NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities

and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training & development is… it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance. We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was stated earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms. Table 1. Training and Education Differentiated Training Education Application Theoretical Orientation Job Experience Classroom Learning Specific Tasks General Concepts Narrow / Perspective Broad Perspective Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Education is theoretical learning in classroom. Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee, for example, who undergoes training is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact, the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent decision regarding there work and their relationship with clients. Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning there training programmes. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions.

Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programmes, are generally voluntary. To bring the distinction among training, education and development into sharp focus, it may be stated that “training is offered to operatives”, whereas “developmental programmes are meant for employees in higher positions”. Education however is common to all the employees, there grades notwithstanding. AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT The fundamental aim of training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value to its key resource – the people it employs. Training means investing in the people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. The particular objectives of training are to: • Develop the competences of employees and improve their performance; • Help people to grow within the organization in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resource can be met from within; • Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfers or promotion, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible. INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into distant future. In addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision-making and problem-solving abilities. Skills Training, as was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to operate machines, and use other equipments with least damage or scrap. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. There is also the need for motor skills. Motor skills refer to performance of specific physical activities. These skills involve training to move various parts of one’s body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor skills include walking, riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace, throwing a ball and driving a car. Motor skills are needed for all employees – from the clerk to the general manager. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popular known as the people skills. Interpersonal skills are needed to understand one self and others better, and act accordingly. Examples

of interpersonal skills include understanding of others’ feelings. Education






The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgement. That any training and development programme must contain an element of education is well understood by HR specialist. Any such programme has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topic proposed to be discussed. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. Chief Executive Officers (CEO’s) are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Education is important for managers and executives than for lower-cadre workers. Development Another component of a training and development is development which is less skill oriented but stressed on knowledge. Knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of the company. Ethics There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programme. There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Unethical practices abound in marketing, finance and production function in an organization. They are less see and talked about in the personnel function. If the production, finance and marketing personnel indulge in unethical practices the fault rests on the HR manager. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need of ethical behavior. Exhibit # 1 White Collar Crimes

The findings of the KPMG’s fraud survey for 1998, confirm the prevalence of white collar crimes in corporate India. The survey has pegged the loss due to delinquencies at Rs.200 crores but KPMG feels that it is only the tip of the iceberg. According to the study, 66% of the respondents feel that the frauds will increase. Respondents have cited kickbacks and expenses accounts as the most frequent types of internal frauds, and patent infringements, false representation and secret commissions as the most favored external crimes. Among management frauds, window dressing of balance sheets is the hot favorite followed by more creative ones like fudging MIS and giving wrong information.

Attitudinal Changes Attitudes represent feeling and beliefs of individuals towards others. Attitude affects motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes need to be converted into positive attitudes. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because – 1. Employees refuse to changes 2. They have prior commitments 3. And information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient Nevertheless, attitude must be changed so that employees feel committed to the organization, are motivated for better performance, and derive satisfaction from there jobs and the work environment Decisions Making and Problem Solving Skills Decision making skill and problem solving skills focus on method and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work-related problems. Learning related to decision-making and problem-solving skills seeks to improve trainees’ abilities to define structure problems, collect and analysis information, generate alternative solution and make an optimal decision among alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers, supervisors and professionals. Exhibit # 2 Training inputs at HLL

The training and development affords at HLL are designed to develop the following: 1. Helping employees satisfy personal goals through higher level of skills and competencies 2. Facilitating higher contribution at there present jobs and preparing them for the next level of responsibilities 3. Developing individuals and teams to meet the total needs of the organization TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AS SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Companies derive competitive advantage from training and development. Training and development programmes, as was pointed out earlier, help remove performance deficiencies in employee. This is particularly true when - (1) the deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform, (2) the individual(s) involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job better, and (3) supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors.

the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. They seldom leave the company. and capacity for growth in an organization. Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. Even dissatisfaction. The Benefits of Employee Training How Training Benefits the Organization: • • • • • • • • Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. the objectives of the HR department are also furthered. Further. absenteeism. Who else but well-trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an enterprise? Accidents. making employees stay long. which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. minimized accidents. trained employees tend to stay with the organization. Growth indicates prosperity. They are absorbed after course completion. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. complaints. At the same time. Flexibility is therefore ensured. scraps and damage. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization Improves the morale of the workforce Helps people identify with organizational goals Helps create a better corporate image Fosters authenticity. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits. Growth renders stability to the workforce. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. A company's training and development pays dividends to the employee and the organization. Training makes the employees versatile in operations. There is greater stability.Training & Development offers competitive advantage to a firm by removing performance deficiencies. All rounders can be transferred to any job. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. openness and trust Improves relationship between boss and subordinate Aids in organizational development learns from the trainee . Ultimately. generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. flexibility. and meeting future employee needs. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. the employee's personal and career goals are furthered.

production. motivation. Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skills Aids in development for promotion from within Aids in developing leadership skills. also writing skills when exercises are required. loyalty. frustration and conflict Provides information for improving leadership.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Helps prepare guidelines for work Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. etc. growth. responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence Helps a person handle stress. communication skills and attitudes Increases job satisfaction and recognition Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee) Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future Develops a sense of growth in learning Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills.g. achievement. motivational variables of recognition. Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable Improves Labour-management relations Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools) Creates an appropriate climate for growth. thereby helping to prevent stress and tension. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks . administration. knowledge. tension. Benefits to the Individual Which in Turn Ultimately Should Benefit the Organization: • • • • • • • • • • • Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving Through training and development. personnel. better attitudes. and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work Helps keep costs down in many areas. communication Aids in improving organizational communication Helps employees adjust to change Aids in handling conflict. e.

Improves morale Builds cohesiveness in groups Provides a good climate for learning. and co-ordination Makes the organization a better place to work and live THE TRAINING PROCESS Figure #1 below outline important steps in a typical training process. Makes organizational policies. Intra-group & Inter-group Relations and Policy Implementation: • • • • • • • • • • Improves communication between groups and individuals: Aids in orientation for new employee and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action Provides information on other government laws and administrative policies Improves interpersonal skills.Benefits in Personnel and Human Relations. . growth. rules and regulations viable.

Needs assessment occurs at two levels-group and individual.Needs assessment Organizational support Organizational analysis Task and KSA analysis Person analysis Instructional Objective Selection and design of instructional programs Developm ent of criteria Training Validity Transfer Validity Intraorgani zational validity Interorgani zational validity Training Use of evaluation models The Training Process NEED ASSESSMENT Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors.g. a needs assessment exercise reveal that less costly interventions (e. selection. For example. organizations would do well to the training needs of their employees. An individual . Before committing such huge resources. job redesign) could be used in lieu of training. compensation package. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development.

Any change in the organizations strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. that is. or discharge will solve the problem. Although job transfer common as organizational personnel demands vary. economic forces have necessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continued employment for many individuals. job redesign. Employees commonly require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs. when there is performance deficiency. Transfer. Faulty selection. Performance Deficiency Lack of skill or Knowledge Other Causes Training Non-training Measures Figure #2 Needs Assessment and Remedial Measures Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee. This will help him/her to progress in his or her career path.obviously needs when his or her performance falls short of standards. and the forces of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry. It is necessary that the employee be acquire new skills. For . they do not necessarily require training efforts. poor job design. Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. Deputation to a parttime MBA programme is ideal to train and develop such employees. Figure below illustrates the assessment of individual training needs and remedial measures. Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. Jobs have disappeared as technology. The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. foreign competition. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. improving quality of supervision. Recently however.

