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Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology

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Published by: Inna Protacio on Apr 22, 2011
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  • Structural Plan:
  • Anatomical Names:
  • Directional Terms:
  • Planes and Sections:
  • Body Cavities:
  • Abdominopelvic Regions:
  • Abdominopelvic Quadrants:
  • Homeostasis:
  • Measuring the Human Body:
  • Chemical Elements:
  • Structure of Atoms:
  • Chemical Reactions:
  • Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes:
  • Cytoplasm:
  • Organelles:
  • Nucleus:
  • Ribosomes:
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum:
  • Mitochondria:
  • Lysosomes:
  • Peroxisomes:
  • Microfilaments and Microtubules - The Cytoskeleton:
  • Centrosome and Centrioles:
  • Flagella and Cilia:
  • Cellular Inclusions:
  • Extracellular Materials:
  • Cell Division:
  • Somatic Cell Division:
  • Gene Action - Protein Synthesis:
  • "SOS" Genes - DNA Repair:
  • Cells and Aging:
  • Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances
  • Tissues Types of Tissues
  • Epithelial Tissue:
  • Covering and Lining Epithelium:
  • Glandular Epithelium:
  • Connective Tissue:
  • Embryonic Connective Tissue:
  • Adult Connective Tissue:
  • Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue:
  • Membranes:
  • Tissue Inflammation - An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis:
  • Tissue Repair:
  • Repair Process:
  • Conditions for Repair:
  • The Integumentary System - The Skin: Skin
  • Epidermal Derivatives:
  • The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System:
  • Histology:
  • Ossification Bone Formation:
  • Types of Bones:
  • Surface Markings:
  • 1. Skull:
  • 2. Hyoid Bone:
  • 3. Vertebral Column:
  • 4. Thorax:
  • 5. Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
  • Male and Female Skeletons:
  • Articulations:
  • Fibrous Joints:
  • Cartilaginous Joints:
  • Synovial Joints:
  • Selected Articulations of the Body:
  • The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue:
  • Functions:
  • Types:
  • Skeletal Muscle Tissue:
  • Contraction - Sliding Filament Theory:
  • The Motor Unit:
  • Physiology of Contraction:
  • Energy for Contraction:
  • All-or-Nothing Principle:
  • Kinds of Contractions:
  • Muscle Tone:
  • Types of Muscle Fibers:
  • Cardiac Muscle Tissue:
  • Smooth Muscle Tissue:
  • How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement:
  • Naming Skeletal Muscles:
  • Intramuscular Injections:
  • The Nervous System The Nervous System:
  • Physiology: Regeneration:
  • Nerve Impulse:
  • Conduction Across Synapses:
  • Grouping of Neural Tissue:
  • Spinal Cord: General Features:
  • Protection and Coverings:
  • Structure in Cross Section:
  • Spinal Nerves:
  • The Brain:
  • 2. Protection and Coverings:
  • 3. Cerebrospinal Fluid:
  • 4. Blood Supply to the Brain:
  • 5. The Brain Stem:
  • 6. The Diencephalon:
  • 7. The Cerebrum:
  • 8. Brain Lateralization:
  • 9. The Cerebellum:
  • 10. Transmitter Substances in the Brain:
  • 11. The Cranial Nerves:
  • 12. Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
  • Sensations:
  • Characteristics:
  • Classification of Receptors:
  • General Senses - Cutaneous Sensations:
  • Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations:
  • Levels of Sensation:
  • Sensory Pathways:
  • Motor Pathways:
  • Integrative Functions:
  • Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems:
  • Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System:
  • Physiology:
  • Visceral Autonomic Reflexes:
  • Control by Higher Centers:
  • Olfactory Sensations:
  • Gustatory (Taste) Sensations:
  • Visual Sensations:
  • The Endocrine System and Glands:
  • Chemistry of Hormones:
  • Mechanism of Hormonal Action:
  • Control of Hormonal Secretions - Feedback Control:
  • Pituitary (Hypophysis):
  • Thyroid:
  • Parathyroids:
  • Adrenals (Suprarenals):
  • Pancreas:
  • Ovaries and Testes:
  • Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri):
  • Thymus:
  • Components:
  • Erythrocytes:
  • Leucocytes:
  • Thrombocytes:
  • Plasma:
  • Hemostasis:
  • Blood Grouping (Typing):
  • The Cardiovascular System - The Heart:
  • Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac)
  • Wall – Chambers – Vessels - Valves:
  • Conduction System:
  • Electrocardiogram:
  • Blood Supply:
  • Cardiac Output:
  • Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis:
  • Arteries:
  • Arterioles:
  • Capillaries:
  • Venules:
  • Veins:
  • Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure:
  • Blood Reservoirs:
  • Checking Circulation – Pulse:
  • Measurement of Blood Pressure:
  • Circulatory Routes:
  • Systemic Circulation:
  • Hepatic Portal Circulation:
  • Pulmonary Circulation:
  • Fetal Circulation:
  • The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels:
  • Structure of Lymph Nodes:
  • Lymph Circulation:
  • Lymphatic Organs:
  • Nonspecific Resistance to Disease:
  • Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease):
  • Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances:
  • The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation:
  • Modified Respiratory Movements:
  • Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities:
  • Exchange of Respiratory Gases:
  • External Respiration - Internal Respiration:
  • Transport of Respiratory Gasses:
  • Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity:
  • Intervention in Respiratory Crises:
  • Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake:
  • Digestive Processes:
  • Organization:
  • Mouth (Oral Cavity):
  • Tongue:
  • Salivary Glands:
  • Teeth:
  • Digestion in the Mouth:
  • Deglutition:
  • Esophagus:
  • Stomach: Anatomy - Histology:
  • Digestion in the Stomach:
  • Regulation of Gastric Secretion:
  • Absorption:
  • Liver:
  • Gallbladder:
  • Small Intestine: Anatomy - Histology:
  • Intestinal Digestion:
  • Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion:
  • Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology:
  • Digestion in the large Intestine:
  • Absorption and Feces Formation:
  • Defecation:
  • Metabolism:
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism:
  • Fate of Carbohydrates:
  • Glucose Catabolism:
  • Glycolysis:
  • Krebs Cycle:
  • Electron Transport Chain:
  • Glucose Anabolism:
  • Lipid Metabolism:
  • Fate of Lipids:
  • Fat Storage:
  • Lipid Catabolism:
  • Lipid Anabolism - Lipogenesis:
  • Protein Metabolism:
  • Fate of Proteins:
  • Protein Catabolism:
  • Protein Anabolism:
  • Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States:
  • Regulation of Metabolism:
  • Minerals:
  • Vitamins:
  • Metabolism and Body Heat:
  • Production of Body Heat:
  • Loss of Body Heat:
  • Body Temperature Regulation:
  • Body Temperature Abnormalities:
  • Urinary System: Urinary System:
  • Ureters:
  • Urinary Bladder:
  • Urethra:
  • Body Fluids:
  • Water:
  • Electrolytes:
  • Movement of Body Fluids:
  • Acid-Base Balance:
  • Acid Base Imbalances:
  • Reproductive System:
  • II. Male Reproductive System: 1.Scrotum:
  • 2.Testes:
  • 3.Ducts:
  • 4.Penis:
  • III. Female Reproductive System:
  • 3.Ovaries:
  • 4.Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes:
  • 5.Uterus:
  • 7.Vagina:
  • 8.Vulva:
  • 9.Perineum:
  • 10.Mammary Glands:
  • Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
  • Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells:
  • Spermatogenisis:
  • Oogenesis:
  • Sexual Intercourse:
  • Pregnancy:
  • Fertilization and Implantation:
  • Embryonic Development:
  • Hormones of Pregnancy:
  • Parturition and Labor:
  • Adjustments of the Infant at Birth:
  • Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus:
  • Lactation:
  • Inheritance:

