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TO THE PRINCIPAL NAYAGARH JUNIOR COLLAGE
SUPERVISOR INVESTIGETER PROF.G.B.NAYAK SASMITA DAS ST DEPART OF EDUCATION +2(1 )ARTS ROLLNO-457
C. Pradhan.B.(R. Pradan.NAYAKA] of nayararh collage because he is help me creat in this projet. P. Ku. I am Sasmita Das student of Nayagarh College. I thank my friend.I heartily thanks my principal (S.) I thank my Collage stapes. I thanks my supervisor [G. My parent give me all are objet for study so i thanks my lovely parents.PRAHARAJ) of Nayagarh Collage because he is changed me for studded in Nayagarh College. Sasmita Das Investigator . I thank my helping teacher.r. and my parents Give me some data for project.
This project report embodies the result of his benefited research work. This project is the partical fulfillment of syllabus for environmental education implemented by the council of Higher Secondary Education. Odisha. INTRODUCTION .This is to certify that the project report entitled “AIR POLLUTION -“has been prepared under my guidance and supervision. This project satisfies the awarenss in the people.
causes and effects of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect. particulate matter. . or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles. Pollutants can be classified as either primary or secondary. Schematic drawing. or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. (3) increased UV radiation. liquid droplets. the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. (4) acid rain. the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. they may be natural or man-made. primary pollutants are substances directly emitted from a process. In addition. (2) particulate contamination. or gases. (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides An air pollutant is known as a substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment.Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals. Usually. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. such as ash from a volcanic eruption. Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report Pollutant and Greenhouse Gas Before flue gas desulphurization was installed. (5) increased ozone concentration.
The scale may or may not distinguish between different pollutants. Air is 99. . Note that some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is. there are two types of air quality standards. The first class of to air pollution. Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact.Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. water vapor and . oxygen. The second class (such as the North American Air Quality Index) take the form of a scale with various thresholds.In general. WHAT IS AIR POLLUTION? Air is the ocean we breathe. Rather. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone — one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog. according to the Environmental Science Engineering Program at the Harvard School of Public standards (such as the U.9% nitrogen.S. Environmental agencies enact regulations which are intended to result in attainment of these target levels. About 4 percent of deaths in the United States can be attributed Health. which is used to communicate to the public the relative risk of outdoor activity. they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants. National Ambient Air Quality Standards) set maximum atmospheric concentrations for specific pollutants.
such as sulfur dioxide. In the United States. forming smog and acid rain. Each of these problems has serious implications for our health and well-being as well as for the whole environment. nitrogen oxides. we spend about 80-90% of our time inside buildings. and chemical vapors. This type of pollution is sometimes referred to as "black carbon" pollution. homes. and schools. One type of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy. There are several main types of pollution and well-known effects of pollution which are commonly discussed. The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2. some of which can cause problems for humans. It is therefore important to consider both indoor and outdoor air pollution. plants. Some individuals are much more sensitive . the greenhouse effect. and "holes" in the ozone layer. carbon monoxide.5 microns or about . These can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere. Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as smoking and cooking. Pollution also needs to be considered inside our homes. Human activities can release substances into the air. 0001 inches. Diesel smoke is a good example of this particulate matter. and so our exposure to harmful indoor pollutants can be serious. Another type of pollution is the release of noxious gases.inert gases. How can air pollution hurt my health? • Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects. acid rain. These include smog. and industries is a major source of pollution in the air. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles. Some authorities believe that even the burning of wood and charcoal in fireplaces and barbeques can release significant quanitites of soot into the air. and animals. offices. Different groups of individuals are affected by air Apollution in different ways.