Needs assessment methods How are training needs assessed? Several methods are available for the purpose. sell and service the new products. disruption is minimized and co-operation is much more likely to occur. should consider several issues as shown in Fig. the analyst needs to take steps to work effectively with all . As shown in the below table. The assessment tends to change patterns of behavior of employees. Obviously. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates. #1 Organizational Support: Needs assessment is likely to make inroads into organizational life. or other problems are diagnosed. when the organization decide to introduce a new line of products.example. low morale and motivation. such undesirable happenings reflect poorly-trained workforce. When the needs assessment is carefully designed and supported by the organization. sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce. individual or group. some are useful for organizational-level needs assessment others for individual needs assessment Table #2 Methods Used in Training Needs Assessment Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales Group or organizational Analysis Organizational goals and objective Personnel/skill invention Organizational climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interviews MBO or work planning systems Customer survey/satisfaction data Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes Issue in Needs assessment Needs assessment. Although training is not all.

which seeks to examine the goals of the organization (short-term and long-term). the next step in the needs assessment is an organizational analysis. 3. Consequences of Absence of Training Needs Assessment . Should this happen. it is necessary to assess and identify what tasks are needed on each job and which knowledge. A very important aspect of person analysis is to determine which necessary KSAs have already been learnt by the prospective trainee so that precious training time is not wasted repeating what has already been acquired. This assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the KSAs to be achieved upon completion of the training programme.parties and gain the trust and support of the participants in the needs assessment. There is always the temptation to begin training without a thorough analysis of these needs. skills and abilities (KSAs) are necessary to perform these tasks. There are other benefits of needs assessment are other benefits of needs assessment: 1. Benefit of Needs Assessment Training programmes are designed to achieve specific goals that meet felt needs. The analyst needs to ask and answer the following questions: • Is there a sufficient supply of people? • How does the firm attract. knowledge abilities and attitudes? • How do employees make the firm competitive. domestically and internationally? • Which are the target jobs that require training? These issues enable the analyst identify skill gaps in people. the training programme becomes inappropriate and its administration turn to be perfunctory. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the trainees. which training seeks to fill. Task and KSA Analysis In addition to obtaining organizational support and making organizational analysis. Assessment makes training department more accountable and more clearly linked to other human resource activities. employed who need to undergo training are identified at this stage. which may make the training programme easier to sell to line manager. Organizational Analysis: Having obtained organizational support. retain and motivate diverse work-force? • How does the firm compete for individuals with the right skills. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the trainees. Organizational analysis seeks to examine the goals of the organization and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. 2. and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. Also. Person Analysis: This analysis obliviously targets individual employees.

Failure to conduct needs assessment can contribute to: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Loss of business Constraints on business development Higher labor turnover Poorer-quality applicants Increased overtime working Higher rates of pay. part time working. Below are some sample instructional objectives for a training programme with sales people. Need for job redesign and revision of job specifications Undermining career paths and structures Higher training costs Deriving Instructional Objectives The next phase in the training process is to identify instructional objectives. payment system and career structure Additional retention costs in the form of flexible working time. Instructional objectives provide the input for designing the training programme as well as for the measures of success (criteria) that would help assess effectiveness of the training programme. Designing Training and Development Programme Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues (1) who participate in the programme? (2) Who are the trainers? (3) What methods and techniques are to be used for training? (4) What should be the level of training? (5) What learning principles are needed? (6) Where is the programme conducted? . the employee will be able to smile at all customers even when exhausted or ill unless the customer is irate. • After training.The significance of needs assessment can be better understood by looking at the consequence of inadequate or absence of needs assessment. overtime premiums and supplements Higher recruitment costs. job sharing. Needs assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the objectives to be achieved by the trainee upon completion of the training programme. the employee will be able to accurately calculate mark down on all sales merchandise. shift working. Pressure on job-evaluation schemes. time and incentives Greater pressure and stress on management and staff to provide cover. including advertising. • After training. etc. grading structures.

Outside consultants. training? Who are the Trainers? Training and development programmes may be conducted by several people. including the following: 1. Industry associations. Methods and Techniques of Training: A multitude of methods of training are used to train employees. For example. In addition. it is advisable to have two or more target audiences. Who among these are selected to teach. many organizations arrange basic-skills training for computer literacy. Co-workers. On-the-job methods refer to methods that are applied in the . depends on where the programme is held and the skill that is being taught. As can be seen from Table #2. On the other hand. 4. rank-and-file employees and their supervisors may effectively learn together about a new work process and their respective roles. recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. Members of the personnel staff. often. 2. Whatever is the basis. Large organizations generally maintain their own training departments whose staff conducts the programmes. Table #2 lists the various training methods and presents a summary of the most frequent uses to which these methods are put. 6. Bringing several What should be What principles of Where to such as target audience together can also facilitate group processes conduct problem the level of learning? the programme? solving and decision making. as in buddy systems. The most commonly used methods are shown in Table #2. For example.What methods Who are the Who are training Programme Fig #3 Steps inthe and trainees? trainers? techniques? Who are the Trainees? Trainees should be selected on the basis of self nomination. 3. programmes teaching basic skills are usually done by the members of the HR department or specialists in other departments of the company. training methods are categorized into two groups-{I) on-the-job and (ii) offthe-job methods. and 7. 5. Immediate supervisors. elements useful in quality circle projects. interpersonal and conceptual skills for managers are taught at universities. Faculty members at universities. Specialists in other parts of the company.

role playing. Off the Job Methods Vestibule Lecture Special Study Films Televisions Conference or Discussion Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y . On the Job Training Orientation Y N N N N Training Job Y Y N N N instruction training Apprentice Y Y N N N training Internships & N y N Y Y Assistantship Job Rotation Y N N N Y Coaching N Y Y Y Y B. Safety Technical & Introducing. Obviously. Special Administrative. Table #3 presents the list of training techniques along with their ranking based on effectiveness. while the employee is actually working. Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge to employees. Creative. the more effective the technique is. films. case studies.workplace. Table # 3 Training Methods and the Activities for which they are used Orienting New Sales. Among the most commonly used techniques are lectures. video-tapes and simulations. audio cassettes. The higher the ranking (1 is the highest rank). training techniques are the means employed in the training methods. Skills Supervisory & Education Professional Innovations Training Managerial Education In Products Education & Services 1 2 3 4 5 A. Employees. Off-the-job methods are used away from workplaces.

computer aided instruction. the lecture method can be made effective it if is combined other methods of training. Continued lecturing is likely to bore the audience. The method violates the principle of learning by practice. audio-visuals. This method is mainly used in colleges and universities. (See Table #3) Table #4 Training Method Case study Conference Lecture Business games Films Programmed Instruction Role Playing Sensitivity Training Television Lecture The Relative Effectiveness of training Methods Knowledge Acquisition Rank 2 3 9 6 4 1 7 8 5 Changing Problem Interpersonal Participant Knowledge Attitudes Solving Skills Acceptance retention Rank Skills Rank Rank Rank 4 3 8 5 6 7 2 1 9 1 4 9 2 7 6 3 5 8 4 3 8 5 6 7 2 1 9 2 1 8 3 5 7 4 6 9 2 5 8 6 7 1 4 3 9 Limitations of the lecture method account for its low popularity. it is worthwhile to elaborate on important techniques of training. We explain the following-lectures. However. A virtue of this method is that is can be used for very large groups. jokes and other attention-getters. programmed instruction. There is no feedback from the audience. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. It constitutes a one-way communication. N-No N N Y Y N N N Y Y N N N Y Y 3 N Y Y Y 3 Y N N 3 N At this point. . The lecturer is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. and hence the cost per trainee is low. This activity may eventually overshadow the real purpose of instruction. though its application is restricted in training factory employees. To break the boredom. on-the-job training. simulation and sensitivity training.Case Study Role Playing Simulation Programmed Instructions Laboratory training Y=Yes. the lecturer often resorts to anecdotes..

facts. a poorly conducted OJT programme is likely. . audio-visuals constitute a one-way system of communication with no scope for the audience to raise doubts for clarification. informal. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. If not. The trainee is highly motivated to learn he or she is aware of the fact that his or her success on the job depends on the training received. as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the job tasks. or problems to the learner Allowing the person to respond Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers If the answers are correct. Finally. much time. and bring unnecessary stress to the trainees. 4. Further. In addition. overheads.Audio-visual: Visuals Audio-visuals include television slides. It is the most effective method as the trainee learns by experience. But. Further. there is no flexibility of presentation from audience to audience. The training programme itself is not systematically organized. This contributes to the effectiveness of the programme. The experienced employee may lack experience or inclination to train the juniors. either in a book of thought a teaching machine. On the job Training (OJT) Majority of industrial training is of the on-the-jobtraining type. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. to create safety hazards. An experienced worker shows a trainee how to work on the job. Material is also structured and self-contained. It is. Programmed Instruction (PI) This is a method where training is offered without the intervention of a trainer. Further. making him or her highly competent. OJT has advantages. Strong motivation is provided to the learner to repeat learning. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. he or she repeats the same. offering much scope for practice. The main advantage of PI is that it is self-paced-trainees can progress through the programme at their own speed. Thus. programmed instruction (PI) involves: 1. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks. the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for all training group. 3. the learner must answer a question about it. Presenting questions. videotypes and films. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. OJT suffers form certain demerits as well. 2. After reading each block of material. Often. the learner proceeds to the next block. result in damaged products or materials. it is informal. the method is least expensive since no formal training is organized. the training is free from an artificial situation of a classroom.

