First Edition2005
Revised Edition 2007
AuthorcumChairperson
Dr. K. SRINIVASAN
Reader in Mathematics
Presidency College (Autonomous)
Chennai  600 005.
Dr. E. CHANDRASEKARAN
Selection Grade Lecturer in Mathematics
Presidency College (Autonomous)
Chennai  600 005
Dr. FELBIN C. KENNEDY
Senior Lecturer in Mathematics
Stella Maris College,
Chennai  600 086
Thiru R. SWAMINATHAN
Principal
Alagappa Matriculation Hr. Sec. School
Karaikudi  630 003
Thiru A.V. BABU CHRISTOPHER
P.G. Assistant in Maths
St. Joseph’s H.S. School
Chengalpattu603 002
Authors
This book has been printed on 60 G.S.M. Paper
Price : Rs.
This book has been prepared by The Directorate of School Education
on behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu
Printed by Offset at :
Dr. C. SELVARAJ
Lecturer in Mathematics
L.N. Govt. College, Ponneri601 204
Dr. THOMAS ROSY
Senior Lecturer in Mathematics
Madras Christian College, Chennai  600 059
Mrs. R. JANAKI
P.G. Assistant in Maths
Rani Meyyammai Girls Hr. Sec. School
R.A. Puram, Chennai  600 028
Thiru S. PANNEER SELVAM
P.G. Assistant in Maths
G.H.S.S., M.M.D.A. Colony
Arumbakkam, Chennai  600 106
Mrs. K.G. PUSHPAVALLI
P.G. Assistant in Maths
Lady Sivaswami Ayyar G.H.S. School
Mylapore, Chennai  600 004.
AuthorcumReviewer
Dr. A. RAHIM BASHA
Reader in Mathematics
Presidency College (Autonomous), Chennai  600 005.
Dr. M. CHANDRASEKAR
Asst. Professor of Mathematics
Anna University, Chennai  600 025
Thiru K. THANGAVELU
Senior Lecturer in Mathematics
Pachaiyappa’s College
Chennai  600 030
Reviewers
Dr. (Mrs.) N. SELVI
Reader in Mathematics
A.D.M. College for Women
Nagapattinam  611 001
MATHEMATICS
HIGHER SECONDARY – SECOND YEAR
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TEXTBOOK CORPORATION
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REVISED BASED ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE
TEXT BOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE
PREFACE
This book is designed in the light of the new guidelines and syllabi –
2003 for the Higher Secondary Mathematics, prescribed for the Second Year,
by the Government of Tamil Nadu.
The 21
st
century is an era of Globalisation, and technology occupies the
prime position. In this context, writing a text book on Mathematics assumes
special significance because of its importance and relevance to Science and
Technology.
As such this book is written in tune with the existing international
standard and in order to achieve this, the team has exhaustively examined
internationally accepted text books which are at present followed in the reputed
institutions of academic excellence and hence can be relevant to secondary
level students in and around the country.
This text book is presented in two volumes to facilitate the students for
easy approach. Volume I consists of Applications of Matrices and
Determinants, Vector Algebra, Complex numbers and Analytical Geometry
which is dealt with a novel approach. Solving a system of linear equations and
the concept of skew lines are new ventures. Volume II includes Differential
Calculus – Applications, Integral Calculus and its Applications, Differential
Equations, Discrete Mathematics (a new venture) and Probability Distributions.
The chapters dealt with provide a clear understanding, emphasizes an
investigative and exploratory approach to teaching and the students to explore
and understand for themselves the basic concepts introduced.
Wherever necessary theory is presented precisely in a style tailored to
act as a tool for teachers and students.
Applications play a central role and are woven into the development of
the subject matter. Practical problems are investigated to act as a catalyst to
motivate, to maintain interest and as a basis for developing definitions and
procedures.
The solved problems have been very carefully selected to bridge the gap
between the exposition in the chapter and the regular exercise set. By doing
these exercises and checking the complete solutions provided, students will be
able to test or check their comprehension of the material.
Fully in accordance with the current goals in teaching and learning
Mathematics, every section in the text book includes worked out and exercise
(assignment) problems that encourage geometrical visualisation, investigation,
critical thinking, assimilation, writing and verbalization.