Other symptoms can include headaches. lung cancer. Additional information on the health effects of air pollution is available from the Natural Resources Defense Council. and even damage to the brain. • Research into the health effects of air pollution is ongoing. four thousand people died in a few days due to the high concentrations of pollution. Medical conditions arising from air pollution can be very expensive. How can we prevent the damaging effects of air pollution? . and human welfare impacts cost billions of dollars each year. lost productivity in the workplace. nose and throat. the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chemicals must be taken into account. i. In the great "Smog Disaster" in London in 1952. • Examples of short-term effects include irritation to the eyes. or kidneys.A. nausea. Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution. and allergic reactions. It is estimated that half a million people die prematurely every year in the United States as a result of smoking cigarettes. and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia.Q. Continual exposure to air pollution affects the lungs of growing children and may aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the elderly.A. liver. A short article on the health effects of ozone (a major component of smog) is available from the B. • Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease. Short-term air pollution can aggravate the medical conditions of individuals with asthma and emphysema.e.. Healthcare costs.D. nerves.M. heart disease. heart and lung disease may also suffer more when the air is polluted. People with health problems such as asthma.to pollutants than are others. The extent to which an individual is harmed by air pollution usually depends on the total exposure to the damaging chemicals.
D. beginning at very young ages. the Atmosphere Management Program carries out world wide environmental projects. The first step to solving air pollution is assessment. . Many state and local organizations also participate in monitoring and controlling the environment. Many countries have set controls on pollution emissions for transportation vehicles and industry. These can be accomplished by regulation of manmade pollution through legislation.Q. about the effects of air pollution.A.A. Educators in schools and universities teach students.M. Legislative bodies write laws to control emissions. Researchers have investigated outdoor air pollution and have developed standards for measuring the type and amount of some serious air pollutants. SmogBusters of southern California. the Air Quality Management District in southern California. steps can be undertaken to reduce exposure to air pollution. Once exposure levels have been set. Scientists must then determine how much exposure to pollutants is harmful. These include the San Francisco Bay Area's Air Quality Management District (B. animal and human life. In the United States. steps are being taken to stop the damage to our environment from air pollution.). This is usually done to through a variety of coordinating agencies which monitor the air and the environment. Prevention is another key to controlling air pollution. The regulatory agencies mentioned above play an essential role in reducing and preventing air pollution in the environment.In many countries in the world. the Environmental Protection Agency of California. and the Galveston-Houston Association for Smog Prevention (GHASP). Scientific groups study the damaging effects on plant. At the United Nations. the primary federal agency is the Environmental Protection Agency.
careful attention to our interactions with the environment. Legislation to control smoking is in effect in some locations. Only through the efforts of scientists.In addition. Restricting smoking is an important key to a healthier environment. legislators. Additional information about product chemical safety are available in an article and a fact sheet from Enviro$en$e. . Additional information about the effects of "secondhand" cigarette smoke is available from the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC) and Medicine On-line. Additional information is available from EcoTech. but personal exposure should be monitored and limited wherever possible. Building materials should be reviewed for potential harmful effects. The largest of these orders. In the United States. One of the most dangerous air pollutants is cigarette smoke. represent nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction projects on two coal-fired boilers. placed by a major domestic power producer. Additional information is available in a book titled Understanding Ventilation . Home and work environments should be monitored for adequate air flow and proper exhaust systems installed. and individuals can we reduce the amount of air pollution on the planet. business leaders. most household products come with instructions about safe use. This challenge must be met by all of us in order to assure that a healthy environment will exist for ourselves and our children. Information on building materials can be found in LBNL's Center for Building Science newsletter. Adequate ventilation is also a key to controlling exposure to indoor air pollution. Find out "What you can do to reduce air pollution". it is possible to prevent many types of air pollution that are not regulated through personal. and in Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).