• 1.

Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures.  Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:

When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.



Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.


horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).

Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and

Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary




accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.

Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.

Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.

Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic

Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.








molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.

phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.

→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a



2. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. such as mature red blood cells. karyolymph. 3. comprising the chromosomes. 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. and inorganic substances. They are formed from Golgi complexes. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. Organelles: 1. Thus they are called "suicide packets. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. provide movement. membranous sacs called cisternae.. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Microfilaments and Microtubules . The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. 2. 3. and form the structure of flagella. Ribosomes: 1. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. The inner folds are called cristae. It is located near the nucleus. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. repair. 4. and movement. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. Functionally. They support. and the mitotic spindle. support. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. The ER provides mechanical support. 2. Usually the largest organelle." 4. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. and control. carbohydrates. 2. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. stores synthesized molecules. transports substances intracellularly.13.g. Nucleus: 1. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. In conjunction with the ER. maintenance. but smaller. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. which carry on phagocytosis. 3. Peroxisomes: 1. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. 1. do not grow or reproduce. 2. Mitochondria: 1. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. 2. and helps export chemicals from the cell. 3. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. 2. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. 2.The Cytoskeleton: 1. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. 3. centrioles. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. 2. nucleoli. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. They are involved in muscular contraction. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. and genetic material (DNA). cilia. 3. Cytoplasm: 1. They contain enzymes (e. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. Functionally. If the cell is injured. lipids. 3. Cells without nuclei.

or chromosomes. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. 2. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. 3. Cellular Inclusions: 1. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. This involves transcription and translation. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another.DNA Repair: 1. 6. It consists of prophase. Somatic Cell Division: 1. 7. 2. and elastic fibers. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. In transcription. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. In response to DNA damage. lipids. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. 3. 4. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. Cell Division: 1. Extracellular Materials: 1. they are called cilia. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane.Protein Synthesis: 1. DNA Polymerase is an example. Flagella and Cilia: 1. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. which consist of rRNA and protein. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). they are called flagella. anaphase. Gene Action .2. metaphase. glycogen. 6. 2. Others. mRNA associates with ribosomes. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. the DNA molecules. If they are numerous and hairlike. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. Some. are fibrous. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. 3. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. Examples are melanin. 5. are amorphous. 3. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. 4. If projections are few and long. reticular. 3. 2. and mucus. 2. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. and telophase. "SOS" Genes . They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. an "SOS response" occurs. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. 8. like collagenous. 5. 3. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer.

3. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. little intracellular material. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. muscular. 2. and nervous. connective. pharynx. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. supports. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. 2. simple. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. and lining some glandular ducts. and apocrine glands. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. noncancerous tumors are called benign. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. It can replace itself. where it protects and secretes. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. stratified (several layers). cell shapes include squamous (flat). Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. It has few cells. Functional classification includes holocrine. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. an extensive intercellular substance. 4. merocrine. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. It lines larger excretory ducts. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . oil. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. 2. 5. Epithelium has many cells. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. 3. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. 8. except for cartilage. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. 2. auditory tubes. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. columnar (rectangular). 3. 4. and no blood vessels (avascular). It does not occur on free surfaces. 3. tubuloacinar. Glandular Epithelium: 1. 2. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. 5. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. portion of urethra. Exocrine glands (sweat. and a rich blood supply (vascular). 9.1. cuboidal (cubelike). Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. but none successfully answers all questions. and most upper respiratory structures. parts of urethra. Depending on their function and structure. and compound. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. 2. and epiglottis. 2. 7. and transitional (variable). the study of tumors is called oncology. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. Epithelial Tissue: 1. acinar. 6. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. and binds organs together. 3. Many theories of aging have been proposed. Connective Tissue: 1. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. in kidneys and eyes. It is found covering ovaries. Connective tissue protects. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood.

Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. and cutaneous. pain. Muscle tissue performs one major function .contraction. elastic arteries. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. plasma. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. Adipose. at the ends of bones. allows movement. cartilage. 2. and provides support. and in the subcutaneous layer. and Cardiac. 3. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. called adipocytes. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). bone tissue. around body organs. and vascular tissue. macrophages. It provides strength. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. and melanocytes). The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. and in respiratory structures. It is found as a component of fascia. Visceral (smooth). Elastic. Tissue Inflammation . Examples are: mucous. auditory tubes. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. 2. It is flexible. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. 5. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. where it gives support. pericardium. such as the digestive tract. ligaments. mast. elastic. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. in the nose. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). are specialized for fat storage. 4. 7. and external ear. and Iymph nodes. Dense. membranes of organs. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. and aponeuroses. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. 2. serous. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. spleen. and swelling. tendons. o Serous membranes (pleura. Membranes: 1. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. trachea. and Reticular. 6.4. 2. sometimes loss of function occurs. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . bronchial tubes. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. heat. and true vocal cords.