We are fully convinced that the exercises give a chance for the students
to strengthen various concepts introduced and the theory explained enabling
them to think creatively, analyse effectively so that they can face any situation
with conviction and courage. In this respect the exercise problems are meant
only to students and we hope that this will be an effective tool to develop their
talents for greater achievements. Such an effort need to be appreciated by the
parents and the wellwishers for the larger interest of the students.
Learned suggestions and constructive criticisms for effective refinement
of the book will be appreciated.
K.SRINIVASAN
Chairperson
Writing Team.
SYLLABUS
(1) APPLICATIONS OF MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS : Adjoint, Inverse –
Properties, Computation of inverses, solution of system of linear equations by
matrix inversion method. Rank of a Matrix − Elementary transformation on a
matrix, consistency of a system of linear equations, Cramer’s rule,
Nonhomogeneous equations, homogeneous linear system, rank method.
(20 periods)
(2) VECTOR ALGEBRA : Scalar Product – Angle between two vectors, properties
of scalar product, applications of dot products. Vector Product − Right handed
and left handed systems, properties of vector product, applications of cross
product. Product of three vectors − Scalar triple product, properties of scalar
triple product, vector triple product, vector product of four vectors, scalar product
of four vectors. Lines − Equation of a straight line passing through a given point
and parallel to a given vector, passing through two given points (derivations are
not required). angle between two lines. Skew lines − Shortest distance between
two lines, condition for two lines to intersect, point of intersection, collinearity of
three points. Planes − Equation of a plane (derivations are not required), passing
through a given point and perpendicular to a vector, given the distance from the
origin and unit normal, passing through a given point and parallel to two given
vectors, passing through two given points and parallel to a given vector, passing
through three given noncollinear points, passing through the line of intersection
of two given planes, the distance between a point and a plane, the plane which
contains two given lines, angle between two given planes, angle between a line
and a plane. Sphere − Equation of the sphere (derivations are not required)
whose centre and radius are given, equation of a sphere when the extremities of the
diameter are given. (28 periods)
(3) COMPLEX NUMBERS : Complex number system, Conjugate − properties,
ordered pair representation. Modulus − properties, geometrical representation,
meaning, polar form, principal value, conjugate, sum, difference, product,
quotient, vector interpretation, solutions of polynomial equations, De Moivre’s
theorem and its applications. Roots of a complex number − nth roots, cube
roots, fourth roots. (20 periods)
(4) ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY : Definition of a Conic − General equation of a
conic, classification with respect to the general equation of a conic, classification
of conics with respect to eccentricity. Parabola − Standard equation of a parabola
(derivation and tracing the parabola are not required), other standard parabolas,
the process of shifting the origin, general form of the standard equation, some
practical problems. Ellipse − Standard equation of the ellipse (derivation and
tracing the ellipse are not required), x
2
/a
2
+ y
2
/b
2
= 1, (a > b), Other standard
form of the ellipse, general forms, some practical problems, Hyperbola −
standard equation (derivation and tracing the hyperbola are not required), x
2
/a
2
−
y
2
/b
2
=1, Other form of the hyperbola, parametric form of conics, chords.
Tangents and Normals − Cartesian form and Parametric form, equation of
chord of contact of tangents from a point (x
1
, y
1
), Asymptotes, Rectangular
hyperbola – standard equation of a rectangular hyperbola.
(30 periods)
(5) DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS – APPLICATIONS I : Derivative as a rate
measure − rate of change − velocity − acceleration − related rates − Derivative as
a measure of slope − tangent, normal and angle between curves. Maxima and
Minima. Mean value theorem − Rolle’s Theorem − Lagrange Mean Value
Thorem − Taylor’s and Maclaurin’s series, l’ Hôpital’s Rule, stationary points −
increasing, decreasing, maxima, minima, concavity convexity, points of inflexion.
(28 periods)
(6) DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS – APPLICATIONS II : Errors and approximations
− absolute, relative, percentage errors, curve tracing, partial derivatives − Euler’s
theorem. (10 periods)
(7) INTEGRAL CALCULUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS : Properties of definite
integrals, reduction formulae for sin
n
x and cos
n
x (only results), Area, length,
volume and surface area (22 periods)
(8) DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS : Formation of differential equations, order and
degree, solving differential equations (1
st
order) − variable separable
homogeneous, linear equations. Second order linear equations with constant co
efficients f(x) = e
mx
, sin mx, cos mx, x, x
2
. (18 periods)
(9A) DISCRETE MATHEMATICS : Mathematical Logic − Logical statements,
connectives, truth tables, Tautologies.