and implement it. a CAI training programme can also be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. is an attempt to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainee. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. what the situation really is or what the problems are. role playing and vestibu1 training. The results of those decisions are reported back to the trainee with an explanation of what would have happened had they actually made in the workplace. real problems that managers have faced. Simulation then. develop alternative solutions. Trainee studies the cases to determine problems. The more widely held simulation exercises are case study. For example. Second. activities of an organization may be simulated and the trainee may be asked to make a decision in support to those activities. The speed memory and data-manipulation capabilities of the computer permit greater utilization of basic PI concept. The essence of role playing is to create a realistic . Case Study: is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes. Role playing: generally focuses on emotional (mainly human relations) issues rather than actual ones. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) This is an extension of the PI method. but repeated use may justify the cost. manuals and machinery is considerably high. select the best one. Case study can provide stimulating discussions among participants as well as excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgment abilities. Not to be ignored is the fact that from CAI is as rich and colorful as modem electronic games. and what can and should be done. in the reader. A deterrent with regard to CAI is its high cost. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. Third. complete with audio instruction displays. analyses causes. this training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want. CAI is an improved system when compared to the PI method. and thus get training when they prefer. For example. as accurately as possible. the learner's response may determine the frequency and difficulty level of the next frame.The disadvantages are not to be ignored. Cost of preparing books. First. the need to decide what is going on. The scope for learning is less. Taken from the actual experiences of organizations. compared to other methods of training. Simulations present likely problem situation and alternatives to the trainee. CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each trainee's progress and needs. The trainee learns from this feedback and improves his/her subsequent simulation and workplace decisions. in at least three respects. these cases represent to describe.

The drawback of this method is that once the training is over. are held away from workplaces. They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others' behavior. The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others perceive them-greater sensitivity to the behavior of others. usually fewer than 12 in a Group. However. The consequences are a better understanding among individuals. Sensitivity training can go by a variety of names-laboratory training. and increased understanding of group’s processes. Discussions focus on 'why participants behave as they do. increased tolerance of individual difference and increased conflict-resolution skills. both may be given a typical work situation and asked to respond as they expect others to do. encounter groups.situation. greater openness. without disrupting ongoing operations. how they perceive one another. The disadvantage is (i) it is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision-making non the job and (ii) individuals often act differently in real-life situations than they do in acting out a simulated exercise. training takes place away from the work environment. Attitude change is another result of role playing. Meeting have no agenda. the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to 'create an environment' similar to real situations the manager incurs. Then. Case study and role playing are used in MDPs Vestibule Training: utilizes equipment which closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. a male worker may assume the role of a female supervisor. A special area or a room is set aside from the main production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to those found in the actual production area. and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction process. and questions deal with the 'here and now' of the group process.groups (training groups). . Role playing helps promote interpersonal relation.9 shows some more techniques of training. as in case study. Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training uses small numbers of trainees. and then have the trainee assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. or T. the participants are themselves again and they resort to their old habits. Specific results sought include increased ability to empathize with other. improved listening skills. and the supervisor may assume the role of a male worker. but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. For example. Table 9. The trainee is then permitted to learn under simulated conditions. A primary advantage of vestibule training it relieves the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. Of course. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the job.

It reads like who is who in using virtual learning. Employees of Motorola have access of self-paced computer based training (CBT) material through the firm's Intranet Motorola offers nearly one hundred online courses. and personnel computers are the basic requisites. and enroll for the courses electronically. a modem and a web browser. Federal Express has turned to interactive multimedia for a more effective training . course work online and even take tests and advance to the next level-all from his or her own house. it has become possible to learn online. the World Wide Web (WWW) is all pervasive. may call for sharing personal information with strangers. coaching. Firms investing in virtual learning technologies can slash their training budgets by 30 to 50 per cent Learning through the web can be very convenient for' employees. For example. roleplaying exercises. and interviewing skills. The internet and intranet are changing the face of training and learning. Face to face. IBM Global Campus. The learners do not have to depend on the trainer's availability. IBM. has a virtual university. But these facilities will payoff in the long-run. Using a PC. till the time the learner becomes more open and flexible. The CDROM based training was supplemented with shared learning via teleconferencing. Global giants like Motorola and Ford Motor are reaping the benefits of virtual learning. The biggest being an infrastructure to connect the entire organization across the seven seas.Exhibit # 3 Training goes Techno-Savvy In today’s electronic world. There are no fixed schedules or limitations of time. There are others too. He or she can then receive a. One firm used a CDROM manual to impart soft-skills like performance management. Web servers. in the evening when one is at leisure. to provide its employees continuous skills-driven-Learning opportunities via the corporate intranet across the globe. role-playing exercises were added for the human touch. This can be avoided in a virtual-learning setting. laptops. where managers discussed key learning’s and asked for clarifications. for example. ISDN lines. An employee can simply connect to the Internet study the syllabus options available. Web-based courses through distance learning are virtual. Motorola and Ford are only the two. mostly in information technology. or while traveling to work. It is not just the technical programs: soft skills can also be learnt electronically. One can attend the course at home. Virtual learning presents its own challenges. One advantage of computer-based soft-skills training is that it helps maintain anonymity in situations that may be discomforting for trainees.

One application of the service was a short strategic planning skills course for employees in Boeing offices in US. and India. workbook exercises. selection and evaluation of a problem Cross-Cultural Training Programmes to tech specifics of varied cultures . Texas Instrument has been using satellite-based and CBT for a long time.000 managers globally through a communication service that uses the satellite broadcast technology. Boeing reported savings of $ 9 million in travel costs alone. and Western Europe. England. Employees have the facility to get training via personnel computers during regular working hours at any time convenient to them. including Germany.system. Japan. presentations via satellite from Boeing experts. Japan. Table #5 Techniques of Training Technique Description Ice Breakers Games to get team members know each other Leading Games Exercise to each different styles of leadership Skill Games Test to develop analytical skills Communication Games Exercise to build bias free listening and talking Strategic planners Games to test ability to plan ahead Team building games Exercise requiring collaborative effort Role reversal Exercise to teach plurality of view Doubling Bring out the ideas that are not often expressed Tag Teams One role played alternately by two participant Mirroring Training with external perspective Monodrama Insight into a given interaction Shifting physical position highlighting of communication problems Structured role playing Role play with predetermined objective Multiple role playing Providing a common focus of discussion Built-in-tension Teaching the importance of resolving matter Shadowing Working under a senior to watch and learn Outward bound training Adventure sports for teams 9 + 1 + 23 Self-assessment by a leader of leadership skills Lateral Thinking Thinking randomly to come up with new ideas Morphological Analysis Listing of alternative solution to problems Gordon Technique Steering a discussion to crystallize solutions Attribute Listening Isolation. Italy. The online training was supplemented with small-group work with a site facilitator. France. The firm's satellite broadcast links employees in countries all over the world. and audio interaction with instructors. Australia. The course participants viewed the workshops on monitors in corporate conference rooms as well as on large-screen video-projection equipment in auditoriums. Boeing delivers interactive training to its 22.

