Criminal Psychology

Dr Neil Sequeira

What is criminal psychology?
The application of psychological principles to criminal activity. Involves: i Criminal behav or R sk assessment Cr me prevent on The cr m nal just ce system

What is meant by ´criminal behavior?
Conditions resulting in criminal behavior include: i Antisocial personality disorder i Sociopathy Psychopathy Conduct D sorder Borderl ne personal ty d sorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder
i Manipulates, exploits, or violates the rights of others. i Behavior is often criminal i Chronic behavior that begins in childhood i Fire-setting and cruelty to animals during childhood are often present

Anti-social Personality Disorder Symptoms:
i Breaks the law repeatedly i Lies, steals, and fights often i Disregards the safety of self and others i Demonstrates a lack of guilt i Had a childhood diagnosis (or symptoms consistent with) conduct disorder

Sociopath
i Person having antisocial personality disorder i Physical aggression i Disregard for others i Inability to keep a job or form relationships i Violates the rights of others i Lack of regret for inappropriate actions

Psychopath:
i No concerns for the feelings of others i Complete disregard for social obligation. i Egocentric i no sense of responsibility or consequence. i Emotions are superficial, shallow, or absent i Callous i Manipulative i Incapable of forming lasting relationships i Incapable of meaningful love. i Acts only for personal benefit

Sociopath vs Psychopath
i Psychopaths are
More organized in crimes Less easily recognized appear g normalh More cunnin

i Sociopath s are
More a itated/nervous Act more spontaneously More socially inadequate don t it in

Anti-social Personality Disorder vs Psychopathy
All psychopaths have antisocial personality disorder, but not all patients with ASPD are psychopaths Hmmmm__

Conduct Disorder
i The childhood equivalent of Antisocial personality disorder i Characterized by:
Aggression to people/animals Destruction of property Deceitfulness, lying, stealing Serious violation of rules

Borderline Personality Disorder
i Pattern of instability in:
Interpersonal relationships Self image Affect (emotion) and mood Impulsiveness Anger and ability to control anger

i Often leads to self-damaging behavior i Frequent history of physical fights and abuse.

Types of criminal behavior
i Arson i Stalking i Rape i Murder
Mass murder Serial killers

i Gang Activity

Arson
i Arson is usually for profit, or from anger i Most arsonists are young, white males i Most arsonists have unstable family history & background of humiliation i Other motivations are excitement, revenge, thrills, sexual gratification

Firefighters and Arson
i Arson is sometimes perpetrated by firefighters i Firefighters looking for a way to achieve glory and g hero-statush i Firefi h ter arsonists may h ave few oth er ways to build self-esteem i Many work for slow departments and are ea er for action

Firefighter Arsonists
White male, age 17-26 Product of a disruptive, harsh, or unstable home Poor relationship with dad, overprotective mom If married, poor marital adjustment Lacking in social and interpersonal skills employed in low-paying jobs Fascinated with fire service May be facing unusual stress (family, financial, or legal problems i Average to above-average intelligence but poor to fair academic performance i i i i i i i i

Red Flag Behavior for children
i Children who start playing with matches or fire as early as age 3 i Children who frequently engage in "daredevil" behavior, especially near fire i Children who mix chemicals or engage in "secret" fire settings in which they try different mixtures i Those who are noticeably excited while watching fires

Stalking
Repeated harassment or other forms of invasion of a person's privacy in a manner that causes fear to its target. Statutes vary between jurisdiction but may include such acts as:
i repeated physi followi cal ng i unwanted contact i observi a person's acti closely for an ng ons extended peri of ti od me i contacti fami members, fri ng ly ends, or associ ates of a target i nappropri ately i Cyberstalki ng

Stalking Psychology
i Some stalkers believe they can make the victim love them i Stalkers often manipulate through threats of suicide or intimidation i Stalkers often objectify the victim so they will feel less guilt about actions i Most stalking doesn t lead to violence

Types of Stalkers
i Rejected: want to revenge some rejection i Resentful: have some grievance with victim & want to frighten them i Intimacy: lovesh th e victim & wants th em

Types of Stalkers
i Eroto-maniac: imagines the victim is in love with them (common with celebrities) i Incompetent: feel entitiled to imtimacy despite poor social skills i Predatory: stalk to plan an attack (often sexual) on the victim

Rape
Definition: an act of sexual violence which is accompanied by threat and intimidation, and which is imposed upon a victim against his/her will Rape is about power, control, domination. Rape is not about sex, though it is a violent crime that is expressed sexually.

