Additonal ppt by surya Dr Neil Sequeira

Transactional Analysis

Aims:    

Understand the main aspects of the theory Identify situations where TA can be usefully employed Understand more about your typical behaviours Recognize how TA can be used to aid personal development

What is Transactional Analysis?
TA is a theory about how and why people behave the way they do Major areas of TA  Ego states  Transactions  Strokes and games  Life positions

TA can help you  

  



Respond to a person and situation more appropriately Build rapport Understand someone else¶s needs Deal more effectively with difficult people Be assertive Understand how you behave and why

Ego States
An EGO state is a consistent pattern of feeling and experience, related to a corresponding pattern of behavior E.Berne states that each person has 3 Ego States  The Parent  The Adult  The Child 

The Parent State 

The Parent State is a collection of attitudes, thoughts and behaviors which we have accumulated

The Parent
The Critical Parent Gives us directions and controls and limits our behavior ³should, ought, must, never 


Nurturing Parent Protects and encourages, provides care and love ³there, there sweetie; Try again. It¶s all right´

Recognizing the Parent State
A person in a NP stated is likely  Use words such as well-done, good, wellgentle, caring, don't worry  Use a loving, caring, comforting or concerned tone of voice  Use open, encouraging gestures, smiling, leaning forward, nodding of head  Have a caring, understanding attitude

Recognizing the Parent State
A person in CP state may:  Use words , such as bad, should, ought, must, always, ridiculous, unacceptable  Use a patronizing, critical or disapproving tone of voice  Use aggressive gestures  Come across as judgmental, authoritarian  Be intimidating or controlling

The Adult State 

The Adult State are behaviors oriented to current reality and objective gathering information.

Recognizing the Adult State
A person in as Adult Sated is likely to  Speak in an even voice  Have an erect posture and use open gestures  Be alert and thoughtful about a problem they are facing  Clarify the situation by careful questioning  Hypothesize and process information  Use words like correct, how, what, why, practical, quality

The Child State
Free child Impulsive and carefree, communicating through feeling behaviors 


Adapted child Submissive and conforming behaviors, Looking for approval and reassurance

Recognizing the Child State
A person in a free child state  Use words as wow, great, ouch, want  Talk loudly, energetically, free of constraint  Use spontaneous gestures and expressions  Be curious, fun-loving, changeable fun-

Recognizing the Child State 
 

 

A person in adapted child may Use words such as can¶t, try, hope, please, perhaps, wish Sound sulky whinny, placating Come across as innocent, helpless, sad, scared Act in a defiant, ashamed or compliant way

People generally exhibit all three Ego states. All three Ego states are necessary to healthy personality People can change the frequency of which They use one ego state by concentrating Or developing another

The Child State
Free child Impulsive and carefree, communicating through feeling behaviors 


Adapted child Submissive and conforming behaviors, Looking for approval and reassurance

BASIC HUMAN EGO STATES
(PERSONALITY STATES)
THREE BASIC EGO STATES

FURTHER BREAKDOWN OF EGO STATES
CRITICAL PARENT NURTURING PARENT LECTURING, CRITICIZING, MANY ³OUGHTS´, ³SHOULD´ &´DON¶TS´ CONSOLING, ³TAKING CARE´ OF OTHERS, SYMPATHY OBJECTIVE, RATIONAL, ORIENTED TOWARD PROBLEM SOLVING, DEEMPHASIZE EMOTION MODIFIED BEHAVIOUR TO CONFORM TO ADULT EXPECTATIONS, MANUPULATIVE, SUMBISSIVE PLAYFUL, IMPULSIVE, NATULRALLY CURIOUS &CREATIVE, FUN LOVING, 17 REBELLIOUS

P
(PARENT)

A
(ADULT)

ADULT

C
(CHILD)

ADAPTED CHILD NATURAL CHILD

Transactions between Ego States
When we are communicating with another person (verbally or nonverbally) we are carrying out a transaction with them. We are both sending messages and receiving them 

Types of Transaction 
 

Complementary transactions Crossed transactions Ulterior transactions

Complementary transactions
Transactions are complementary if the message sent receives the expected response from the other person¶s ego state Examples  Parent-parent Parent Parent-child Parent Adult-adult Adult Child-child Child Child-parent Child

Crossed transactions 

A crossed transaction occurs when the message sent by one person¶s ego state reacted to by an incompatible unexpected ego state on the part of the other person

Ulterior transactions
Ulterior transactions always involve at least two ego states on the part of one person. Ulterior transactions have a hidden agenda 

TYPICAL WAYS OF EXPRESSING EGO STATES ON THE JOB
³CAN¶T YOU TURN IN A REPORT ON TIME JUST ONCE?´ ³YOU SHOULD CLEAN UP YOUR DESK ONCE IN A WHILE!´ ³I¶M SURPRISED AT YOU« THIS PRODUCT SHOULD HAVE BEEN COMPLETED A MONTH AGO.´