Practice opportunities. 9. 8. 2. This means developing a basic understanding of a field and becoming acquainted with the language.What should be the Level of Learning? The next question in designing training and development programme is to decide on the level of learning. skills. Recognition of individual differences. The highest level aims at increased operational proficiency. Employee motivation. Practice is also essential after the individual has been successfully trained. or acquiring the ability to perform in a particular skill area. concepts and relationships involved in it. It is almost impossible to find a professional cricket player who does not practice for several hours a day. Motivation alone is not enough. Goals Schedules of learning. 7.34 All the inputs of training can be offered at the three levels. the trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what is being taught. In addition. As was pointed out earlier. Practice can be a form of positive reinforcement. 4. The goal of the next level is skills development. 3. Learning Principles: Training and development programmes are more likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles of learning: 1. Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay. Distinction may be made between positive reinforcement and . Meaning of material. The individual must have the ability to learn. Knowledge of results (feedback). and Transfer of learning. Ability varies from individual to individual and this difference must be considered while organizing training programmes. there are three basic levels at which these inputs can be taught. This involves obtaining additional experience and improving skills that have already been developed. Reinforcement may be understood as anything that (i) increases the strength of response and (ii) tends to induce repetitions of the behavior that preceded the reinforcement. the employee or potential employee must acquire fundamental knowledge. the inputs passed on to trainees in training and development programmes are education. Regardless of individual differences and whether a trainee is learning a new skill or acquiring knowledge of a given topic. Motivation to learn is the basic requisite to make training and development programmes effective. 5. 6. How effectively they are learned depends on several principles of learning. Reinforcement. At the lowest level. and the like.

but not for teaching leadership or conceptual skills. Techniques for overcoming resistance include creating positive expectations on the part of trainee's supervisor. There are certain tasks for which such feedback is virtually mandatory for learning. goals will have better motivational value if the employee has a scope for participation in the goal-setting process. Goals that are too difficult or too easy have little motivational value. particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results. Thus. the better is the learning process. and (ill) positioning of rest pauses. tends to increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated. we often say that positive reinforcement consists of rewards for the individual and. Feedback about the performance will enable the learner to know where he or she stands and to initiate corrective action if any deviation from the expected goal has taken place. All the three must be carefully planned and executed. Individuals generally perform better and learn more quickly when they have goals. If an employee who had the habit of coming late to work. would have trouble learning to manipulate the controls without knowing how the crane responds to control actions. For example.negative reinforcement. for example. Schedules of learning involve (i) duration of practice sessions. Often. particularly if the goals are specific and reasonably difficult. The reinforcement (event) consists of a positive experience for the individual. Probably one of the most well-established principles of learning is that distributed or spaced learning is superior to continuous learning. if an employee does something well and is complimented by the boss. In more general terms. when presented. Knowledge of results is a necessary condition for learning. The traditional approach to transfer has been to maximize the identical elements between the training situation and the actual job. the effect of negative reinforcement is avoidance of learning. (ii) duration of rest sessions. Goal setting can also accelerate learning. An example might by an employee who does something to avoid incurring a reprimand from his or her boss. A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. contingent upon behavior. the probability that the behavior will be repeated will be strengthened. This is true for both simple laboratory tasks and for highly complex ones. The more meaningful the material.37 further. the individual exhibits the desired behavior to avoid something unpleasant. the employee might begin to come on time to avoid criticism. This may be possible for training skills such as maintaining a cash register. what is learned in a training session faces resistance back at the job. What is learnt in training must be transferred to the job. creating . assuming this as an unpleasant experience. Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of desirable consequences. In negative reinforcement. A crane operator.

Monitoring the progress of trainees. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development. or a conference centres Typically. This information may be useful to evaluate the progress of the trainee in the company. Though. Scheduling training around the present work is another problem. Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities. seldom is such a combination effected in practice. Evaluation of the Programme: The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results (see Fig. it is desirable that a training and development programme incorporates all these principles. its formal and informal organizations. its objectives. Off the site. and ensuring that the behavior is reinforced when it occurs. 2. and basic grammar skills are taught on the site. At the job itself 2. Commitment from the top management to the training programme also helps in overcoming resistance to change. Much of interpersonal and conceptual skills are learnt off the site. the decision comes down to the following choices: 1. organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation. On site but not the job-for example. . the trainers must know the company's philosophy. Implementation of the Training Programme: Once the training programme has been designed. a resort. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. In addition to possessing communication skills. #1). any other personnel specialty. Conduct of Training: A final consideration is where the training and development programme is to be conducted. In practice. Secondly. Programme implementation involves action on the following lines: 1. In the first place. perhaps. however. in a training room in the company 3. Actually. how far the programme has been useful must be judged/determined. Conducting the programme 4. Scheduling the training programme 3.opportunities to implement new behavior on the job. most managers are action-oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts. availability of trainers is a problem. Implementation is beset with certain problems. and the goals of the training programme. basic skills are taught at the job. such as in a university or college classroom. hotel. it needs to be implemented. Training and development requires a higher degree of creativity than. How to schedule training without disrupting the regular work? There is also the problem of record keeping about the performance of a trainee during his or her training period.

Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process.Need for Evaluation: The main objective of evaluating the training programmes is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives. 4. If the gains demonstrated by the experimental groups are better than those by the control group. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves. correcting performance deficiencies. One approach towards evaluation is to use experimental and control groups. . credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the organization has benefited tangibly from it. the training programme is labeled as successful. one to receive training (experimental) and the other not to receive training (control). A second reason for evaluation is to ensure that any changes in trainee capabilities are due to the training programme and not due to any other conditions. Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation. Inter-organizational validity: Can a training programme validated in one organization be used successfully in another organization? These questions often result in different evaluation techniques. Training validity: Did the trainees learn during training? 2. Intra-organizational validity: Is performance of the new group of trainees. 3.g. 6. Techniques of Evaluation: Several techniques of evaluation are being used in organization may be stated that the usefulness of the methods is inversely proportional to the ease with which evaluation can be done. quality pieces produced per hour. Measures are taken of the relevant indicators of success (e. and their products. Evaluation is useful to explain programme failure.1 contains a number of potential goals 1. their practices. Training programmes should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. should finally. 5. consistent with the performance of the original training group? 4. words typed per minute. 2. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. The random selection helps to assure the formation of groups quite similar to each other. for which the training programme was developed. but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation Criteria for Evaluation: The last column in Fig. Evaluation must be continuous. Transfer validity: What has been learnt in training. that are. A sense of urgency must be developed. Principles of Evaluation: Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the principles: 1. has it been transferred on the job enhanced performance in the work organization? 3. Each group is randomly selected. Evaluation must be specific. wires attached per minute) before and after training for both groups. 9.

rental facilities and trainee wages during the training period. Obviously. The benefits to be compared with the cost are rupee payback associated with the improvement in trainees' performance. In addition. To further validate that change has occurred as a result of training and not due to some other variable. a control group may be included. then the training may be taken as successful. evaluation costs. there are always developments that can affect the programme. different conclusions might be supported by comparing data obtained from the evaluation of training. salaries of training department staff. it may be observed that the model suggests that a training programme should be a closed-loop system in which the evaluation process provides for continual modification of the programme. Some of the costs that should be measured for a training programme include needs assessment cost. One simple method of evaluation is to send a questionnaire to the trainees after the completion the programme to obtain their opinions about the programmes worth.Another method of training evaluation involves longitudinal or time-series analysis. The information may become available at several stages in the evaluation process. including the new training techniques or characteristics of trainees. videos. A variation of this method is to measure the knowledge and/or skills that employee possess at the commencement and completion of a training. but is useful in convincing the management about the usefulness of training. programme development costs. For example. and the longevity of the period during which the benefits would last Closed-loop System Referring to Figure #1. These results are plotted on a graph to determine whether changes have occurred and remain as a result of the training effort. handouts). even when the training programme achieves its stated objectives. the development of training programme needs to be viewed as a continuously evolving process. trainers' costs. it is important to assess the cost and benefits associated with the programme. This is a difficult task. purchase of equipment (computers. In order to conduct a thorough evaluation of a training programme. In other instances. . Measures are taken before the programme begins and are continued during and after the programme is completed. an effective monitoring programme might show that the training programme has not been implemented as originally planned. their behavioral change. If the measurement reveals that the results after training are satisfactory. Their opinions could through interviews.

