Europe 5.
. Japan and Vietnam and elsewhere in East Asia.Contemporary Acupuncture spread from China to Korea. Portuguese missionaries in the 16th century were among the first to bring reports of acupuncture to the West. a New York Times journalist. Brought attention in the West by James Reston.
Shen and the Jing The Five Elements Earth Fire Wind Water Metal .THE EIGHT PRINCIPLES OF ACUPUNCTURE The Three Treasures Qi.
. Jing cannot be replaced by any other thing in our life. Jing Responsible for our physical growth.Shen Gives our life brightness and is believed to be responsible for all the mental abilities that we are able to do and our consciousness. development and also reproduction.
Well nourished = healthy being b. Classification of Qi According to Source a.Qi It is the fundamental substance that permeates the universe. .Congenital Qi or Yuan Qi or Primary Qi It is inherited from the parents. Acquired Qi This is obtained after birth.
Ta Qi Qi inhaled by the lungs. moistening the skin and hair and warming the Zang-Fu organs. b2. b3. b3. Ying Qi (Nutrient Qi) From Food Essence.b1. It circulates in the vessels. We Qi (Defensive Qi) From Food Essence and circulates around the blood vessel and protects the muscles and skin surface layer. Therefore. . Zong Qi (Pectoral Qi) Combination of Qin Qi (taken from inhalation) and Food Essence (Qi that is produced by the spleen and stomach). it is capable of defending against exogenous pathogenic factors by strengthening the pores and body.
intermediate and deep. the channels. Promoting Function -growth and development of the body and it controls the Zang-Fu organs. Warming Function -maintenance and adjustments of body temperature c.Functions of the Qi a. Defensive Function Wei Qi Function d. circulation of the Blood and body fluid. Nourishing Function The Acquired Qi supports the daily functional activities as well as the three level of Qi circulation²superficial. e. Checking Function -Controls and regulates body substances and metabolic products by circulating in the vessels and helping to check sweating and urination. . b.
The Five Elements Basically the main purpose why these elements were discovered was to define nature. illnesses and symptoms in this simplified manner to experiment them and also find their treatments later on based on this system. . They though this system created a simple method to remove chaos from the system by ordering all the things that could be memorized. passed and created in the future. They categorized all the things.Wu Xing .
light and energy as embodied in the TCM functions of the heart (yin) and small intestine (yang). while the spleen transforms and transports the energy from food and drink throughout the body. The fire element also affects the complementary organ processes of the pericardium (yin) and the triple warmer. The stomach begins the process of digestive breakdown. fertile. Joy (overindulgence) is the emotion which creates imbalance within this element. this element includes the lungs (yin). which move vital energy throughout the body. Sadness.Hot. and the large intestine (yang). lower. and middle parts of the body. Productive. Pensiveness is the emotion which creates imbalance within this element. as well as the circulation of fluids in these areas (yang). As a conductor. which is representative of the upper. ascending. . growth. or grieving is the emotion which creates imbalance within this element. The earth element relates to the stomach (yang) and the spleen (yin). which is responsible for receiving and discharging waste.
flowing. Anger is the emotion that creates imbalance within the liver. Fear and paranoia are the emotions which create imbalance within this element. descending. . Water metabolism dissipates fluids throughout the body. and serve as the root of yin and yang for the entire body. The kidneys also store the essence. and excretes urine. and the gall bladder (yang).Water Wet. The water element represents the urinary bladder (yang). The gallbladder is responsible for storing and excreting bile. and the kidney (yin). The liver stores blood. then accumulating in the kidneys. The wood element represents the liver (yin). Strong. stores. rooted. The bladder receives. and regulates the smooth flow of Qi. moistening it. while indecisiveness is relative to the gallbladder.
gall bladder. liver. Fu refers to the yang organs ² small intestine. pericardium. Each Zang is paired with a Fu. except the pericardium and san jiao which both describe functions that are not related to an organ. large intestine. urinary bladder. spleen. lung. On the other hand.THE ZANG-FU It is a concept within Traditional Chinese Medicine that describes the functions of the organs of the body and the interactions that occur between them. Zang refers to the yin organs ² heart. stomach and san jiao (triple burners/warmers). kidney. and each pair are assigned to one of the Wu Xing . Each of the twelve Zang-Fu organs listed have a corresponding organ.
There are 12 main meridians. and three yin and three yang on each leg. ***The acupuncture points (or holes as the Chinese term Xue is more aptly translated means) are the locations where the Qi of the channels rises close to the surface of the body. . there are three yin and three yang channels on each arm.CHANNELS OR MERIDIANS Chinese use the term "jing luo" These are the invisible channels through which Qi circulate throughout the body.
.The meridian¶s main functions are: a) connecting the interior with the exterior of the body b) moving Qi and blood and regulating yin and yang c) preventing pathogenic factors and reflecting the nature of disease d) accepting stimulation and adjusting deficiency and excess.
stagnated or weakened = result in physical. mental or emotional ill health. . To restore the balance« the acupuncturist stimulates the acupuncture points that will counteract that imbalance.Qi flows freely = body is balanced and healthy Qi is blocked.
Yinwie. and Yangqiao Their main function is to regulate the circulation of Qi and blood in the twelve regular channels. Dai. Yinqiao. Yangwei. excess Qi and blood flow into the eight extra channels to be stored for later use.EIGHT EXTRA CHANNELS Ren. . Du. Chong. When these regular channels are overfull.
Auscultation and olfaction refer. Guan. thirst and taste. color and coating. tension. .TRADITIONAL DIAGNOSIS Inspection focuses on the face and particularly on the tongue. including analysis of the tongue size. pain. Palpation includes feeling the body for ³ashi´ (tender) points. and palpation of the left and right radial pulses at two levels of pressure (superficial and deep) and three positions Cun. and menses and leukorrhea. middle and ring fingers). usually palpated with the index. appetite. defecation and urination. perspiration. Inquiring focuses on the "seven inquiries". and one and two fingers' breadth proximally. and the absence or presence of teeth marks around the edge. Chi (immediately proximal to the wrist crease. to listening for particular sounds (such as wheezing) and attending to body odor. respectively. sleep. shape. which are: chills and fever.
the sharp round needle for rapid pricking. or gold and silver. and seem to have been first used about 2. the sword-like needle for draining abscesses. the long needle for thick muscles and the large needle for puncturing painful joints.ACUPUNCTURE NEEDLES The 'nine needles' comprised the arrowhead needle for superficial pricking.000 years ago. The 'nine needles' were initially made of either bronze. the blunt needle for knocking or pressing. . the three edged needle for puncturing a vein. the filiform needle. the round needle for massaging.
EFFECTS OF ACUPUNCTURE THE THEORIES The Gate Control Theory of Pain Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall in 1962 and in 1965. psychologically and pharmacologically. the perception of pain can be altered (gated on or off) by a number of means physiologically. . The "gating of pain" is controlled by the inhibitory action on the pain pathways. Pain blockade at the brain via the release of endogenous opioid (natural pain killers in the brain) neurohormones. That is.
Acupuncture works by influencing the body's electromagnetic fields. and stimulating these points alters chemical neurotransmitters in the body. Acupuncture points have certain electrical properties.Electrical Theory of Pain Studies have shown that there is a correlation between the electromagnetic fields in the body and the channels or meridians. .
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