Types of Rape
i Stranger rape (by a person unknown) i Date or associate rape (by a relative, colleague, husband, or friend) i Gang rape (by a number of men during one incident)

Patterns of Rape
i Most rapists show no sign of psychopathology i Most rapes occur indoors i Most victims know their attackers i Most rapes are planned i Most rapes are about humiliation, domination and degradation i Violence is an effective tool against most rapists

Rapists
Of 41 convicted serial rapists Interviewed: i 85% were whi te i 54% had generally stable employment i 71% had been marri ed i 78% li wi a partner ved th i 87% had average or above IQ scores i 76% had been sexually abused as chi ldren i 54% were soci o-economi cally average or + i 51% had served i the armed forces n

Four Types of Rapists
i Type 1: thinking about violence against women causes sexual arousal i Type 2: mistakenly believes that some women enjoy being raped, or want to be raped; uses rape to show masculinity. Most date rapists are Type 2s.

Four Types of Rapists
i Type 3: uses sex to deal with their anger (especially against women). This is the most violent and most dangerous. i Type 4: the repeat offender. most likely to have been abused as a child. difficulty establishing enduring relationships, and a history of chronic problems in schools or with family.

Rape Techniques
i The e : openly approache s victim Con with re que st or offe r of assistance (police office r, injury, he lpful bystande r) i The eBlitzf ove rpowe rs the victim with : a dire ct, physical assault i The eSurprise f pre -me ditate d : approach while victim is asle e p or distracte d; rare ly involve s injury

Multiple Murderers
i Multiple murderers are people who have killed more than one victim. i multiple killers are classified into three basic categories
mass murderers spree killers Serial killers

Mass Murderers
i kills four or more people at one location during one continuous period of time, whether it is a few minutes or over a period of days. Make no attempt to hide Often die by suicide or police after incident

Three Types of Mass Murderers:
i Family annihilators i Paramilitary/political enthusiasts i Revenge/Disgruntled workers

Family Annihilators
i In 2007, A man in LAYTONSVILLE, Md., shot and killed his ex-wife, their three children (12 y/o boy, 10 y/o girl, 6 y/o boy) and himself after winning custody of the kids in a divorce. i Ronald Lee Simmons: the father of his daughter's son, killed fourteen members of his family on Christmas in 1987 when his wife threatened to divorce him.

Paramilitary/Political Murderer
i Adolf Hitler blamed & killed the Jews for Germany's problems i The terrorists who attacked the World Trade Center perceive the victims as violating the terrorists' political or religious goals. i Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols bombed the federal building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, because they were angry at the federal government over the Waco, raid against the Branch Davidians

Revenge/Disgruntled Worker
i David Burke, a fired airline employee, followed his boss onto a plane in 1987, shot him, and caused the plane to crash, killing forty-three people. i Pat Sherrill, fearing that he might be fired from his postal job, killed fourteen coworkers and wounded six others in 1986. i In 1999, Mark Barton, a day trader, killed his family and entered two brokerage firms, slaying nine and wounding twelve after losing a great deal of money .

Another type of revenge mass murder: School Shootings
i In 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 classmates, 1 teacher, and wounded 24 others at Columbine High School before shooting themselves. i In 1998, Kip Kinkel, 15, killed 2 classmates and wounded 25 others at Thurston HS (Oregon) after killing his two parents in their home.