The color of skin is due to melanin. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. and pheomelanin (yellow). from deepest to most superficial. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. 3. and parenchymal regeneration. Tissue Repair: 1. 2. 7. an abscess develops. nerves. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. • Glands: 1. and several organic compounds. glands. Repair Process: 1. some B. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. The epidermal layers. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. 8. the process slows down with aging. 5. E. 6. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. brown melanin. and root hair plexuses. and ducts of sweat glands. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. 5. salts.2. Various vitamins (A. 2. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. It performs the functions of protection. and a hair follicle. 4. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. and excretion of water. skin glands (sebaceous. are the stratum basale. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. sudoriferous. arrectores pilorum muscles. • Hair: 1. storage of chemical compounds. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. hair follicles. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. 4. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. and Meissner's corpuscles. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. 2. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. D. 4. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. lucidum. granulation tissue is involved. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. 3. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. spinosum. The Integumentary System . hair follicles. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. maintaining body temperature. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. synthesis of vitamin D. The reticular region is dense. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. granulosum. receiving stimuli. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. 2. In most inflammations. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. scab formation. and nails. If the injury is superficial.The Skin: Skin 1. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. pus is produced. C. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. black melanin. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). 5. Conditions for Repair: 1. carotene. serotonin. 3. kinins. if it cannot drain out of the body. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. dermal papillae. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. and corneum. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . oil glands. 2. If damage is extensive. The skin and its derivatives (hair. and ceruminous). 3. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. nerves.

and areolae. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. lunula. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. 9. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. Depending on the depth of damage. removing dead tissue. leverage. If environmental temperature is high. pimples. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. second-degree (partialthickness). They are found in the external auditory meatus. hyponychium. The functions of the skeletal system include support.• palms and soles. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. 3. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. and covering wounds with temporary protection. replacing lost body fluids. protection. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. Nails: 1. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. 2. and third-degree (fullthickness). 2. 4. 5. pubis. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. or psychogenic factors. As the perspiration evaporates. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. Disorders .Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 8. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. mineral storage. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. regulating metabolic rate. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. 10. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. free edge. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. and boils. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. and blood cell production.6F). Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. Most warts are benign. raised plaques or papules. and matrix. their ducts open into hair follicles. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. 3. Histology: 1. systemic diseases. 7. eponychium. 6. the skin is cooled. Homeostasis: 1. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. The principal parts of a nail are the body. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. Nails are hard. 4. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. and skin grafting. 11. root. 2. 2. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. 3.

compact bone protects. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. 5. and vitamins (A. Homeostasis: 1. and nondisplaced. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. except for the epiphyseal plate. 3. Functionally. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. simple. articular cartilage. complete. forming a callus. metaphysis. where bone replaces cartilage. In both types of ossification. and remodeling. marrow. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. spongy bone is laid down first. intramembranous and endochondral. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. 2. This process is called remodeling. flat. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. Osteoblasts lay down bone. and resists stress. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It forms most of the structure of short. impacted. and calcified matrix. hypertrophic cartilage. Normal growth depends on calcium. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. supports. Functionally. and endosteum. 8. spiral. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. 8. A fracture is any break in a bone. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. C. The types of fractures include: partial. periosteum. Cartilage degenerates. Disorders . and irregular bones. 9. 5. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. 3. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. 4.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. proliferating cartilage. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. Pott's. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. 4. 7. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. comminuted. transverse. The two types of ossification. Colles'. and periosteum. medullary or marrow cavity. 2. 4. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. displaced. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. 3. Next. 6. compound. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. epiphyses (ends). The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. 2. greenstick. phosphorus. 3. 2. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). and the epiphyses of long bones. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. 6. 7.

and ethmoid. sphenoid. maxillae (2). 4. Terms that describe markings include fissure. temporal (2). and ribs. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone.1. posterior. anterolaterals. lumbar vertebrae (5). Condyle. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. vertebral column. Skull: 1. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. sphenoid. It is composed of 22 bones. The major fontanels are the anterior. meatus. Hyoid Bone: 1. Examples are coronal. facet. The patella is an example. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. flat. These curves give strength. 3. 6. fossa. They are lined by mucous membranes. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. 3. 2. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. lacrimal (2). short. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. auditory ossicles. tuberosity. 2. fused). lambdoidal. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. On the basis of shape. parietal (2). sagittal. thoracic vertebrae (12). Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. occipital. head. and vomer. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). 5. 3. fused) and the coccyx (4. zygomatic (2). ethmoid. crest. muscle attachment. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. inferior nasal conchae (2). 1. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). 2. The vertebral column. palatine (2). mandible. and spine. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. bones are classified as long. and posterolaterals. and squamosal sutures. Vertebral Column: 1. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. Surface Markings: 1. or irregular. the sternum. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. 2. process. sternum. the sacrum (5. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). foramen. 7. and maxilla. 3. support. 2. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. and balance. hyoid bone. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2.

Schaphoid (Navicular). and the thoracic vertebrae. and detail. 2. tarsals. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. 3. and phalanges. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). the bones of the upper extremities. 3. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. 5. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. Hamate (Unciform). shape. pubis. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. and L 2. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. 3. 4. and the bones of the lower extremities. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. a congenital defect. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). 2. and seven processes. II. is referred to as spina bifida. vertebral arch. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. radius. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). Examples include scoliosis. and ischium. Capitate. tibia. 4. Triangular (Triquetrum).The vertebra are similar in structure. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . o Pelvic Girdle: 1. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. the ribs and costal cartilages. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. Thorax: 1. fibula. 2. and Medial Cuneiform. o Upper Extremities: 1. kyphosis. L l. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. 3. Cuboid. metatarsals. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. 2. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. the pelvic girdle. Navicular. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. and lordosis. Pisiform. Talus. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. carpals. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. 2. each consisting of a body. o Lower Extremities: 1. and phalanges. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. metacarpals. ulna.

Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. 2. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. angular movements. protraction and retraction. 8. rotation. with no joint cavity. Synovial Joints: 1. cartilaginous. 3. hinge joints (elbow). Bones held together by cartilage. 2. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. Structurally. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. and elevation and depression. swelling. A dislocation. 3. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. 3. with no joint cavity. or synovial. to provide support and leverage. 2. Fibrous Joints: 1. 4. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. circumduction. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. and loss of function. Articulations: 1. and muscles. 2. 6. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). a partial dislocation is called subluxation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. joints are classified as fibrous. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. supination and pronation. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. and bursae. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. 5. 5. 3. Disorders . These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. articular cartilage. are cartilaginous joints. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). Cartilaginous Joints: 1. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). 7. ligaments. are fibrous joints. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. articular discs. 2. 6. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). pivot joints (radioulnar). 1. 2. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. tendons. biaxial. inversion and eversion. or luxation. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. 4. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). and a synovial membrane. or triaxial. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable).Homeostatic Imbalances: 1.arches. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . tension of ligaments. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. joints. All synovial joints are freely movable. 2. 2. and muscle tension. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). some also contain ligaments.