CRITICAL PARENT

NURTURING PARENT

³I¶M ONLY TRYING TO HELP YOU´ ³LET ME CLEAN UP THAT DESK FOR YOU, MR. SMITH´ ³YOU¶VE DONE A SWELL JOB, TOM.´ ³WHAT ARE THE ALTERNATIVES?´ ³CAN¶T WE REACH SOME SORT OF COMPROMISE?´ ³WHAT CONSEQUENCES WILL THIS ACTION HAVE?´ ³ANYTHING YOU SAY, SIR!´ ³SORRY, I¶LL TRY TO IMPROVE.´ ³WHY DO YOU ALWAYS PICK ON ME« THE OTHERS WERE IN ON THIS TOO!´ ³LET ME SEE HOW THIS GADGET WORKS.´ ³WONDER WHAT HAPPENS IF WE DO IT THIS WAY?´ ³LET¶S KNOCK OFF FOR TODAY! WHO WANTS TO WORK ON A FRIDAY AFTERNOON ANYWAY?´

ADULT

ADAPTED CHILD

NATURAL CHILD

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P A C

P A C

P A C

P A C
CROSSED

P A C
ULTERIOR

P A C

COMPLEMENTARY

P A C

P A C

P A C

P A C

P A C

P A C

EXPECTED RESPONSE, NO CONFLICT

PRODUCE CONFLICT, STOP COMMUNICATION, HURT FEELINGS

VERBAL COMMUNICATION 24 NON-VERBAL HIDDEN MEANING

EXAMPLES OF COMPLEMENTARY TRANSACTIONS ON THE JOB
(1) SECRETARY: ³LET ME STRAIGHTEN OUT THAT DESK FOR YOU,´ MANAGER: ³YOU SURE KNOW HOW TO TAKE CARE OF ME, ´ (1) MANAGER: ³WHAT COULD WE DO TO MEET THE DEADLINE ON THIS PROJECT?´ EMPLOYEE: ³WE COULD TAKE A COUPLE OF PEOPLE OFF THE OTHER PROJECT FOR A WHILE AND PUT THEM ON THIS ONE.´ (1) FIRST MANAGER: ³GEE, I WISH I WERE OUT ON THE GOLF COURSE RIGHT NOW.´ SECOND MANAGER: ³LET¶S TAKE OFF. WHO COULD WORK ON A SUNSHINY DAY LIKE THIS ANYWAY?¶

(2)

(2)

(2)

P
(1)

P A
(2)

P
(1)

P A
(2)

P A
(1)

P A C
(2)

A C

A C

C

C
ADULT TO ADULT TRANSACTION

C

NURTURING PARENT TO ADAPTED CHILD

NATURAL CHILD TO NATURAL CHILD 25

EXAMPLES OF CROSSED TRANSACTIONS ON THE JOB
(1) MANAGER: ³ DO YOU KNOW WHERE THE PROFIT & LOSS STATEMENT IS?´ SECRETARY: ³WHERE DO YOU THINK IT IS? ON YOUR DESK, OF COURSE!.´ (1) MANAGER: COME OVER HERE!´ (DEMANDING TONE OF VOICE) EMPLOYEE: ³WHY DON¶T YOU COME OVER HERE? IT¶S JUST AS FAR!´ (1) SUPERVISOR: ³HOW CAN WE MINIMIZE THESE MACHINE BREAKDOWNS?´ OPERATOR: ³WHO CARES? IT ISN¶T OUR MONEY!¶

(2) (2)

(2)

P
(1)

P P A
(2)

P A

P
(1)

P
(1)

A C

A
(2)

A C

A C C

(2)

C C

ADULT-TO-ADULT CROSSED BY CRITICAL PARENT-TOCHILD RESPONSE

PARENT-TO-CHILD CROSSED BY CRITICAL PARENT OR REBELLIOUS CHILD RESPONSE

ADULT-TO-ADULT CROSSES UP BY DISCOUNTED CHILD TO 26 PARENT RESPONSE

EXAMPLES OF ULTERIOR TRANSACTIONS
(1) EMPLOYEE: ³SORRY, I WON¶T HAVE THE DRAWING READY FOR TOMORROW¶S DEADLINE.´ (ULTERIOR MESSAGE: ³KICK ME, I¶M A BAD BOY.´) MANAGER: ³IT¶S O.K. I¶VE BEEN THINKING OF ASSIGNING THE JOB TO SOMEONE ELSE ANYWAY.´ (HIDDEN MEANING: ³YES, YOU ARE A BAD BOY. HERE¶S YOUR KICK.´ (1) SALESMAN: ³THIS MACHINE HAS GOT EVERYTHING YOU¶D EVER WANT FROM A TYPEWRITER ± BUT IT MAY BE TOO EXPENSIVE FOR YOU.´ (HIDDEN MESSAGE: ³LET¶S SEE IF I CAN HOOK THE PLAYFUL, IMPULSIVE CHILD IN YOU.´) CUSTOMER: ³IT MIGHT BE WORTH IT IN THE LONG RUN. I¶LL TAKE IT.´ (HIDDEN MEANING: ³WHO DOES HE THINK I AM?´)

(2)

(2)

P A C
(1)

(1)

P A

P A C
(2) (1) (2) (1)

P A C
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(2) (2)

C

Strokes
Stroking is an act of recognition for another. Everyone has to have strokes (affection, recognition and praise). 