Spree Killers
i kill two or more victims, but are in more than one location. i the spree is considered a single event, because there is no "cooling off" period between the murders.

Example of Spree Killer: George Banks
i In George Banks, a prison guard, went hunting for his loved ones in various locations at 2 am. The following were killed in the spree: i three girlfriends i his five children (ages 1 11) i two neighbors who were trying to flee i A former girlfriend & their 5-year-old son i his Former girlfriendf mother s i His ormer girl riend s 7-year-old nephew i Two brothers o the ormer Girl riend (survived)

Serial Killers
i murder three or more victims, but each is killed on separate occasions
usually select their victims cooling off periods between murders plan their crimes carefully

Serial Killers
i Most serial killers will fall into a pattern, either of modus operandi, location, victim type, motive, etc. i The patterns of activities often allow police to apprehend the killer. i Serial killers are often described as enormal , eve ry chatty and ea good ne ighbor . " We are your sons, and we are your husbands, and we gre w up in re gular amilie sh Se rial Kille r Te d Bundy

Serial Killers
Typical serial Killers are: i Predomi nantly male i Whi te i Wi n thei twenti or thi es thi r es rti i Mi ddle class i Ki wi n thei ethni group ll thi r c

Types of serial killers (patterns) Organized
i Characteristics: Socially competent, intelligent , a planner, generally targets strangers, someone who uses restraints, has sex with their victims and uses a vehicle. i Typical behaviors: living with a partner, follows the crime in the media, plans the killing, the victim s body is hidden, evidence is o ten absent, may return to the crime scene and anticipates police questioning.

Example of organized killers
i Ted Bundy: fake cast on arm, gained sympathy and then beat victims with a metal post i Harold Shipman: a physician who killed over 250 elderly patients by making it look like death from natural causes

Types of serial killers (patterns) Disorganized
i Characteristics: socially immature, may know his victims, kills spontaneously, often sexually inhibited, harsh childhood discipline. i Typical behaviors: lives alone, knows victim, sloppy crime scene, evidence present, shows no interest in the media, and does not change lifestyle as a result of the killing.

Examples of disorganized killers
i Ed Gein: collected parts and displayed them around the house. He got the parts both from women that he killed and from exhumed graves i David Berkowitz: stabbed or shot couples sitting in their cars, and then ran away

Types of Serial Killer (motives)
i Visionary type: visionsh or voicesh uide their actions i Mission-orientated type want to remove a certain group from society i Hedonistic type - derive pleasure or gain from the killing i Power/ control-orientated type enjoy controlling their victims with some sexual satisfaction

The Psychology of Gangs
i Gang Membership is associated with antisocial behaviors i Gangs can result in death or injury of victims i Gang members are also at risk for injury, death, incarceration i Most gang members are young, African American males, but females and other ethnic groups are also common

Gangs
In groups, divide a piece of paper into four parts. Do each of the following in one corner: i Who joi gangs (characteri cs) ns sti i Why people joi gangs n i Advantages of bei i a gang ng n i Di sadvantages of bei i a gang ng n

Who joins gangs?
i Low socio-economic status i Single parent homes i Homes with heavy discipline but minimal supervision i Have delinquent friends i Attend school with gang members

Why Kids Join Gangs
i drawn by parties, girls, & drugs. i looking for respect, and power. i want to be associated with a efamilyf or community. i want to make mone y , to have nice clothe s, e tc. i join or se l prote ction. i grow up in a ne ighborhood whe re it is almost a way o li e . i pre f e r the stre e ts to proble ms at home .

´Advantagesµ of being in a gang
i Provide protection from other gangs i Provide a sense of family or instant friends i Provide income through drug sales i Provide respect and recognition

Disadvantages of being in a gang
i Most donft get rich ust the leaders i Dealing results in Long hours and dangerous work i Risk of death or incarceration is high i Most gangs have severe initiation rituals
j Females are beat or ese xe dfin j Boys are be at or must commit some crime

Secret Symbols Do you know how to spot it?
On a piece of paper, draw a local gang symbol or write a method of identifying gang members that you have seen or heard. Fold the paper up and put it in the box.