allows for consistency and incorporates built-in guidance and help. E-learning is becoming increasingly popular because of the large number of employees. for example. Take Wipro. • Current training methods (compared to e-Learning) are not adequately meeting organizational training needs. How to organize training for all these? Wipro also has a policy of subjecting any employee for a two-week training every year. Similarly. Today. tutoring and team-work can go on-line. a combination of electric learning with classroom approach. • Potential learners are adequately computer literate and have ready access to computers and the Internet • Sufficient number of learners exists and many of them are self-motivated to direct their own learning.000 employees are logged into the in-house learning management system for various courses. at Satyam nearly 80% of the 9. Many firms use e-Learning as a prerequisite before classroom training popularly called blended training. though it might also stay in the classroom. Chennai. It is not that e-learning replaces traditional training system. safety and regulation compliance is best handled in classrooms. Requisites for E-Learning: E-Learning does not simply mean putting existing courses and materials on a website. There are problems nevertheless. who need training. Pune and Delhi. E-learning helps Wipro considerably. Satyam has even tied up with Universitas 21-a consortium of 16 international universities and Thomson learning-for an on-line MBA. out of its 17. Routine training such as orientation.500 employees. In fact.500 are on site and 15.E-LEARNING E-learning refers to the use of Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line. Satyam uses e-learning modules on management provided by Harvard Manage Mentor Plus. Following requisites need to be provided before launching learning on-line: • Sufficient top management support and funding needs to be committed to develop and implement e-Learning • Managers and HR professionals need to be "retrained" to accept the idea that training is being decentralized and individualized. e-learning becomes more effective when blended with traditional learning methods. 2. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning: E-Learning is advantageous in as much as it is self-paced.000 employees are in off-shore centers at Bangalore. Infosys has almost 10% of its total training through e-Learning. Hyderabad. firms are introducing soft skill modules as well. E-Learning tends to cause . E-learning has come a long way from its early days when it was used extensively for technical education such as learning new languages and familiarization with new technologies. Learning that requires discussion.

tapping multiple • Not all trainees may be ready for trainee senses e-Learning • Allows for consistency in the • Not all trainees may have easy delivery of training and uninterrupted access to computers • Enables scoring of • Not appropriate for all training services/assessments and content (e. Table #6 Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning Advantages Disadvantages • It is self paced. as many may not be ready to accept or have access to computers and Internet. • A range of people with different skills are involved. leadership. facilitators. Following are the major hindrances: . including expert trainers. Trainees can • May cause trainee anxiety proceed on their own time • It is interactive. • E-Learning is closely "blended" with other types of training such as classroom activities and is not used to wholly replace other activities. • E-Learning has ongoing support from a senior level and is marketed effectively throughout the organization. • Learning needs that drive the technology rather than the other way around. • E-Learning is closely aligned to the needs of the business. champions of e-Learning and specialist web and graphic designers IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING There are many impediments which can make a training programme ineffective.trainee anxiety.g. cultural appropriate feedback change) • Incorporates built-in guidance • Requires significant upfront 'cost and helps for trainees to use when and investment needed • It is relatively easy for trainers to • No significantly greater learning update content evidenced in research studies • Can be used to enhance • Requires significant top instructor-led training management support to be successful Success Factors It is worth pointing out that organizations using e-Learning exhibit a number of common success factors: • Cultural change has taken place about how training and learning happens and is delivered. Table #6 brings out the advantages and disadvantages more comprehensively.

however. HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECTIVE? . Major trade unions in our country seem to be busy in attending to mundane issues such bonus. particularly before deputing them to undergo training in foreign countries. Managers. Educational Institutions Award Degrees but Graduates Lack Skills This is the reason why business must spend vast sums of money to train workers in basic skills. and the like. as a result of rapid technological change. The government should set apart certain fund from the National Renewal Fund for the purpose of retraining and rehabilitating displaced workers. workers are required to learn three types of new skills: (i) the ability to use technology. Businessmen must sit with Deans and structure the courses that would serve the purpose of business better. need to be retrained in team-playing skills. settlement of disputes. (ii) the ability to maintain it. Unlike Germany. The rank-and-file workers are ignored. wage revision. budget allocation to training is the first item to be cut when a company faces a financial crunch.Management Commitment is Lacking and Uneven Most companies do not spend money on training. No Help to Workers Displaced because of Downsizing Organizations are downsizing and de-layering in order to trim their workforces. tend to concentrate on managers. where local business groups pressure companies not to poach on another company's employees. Large-scale Poaching of Trained Workers Trained workforce is in great demand. Organized Labour can Help Organized Labour can playa positive role in imparting training workers. In an increasingly competitive environment. particularly at the middle level. This must change. Business is seen as not communicating its demands to B Schools. for. there is no such system in our country. and (ill) the ability to diagnose system problems. This must change. leadership skills and customer-orientation skills. Organizations also need to train employees in multiple skills. entrepreneurship skills. Employers and B Schools Must Develop Closer Ties B Schools are often seen as: responding to Labour-market demands. technicians and professionals. combined with new approaches to organizational design and production management. Such bonds are not effective as the employees or the poachers are prepared to pay the stipulated amounts as compensation when the bonds are breached. the ability to implement rapid changes in products and technologies is often essential for economic viability Aggregate Spending on Training is Inadequate Companies spend minuscule proportions of their revenues on training. Those that do. Worse still. insist on employees to sign 'bonds of tenure' before sending them for training. Companies in our country. They have little time in imparting training to their members.

2. Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. 6.Action on the following lines needs to be initiated to make training practice effective: 1. This is what high-performing organizations do. Let this philosophy percolate down to all employees in the organization.5 per cent of its revenue on training. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists. For example.OC: workers. 4. operational and individual training needs. or about 2. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills. and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis. 3. in the US invests about $ 300 million annually. (Evaluation of training has been discussed above.) . Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company. Xerox Corporation. Hewlett-Packard spends about five per cent of its annual revenue to train its 87. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Similarly. 5. Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training.

Mohapatra’s team is actually developing an online game that will be part of the induction kit for new hires. training has to find creative ways to keep pace.500 new people being recruited every month. And with 2. Up north in Gurgaon. consider that the software major’s workforce across 34 countries adds up to 71. to find how they are powering their growth Training fires the corporate engine At the SEEPZ. New York to Hangzhou. “The challenge is to get everyone on to the common global TCS culture. BPO player IBM Daksh is taking training equally seriously — its training group is christened the Talent Transformation Business Unit (TTBU.Newspaper Article on Training & Development On August 4th 2006 Finance and marketing are passé -the function that really rocks India Inc is training. office of TCS in Mumbai. Dilip Kumar Mohapatra. and will familiarise TCS inductees around the world — Buffalo. 56. such as voice . and is run like a separate business with its own finance controller . China — with the culture of the company. and a dedicated HR representative.” says Mohapatra.200 people from 53 nationalities. Corporate Dossier takes you deep inside the massive in-house training departments created by knowledge corporates. an administration and transport wing. we’re exaggerating. is occupied these days with something very unusual for people his age — computer games. quality head. global head for learning and development . Andheri . To get a sense of this challenge. It is even held accountable for output measures of its trainees. Okay.

Companies looking to operate and compete in a global market need to constantly skill and reskill their people. chat and online self-tutorials have ensured that most of the learning for employees takes place at the place. Wipro. While TCS and IBM Daksh are not the only ones — others like Infosys. while TCS too invests a comparable figure on training. Genpact and ICICI Bank. where 30% of training is now IT enabled. To deliver this training on this scale and frequency. it’s no longer enough to put your employees through the occasional training module a few times a year. cost of delivery and customer satisfaction metrics. in fact.800 employees — a bulk of them at the operational level — e-learning is a way of life when it comes to skill up gradation. And it shows in the investments being made by these companies into training infrastructure and resources. That explains our disproportionate focus on this function. “For us the . rejection rates. “Technology has made training asynchronous. video-on-demand. face similar challenges of hiring and training people on a large scale — they are perfect examples of how the in-house training department has become crucial. and time. director HR.quality. technology is key — media-rich content. core to the growth and success of India’s new age behemoths. “We believe that training is the most important lever to deliver high quality talent. For ICICI Bank’s 27.” says Pavan Vaish. with a direct impact on client satisfaction. cutting across geographies and time restrictions. and training is becoming a 24/7/365 affair. Infosys. IBM Daksh. Need of the Hour In the knowledge economy. Infosys has a staggering $125 million annual outlay for training and development.” says TV Mohandas Pai. COO. of their convenience. Accenture’s global spends on training and development has been $546 million (for September-August 2005).