There are three types of fascia: superficial. 3. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. 2. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. Connective tissue components are epimysium. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. junction. 2. 4. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. 7. 3. 3. Contraction . The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. Energy for Contraction: 1. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. 8. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. and troponin. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. 2. 2. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. and subserous. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. nuclei. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. 6. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. covering individual fibers. or myoneural. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. 3. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. Physiology of Contraction: 1. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. 4. 2. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. 3. sarcoplasmic reticulum.without dislocation. maintenance of posture. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. perimysium. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. and heat production. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Functions: 1. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. It is striated and voluntary. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. 2. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. 2. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. 4. The Motor Unit: 1. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. tropomyosin. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. 5. It is striated and involuntary.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. deep. Types: 1. the neuron releases acetylcholine. contract. 3. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. covering the entire muscle. and T tubules. Through contraction. triggering the contractile process. and endomysium. covering fasciculi.

3. 2. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. 2. A record of a contraction is called a myogram.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. each of which contracts as a functional unit. 3. treppe. and a large amount of myoglobin. If it occurs in the lumbar region. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. more mitochondria. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. 4. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. 3. stimulus. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. 4. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. 3. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. and larger T tubules. tetanus. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. and stiffness of joints. and isometric. Abnormal contractions include spasms.2. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. Disorders . The fibers are arranged in a network. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. 3. or threshold. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. 2. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. 5. 3. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. it is called lumbago. It is striated and involuntary. convulsions. stimulus. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. and tics. 2. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. Kinds of Contractions: 1. 5. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. fibrillations. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. Homeostasis: 1. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. muscles. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. Muscle Tone: 1. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. 2. Unit it is paid back. 2. cramps. 2. isotonic. and related structures in the thigh. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. 2. more blood capillaries. tenderness. or subthreshold. 6. This muscle is found only in the heart.

Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. 2. 5. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. and carry out phagocytosis. and deltoid region of the arm. Nerve Impulse: 1. 4. convergent. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. 6. lateral side of the thigh. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. 2. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. number of origins (or heads). size. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . the membrane is said to have an action potential. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. Neurons: 1. Neurons. Around the time of birth. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. If. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. bipolar. 2. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. pennate. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. 1. and reacting to them. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. location. 3. or nerve cells. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. second-class. oligodendrocytes. effort. and the membrane is said to be polarized. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. microglia. 3. 2. On the basis of function. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. cardiac muscle tissue. 6. and unipolar. and circular. and usually a single axon. interpreting them. and ependyma. 5. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. 2. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. including motor neurons. and action. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. and glands. 4. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. origin and insertion. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. 3. shape. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. 2. The antagonist produces an opposite action. and minimal irritation. On the basis of structure. and resistance on the lever. attach neurons to blood vessels. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. produce the myelin sheath. Intramuscular Injections: 1. 3. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. neurons are multipolar. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. 2. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body.

and ascending and descending tracts. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. anterior. 3. cerebrospinal fluid. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. and vertebral ligaments. 6. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. 5. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. 6. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. 6. 5. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. Structure in Cross Section: 1. or axon hillock. Protection and Coverings: 1. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. meninges. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. 3. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. anterior. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. 5.travels from point to point along the membrane. According to the all-ornothing principle. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. 2. 3. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. arachnoid and pia mater. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. 7. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. and lateral white columns. and lateral gray horns. 6. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. 2. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. 5. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. 3. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. 2. 7. central canal. 4. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. 4. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. posterior. 4. cell body. 4. 7. 2. posterior.

Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. 1. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. the Achilles reflex. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. 3. association. form networks of nerves called plexuses. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. 2. 2. and motor neuron. 2. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. • Distribution: 1. Its basic components are a receptor. 5. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). 5. and sacral plexuses. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. Disorders .2. ventral ramus. the Babinski sign. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. • Composition and Coverings: 1. The skin segments are called dermatomes. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. and epineurium. tendon reflex. The posterior root. 2. constant segments of the skin. 1. 3. lumbar. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. 9. 7. 4. meningeal branch. posterior root ganglion. A stretch reflex. and the abdominal reflex. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. 5. and regeneration. A reflex is a quick. a center. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. is an example. • Dermatomes: 1. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. Wallerian degeneration. brachial. 4. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. 3. flexor reflex. perineunum. Functions: 1. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. 2. and an effector. 4. a motor neuron. 6. 4. 2. a sensory neuron.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. except for T 2-T 11. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. and rami communicantes. Following peripheral nerve damage. 3. respectively. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. 8. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. such as the patellar reflex. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. and crossed extensor reflex. 5. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .

2. which helps control respiration. 3. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. 2. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. 3. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. 6. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. 2. The Diencephalon: 1. mental retardation. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. and cerebellum. 2. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. The Brain Stem: 1. cerebrum. 2. cranial meninges. respiratory rate. 2. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. 3. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. 2. sneezing. 1. Embryological Development: 1. convulsions. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. 3. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. or death of brain 5. permanent damage. epilepsy. ventricles. 4. During embryological development. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. 2. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. it is called external hydrocephalus. 3. 2. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. 1. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. 1. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. Protection and Coverings: 1. and hiccuping. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. 2. or death. vomiting. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. cells. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. vasoconstriction. and central canal. coughing. diencephalon. swallowing. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. 1. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness.1. The pons is superior to the medulla. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. 1. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. and unconsciousness. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . it is called internal hydrocephalus. 4. 4. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus.

3.7. infections. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. and occipital. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. and smell. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. and sulci. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. 3. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. 3. 3. 2. and glycine. taste. 6. 8. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. musical and artistic awareness. 6. 7. gamma aminobutyric acid. and generating mental images of sight. 1. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. to the cerebral cortex. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. excite. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. dopamine. controls body temperature. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. aspartic acid. serotonin. parietal. numerical and scientific skills. 5. 9. 3. 4. It controls the autonomic nervous system. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. 3. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. 1. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. insight. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. sound. 5. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. Brain Lateralization: 1. endorphins. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. touch. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. 10. spoken and written language. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. They help to control muscular movements. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. 2. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. constricted vermis. 2. 2. 3. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. 2. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. 3. except smell. 2. and tumors. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. fissures. 1. 1. 3. temporal. 2. Its cortex contains convolutions. 4. glutamic acid. 2. and reasoning. either anatomically or functionally. The Cerebrum: 1. The Cerebellum: 1. norepinephrine. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. 3. 7. imagination. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. space and pattern perception. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. and dynorphin. regulates food and fluid intake. 2.