. Chairman. President and Chief Executive Officer. an order was received for an ULTRA system on a gas-fired unit from a domestic municipal power plant. storage and handling of anhydrous or aqueous ammonia.These projects will utilize Fuel Tech's HERT(TM) High Energy Reagent Technology(TM) and NOxOUT(R) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) injection technologies." About Fuel Tech Fuel Tech is a leading technology company engaged in the worldwide development. We are pleased to be working with this valued client to meet its compliance plans. process optimization. Equipment delivery is scheduled for the first quarter of 2011. Fuel Tech's ULTRA process provides for the safe and cost-effective on-site conversion of urea to ammonia for use as a reagent in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx. Douglas G. and advanced engineering services. commented. Bailey. Additionally. Equipment deliveries are scheduled for the third quarter of 2011. commercialization and application of state-of-the-art proprietary technologies for air pollution control. These technologies enable customers to produce both energy and processed materials in a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable manner. These orders are part of a larger alliance agreement which calls for the potential supply of SNCR systems and related services for multiple coal-fired generating units. eliminating the hazards associated with the transport. "The order from our domestic alliance partner represents the eighth and ninth SNCR systems to be received since the alliance agreement was signed in March.
as well as services to help optimize selective catalytic reduction system performance. with installations on over 600 units Worldwide. opacity and operational issues associated with sulfur trioxide.and post-combustion NOx control approaches. heavy oil. These . including catalyst management services and ammonia injection grid tuning. ULTRA(TM) and NOxOUT-SCR(R) processes. is installed on over 90 combustion units burning a wide variety of fuels including coal. high-end visualization software. CASCADE(TM).such as Low NOx Burners and Over-Fire Air systems . corrosion. including NOxOUT(R) and HERT(TM) SNCR systems as well as systems that incorporate ASCR(TM) (Advanced Selective Catalytic Reduction). which are enhanced by internally developed. including airflow testing.5). natural gas. municipal waste. flow corrective devices and physical and computational modeling services are available to optimize flue gas distribution and mixing in both power plant and industrial applications. In addition. Fuel Tech also provides a range of combustion optimization services.The Company's nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technologies include advanced combustion modification techniques . Many of Fuel Tech's products and services rely heavily on the Company's exceptional Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling capabilities. fuel oil. The Company's FUEL CHEM(R) technology revolves around the unique application of chemicals to improve the efficiency. and other fuels are utilized. This technology. fuel flexibility and environmental status of combustion units by controlling slagging. fouling. biomass. ammonium bisulfate. biomass. where coal. and municipal waste. particulate matter (PM2. These technologies have established Fuel Tech as a leader in NOx reduction. coal flow testing and boiler tuning. reliability. carbon dioxide and NOx. in the form of a customizable FUEL CHEM program.
enable Fuel Tech to provide practical solutions to some of our customers' most challenging problems. Today one of the major problems of earth is ‘Global warming’ which is caused by pollution. visit Fuel Tech's web site at www. . coupled with the Company's innovative technologies and multidisciplined team approach.capabilities. This press release may contain statements of a forward-looking nature regarding future events. Please refer to documents that Fuel Tech files from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission for a discussion of certain factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statements. Conclusion on Air Pollution Air Pollution gives rise to serious health hazards and responsible for various types of life threatening diseases. These statements are only predictions and actual events may differ materially. There should be adequate control norms of emissions and effluents into air which should be observed religiously. Hence it is utmost important that proper attention should be given in controlling and minimizing those activities which causes this pollution and also appropriate restriction should be put in place in using those means which contributes towards it.ftek. For more information.com.
the temperature of the earth is going up and also the green house gases are going up. The whole world is severely affected with the ill effect of this problem in one or the other way.nlm.com • www.nationalgeographic. Due to pollution.google. This is also desirable so that our future generation don't get severly affected by uncontrolled magnitude of this.com • www. This has seriously increased the risk of several big coastal cities around the world to run with the fear of drowning. high amount of uncertainty in getting rain and thus has quite adversely affected our crop production as well. it should be one of our most important priorities that we all should make effort together to fight this problem and help reducing air pollution.nih. This has resulted into remarkable weather imbalances. REFERENCE • www. So.gov/medlineplus/airpollution .The continuous rise in the temperature of our atmosphere is causing water level of sea to increase as a result of large scale melting of glaciers.environment.