Strokes may be  positive, negative and mixed  Conditional and unconditional

STROKING
THE TYPES OF STROKES YOU SEEK DEPEND ON YOUR OKAYNESS

POSITIVE STROKES

NEGATIVE STROKES

CONDITIONAL STROKES

PRAISE COMPLEMENTS RECOGNITION AFFECTION REWARDS SYMPATHY CONSOLATION SELF-SATISFACTION FROM JOB WELL DONE

PUT-DOWNS CRITICISM DEGRADING RIDICULE SCOLDING PUNISHMENT DISCOUNTING

STROKES WITH ULTERIOR MOTIVES

STROKES GIVEN FOR WHAT YOU DO, RATHER THAN FOR WHAT YOU ARE:

(1) (2)

PERFORMANCE ORIENTED STROKES ACCOMODATION & CONFORMITY ORIENTED STROKES
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Giving and receiving strokes 
    

Don¶t be insincere Accept strokes positively from other people Make a conscious effort to give strokes to other people Try to recognize other people¶s reaction to strokes and the frequency/kind they appear to appreciate Ask for strokes when you feel you need them Give yourself strokes when you feel you deserve/need them

Games
Games are a set of transactions that have surface logic but hidden meaning and attempt to draw in an unsuspecting participant. An outcome of games is always a winwinlose propositions 

Life Positions
are attitudes which people adopt and act out concerning their self-worth and the value of others

Life Positions 
  

I¶m I¶m I¶m I¶m

OK, you¶re OK not OK, you¶re OK OK, you¶re not OK not OK, you¶re not OK

BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL (LIFE) POSITIONS: YOUR SELF IMAGE
1. I¶M OK; YOU¶RE OK
‡ THE ³WINNER´, HEALTH, OPTIMISTIC, USUALLY ADULTTO-ADULT EGO STATE. IDEAL LIFE POSITION ON & OFF THE JOB.

3. I¶M NOT OK; YOU¶RE OK
‡ CHILD-TO-ADULT EGO STATE ACTIVATED. FEELINGS OF INFERIORITY; HERO WORSHIP; LOOKING FOR PARENT SUBSTITUTES. SEEKS DOMINANCE FROM OTHERS.

2. I¶M OK; YOU¶RE NOT OK 4. I¶M NOT OK; YOU¶RE NOT OK
‡ USUALLY CRITICAL PARENT EGO STATE ACTIVATED. MAY EVOLVE FROM HURT OR DISCOUNTED CHILD GIVING HIMSELF STROKES. FEELS DISTRUST, ANGER, SUPERIORITY. ‡ POOR MENTAL HEALTH; LACKS TRUST IN SELF & OTHERS. FEELINGS OF HOPELESSNESS OFTEN EXTREME DEPRESSION.

OUR OKAYNESS DETERMINES THE ROLES, GAMES, EGO STATES WE CHOOSE!
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I¶m OK, you¶re OK
Cooperate, share You believe in yourself and others, are trusting and tend to get on with life 

I¶m not OK, you¶re OK 


Submit to, concede You have a low opinion of your own value and poor self esteem; lack self confidence and expect things to go wrong A negative outlook tends to lead to a self fulfilling prophesy and you often lose out in situations

I¶m OK, you¶re not OK 


Compete, aggression You will tend to be competitive. You may not cope well with failure, look down at others, blame other people and see them as cause of your failure

I¶m not OK, you¶re not OK 


Avoid Life may seem to be futile and that nothing can be done to improve things. A life of rejecting and feeling rejected

Driver Styles or Commands  

These are script messages which we have received from our parents when we were very young and which help to form our life script and OK positions Drivers induce us to act in a particular way

The 5 Drivers are 
  



Be Prefect ± if a job¶s worth doing, it¶s worth doing well Please (others) ±be nice to everyone, guess what they want you to do and then do it Try hard ± try at something rather than focus energy on its completion Be strong ± I can cope, leave it to me Hurry up

Every time we act out a dominant driver we are responding in the adapted child ego state to an internal voice which is in parent mode.

Changing Life Script
The main aim of TA is to get an individual in a position of µautonomy¶  Becoming aware of your life stance  Adopting a more positive view of yourself and other  Recognizing that you can alter the way you behave  Recognizing that you and you alone control your life and destiny