4. 11. Examples include angiotensin. or early infancy. taste.Motor function of eye muscles.The sense of vision. Olfactory . Vestibulococ hlear . tongue muscles. taste. etc. etc. or basal ganglia during fetal development. Tongue muscles. 2. Motor. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. 5. 8. cerebellum. cornea.Sensory. cholecystokinin. The Cranial Nerves: 1. upper jaw. muscles of facial expression. also called strokes. upper teeth. thrombosis. 6. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system.Motor. the victim experiences degrees of motor. Soft palate. .The sense of smell. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. inferior pharynx. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. lower jaw. 11. pharyngeal muscles. 2. Hypoglossal . pharynx. some neck and shoulder muscles. 6. lower teeth. 9.Sensory. Depending on the form of the disease. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. 3. childbirth.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Trigeminal Sensory function. Disorders . Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. Glossophary ngeal . Accessory Motor. or psychological malfunction. Motor. 3. Impulse transmission is interrupted. soft palate. Motor function. larangeal muscles. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. Palate. 12. Optic . Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. 10. muscles of mastication. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. 7. thoracic and abdominal organs. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. forehead. Oculomotor . Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. Vagus Sensory. sensory. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. upper eyelid. 9. hearing and balance. 1. Motor function. Scalp. 10. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. 7. 4. larynx. 4. 12. or atherosclerosis. 8. 5. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .11. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. nose. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. Facial Sensory. 4.

thermoreceptors. 2. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. 7. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. end organs of Ruffini. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. and pain. Merkel's discs. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. 2. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. 2. electromagnetic receptors. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. 4. visceroceptors. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. 3. movement of body parts. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold).muscle spasms and encephalitis. According to location. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. and proprioceptors. 13. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. 3. pressure. Receptors located in muscles. and liver damage. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. 12. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. In terms of simplicity or complexity. Characteristics: 1. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. 2. and end organs of Ruffini. and Pacinian corpuscles. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. tendons. 6. and body position. 2. and sometimes delirium. proprioception. free nerve endings. conduction of the impulse to the brain. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. and chemoreceptors. 3. 4. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. 2. Meissner's corpuscles. brain dysfunction. Sensations: 1. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. vibration). personality changes. muscle spindles. they cause subconscious motor reactions. 5. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .Cutaneous Sensations: 1. surgery. 4. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. and acupuncture. 2. and tendon organs. 4. Levels of Sensation: 1. 5. Classification of Receptors: 1. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. and third-order neurons. second-order. nociceptors. connective tissues. 3. 3. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. The neural pathway for light touch. General Senses .

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. 3. it consists of activated and long-term components. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. 3. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). and corticobulbar tracts. 5. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. 4. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. in particular by the cerebral cortex. tectospinal. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). 3. association neuron. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. reduced metabolic rate. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. afferent neuron. 4. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. in general. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. It is entirely motor. Control by Higher Centers: 1. 2. concerned with energy expenditure. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. 2. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. Physiology: 1. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. anterior corticospinal. and vestibulospinal tracts. decrease in heart rate. Integrative Functions: 1. The autonomic nervous system. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. or visceral efferent nervous system. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. 4. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. ganglia. 4. cardiac muscle. 3. Olfactory Sensations: 1. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. It has been used to control heart rate. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves.6. and visceral effector. 2. 2. and to make childbirth easier. 2. and glands. and the medulla oblongata. that is. regulates visceral activities. 3. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. 4. Motor Pathways: 1. It usually operates without conscious control. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. On the basis of the transmitter produced. 3. activities of smooth muscle. the hypothalamus. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). 2. to alleviate migraine headaches. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. and plexuses. It is regulated by centers in the brain. 2.

Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. 4. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). medulla. 3. lens. sour. linear. and vitreous humor. 7. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. ciliary body. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. Visual Sensations: 1. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. and the threshold of smell is low. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. and the cortex. 5. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. 5. and round window). 2. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. 3. olfactory tracts. 4. 9. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. accommodation of the lens. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. eyelids. 7. 5. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. strike the basilar membrane. the optic tract. 10. pass through the ossicles. strike the oval window. aqueous humor. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. 2. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. 4. which contains rods and cones. A sound impulse is then initiated. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. the optic chiasma. 3. strike the tympanic membrane. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. and (c) retina. The four primary tastes are salt. sweet. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). which destroys neurons of the retina. and inverted image formation. and cerebral cortex. and the lacrimal apparatus. 3. constriction of the pupil. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. olfactory bulbs. and iris). 6. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). Trachoma is a chronic. convergence. and X. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. set up waves in the perilymph. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. hypermetropia (farsightedness). The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. eyelashes. and lipid-soluble. increase pressure in the endolymph. and tympanic membrane). The internal ear contains the spiral organ. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. 4. oval window. the organ of hearing. 5.2. VII. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. and bitter. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). or vertical motion. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. 8. the thalamus. 3. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. thalamus. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. external auditory canal. and cerebral cortex. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. 2. water-soluble. 8. Disorders . ossicles. IX. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. 2. 6. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. 4.

4. 8. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). giantism. and contribute to reproductive processes. 10. Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. help regulate growth and development. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. 2. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). 14. nerve impulses. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. respond to stress. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). 15. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 12. Exocrine glands (sweat. On the basis of solubility. 9. Control of Hormonal Secretions . OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. 7. 6. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. and regulating factors. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). and acromegaly. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Chemistry of Hormones: 1. 2. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. 5. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). sebaceous. 16. 13. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. 11. 2. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors.Feedback Control: 1. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). 3. 4.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 3. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). 2. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. Histologically. digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. 2. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. 3.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. Cretinism. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. 4. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Histologically. which secrete calcitonin (CT). 10. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. 5. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. and delta cells. Histologically. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. and serve as antiinflammatories. and the reactivity of the nervous system. 7. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. 6. exophthalmic goiter. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. They are released under stress. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). beta cells secrete insulin. 8. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells).g. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. Glucocorticoids (e. 4. beta cells. Parathyroids: 1. 3. 2. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. and lactation..Thyroid: 1. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. 2. pregnancy. Mineralocorticoids (e. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. 2. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. growth and development. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. 2. Histologically. Secretion is controlled by CRF. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. 4. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. 4. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. and gonadocorticoids. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys.g. Pancreas: 1. 9. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. 3. 6. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. myxedema. and zona reticularis. 5. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Ovaries and Testes: 1. Secretion is controlled by TRF. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. 3. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. help resist stress. menstrual cycle. and parafollicular cells. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. 5. 2. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. 2. 6. Histologically. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. Histologically. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. Insulin decreases blood sugar level.. zona ennin late. 3. glucocorticoids. Glucagon increases blood sugar level.

Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. temperature. Iymph vessels. and blood vessels. Lymphocytes. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. neuroglial cells. and enzymes. nutrients. Leucocytes: 1.5 percent solutes. Erythrocytes: 1. Thrombocytes: 1. body temperature. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. 6. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. 2. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. 2. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. eosinophils. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. the heart. leucocytes (white blood cells). Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). and water content of cells.000/mm3. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils.85 to 0. called erythropoiesis. 2. 2. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. 2. thymic factor (TF). Leucocytes are nucleated cells. a healthy female. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. 38 degrees C (100. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting.45. foods. and Iymph glands. 0.000 to 400. Blood transports oxygen. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. globulins. Thymus: 1. 5. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. 2. fibrinogen). and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers.5 percent water and 8. It helps to regulate pH. Components: 1. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. 4. 3. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. hormones. called plasma. wastes. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. Normal blood contains 5. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. Functions: 1. and thrombocytes (platelets). It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone).4 million/mm3 of blood. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). 4. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. 4. 3. Normal blood contains 250. 5. consists of 91. 4.90 NaCI. 3. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. 7. Erythrocyte formation.5. It protects against toxins and microbes. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. granular leucocytes. 6.4 degrees F). and salinity. 3. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. and platelets. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. 3.35 to 7. 3. pH.5 to 5. 2. carbon dioxide. The liquid portion of blood. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis.8 million/mm3.pinealocytes. about 4. thymic humoral factor (THF). nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances.000 to 9. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. Red blood cells live about 120 days. Plasma: 1.000/mm3. A healthy male has about 5.

They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. Interstitial Fluid: 1. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. 4. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. 2. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. Like plasma. The cause is a virus. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. 4. respiratory gases. 3. 7. and sickle cell anemia. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. In vascular spasm. 3. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). myocardium.The Heart: 1. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. pernicious. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. Anticoagulatants (e. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. 2. 10. Disorders . the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding.and hormones. The parietal pericardium. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). hemolytic. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. 2. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). and blood coagulation. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. 3. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. and out through the aorta.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. In the Rh system. 4. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. 2. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . The Cardiovascular System . Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. 9. 2. platelet plug formation. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. 11. In the ABO system. aplastic. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. hemorrhagic.Valves: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . These fluids are similar in chemical composition. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes.. heparin) prevent clogging. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. 6. It involves vascular spasm. encloses the heart. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. and endocardium. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. 2. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. 3. 5. 2. 8.g.

A peculiar sound is called a murmur. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. Cardiac Output: 1. 3.8 sec. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. aortic reflex. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. 5. potassium). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). 4. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. 3. 5. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. determining the presence of several fetuses. detecting the presence of fetal life. 3. 5. 4. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. 4. 7. 6. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. 2. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. 2. 6. temperature. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). 4. 7.4. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. Electrocardiogram: 1. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. Conduction System: 1. 3. bundle branches. 3. and Purkinje fibers. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. and right heart (atrial) reflex. 2. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. sodium. Cardiac Cycle: 1. 6. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. atrioventricular (AV) node. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. between the atria and their ventricles. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. 2. Blood Supply: 1. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. 2. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. 7.

3. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. sex (gender and physical activity). 2. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. Disorders . and genetic disposition. valvular stenosis. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. high blood pressure. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). They drain blood from capillaries into veins. In severe shock. 3. 2. 3. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. 2. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures.ener Arterioles: 1. to correct some defects. 4. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. 3. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. and to apply chemotherapy locally. some capillaries are continuous. 2. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. obesity. Veins: 1. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. 4. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). and therefore blood pressure. 2. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. and age.emotion. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. As blood volume increases. flutter. 3. others are fenestrated. Venules: 1. diabetes mellitus. and tetralogy of Fallot). 4. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. 2. 5. blood pressure increases. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. fibrillation. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. 2. 5. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. Arteries: 1. and premature contractions). and the shock cvcle is intensified. septal defects. The heart becomes hypoxic. This network increases the surface area. 4. Capillaries: 1. lack of exercise. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. cigarette smoking. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. 3. and arrhythmias (heart block. and tunica externa.

skeletal muscular contractions. At birth. and liver functions are established. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. and the descending aorta. when lung. Circulatory Routes: 1. chemicals. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. and autoregulation. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. and higher brain centers. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. digestive. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. They in turn empty into the right atrium. 3. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. 2. intestines. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. 2. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. and fetal circulation. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. 7. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. the arch of the aorta. emotions. 8. 3. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. 2. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. 2. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. chemoreceptors. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. chemicals. spleen. 2. 9. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. 2. and age. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. Systemic Circulation: 1. 3. Fetal Circulation: 1. 2. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. and breathing. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. Other routes include the cerebral. 3. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. Blood Reservoirs: 1. 2. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. 3. sex. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. 6. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . pulmonary. Disorders . stomach. temperature. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction.

which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. antimicrobial substances (interferon. 2. 3. Antigens are chemical substances that. IgD. incompatible blood cells. when introduced into the body. chemical factors (gastric juice. each with specific biological roles (IgG. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. 3. 2. and multivalence. complement. called Iymphatics. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. and Iymph organs. 3. and fever. and lingual tonsils. inflammation. Examples of antigens are microbes. 2. reactivity. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. unsaturated fatty acids. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. to Iymph trunks. 3. and transplants. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. Iymph nodes. 3. cilia. 5. 4. 4. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. pollen. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. mucus. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells.1. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. lacrimal apparatus. 4. 9. mucous membranes. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. 2. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. microbial structures. IgM. 3. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. epiglottis. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. to Iymph capillaries. to Iymphatics. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. 2. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . T cells are processed in the thymus gland. phagocytosis. Iymphatic vessels. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. IgA. and properdin). saliva. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. acid pH of skin. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. 2. and flow of urine). Lymph Circulation: 1. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. and Iysozyme). Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. to the subclavian veins. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. 7. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. 2. and kidneys. brain. They include the pharyngeal. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. 8. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. palatine. 5. Based on chemistry and structure. 6. Lymphatic Organs: 1. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. and IgE).

preparing vaccines. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. 4. 11. 14. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. memory B cells recognize the original. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. detection of disease. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. 5. eczema. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. During forced inspiration. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. asthma. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. 10. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). sighing. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. sobbing. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. rheumatic fever. treatment. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. 2. and multiple sclerosis (MS). 8. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. 2. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. crying. 2. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. myasthenia gravis. 4. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. 3. 13. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. 12. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. and hives. yawning. sneezing. 3. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. laughing. 6. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. 7. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. invading antigen. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand.liver and spleen. 2. Coughing. they are important in diagnosis. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases.