(9B) GROUPS : Binary Operations − Semi groups − monoids, groups (Problems and
simple properties only), order of a group, order of an element. (18 periods)
(10) PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS : Random Variable, Probability density function,
distribution function, mathematical expectation, variance, Discrete Distributions −
Binomial, Poisson, Continuous Distribution − Normal distribution
(16 periods)
Total : 210 Periods
CONTENTS
Page No.
5. Differential Calculus Applications − I 1
5.1 Introduction 1
5.2 Derivative as a rate measure 1
5.3 Related rates 5
5.4 Tangents and Normals 10
5.5 Angle between two curves 15
5.6 Mean Value Theorem and their applications 19
5.7 Evaluating Indeterminate forms 29
5.8 Monotonic functions 35
5.9 Maximum and Minimum values and their applications 43
5.10 Practical problems involving Maximum and Minimum values 53
5.11 Concavity and points of Inflection 60
6. Differential Calculus Applications  II 69
6.1 Differentials : Errors and Approximations 69
6.2 Curve Tracing 74
6.3 Partial Differentiation 79
7. Integral Calculus and its applications 87
7.1 Introduction 87
7.2 Simple Definite Integrals 87
7.3 Properties of Definite Integrals 89
7.4 Reduction formulae 98
7.5 Area and Volume 103
7.6 Length of a Curve 118
7.7 Surface area of a solid 118
8. Differential Equations 123
8.1 Introduction 123
8.2 Order and Degree of a Differential Equation 125
8.3 Formation of Differential Equations 126
8.4 Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree 129
8.5 Second Order linear Differential Equations 140
with constant coefficients
8.6 Applications 150
9. Discrete Mathematics 156
9.1 Mathematical Logic : Introduction 156
9.2 Groups 168
10. Probability Distributions 191
10.1 Introduction 191
10.2 Random Variable 191
10.3 Mathematical Expectation 204
10.4 Theoretical Distributions 212
Objective type questions 229
Answers 245
Standard Normal Distribution Table 258
Reference Books 259
1
5. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
APPLICATIONS  I
5.1 Introduction :
In higher secondary first year we discussed the theoretical aspects of
differential calculus, assimilated the process of various techniques involved and
created many tools of differentiation. Geometrical and kinematical significances
for first and second order derivatives were also interpreted. Now let us learn
some practical aspects of differential calculus.
At this level we shall consider problems concerned with the applications to
(i) plane geometry, (ii) theory of real functions, (iii) optimisation problems and
approximation problems.
5.2 Derivative as a rate measure :
If a quantity y depends on and varies with a quantity x then the rate of
change of y with respect to x is
dy
dx
.
Thus for example, the rate of change of pressure p with respect to height
h is
dp
dh
. A rate of change with respect to time is usually called as ‘the rate of
change’, the ‘with respect to time’ being assumed. Thus for example, a rate of
change of current ‘i’ is
di
dt
and a rate of change of temperature ‘θ’ is
dθ
dt
and so
on.
Example 5.1 : The length l metres of a certain metal rod at temperature θ°C is
given by l = 1 + 0.00005θ + 0.0000004θ
2
. Determine the rate of change of
length in mm/°C when the temperature is (i) 100°C and (ii) 400°C.
Solution : The rate of change of length means
dl
dθ
.
Since length l = 1 + 0.00005θ + 0.0000004θ
2
,
dl
dθ
= 0.00005 + 0.0000008θ .
(i) when θ = 100°C
dl
dθ
= 0.00005 + (0.0000008) (100)
= 0.00013 m/°C = 0.13 mm/°C
2
(ii) when θ = 400°C
dl
dθ
= 0.00005 + (0.0000008) (400)
= 0.00037 m/°C = 0.37 mm/°C
Example 5.2 : The luminous intensity I candelas of a lamp at varying voltage
V is given by : I = 4 × 10
−4
V
2
. Determine the voltage at which the light is
increasing at a rate of 0.6 candelas per volt.
Solution : The rate of change of light with respect to voltage is given by
dI
dV
.
