CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) for Junior Research Fellowship and Lecturer-ship LIFE SCIENCES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Molecules and their Interaction Relevant to Biology Cellular Organization Fundamental Processes Cell Communication and Cell Signaling Developmental Biology System Physiology – Plant System Physiology – Animal Inheritance Biology Diversity of Life Forms Ecological Principles Evolution and Behavior Applied Biology Methods in Biology

euchromatin. D Principles of biophysical chemistry (pH. lipids. Structure of atoms. homologous and site-specific recombination). formation of initiation complex. Microbial Physiology (Growth yield and characteristics. transposons). interrupted genes. micro-RNA). glycolysis. C. extrachromosomal replicons. secondary structure. thermodynamics. Z). biological energy transducers. Conformation of nucleic acids (helix (A. vacuoles. regulation and control of cell cycle). E.1. A) CELLULAR ORGANIZATION Membrane structure and function (Structure of model membrane. ion channels. capping. strategies of cell division. buffer. enzymes and enzyme kinetics. mechanism of enzyme catalysis. Stablizing interactions (Van der Waals. structure of chromatin and chromosomes. nucleic acids and vitamins). etc. Principles of catalysis. group transfer. osmosis. mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport. B. oxidative phosphorylation. J. Golgi bodies. motif and folds). Metabolism of carbohydrates. stress response) B) C) D) E) 3. Stability of proteins and nucleic acids. B Composition. lipids. domains. fidelity of replication. lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion. enzyme regulation. hydrogen bonding. reaction kinetics.). Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles (Cell wall. amino acids nucleotides and vitamins. heterochromatin. mitochondria. lysosomes. MOLECULES AND THEIR INTERACTION RELAVENT TO BIOLOGY A. 2. nucleus. Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot. Cell division and cell cycle (Mitosis and meiosis. H. proteins. endoplasmic reticulum. plastids. their regulation. A) FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES DNA replication. molecules and chemical bonds. repair and recombination (Unit of replication. chloroplast. coupled reaction. hydrophobic interaction. unique and repetitive DNA. DNA damage and repair mechanisms. t-RNA. transcription activator and repressor. B) . replication origin and replication fork. Organization of genes and chromosomes (Operon. structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates. membrane pumps. active transport. peroxisomes. structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility). enzymes involved. colligative properties). RNA polymerases. isozymes G.electrical properties of membranes). steps in cell cycle. I. gene families. F. RNA synthesis and processing (transcription factors and machinery. electrostatic. Bioenergetics.

RNA processing. virus-induced cancer. second messengers. termination. tRNA-identity.translational modification of proteins). humoral and cellmediated immune responses. the complement system. pathogen-induced diseases in animals and plants. cell-mediated effector functions. C) and Protein synthesis and processing (Ribosome. MHC molecules. gap junctions. oncogenes. formation of initiation complex. Cellular communication Regulation of hematopoiesis. role of chromatin in gene expression and gene silencing). D) 4. immune response during bacterial (tuberculosis). RNA transport). genetic code. integrins. interaction of cancer cells with normal cells. general principles of cell communication. apoptosis. inflammation. aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. and translational proof-reading. activation and differentiation of B and T cells. generation of antibody diversity. B and T cell receptors. viruses. neurotransmission and its regulation. B) C) D) E) . initiation factors and their regulation. antibody engineering. polyadenylation. RNA editing.elongation. parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections. translational inhibitors. regulation of signaling pathways. antigens. alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens. antigen processing and presentation. Innate and adaptive immune system Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity. hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. cell-cell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells. vaccines. and termination. tumor suppressor genes. B and T cell epitopes. light signaling in plants. Post. Cell communication and cell signaling A) Host parasite interaction Recognition and entry processes of different pathogens like bacteria. prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes. Toll-like receptors. Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level (regulating the expression of phages. antigen-antibody interactions. cell surface receptor. viruses into animal and plant host cells. elongation and elongation factors. virus-induced cell transformation. signaling through G-protein coupled receptors. cancer and the cell cycle. Cell signaling Hormones and their receptors. signal transduction pathways. Cancer Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells. aminoacylation of tRNA. therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth. bacterial and plant twocomponent systems. structure and function of different types of RNA. extracellular matrix. monoclonal antibodies. metastasis. structure and function of antibody molecules. congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies. primary and secondary immune modulation. cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules. antigenicity and immunogenicity. splicing. bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing.