Recognizing Gang Involvement
i Special hand signals i Unique symbols and lettering on tattoos i Clothing (hats, bandannas, sagging pants, etc.) suggesting group or gang involvement i Possession of unexplained large sums of money i Changes in attitude: violent reactions, disruptive behavior, refusal to respond to authority (teachers, police, parents) etc.

Recognizing Gang Involvement
i Secretive behavior regarding activities and locations i Change in friends or friends who are not brought home i Truancy or poor school performance i phone callers that refuse to identify themselves or use nicknames only i problems with school officials and police officers i Involvement with known or suspected gang members i Interest in or possession of weapons

Recognizing Gang Involvement
i Wearing one particular color of clothing or a particular logo excessively i Wearing jewelry with distinctive designs only on the right or left hand of the body i Drawing gang symbols and using gang handwriting (usually grafitti-like, hard to decipher, and characterized by crossed out, and upside-down letters, and gang symbols) i Using strange language or slang, especially when certain letters of words are substituted (like "flue" for blue, in Blood slang)

Chattanooga Gangs
i Bloods i Crips i Gangster disciples i Vice lords i Mara salvatrucha (mostly nashville)

Risk Assessment: How are criminals ¶made·?
i Genetics/DNA/chromosomes i Environmental factors i Biochemistry i Family traits i Economic circumstances i Neurological damage A combination of these factors can be devastating

How are criminals made? Genetics
i Criminals have a genetic predisposition i Genetic anomaly limits the function of the amygdala, leaving psychopath with inability to understand & feel emotion i Studies show similar tendencies in twins raised apart i Extra chromosomes have been linked to some serial killers

How are criminals made? Environmental
The roots of antisocial behavior lie in early childhood events: i i i i i i i i i i nsecure attachment a weak sense of self a dysfuncti onal fami ly coerci or i fferent parenti ve ndi ng physi sexual or emoti cal, onal abuse or neglect the death of a parent low fami i ly ncome Separated or di vorce low academi achi c evement

How Criminals are made Environmental
Henry Lee Lucasf mother beat him with a broom handle for years, dressed him as a girl, and made him watch her have sex with men who later beat him.

How are criminals made? Biochemistry
i Reduced glucose levels i Reduced seratonin levels (seratonin mellows us out) i Increased testosterone (creates need to dominate) i Sometimes have high traces of toxic metals

How are criminals made? Brain traits
Psychopaths have abnormal brain activities: i Less acti pre-frontal cortex (i ve mpulse control) i Overacti li c system (aggressi ve mbi on, sexual desi re) i Overacti temporal lobes (temper ve outbursts and mood di sturbances)

How are criminals made? Economic factors
i The purpose of the kill is to gain financially i Female killers often murder for insurance money i Arsonists often burn for profit

How are criminals made? Neurological Damage
i Frontal Lobe damage causes lack of social behavior and selfcontrol i Phineas Gage i Albert Fish (Brooklyn vampire) had frontal lobe damage at age 7

Risk Assessment: McDonald·s Triad
Three traits in children that may show a tendency to become a serial killer: i Fi re-starti destroyi for thri ng: ng lls cularly i Cruelty to ani mals: parti larger ani mals (dogs, cats) i Bedwetti beyond the normal age ng:

Crime Prevention
i Criminal psychology is used to predict, identify, find, and convict criminals i Criminal profiling is the primary tool

What is Criminal Profiling?
Study and prediction of criminal behavior used to indicate: i How the cri nal thi mi nks i Moti on for cri vati me i Modus operandi i Si gnature

How is Profiling Used?
i As a tool to identify possible suspects i As a tool to point investigators in the right direction i As a tool to open new leads i As a tool to help investigators know what evidence to look for i Not as a tool for conviction conviction requires evidence, not speculation