What’s interesting is that by bringing in the convenience of anytime. VP.Education & Research. There is also a need to get people ready for potential jobs that we may want them to take up. companies have managed to put the some of the onus of learning onto employees. With thousands of fresh graduates handling customer queries. “The responsibility of gaining competency has been shifted to the learner. anywhere learning. Calapa recalls that OneSource associates were once required to write two tests for a UK-based client — one on the data protection act and other on the money laundering act. as well as the industry in which one is working. people need to be coached in new skills.classroom is the most inefficient way (to train).” says MP Ravindra. Says Aashu Calapa. there’s an ongoing need to equip them with the necessary soft and specialized skills. often. But nowhere does training assume greater importance than in the BPO industry. and to pass they had to score 18 out of 20 points. “40% of our recruits are fresh graduates. head HR (India).” says HR head K Ramkumar. have put greater pressure on training departments to bring employees up to speed on the latest rules and regulations in their clients’ industries. since competencies are now closely aligned with appraisals.” says Rahul Varma.” Periodic and. and Infosys. to the individual’s overall performance score.” Changing From the Inside-Out . understanding your own as well as your clients’ organization. “Now. HR at ICICI One-Source. it includes cultural and value training. with BPO companies looking to move up the value chain. clients are paranoid about the quality of people we employ. Accenture. whose training team conducts 190 e-learning programmes annually. frequent changes in the global business environment. This is further re-inforced by linking training hours completed. Also. “Traditional training was just about behavioral and technical training. executive VP. and with most jobs being customer-facing ones.

Rapid scaling up in IT and ITES companies is also putting pressure on the training machinery.” says Piyush Mehta. training has moved on to becoming an independent entity within the organization. senior executives are required to spend time training others. “When you keep training as part of HR. IBM Daksh. Lyndon J D’Silva . Infosys links training to individuals’ performance. after feedback from trainers and business units. At ICICI Bank. since the best trainers are line managers and executives who have spent time and understand the business first hand. senior VPHR . and this helps decide whether they get on the ‘Leadership Talent List’ of potential fast trackers.The really big shift. “Trainers are definitely scarce — in numbers. Runaway Train Accenture follows what it calls a ‘leaders teaching leaders’ approach for technical training. “We believe the only way to produce quality output is to quantify it. it gets buried. Trainers are also required to keep updating their skills and knowledge. Talent Transformation Business Unit. TCS rotates its training faculty between the Indian and overseas locations. we treat it as one. training is faced with a talent shortage. others believe in growing them internally. To give it the importance of an independent function. says.” says Varma. and has 313 trainers along with 70 part-time specialists who also conduct domain-specific training for its 25. of course. Genpact. investment in training .” And it shows — last year.” says Mohapatra.” It also has eight people dedicated to R&D in training. who conduct research and refine training methods. Having a global presence helps in leveraging training resources and sharing expertise across continents. while cross-cultural and communication training is outsourced to vendors. is that from being a HR support function. With scalability becoming an problem.000-strong workforce across the world. While many companies are outsourcing part of their requirement of trainers. VP. cross-culturalisation happens better. It’s being tested and will be rolled out later this year. and even brings down people from other countries here. “Our supply chain is mission critical to us. a performance evaluation grid that assesses voice quality and generates a statistical score. Genpact spent close to $8 million on training. “This way. and in capabilities. Monitoring of training quality is just as important. and like most other business functions. IBM Daksh has been working with IBM’s research labs to develop a tool called Sensei. New Challenges It’s clear that the quality of the internal training capability will be among a key driver of business success in the future. D’Silva believes technology will increasingly be training’s best bet. Not surprisingly. and most companies have structured ‘train-the-trainers’ programmes in place.

Building external partnerships with educational institutions is another — so companies like TCS.” says Calapa. . and ensuring a seamless merger of cultures during acquisitions . TCS runs an Academic Interface initiative. The existing model of training also needs to adapt with changing business needs from time to time. Ramkumar says work is on for a certification process whereby outside partners will be remunerated according to their assessment scores after training. For others like ICICI Bank. TCS’s Learning & Development group is currently working on a project (codenamed Pygmalion) to develop training programmes and tools for a new cadre of people that the company has never hired before — plain graduates.infrastructure is a priority for most HR heads and CEOs. For instance. and Accenture have been developing joint programmes for training people at these institutions before they join the company. “We’re clear that training is one of the pillars that we’re going to build our future on. “Expanding the talent pool. as well. and this helps in better branding for the company. the challenge is in extending the in-house training capabilities to a larger pool of Direct Sales Associates (DSAs) outside the company and make them compatible with the company culture. BPO firms like ICICI One-Source have mooted the National Assessment of Competence (NAC) programme. who’re in the retail banking and finance business.” says Ravindra. and coping with scale is a big issue. Expanding internal resources is one way. If it works. wherein its own faculty teaches at academic institutes. managing incidental changes in the training modules and scalability are the challenges the training department faces today. this initiative could enable training departments to focus on building higher end competencies in fresh inductees from day one. a joint certification and assesment programme with Nasscom to expand the employable talent base for the industry. Mohapatra lists globalization and M&As as the two biggest tests of his training department’s effectiveness in the future — in terms of integrating a globally diverse workforce into a single platform. Infosys.

An additional 7." an official said. set up with an investment of Rs. company executives said. Over the next one year. It has three million square feet of built up area. It can seat 2. the NASDAQ-listed firm planned to set up a new 9. "When fully completed it will house five food courts. one employee care centre. which would enable training of 13.000seat training facility here. one multimedia centre making it undoubtedly the largest training facility in the world. Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission Montek Singh Ahluwalia on Monday inaugurated the company's fourth software development block here.809 crores ($176 million) on expanding its global education centre in the next one year. they said.2 million square feet.500 people. making it a total of 10.750 hostel rooms were under construction.On July 31st 2006 Infosys plans largest training centre… Infosys to set up world's largest training hub… MYSORE: Software major Infosys plans to invest Rs.500 individuals in a single sitting.85 crores.378 employees. and work is in progress to build another 3. The company's Mysore campus is spread over 335 acres and it currently has 6. .000 rooms.

” Liqwid Krystal CEO Anand Adkoli said. business development. modify and deploy the elearning content is the key parameters for improving quality of the employee talent. unlike the traditional theory-based tests. “The proficiency of the candidate on various programmes could be assessed better. In order to capture this huge segment. Bangalore-based Liqwid Krystal. software companies are looking at innovative ways to maximize the productivity of their employees and ensure faster deployment. The technology sector has been among the early adopters of online education. for example. With more projects on hand and hiring in thousands.000 engineering students through the module.Daily News & Analysis Online learning gets a thumbs-up from corporates On August 16th 2006 BANGALORE: Indian software service firms spend six to eight weeks in training fresh recruits before deploying them on projects. According to analysts.” Sanjeev Fadnavis. Now. associate vice-president. at Harbinger Knowledge Products told DNA Money. . Liqwid Krystal has tied up with Viswesvaraya Technical University in Karnataka and Andhra University in the neighboring state to train over 90. online learning companies are focusing on building content that aims to help IT firms save training time and costs on employees. the Indian corporate e-learning market is estimated at $10-20 million with a potential to grow at 150%. several players are building specialized tailor-made e-learning courses for tech firms in the country. “The speed at which technology firms can develop. has designed a solution that allows aspirants for software jobs to write a programme in an online test and assess their capability of building codes. with its focus on constant training of employees and using learning as a retention tool. including in business and soft skills.