differentiation of neurons. breakdown and transport. D. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY A) Basic concepts of development : Potency. Nitrogen metabolism . CO2 fixation-C3. gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals. C. establishment of symmetry in plants. Respiration and photorespiration – Citric acid cycle. determination and differentiation. A.Nitrate and ammonium assimilation. seed formation and germination. Plant hormones – Biosynthesis. . physiological effects and mechanisms of action. embryonic fields. photoprotective mechanisms. mechanisms of electron transport.5. embryogenesis. axes and pattern formation in Drosophila. aging and senescence 6. stomatal movement. Sensory photobiology . E. C4 and CAM pathways. limb development and regeneration in vertebrates. morphogenetic gradients. induction. metamorphosis. cell fate and cell lineages. commitment. amphibia and chick. fertilization and early development: Production of gametes. organogenesis – vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants.Structure. zygote formation. leaf development and phyllotaxy.Light harvesting complexes. B.larval formation. cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals. mutants and transgenics in analysis of development B) Gametogenesis. alternate oxidase. storage. shoot and root development. floral meristems and floral development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum E) Programmed cell death. photorespiratory pathway. environmental regulation of normal development. specification. function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes.PLANT Photosynthesis . SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY . blastula formation. D) Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants: Organization of shoot and root apical meristem. post embryonic development. cleavage. photoperiodism and biological clocks. stem cells. plant mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis. genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants. imprinting. competence. cryptochromes and phototropins. eye lens induction. sex determination. amino acid biosynthesis. C) Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals : Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium. transition to flowering.

through xylem and phloem. solutes and macromolecules from soil. neural control of muscle tone and posture. transport and translocation of water. gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal cord. Respiratory system . urine formation.Comparative physiology of excretion.Comfort zone. energy balance. haemopoiesis and formed elements. D. waste elimination. across membranes. E. neural and chemical regulation of respiration. ECG – its principle and significance. gametogenesis. ovulation. Thermoregulation . blood volume regulation. blood pressure. micturition. G. cardiac cycle. phenols and nitrogenous compounds and their roles. chemical. Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation – uptake. F. BMR. myogenic heart. acclimatization. ions. SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY . Stress physiology – Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic (water. reproductive processes. .Biosynthesis of terpenes. neural regulation. plasma function.F. haemoglobin.Endocrine glands. basic mechanism of hormone action. heart as a pump. Nervous system . neural and chemical regulation of all above. mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates. Excretory system . G.ANIMAL Blood and circulation . anatomical considerations. transport of gases. body temperature – physical. specialized tissue. immunity. H. H.Blood corpuscles. blood volume. A. blood groups. waste elimination. blood pressure. temperature and salt) stresses. Sense organs . exchange of gases. 7. electrolyte balance. hormones and diseases. Cardiovascular System: Comparative anatomy of heart structure. action potential. central and peripheral nervous system. Secondary metabolites . absorption. transpiration. neuroendocrine regulation B. Stress and adaptation Digestive system . acid-base balance.Vision. C. haemostasis. Endocrinology and reproduction . J. regulation of water balance. hearing and tactile response. urine concentration.Neurons. I.Comparison of respiration in different species.Digestion. kidney. through cells. blood volume.