Elements of a criminal profile
i Probable AGE, sex, and race i Probable residence and living arrangements i Intelligence level i Probable occupation i Probable marital status i Psychosexual maturity i Probable type/condition of vehicle i Probable motivating factors i Probable arrest record i Provocating factors to incite the suspect i Recommended interrogation techniques

Modus Operandi and Signature
i Modus operandi (MO): the method commonly used by the criminal Victim/location selection, means of attack, use of weapon, planning, means of transport Valuables taken Evidence left behind i Bundy: approach victim in daylight, gain their trust, lure them to his car, and hit them in the head with a crowbar, disposal in one specific dump site.

Ritual and Signature
i Signature: what the criminal does beyond the crime; the acting out of a fantasy
Wound patterns, sex acts, means of control, rituals, talk, staging the body Souvenirs taken Evidence destroyed

i Bundy: Post-mortem rape, applying make-up to corpse, decapitation, photo keepsakes, cremating body parts to prevent capture

MO vs. Signature
i MO can change or evolve over time as criminal becomes more experienced i Signature is the ecalling cardf or Trade mark i Signature points to pe rsonality traits, hang-ups, and compulsions i Signature s do not change , but may worse n ove r time

Steps in Profiling a Case
1. Determine the physical, behavioral and demographics of the unknown offender 2. Identify post-offense behavior of the offender and strategies for apprehension 3. Develop interview strategies once the offender is apprehended 4. Determine the signature of the offender 5. Determine where evidence can be located

Input Needed by Profiler
A. Crime scene video, photos, sketches, evidence logs B. Autopsy video, photos, hospital, forensics, reports C. Neighborhood data, Maps, victim's travels, lifestyle D. Investigative reports, witness statements

Criminal Psychology and Crime Prevention/Intervention
Criminal psychologists may: i Provi vi m or wi de cti tness evaluati on and treatment i Assess and treat i vi ndi duals i the n workplace who are hi ri for gh sk aggressi on i Screen and treat poli offi ce cers i Juveni Assessment, i le nterventi and on, cri preventi me on

Criminal Psychology and the Criminal Justice System
i A criminal psychologist May: i perform psychiatic evaluation for insanity or trial competency i Provide expert testimony for trial i Consultation for jury selection, child testimony, or expert witness i Determine treatment or intervention for mentally ill defendents

Visionary type examples: Ed Gein
i Ate the corpses of women who looked like his deceased mother to preserve his mother's soul inside his body. i Used the flesh of exhumed female corpses to fashion a "woman suit" so that he could "become" his mother. i After his arrest he was placed in a mental facility for the remainder of his life.

Visionary type Examples Herbert Mullin
i Voices told him that killing people in California would prevent an earthquake i Killed a total of 13 people i After capture, he pointed out repeatedly that he had, indeed, prevented the earthquake

Missionary Type Examples
i Jack the Ripper: in 19th century London, he killed 5 prostitutes and removed their organs i Gary Ridgway (Green River Killer): in 2001, confessed to the murder of 48+ prostitutes

Missionary Type Examples
i Ted Kaczynski (Unibomber) sent mail bombs to create leverage for a set of demands in his manifestoh i Zebra Killers: (1970fs) black supremacist roup wh o killed einf e rior wh ite sf with a mach e te to e arn points towards h e ave n

Hedonistic type examples
i Yang Xinhai: chinafs most notorious serial killer murdered 65 people from 1999-2003: i David Berkowitz: Got a thrill out of shooting young couples in their car and then running away

Hedonistic Quote
"W en I killed people I ad a desire sexual excitement. T is inspired me to kill more. I don't care w et er t ey deserve to live or not. It is none of my concern Yan Xin ai

Power/control type examples
i John Wayne Gacy: raped and murdered 33 boys and young men between 1972 & 1978, then buried them underneath his house. He called his victims worthless little queers and punksh even th ou h h is victims were mostly h eterosexual.

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