Since I = 4 × 10
−4
V
2
dI
dV
= 8 × 10
−4
V.
When the light is increasing at 0.6 candelas per volt then
dI
dV
= + 0.6. Therefore
we must have + 0.6 = 8 × 10
4
V, from which,
Voltage V =
0.6
8 × 10
−4
= 0.075 × 10
4
= 750 Volts.
Velocity and Acceleration :
A car describes a distance x
metres in time t seconds along a
straight road. If the velocity v is
constant, then v =
x
t
m/s i.e., the
slope (gradient) of the distance/time
graph shown in Fig.5.1 is constant.
Fig. 5.1
If, however, the velocity of the
car is not constant then the distance /
time graph will not be a straight line.
It may be as shown in Fig.5.2
The average velocity over a
small time ∆t and distance ∆x is
given by the gradient of the chord AB
i.e., the average velocity over time ∆t
is
∆x
∆t
.
Fig. 5.2
t
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Time
x
x
y
t
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Time
x
x
y
∆t
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Time
∆x
A
B
x
y
∆t
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Time
∆x
A
B
x
y
3
As ∆t → 0, the chord AB becomes a tangent, such that at point A the
velocity is given by v =
dx
dt
. Hence the velocity of the car at any instant is
given by gradient of the distance / time graph. If an expression for the distance x
is known in terms of time, then the velocity is obtained by differentiating the
expression.
The acceleration ‘a’ of the car is
defined as the rate of change of
velocity. A velocity / time graph is
shown in Fig.5.3. If ∆v is the change
in v and ∆t is the corresponding
change in time, then a =
∆v
∆t
. As
∆t → 0 the chord CD becomes a
tangent such that at the point C,
Fig. 5.3
the acceleration is given by a =
dv
dt
Hence the acceleration of the car at any instant is given by the gradient of
the velocity / time graph. If an expression for velocity is known in terms of time
t, then the acceleration is obtained by differentiating the expression.
Acceleration a =
dv
dt
, where v =
dx
dt
Hence a =
d
dt
\

.

dx
dt
=
d
2
x
dt
2
The acceleration is given by the second differential coefficient of distance
x with respect to time t. The above discussion can be summarised as follows. If
a body moves a distance x meters in time t seconds then
(i) distance x = f(t).
(ii) velocity v = f ′(t) or
dx
dt
, which is the gradient of the
distance / time graph.
(iii) Acceleration a =
dv
dt
= f ′′(t) or
d
2
x
dt
2
, which is the gradient of the
velocity / time graph.
Note : (i) Initial velocity means velocity at t = 0
(ii) Initial acceleration means acceleration at t = 0.
(iii) If the motion is upward, at the maximum height, the velocity is zero.
(iv) If the motion is horizontal, v = 0 when the particle comes to rest.
∆t
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
Time
∆y
C
D
x
y
∆t
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
Time
∆y
C
D
x
y
4
Example 5.3 : The distance x metres described by a car in time t seconds is
given by: x = 3t
3
− 2 t
2
+ 4t − 1. Determine the velocity and acceleration when
(i) t = 0 and (ii) t = 1.5 s
Solution : distance x = 3t
3
− 2 t
2
+ 4t −1
velocity v =
dx
dt
= 9t
2
− 4 t + 4 m/s
acceleration a =
d
2
x
dt
2
= 18t − 4 m/s
2
(i) When time t = 0
velocity v = 9(0)
2
− 4(0) + 4 = 4 m/s
and acceleration a = 18(0) − 4 = −4 m/s
2
(ii) when time t = 1.5 sec
velocity v = 9(1.5)
2
− 4(1.5) + 4 = 18.25 m/sec
and acceleration a = 18(1.5) − 4 = 23 m/sec
2
Example 5.4 : Supplies are dropped from an helicopter and distance fallen in
time t seconds is given by x =
1
2
gt
2
where g = 9.8 m/sec
2
. Determine the
velocity and acceleration of the supplies after it has fallen for 2 seconds.
Solution : distance x =
1
2
gt
2
=
1
2
(9.8) t
2
= 4.9 t
2
m
velocity v =
dx
dt
= 9.8t m/sec
acceleration a =
d
2
x
dt
2
= 9.8 m/sec
2
When time t = 2 seconds
velocity v = (9.8)(2) = 19.6 m/sec
and acceleration a = 9.8 m/sec
2
which is the acceleration due to
gravity.