Comparative anatomy. multiple alleles. causes and detection. I) Mutation : Types. J) Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes : Deletion. mapping with molecular markers. lod score for linkage testing. colonial and multicellular forms. biochemical. heritability and its measurements. fine structure analysis of genes. INHERITANCE BIOLOGY A) Mendelian principles : Dominance.8. mapping genes by interrupted mating. classical & quantititative methods of taxonomy of plants. QTL mapping. transduction and sex-duction. 9. Levels of structural organization: Unicellular. gain of function. B. pleiotropy. pseudoallele. conjugation. organs & systems. ploidy and their genetic implications. genetic disorders. incomplete dominance. sex linkage. segregation. G) Human genetics : Pedigree analysis. D) Gene mapping methods : Linkage maps. maternal inheritance. Levels of organization of tissues. F) Microbial genetics : Methods of genetic transfers – transformation. tetrad analysis. independent assortment. sex limited and sex influenced characters. phenocopy. adaptive radiation. E) Extra chromosomal inheritance : Inheritance of Mitochondrial and chloroplast genes. inversion. gene interactions. . loss of function. conditional. H) Quantitative genetics : Polygenic inheritance. adaptive modifications. penetrance and expressivity. B) Concept of gene : Allele. mapping by using somatic cell hybrids. germinal verses somatic mutants. linkage and crossing over. DIVERSITY OF LIFE FORMS: Principles & methods of taxonomy: Concepts of species and hierarchical taxa. translocation. mutant types – lethal. biological nomenclature. insertional mutagenesis. genomic imprinting. karyotypes. complementation tests C) Extensions of Mendelian principles : Codominance. development of mapping population in plants. animals and microorganisms. A. duplication. K) Recombination : Homologous and non-homologous recombination including transposition.

Organisms of health & agricultural importance: Common parasites and pathogens of humans. population growth curves. domestic animals and crops. changes involved in succession. herbivory. birds. eustarine). animals and microorganisms. levels of species diversity and its measurement. symbiosis. age structured populations. D.P). life history strategies (r and K selection). community structure and attributes. character displacement. mechanisms. theory of island biogeography. ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES The Environment: Physical environment. 10. interdemic extinctions. Outline classification of plants. Organisms of conservation concern: Rare. biotic environment. grassland) and aquatic (fresh water. Comman Indian mammals. geographic origins and migrations of species. Population Ecology: Characteristics of a population. biotic and abiotic interactions. Classification of plants. Conservation strategies. E. structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest. Ecological Succession: Types. animals & microorganisms: Important criteria used for classification in each taxon. carnivory. Seasonality and phenology of the subcontinent. concept of climax. fundamental and realized niche. resource partitioning. F. edges and ecotones. niche width and overlap.C. primary production and decomposition. Habitat and Niche: Concept of habitat and niche. energy flow and mineral cycling (C. ecosystem function. endangered species. Ecosystem Ecology: Ecosystem structure. biomes. population regulation. Evolutionary relationships among taxa. interspecific competition.N. Community Ecology: Nature of communities. Natural history of Indian subcontinent: Major habitat types of the subcontinent. concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal. Species Interactions: Types of interactions. marine. pollination. Biogeography: Major terrestrial biogeographical zones of India. .

The evolutionary synthesis. Spontaneity of mutations. Molecular tools in phylogeny. Experiement of Miller (1953). Isolating mechanisms. biodiversity: status. photosynthesis and aerobic metabolism. The Mechanisms: Population genetics – Populations. Molecular Evolution: Concepts of neutral evolution. Convergent evolution. Kin selection. global environmental change. major drivers of biodiversity change. Evolution of prokaryotes. Evolution of unicellular eukaryotes. F. E. 11. Gene pool. B. biodiversity management approaches. Stages in primate evolution including Homo. Behavior and Evolution: Approaches and methods in study of behavior. Neural basis . fitness and natural selection. Conservation Biology: Principles of conservation. Altruism and evolution-Group selection. Eras. Origin of eukaryotic cells. Major groups of plants and animals. migration and random genetic drift. Allopatricity and Sympatricity. Darwin–concepts of variation. origin of new genes and proteins. Origins of unicellular and multi cellular organisms. Hardy-Weinberg Law. Brain. Speciation. struggle. Gene frequency. Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers and polymers. Protein and nucleotide sequence analysis. Sexual selection. D. Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger.Applied Ecology: Environmental pollution. Reciprocal altruism. Adaptive radiation. adaptation. Biosphere reserves). periods and epoch. molecular divergence and molecular clocks. The first cell. Mendelism. Anaerobic metabolism. Proximate and ultimate causation. classification and identification. C. Major events in the evolutionary time scale. monitoring and documentation. major approaches to management. Paleontology and Evolutionary History: The evolutionary time scale. A. concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection. Origin of cells and unicellular evolution: Origin of basic biological molecules. Co-evolution. EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOUR Emergence of evolutionary thoughts Lamarck. Gene duplication and divergence. Concept of Oparin and Haldane.