23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. and excess mucus production. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. Pulmonary lung capacities. pneumotaxic area. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. 3. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. and total. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. Disorders . External Respiration . Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. B. and enlarged chest. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. 4. when the temperature remains constant. Breathing. In bronchogenic carcinoma. C's of CPR are Airway. and irritation to the respiratory centers. and minimal volumes. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. 2. 3. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. both in the brain and outside. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and DPG. assuming that the pressure remains constant. 4. 3. inflated alveoli. and a rich blood supply. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. 2. 2. According to Dalton's law. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. functional residual. compresses the lungs. 2. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. blood pressure. 6. expiratory reserve. 2. include inspiratory. 2. 3. inspiratory reserve. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. residual volume. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. temperature. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. the sum of two or more volumes. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. and apneustic area. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. vital. It is symbolized by p. 4. pain. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). a large alveolar surface area. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. 5. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. inflated lungs. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). and function of the epithelial cells. The A. division. the inflation reflex. 2.Internal Respiration: 1. 3.are tidal volume. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. temperature. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). and Circulation. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. pCO2. 3.

The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. The teeth. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. 3. peristalsis. 9. 2. Digestive Processes: 1. and pancreas. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. gallbladder. 2. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. Organization: 1. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. The accessory structures include the teeth. and greater omentum. or dentes. which aid mechanical digestion. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. 2. 2. submandibular (submaxillary). lips. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. 8. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. 3. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. Salivary Glands: 1. forms the floor of the oral cavity. 3. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. 5. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. 4. 3. and defecation. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. 2.7. mesocolon. and sublingual glands. the hardest substance in the body. 4. falciform ligament. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. lipid. muscularis. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. palates. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. Deglutition: 1. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. 4. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. It consists of a voluntary stage. Some papillae contain taste buds. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. mechanical and chemical digestion. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. or alimentary canal. and cervix. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. and tongue. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. Teeth: 1. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. submucosa. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. 4. 2. 2. 3. lesser omentum. root. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. salivary glands. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. 2. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. tongue. 2. and accessory structures. together with its associated muscles. The tongue. and serosa (peritoneum). The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. liver. absorption.

Among the substances absorbed are some water. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 3. gastric. 2. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. certain electrolytes and drugs. 2. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). and transported as chylomicrons. 2. electrolytes. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. villi. and alcohol. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). glands that produce mucus. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. 2. Absorption: 1. Pancreas: 1. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. 2. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). The most important mechanism is local reflexes. intrinsic factor. and stomach gastrin. Small Intestine: Anatomy . It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 3. 2. The small intestine also absorbs water. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. 3. and vitamins. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. hydrochloric acid. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. 3. Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. 2. Liver: 1. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). Absorption: 1. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase).Histology: 1. 3. Gallbladder: 1. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. Stomach: Anatomy . 2. a protein-digesting enzyme. The esophagus is a collapsible. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). 2. Esophagus: 1. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. and the microvilli. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). 2. 2. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. and intestinal. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. 2. 4. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. resynthesized to triglycerides. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus.Histology: 1. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). Hormones also assume a role. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase).

Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. 2. inorganic salts. 2. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. 11. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. and water. and barium x-ray. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. lipids. 5. and anal canal. hepatitis B. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. The large intestine absorbs water. 2. stenosis. 9. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. minerals. Metabolism: 1. alveolar bone. a foreign body. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. and vitamins. 2. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. Types include hepatitis A. 3. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. 2. Its subdivisions include the cecum. 3. Disorders . 2. 12. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. 8. . carcinoma of the cecum. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. 5. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. During digestion. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. or kinking of the organ. and cementum. Feces consists of water. colon. epithelial cells. 7. vitamins. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. 10. act as building blocks in forming new body components. peristalsis. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. rectum. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. and non-A. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. Defecation: 1. Anabolic reactions use energy. and mass peristalsis. 4. bacteria. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. rather than enzymatic. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. and undigested foods. 4. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. periodontal membrane.1. electrolytes. 6. 2. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. proteins. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. 3. action. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. colonoscopy. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue.

and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. 2. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. the Krebs cycle. 6. thromboplastin for blood clotting. 2. 2. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. 3. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen.2. 3. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. and I molecule of GTP. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. 2. 3. As a result of glycolysis. Glycolysis: 1. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. 2. 3. 3. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. epinephrine. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. and growth hormone (GH). When oxygen is in short supply. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. 3. 3. 4 molecules of NADH2. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. glucagon. 2. 2. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. recombined to form triglycerides. Glucose Catabolism: 1. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. In beta oxidation. During digestion. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. Lipid Metabolism: 1. 1 molecule of FADH2. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. 4. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. coenzyme Q. under aerobic conditions. and the electron transport chain. 5. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. Fat Storage: 1. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and cytochromes. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. Fate of Lipids: 1. 3. It is stimulated by cortisol. Glucose Anabolism: 1. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. Lipid Catabolism: 1. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. Electron Transport Chain: 1. 4. thyroxine. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes.

Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. 3. thyroxine. Protein Metabolism: 1. but an excess of ketone bodies. Lipid Anabolism . The process is stimulated by insulin. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. Many function in enzyme systems. E. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. enter body cells by active transport. iodine. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. Inside cells. cobalt. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. 2. 2. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Production of Body Heat: 1. 3. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. During the absorptive state. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. may cause acidosis. 3. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. stored. D. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. 2. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. Fate of Proteins: 1. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. Protein Catabolism: 1. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. Vitamins: 1. selenium. and hydrogenation. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. snd ketane hadies. conversion of glycerol into glucose. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. manganese. and chromium. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. hormones. 4. hormones. During the absorptive state. decarboxylation. 3. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). phosphorus. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate.Lipogenesis: 1. and insulin. and proteins. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. copper. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. or converted. 2. 2. sulfur. Amino acids. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. sodium.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. fatty acids. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. potassium. Minerals: 1. based on the needs of the body. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. these conversions involve deamination. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. magnesium. Protein Anabolism: 1. structural elements. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism.4. zinc. 2. and body temperature. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. During digestion. iron. called ketosis. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. chlorine. fats. and so forth. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. 2. the nervous system. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. 2. 2. and K. Before amino acids can be catabolized.

Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. ascending limb of Henle.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . and renal fascia. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. Internally. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. cramps. 3. 5. and a pelvis. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. papillae. calyces. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. 2. 4. failure to grow. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. and thyroxine production. sympathetic stimulation. loop of Henle. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. 2. the kidneys consist of a cortex. 3. skeletal muscle contraction. 3. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. descending limb of Henle. and high body temperature. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. nausea. 4. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. lethargy. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. 4. and perspiration. 2. and K and calcium is inadequate. D. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . distal convoluted tubule. and urethra. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. 2. Loss of Body Heat: 1. profuse perspiration. and dizziness. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. stages include chill and crisis. proximal convoluted tubule. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. 7. deereased metabolic rate. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. 4. reduced perspiration. 2. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. 4. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. 2. pyramids. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. urinary bladder. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. glomerulus. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. 3. ureters. medulla. 4. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. and sometimes mental retardation.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 5. Physiology: 1. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. 6. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). 3. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. 5. 3. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. columns. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. adipose capsule. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure.

salts. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). blood concentration. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. Disorders . Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. integument. Homeostasis: 1. 10. and fluids of the eyes and ears. muscularis. 2. 5. plasma and Iymph. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. odor. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. and ions. 7. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. It includes interstitial fluid. pleural. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. pericardial. 4. ketone bodies. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. Body Fluids: 1. 2. Urinary Bladder: 1. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). and microbes. nitrogenous wastes. erythrocytes. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. temperature. 2. urobilinogen. synovial fluid. and specific gravity. the rest by facultative reabsorption.6. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. and fibrous coat. In exchange. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. and certain drugs. 3. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. cerebrospinal fluid. Included are ions. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. 5. 2. the lungs. 2. primarily by peristalsis. indican. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. creatinine. ketone bodies. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. 2. bilirubin. leucocytes. glucose. Histologically. and the glomerular filtrate. turbidity. Urethra: 1. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. 8. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. Besides the kidneys. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. and a serous coat. including water. casts. Ureters: 1. diuretics. and emotions. 4. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. 3. 8. Chemically. renal calculi. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. Gl tract fluids. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. 9. 4. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. uric acid. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. 5. Normally. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. pH.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and peritoneal fluids. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. 3. hippuric acid. glucose. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). and ions. 11. 6. 3. amino acids. 7. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. The solutes include urea.

Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. 4. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). proper fluid movement between compartments. decreases pH. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes.45. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). lungs. 5. muscle contraction. muscle contraction. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. Acid-Base Balance: 1. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. 2. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. 4. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations.35 to 7. interstitial fluid. It also functions in blood clotting. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. 3. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. Under normal conditions. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). 3. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. 5. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. 2. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. 4. fluid moves in the opposite direction. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. 10. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. At the arterial end of a capillary. 3. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. phosphate. skin. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. 4. 2. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. chemical transmitter release. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. and GI tract. Plasma. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. An increase in rate of respirations. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter).35 and 6.80. 2. a decrease in rate. and protein. 2. and regulating pH. At the venous end. Its level is controlled by aldosterone.00. 11. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. and regulation of pH.45 and 8. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. 8. Electrolytes: 1. respirations. nerve impulse conduction. especially extracellular fluid. and kidney excretion. 4. and heartbeat. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. 3. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and fluid and electrolyte balance. increases pH. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. 3. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. 6.1. muscle contraction. 9. 7.

viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. and 7. and interstitial endocrinocytes. ductus deferens. and tail. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. ducts (transport and store gametes). The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. sustentacular cells. 4. seminal vesicles. 2. 6. and maintenance of sex organs. 3. ejaculatory duct. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). 7. 3. straight tubules. in which sperm cells are made. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. 3. 11. II. Testosterone controls the growth. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. urethra. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. and penis. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. which nourish sperm cells. Scrotum: 1. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . protein anabolism. midpiece. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. 2. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. 12. Ducts: 1. and efferent ducts. 2. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. 7. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. rete testis. membranous. 2. ductus epididymis. Testes: 1. sperm maturation. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. straight tubules. bulbourethral glands. and rete testis. Male Reproductive System: 1. 5. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. prostate gland. Accessory Glands: 9. 8. 6. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). 5. 2. 3. 10. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. development. stimulates bone growth. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. Reproductive System: 1. 4. and spongy (cavernous). and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules.

During the preovulatory phase. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. Ovaries: 1. During the menstrual phase. uterus. 8. 3. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. on either side of the uterus. 6. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. III. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. 3. and epithelial cells. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. Estrogens stimulate the growth. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH.nutrients. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. 3. 7. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. Penis: 1. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. development of a fetus during pregnancy. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). 2. and labor. 5. The uterus is an inverted. During the postovulatory phase. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. Histologically. 11. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. discharge ova (ovulation). the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. development. 2. . middle myometrium. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. 4. endometrial repair occurs. 2. They produce ova. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. 5. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. 2. 2. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. The penis is the male organ of copulation. tissue fluid. 9. 6. ovulation. and vulva. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. 10. implantation of a fertilized ovum. 2. Uterus: 1. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. uterine tubes. 4. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. and inner endometrium. mucus. and stimulate protein anabolism. 4. vagina. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation.

lubrication. dysmenorrhea. and ova maturation. genital herpes. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. 2. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). equatorial division. If fertilization and implantation do occur. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. 3. 2.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. 10. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. abnormal bleeding. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. Spermatogenisis: 1. 5. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. lubrication. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. Disorders . enlarged prostate. 9. Mammary Glands: 1. 3. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. 12. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. It is said to be haploid (n). It consists of the mons veneris. 2. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). 2. trichomoniasis. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. and the lower portion of the birth canal.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. Vulva: 1. pectoral muscles. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. labia majora. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. 2. 4. clitoris. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. 11. and orgasm (climax). Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. 7. 8. 3. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). and greater and lesser vestibular glands. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. 8. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. Perineum: 1. Vagina: 1. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. labia minora. and orgasm. the cessation of the sexual cycles. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. 6. vestibule. syphilis. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). equatorial division. 13. Sexual Intercourse: 1. 10. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. 9. and sperm maturation. 2. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. Oogenesis: 1. 2. vaginal and urethral orifices. and tumors. 7. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. 2. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. The female role also involves erection. 12. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. 2. The removal of a malignant breast. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test.

1. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. . ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . implantation. 2. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. 2.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. embryonic growth. 4. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. Its various events are hormonally controlled. fetal growth. 3. and birth. 5.

The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. estrogens. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. and delivery of the placenta. and chemical). 3. mesoderm. 2. amnion. 2. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. protein anabolism. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. 3. 2. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. Tay-Sachs disease. sickle cell anemia. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. and allantois. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. . 2. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. alcohol. During the fetal period. 4. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. removal of wastes. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. 3. 2. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). expulsion of the fetus. chorion. 2. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. During embryonic growth. Dominant genes control a particular trait. and Down's syndrome. 7. sterilization (vasectomy. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. 6. and contraception (natural. and protection. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. Lactation: 1. such as hemophilia. estrogens. Parturition and Labor: 1. microbes. 5. 5. Inheritance: 1. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. mechanical. Birth Control: 6. 8. and progesterone. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. Examples are infections. 4. 3. and progesterone. laparascopic technique). chemicals and drugs. and smoking. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands.The morula develops into a blastocyst. tubal ligation. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. 1. 2. 3. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .

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