” says Deshpande. A lot of fresh knowledge is created in India in areas like rural marketing. meanwhile.“It is important for knowledge-driven companies to develop and protect intellectual property. “E-learning can also be a disaster if it is not managed correctly. “We are getting the best practices when required. and at the same time exporting knowledge. “Our training programmes encompass strategizing. So. in addition to competency-based training. train others to bring about a cascading effect. while for soft skills we may bring someone from IIM – Bangalore. which involves understanding the media business. The learning should be constant. online learning has to have the right fit with the organization. we may call someone from HLL.” says Sapna Srivastava. in turn. planning and buying. which prepares modules to hone functional and managerial skills. To be successful. which provides competitive and business advantage.” Nasscom has said. and help develop work and soft skills. “Most faculties are specialized and bring to the table expertise in a particular area. has set up its . Brainleague and Edutech have joined hands to provide e-learning on intellectual property rights with a focus on research units across the country. “These workshops see lectures. for planning and strategizing. it is a means to an end. JWT conducts functional workshops for senior-level staff. But there is a word of caution for firms that adopt e-learning without a clear focus on their business. GroupM has an internal training department called Aspire MGuruKool. Lintas. Agencies generally rope in internal and external faculties (from India and abroad) for training. It should not be chosen because it is fashionable. level-wise workshops to upgrade skills and middle-management workshops. It is not a panacea.” informs Rashmi Deshpande of Group M. etc that we are ready to export. brainstorming and a time-bound deliverable action plan.” says Bhasin. design. On August 9th 2006 Most agencies have developed their own training methods tailored to suit the nature of their work.” Brain League chief knowledge officer Kalyan C Kankanala said. These 25 people will. Ashish Bhasin informs that a team of four from the US and the UK recently trained 25 people in Lintas India on the Worldwide Planning Tool Kit.

” For its part. Young talent is given more opportunity to grow as well. sent to different regions. O&M nominates those who have worked for 3-4 years for the regional programme ‘Adopt a Country’. for its ‘global young achiever’ forum.own North-point Centre of learning to empower managers with updated knowledge and decision-making skills. allowed to work with bigger clients and groomed to take on additional responsibilities. The programme is intended to help youngsters build networks across different regions. High fliers and the crème de la crème of the talent pool can also look forward to attending special workshops. Some of these programmes are often modeled on those developed by parent companies. work on projects together and develop a sense of belonging. Says Deshpande: “All media companies under WPP exchange training programmes on modules. O&M sends its senior staff for the regional senior management development programme (SMDP). content. which is held once a year. a five-module programme spread over 15 months. typically one planner and one creative or servicing person. where youngsters are put through a lot more grind in terms of opportunities. A buddy is chosen and the two buddies get an opportunity to visit each other’s country. role etc. And Lowe has introduced programmes like ‘media training for non-media’. ‘IMAG Training for non-IMAG’ and ‘advertising workshop for non-advertising’. which is held thrice a year across different Asia-Pacific centres. . We sometimes adapt and sometimes share best practices with others. and introduced a top achiever’s programme in December 2005. Lowe sends two people. O&M has an HR and Training leadership group in Asia Pacific that plans regional programmes and oversees training plans. GroupM has a programme called Fast Trackers for young achievers. JWT nominates its top-level staff (those identified to head offices) for its international programme ‘Sam Meek’.

During the mid 1990s. During this year.' while at the same time providing five times more content than before. such as reduced travel costs. ELearning also created a better learning environment for the company's employees. The figure rose to $350 million in 2001." By 2002. the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) was ranked fourth by the Training magazine on it’s “The 2002 Training Top 100”." Rebecca Wettemann. IBM decided to use e-Learning to train its employees. Andrew Sadler. research director for Nucleus Research In 2002. IBM had emerged as the company with the largest number of employee's who have enrolled into e-Learning courses. director of IBM Mindspan Solutions. compared to the traditional training methods. e-Learning was used to train IBM's newly recruited managers. and second-tier benefits. After considerable research. This was mainly due to the significant reduction in the company's training costs and positive results reaped from e-learning. Initially. IBM reported a return on investment (ROI)’s of 2284 percent from its Basic Blue e-Learning program. IBM had been focusing on human resources development: The company concentrated on the education and training of its employees as an integral part of their development. However. Since its inception. The company reportedly saved about $166 million within one year of implementing the elearning program for training its employees all over the world. "All measures of effectiveness went up. in 1999. IBM saved millions of dollars by training employees through e-learning. and started looking for ways to train its employees effectively at lower Costs. IBM undertook a cost cutting drive. IBM reportedly spent about $1 billion for training its employees. explained the benefits of e-learning to IBM. It's saving money and delivering more effective training. The magazine ranked companies based on their commitment towards workforce development and training imparted to employees even during periods of financial uncertainty.Case Study: Article Training Employees of IBM through E-Learning “E-learning is a technology area that often has both first-tier benefits. in the late 1990s. such as increased employee performance that directly impacts profitability. .

MIT and Stanford. Rick Horton. the London School of Economics. It felt that every employee's contribution was important for the organization. customer engineering. international and domestic. "The classroom is still the best in a high-technology environment. Discuss. its top management laid great emphasis on respecting every employee. The company followed a 'no layoffs' policy. labs and headquarters." Though there were varied opinions about the effectiveness of e-Learning as a training tool for employees. which requires hands-on laboratories and teaming. IBM's highest-ranking executives were sent to executive seminars. political and econQll1ic affairs.6 billion in 2005 representing a 100 percent compounded annual growth rate (CAGR).1 billion in 2001 to $33. Analysts estimated that the market for e-Learning programs would grow from $2. organized at the Brookings Institutions this program typically covered a broad range of subjects including. Georgia and Indiana. a program offered in about forty colleges including some in Harvard. Observe and Think. Watson Sr. Even during financially troubled periods. (Watson Sr. the father of modern IBM had once said. . IBM executives were exposed to topical events with a special emphasis on their implications for the company. said." The HR policies at IBM were important for the group to be together to take advantage of the equipment.'s 'Five Steps of Knowledge' carved on the front entrance. The five steps included 'Read. Those who excelled in these programs were sent to the Advanced Managers School. IBM saw it as a major business opportunity and started offering e-learning products to other organizations as well. a section of analysts and some managers at IBM felt that e-Learning would never be able to' replace the traditional modes of training completely.' Managers were trained at the school at regular intervals. The building had Watson Sr. employees were relocated from the plants. was completed. and were retrained for careers in sales. Columbia. Thomas J. IBM had emphasized on training its employees from the very beginning. or a situation where it . Listen.However. the company would certainly profit. in terms of wages. managers were also sent for educational programs to Harvard. general manager of learning services at IBM.). BACKGROUND NOTE Since the inception of IBM. In 1933 (after 15 years of its inception). "By the simple belief that if we respected our people and helped them respect themselves. To widen their knowledge base and broaden their perspectives. Virginia. the construction of the 'IBM Schoolhouse' to offer education and training for employees. field administration and programming. Employees were compensated well as they were paid above the industry average.

the employees did not possess the knowledge of critical aspects like team building. IBM launched the pilot Basic Blue management training program. This was IBM's first e-learning project on international training. without the costs and time associated with bringing together 5000 managers from all over the world. Gerstner thus started looking for new ways of training managers.In 1997. job aids and short courses. which differentiated best executives and managers. After conducting a research. Therefore. Moreover. conducted a research to identify the unique characteristics of best executives and managers. The research revealed that the ability to train employees was an essential skill. which was taught to the managers through training workshops. The company felt that the training process had to be continuous and not a one-time event. Gerstner realized that the training workshops were not enough. It imparted 75 percent of the training online and the remaining 25 percent through the traditional classroom mode. simulations.' Managers had to wait for months before their turn of attending the work shops came. after some time. which was fully deployed in 2000. The e-Learning part included articles. The company planned to utilize the services of IBM Mindspan Solutions to design and support the company's manager training program. Basic Blue was an in-house management training program for new managers. the five-day program turned out to be insufficient for the managers to train them effectively. as the jobs became more complex. IBM trained about 5000 new managers in a year. Louis Gerstner (Gerstner). . However. The company specifically wanted its management training initiatives to address the following issues: • Management of people across geographic borders • Management of remote and mobile employees • Digital collaboration issues • Reductions in management development resources • Limited management time for training and development • Management's low comfort level in accessing and searching online HR resources The company required a continuous training program. the then CEO of IBM. during the initial weeks at the job. ONLINE TRAINING @ IBM In 1999. in most of the cases. Gerstner adopted a coaching methodology of Sir John Whitmore. IBM felt that online training would be an ideal solution to this problem. There was a five-day training program for all the new managers. strategy and management of IBM. these workshops were not 'just-in-time. Gerstner aimed at improving the managers' training skills. where they were familiarized with the basic culture. Therefore. However.