of learning. Application of immunological principles. F. diagnostics. vaccines. Biological clocks. Transgenic animals and plants. Parental care. Mating systems. Domestication and behavioral changes. 12. E. Migration. sleep and arousal. cognition. Aggressive behavior. Tissue and cell culture methods for plants and animals. D. Use of space and territoriality. including gene therapy. including marker – assisted selection Bioremediation and phytoremediation Biosensors C. orientation and navigation. Microbial fermentation and production of small and macro molecules. Bioresource and uses of biodiversity. Development of behavior. H. molecular approaches to diagnosis and strain identification. Parental investment and Reproductive success. Habitat selection and optimality in foraging. Breeding in plants and animals. . Social dominance. Genomics and its application to health and agriculture. memory. Social communication. APPLIED BIOLOGY: A. B. G.

fluorescence. Expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial. Levels of significance. Histochemical and Immunotechniques Antibody generation. immunoprecipitation. separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules RFLP. RIA. NMR and ESR spectroscopy Molecular structure determination using X-ray diffraction and NMR. Regression and Correlation. A. RAPD and AFLP techniques B. DNA sequencing methods. in situ localization by techniques such as and GISH. D Statisitcal Methods: Measures of central tendency and dispersal. probability distributions (Binomial. In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques. Detection of molecules using ELISA. DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis. etc. Molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems. western blot. Biophysical Method: FISH C Molecular analysis using UV/visible. different separation methods. Difference between parametric and non-parametric statistics. METHODS IN BIOLOGY Molecular Biology and Recombinant DNA methods: Isolation and purification of RNA . Protein sequencing methods. detection of molecules in living cells. Confidence Interval. such as micro array based techniques Isolation. Molecular analysis using light scattering.13. Methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level. detection of post translation modification of proteins. . X2 test. cosmid. BAC and YAC vectors. Analysis of RNA. strategies for genome sequencing. t-test. large scale expression. animal and plant vectors. different types of mass spectrometry and surface plasma resonance methods. Poisson and normal). Errors. Sampling distribution. Isoelectric focusing gels. phage. fluocytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms. Basic introduction to Muetrovariate statistics. Analysis of variance. circular dichroism. DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins. Isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid..

E. fMRI. microscopy of living cells. different fixation and staining techniques for EM. CAT . PET. sampling methods in the study of behavior. Methods in field biology: Methods of estimating population density of animals and plants. . freeze-etch and freezefracture methods for EM. ECG. habitat characterization: ground and remote sensing methods. MRI. incorporation of radioisotopes in biological tissues and cells. Microscopic techniques: Visulization of cells and subcellular components by light microscopy. and stimulation of brain. patch-clamp recording. lesion H. ranging patterns through direct. pharmacological testing. resolving powers of different microscopes. molecular imaging of radioactive material. G. F. Electrophysiological methods: Single neuron recording. Brain activity recording. safety guidelines. Radiolabeling techniques: Detection and measurement of different types of radioisotopes normally used in biology. indirect and remote observations. image processing methods in microscopy. scanning and transmission microscopes.

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