Example 5.5 : The angular displacement θ radians of a fly wheel varies with
time t seconds and follows the equation θ = 9t
2
− 2t
3
. Determine
(i) the angular velocity and acceleration of the fly wheel when time
t = 1 second and
(ii) the time when the angular acceleration is zero.
Solution : (i) angular displacement θ = 9t
2
− 2t
3
radians.
angular velocity ω =
dθ
dt
= 18t – 6t
2
rad/s
5
When time t = 1 second,
ω = 18(1) − 6(1)
2
= 12 rad/s
angular acceleration =
d
2
θ
dt
2
= 18 − 12t rad/s
2
when t = 1, angular acceleration = 6 rad/ s
2
(ii) Angular acceleration is zero ⇒ 18 – 12t = 0, from which t = 1.5 s
Example 5.6 : A boy, who is standing on a pole of height 14.7 m throws a stone
vertically upwards. It moves in a vertical line slightly away from the pole and
falls on the ground. Its equation of motion in meters and seconds is
x = 9.8 t − 4.9t
2
(i) Find the time taken for upward and downward motions.
(ii) Also find the maximum height reached by the stone from the ground.
Solution :
(i) x = 9.8 t − 4.9 t
2
At the maximum height v = 0
v =
dx
dt
= 9.8 − 9.8 t
v = 0 ⇒ t = 1 sec
∴ The time taken for upward
motion is 1 sec. For each position x,
there corresponds a time ‘t’. The
ground position is x = − 14.7, since
the top of the pole is taken as x = 0.
Fig. 5.4
To get the total time, put x = − 14.7 in the given equation.
i.e., − 14.7 = 9.8 t − 4.9t
2
⇒ t = − 1, 3
⇒ t = − 1 is not admissible and hence t = 3
The time taken for downward motion is 3 − 1 = 2 secs
(ii) When t = 1, the position x = 9.8(1) − 4.9(1) = 4.9 m
The maximum height reached by the stone = pole height + 4.9 = 19.6 m
5.3 Related Rates :
In the related rates problem the idea is to compute the rate of change of one
quantity in terms of the rate of change of another quantity. The procedure is to
find an equation that relates the two quantities and then use the chain rule to
differentiate both sides with respect to time.
We suggest the following problem solving principles that may be followed
as a strategy to solve problems considered in this section.
s =147
s =0
Ground
Max. Ht.
s =147
s =0
Ground
Max. Ht.
6
(1) Read the problem carefully.
(2) Draw a diagram if possible.
(3) Introduce notation. Assign symbols to all quantities that are functions
of time.
(4) Express the given information and the required rate in terms of
derivatives.
(5) Write an equation that relates the various quantities of the problem. If
necessary, use the geometry of the situation to eliminate one of the
variables by substitution.
(6) Use the chain rule to differentiate both sides of the equation with
respect to t.
(7) Substitute the given information into the resulting equation and solve
for the unknown rate.
Illustration : Air is being pumped into a spherical balloon so that its volume
increases at a rate of 100 cm
3
/s. How fast is the radius of the balloon increasing
when the diameter is 50 cm.
Solution :
We start by identifying two things.
(i) The given information : The rate of increase of the volume of air is
100 cm
3
/s. and
(ii) The unknown : The rate of increase of the radius when the diameter is
50 cm.
In order to express these quantities mathematically we introduce some
suggestive notation.
Let V be the volume of the balloon and let r be its radius.
The key thing to remember is that the rates of change are derivatives. In
this problem, the volume and the radius are both functions of time t. The rate of
increase of the volume with respect to time is the derivative
dV
dt
and the rate of
increase of the radius is
dr
dt
. We can therefore restate the given and the unknown
as follows :
Given :
dV
dt
= 100 cm
3
/s and unknown :
dr
dt
when r = 25 cm.
In order to connect
dV
dt
and
dr
dt
we first relate V and r by the formula for
the volume of a sphere V =
4
3
πr
3
.