Some of the content for [his tier was offered by Harvard Business School and the simulations were created by Cognitive Arts of Chicago. IBM believed that classroom training was also essential to develop people skills. and team rooms including IBM e-Learning products like the Team-Room. The material also highlighted other important web sites to be browsed for further information. IBM Management Development's web site. the groups were foremen virtually by videoconferencing with team members from all over the world. not a one-time event. The simulations enabled the managers to learn about employee skill-building. In the third tier. Hence. Customer-Room and Lotus Learning Space. Managers had to pass . Hence. this tier focused more on developing the collaborative skills of the learners. which managers came across.issues and business conduct in an interactive manner.Tier' blended learning model'.' By the time the managers reached this tire. the members of the group had to solve problems as a team by forming virtual groups. Therefore. own as 'Learning Lab. answers and sample scenarios called Manager QuickViews. Using these tools." Basic Blue was based on a '4. This tier used IBM's collaboration tools such as chats. Senior managers trained the managers online. the managers were provided with simulated situations. work/life balance. compensation and benefits. the members of the group started interacting with each other online. employees could interact online with the instructors as well as with peers in their groups. In this tier. they all reached a similar level of knowledge by mastering the content in the first three tiers." In the second tier. live virtual classrooms and interactive presentation: on the web. multicultural issues. the fourth tier comprised a classroom training program. retention. The managers were provided access to a lot of information including a database of questions. He/she had direct access to materials on the computer’s desktop for online reading. The first three tiers were delivered online and the fourth tier included oneweek long traditional classroom training.The founding principle of Basic Blue was that 'learning is an extended process. This information addressed the issues like evaluation. and conflict resolution and so on. The online Coaching Simulator offered eight scenarios with 5000 scenes of action. using these products. A manager who faced a problem could either access the relevant topic directly. Going Global offered as many as 300 interactive scenarios on culture clashes. This tier also used virtual team exercises and included advanced technologies like application sharing. IBM believed that its managers should be aware of practices and policies followed in different countries. Though training through e-Learning was very successful. decision points and branching results. or find the relevant information using a search engine. The program offered basic skills and knowledge to managers so that they can become effective leaders and peopleoriented managers.

banking. about how to close a deal.' and the one for the experienced managers. The tremendous success of the Basic Blue initiative encouraged IBM to extend training through e-Learning to its-sales personnel and experienced managers as well. sales specialists. It also allowed its users to ask questions and had links to information on other IBM sites and related websites. government. and the managers had to learn by doing and by coordinating directly with others in the classroom. The sales personnel of IBM across the globe could use the information from their desktops using a web browser. as 'Managing@ online test on the content provided in the above three tiers.000 sales representatives. and so on. and tools and job aid (4 aids). the managers had to master the information acquired in the above three tiers and develop a deeper understanding and a broader skills set. industry trends. Sales Compass was offered to 20. ineffective and time-consuming. selling skills (11 courses). The e-Learning program for the sales personnel was known as 'Sales Compass. key processes. Sales Compass provided critical information to the sales personnel helping them to understand various industries (including automotive. It also enabled the sales people to sell certain IBM products designed for Customer Relationship Management (CRM). In the fourth tier. Sales Compass also trained the sales personnel on skills like negotiating and selling services. before entering the fourth tier. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). There were no lectures in these sessions. and service . national sales conferences and other traditional methods of training. positioning and selling industry solutions and identifying resources. territory representatives. the sales personnel underwent live training at the company's headquarters and training campuses. Business Intelligence (BI). insurance etc) in a much better manner. market segmentation. in a highly competitive market.' Prior to the implementation of the Sales Compass e-Learning program. Though Sales Compass was originally started in 1997 on a trial basis to help the sales team in selling business intelligence solutions to the retail and manufacturing industries. personal skills (2 courses). client relationship representatives. it-was not implemented on a large scale. Sales Compass also had simulations for selling products to a specific industry like banking. in most of the cases these methods proved too expensive. However. coordination problems also cropped up. Apart from this. IBM could not afford to keep its sales team away from work for weeks together. as the sales team was spread across the world. But with the success of Basic Blue. and so on. Moreover. Sales Compass was developed further. The information offered included industry snapshot. They also attended field training program. The content of the new Sales Compass was divided into five categories including Solutions (13 courses). Like the Basic Blue program. industries (23 courses).

unable to get into a branch office and obtain information on a specific industry or solution. Edvisor offered three tracks offering various types of information.0 E-LEARNING AT IBM ." IBM also launched an e-Learning program called 'Managing @ IBM' for its experienced managers.5 Sales Compass 21.from $400 to $135. In 2000. a sophisticated Intelligent Web Agent. "Sales Compass is a just-in-time. Brenda Toan (Toan). Most of our users are mobile. In 2001. So they are.0 Going global 0. These programs were appreciated by HR experts of IDM. It was also included among the ten best 'world-class . The program provided content related to leadership and people management skills. and enabled the managers to meet their specific needs. The program included the face-to-face Learning Lab. It also enabled the managers to complete their classroom training modules in lesser time.6 Customer-Room 0.8 Manager Quick-Views 6.6 Coaching simulators 0. most of the times. just-enough sales support information site. and selling tools that support our signature selling methodology. The Basic Blue program bagged three awards of 'Excellence in Practice' from the American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) in March 2000. IBM’s cost savings through E-Learning Program Saving in 2000 (in US $million) Basic Blue 16. said. IBM saved $200 million and its cost of training per-employee reduced significantly . The simulation modules and collaboration techniques created a richer learning environment.FUTURE PLANS The e-Learning projects of IBM had been successful right from the initial stages of their implementation. in late 2001. and other companies. IBM Sales Compass provides industry-specific knowledge. this program enabled managers to choose information based on their requirements. By implementing the above programs. as compared to the traditional training methods used earlier. advice on how to sell specific solutions. Unlike the Basic Blue program. Basic Blue saved $16 million while Sales Compass saved $21 million. global skills and learning leader for IBM offices across the world. e-learning. The e-learning projects also enabled the company to leverage corporate internal knowledge as most of the content they carried came from the internal content experts.professionals at IBM. E-learning also resulted in a deeper understanding of the learning content by the managers. which is convenient for these users. and Edvisor. IBM was able to reduce its training budget as well as improve employee productivity significantly.

and so on. IBM used e-Learning not only to train its employees. Apart from this. increased employee satisfaction. its sales force and other employees. American Airlines (AA) used IBM's eLearning package. IBM employees received the benefits enrollment material online. In early 2002.implementations of corporate learning' initiatives by the "E-Learning across the Enterprise: The Benchmarking Study of Best Practices" (Brandon Hall) in September 2000. coverage.000 flight attendants by November 2002. at any time. such as cost. This obviously. The content included instruction clips. The company also encouraged its other employees to attend these e-learning programs. using feedback from its new and experienced managers. Besides. the company was able to find such an employee in three days. Shanta Hudson-Fields. "The full service package that IBM offers has allowed us to develop an effective online course for our large group of busy attendants. This application enabled employees to see and manage their benefits. This made the airlines annual safety training certification program guides more effective. Pathfinder took information from the employees and returned a preferred plan with ranks and graphs. The company also automated its hiring process. which enabled its flight attendants to log on to AA's website and complete the 'safety and security training' from any place. The new tool on the company's intranet was capable of carrying out most of the employee hiring processes. graphics. flash animation. IBM also started exploring the evolving area of 'mobile learning' Analysts felt that for mobile sales force of IBM. IBM leveraged many new communication channels for offering its courses to employees. but also in other HR activities. .' This tool also enabled the employees to know about the various health plans offered by IBM. Now. Initially. The employees could learn about the merits of various benefits and the criteria for availing these benefits. customer service or performance using an Intranet tool called 'Path Finder. In November 2001. IBM planned to update these programs on a continuous basis. IBM continued its efforts to improve the visual information in all its e-Learning programs to make them more effective. career changes and more. American has also brought efficiency and cost savings to our training processes using IBM's e-Learning solution. In addition to providing a flexible training certification experience for our attendants. deductions in their salaries." The company had trained 24. commented. IBM also started offering the courses to its customers and to the general public. AA's manager for line training and special projects. IBM used to take ten days to find a temporary engineer or consultant. m-Learning was the next ideal step (after eLearning).

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