Protocols :A protocol is a set of rules agreed by both sides, to allow meaningful communication to take place.

Protocols are needed whenever systems need to pass information from one to another.

OSI Layer Model :-

The model comprises 7 layers which define various functions involved in the establishing an end to end communications circuit.Development of the Open Standards Interconnection (OSI) reference model was started in 1983 by a number of major computer and telecommunications companies. It was eventually adopted as an international standard by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and is currently embodied within the ITU-TS X. Bank Dispenser ± provides money and services to the bank customer. The explanation of the layers :Layer 7 ± Application Layer y This layer defines the work actually done by system for the user.200 recommendations. Eg. .

Network requires username and password. y It takes the abstract user view of the sytem and produces machine readable instructions e. e.Layer 6 ± Presentation Layer y The function of this layer to convert the semantics into syntax.g. . Which buttons you need to press to get the money ? Layer 5 ± Session Layer y This layer controls the sessions.g. log calls and check passwords.

Error Checking and routing.g. e.Layer 4 ± Transport Layer y It is concerned with getting information from source to destination.g. . Which network to use? Layer 3 ± Network Layer y It makes sure that information gets across the network from source to destination correctly e.

fibre or radio waves to be used. Voltage. e. Type of wire. . Layer 1 ± Physical Layer y This layer determines the means of communication. frequency and speed.g.Layer 2 ± Data Link Layer y It controls the flow of information between nodes in the network and handles congestion and retransmission.

Horizontal and Vertical Communication : - Horizontal (Peer to Peer)Communications : - .

Each SAP has a unique SAP Identifier (SAPI). Each Entiy is accessed via a Service Access Point (SAP) or a gate.Vertical (Entity to Entity) Communications :- y y y y y y Each Layer requests a service from below. Each Service provided is known as ³Service Entity´. . The Layer below responds by providing a service to the layer above. Each Layer can provide one or more services to the layer above.

GSM Air Interface Protocols :- .

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