7
In order to use the given information, we differentiate both sides of this
equation with respect to t. To differentiate the right side, we need to use chain
rule as V is a function of r and r is a function of t.
i.e.,
dV
dt
=
dV
dr
.
dr
dt
=
4
3
3πr
2
dr
dt
= 4πr
2
dr
dt
Now we solve for the unknown quantity
dr
dt
=
1
4πr
2
.
dV
dt
If we put r = 25 and
dV
dt
= 100 in this equation,
we obtain
dr
dt
=
1 × 100
4π(25)
2
=
1
25π
i.e., the radius of the balloon is increasing at the rate of
1
25π
cm/s.
Example 5.7 : A ladder 10 m long rests against a vertical wall. If the bottom of
the ladder slides away from the wall at a rate of 1 m/sec how fast is the top of
the ladder sliding down the wall when the bottom of the ladder is 6 m from the
wall ?
Solution : We first draw a diagram
and lable it as in Fig. 5.5
Let x metres be the distance
from the bottom of the ladder to the
wall and y metres be the vertical
distance from the top of the ladder to
the ground. Note that x and y are both
functions of time‘t’. We are given
that
dx
dt
= 1 m/sec and we are asked
to find
dy
dt
when x = 6 m.
Fig. 5.5
In this question, the relationship between x and y is given by the
Pythagoras theorem : x
2
+ y
2
= 100
Differentiating each side with respect to t, using chain rule, we have
2x
dx
dt
+ 2y
dy
dt
= 0
and solving this equation for the derived rate we obtain,
dy
dt
= −
x
y
dx
dt
W
a
l
l
Ground
x
y
10
d
y
/
d
t
=
?
dx/dt =1
x
y
W
a
l
l
Ground
x
y
10
d
y
/
d
t
=
?
dx/dt =1
x
y
8
When x = 6, the Pythagoras theorem gives, y = 8 and so substituting these
values and
dx
dt
= 1, we get
dy
dt
= −
6
8
(1) =
3
4
m/sec.
The ladder is moving downward at the rate of
3
4
m/sec.
Example 5.8 : A car A is travelling from west at 50 km/hr. and car B is
travelling towards north at 60 km/hr. Both are headed for the intersection of the
two roads. At what rate are the cars approaching each other when car A is 0.3
kilometers and car B is 0.4 kilometers from the intersection?
Solution :
We draw Fig. 5.6 where C is the
intersection of the two roads. At a given
time t, let x be the distance from car A to C,
let y be the distance from car B to C and let
z be the distance between the cars A and B
where x, y and z are measured in kilometers.
Fig. 5.6
We are given that
dx
dt
= − 50 km/hr and
dy
dt
= − 60 km/hr.
Note that x and y are decreasing and hence the negative sign. We are asked
to find
dz
dt
. The equation that relate x, y and z is given by the Pythagoras
theorem z
2
= x
2
+ y
2
Differentiating each side with respect to t,
we have 2z
dz
dt
= 2x
dx
dt
+ 2y
dy
dt
⇒
dz
dt
=
1
z
\

.

x
dx
dt
+ y
dy
dt
When x = 0.3 and y = 0.4 km, we get z = 0.5 km and we get
dz
dt
=
1
0.5
[0.3 (− 50) + 0.4 (−60)] = −78 km/hr.
i.e., the cars are approaching each other at a rate of 78 km/hr.
Example 5.9 : A water tank has the shape of an inverted circular cone with base
radius 2 metres and height 4 metres. If water is being pumped into the tank at a
rate of 2m
3
/min, find the rate at which the water level is rising when the water
is 3m deep.
x
y
B
C A
z
x
y
B
C A
z
9
Solution :
We first sketch the cone
and label it as in Fig. 5.7. Let V, r
and h be respectively the volume of
the water, the radius of the cone
and the height at time t, where
t is measured in minutes.
Fig. 5.7
We are given that
dV
dt
= 2m
3
/min. and we are asked to find
dh
dt
when h is 3m.
The quantities V and h are related by the equation V =
1
3
πr
2
h. But it is very
useful to express V as function of h alone.
In order to eliminate r we use similar triangles in Fig. 5.7 to write
r
h
=
2
4
⇒ r =
h
2
and the expression for V becomes V =
1
3
π
\

.

h
2
2
h =
π
12
h
3
.
Now we can differentiate each side with respect to t and we have
dV
dt
=
π
4
h
2
dh
dt
⇒
dh
dt
=
4
πh
2
dV
dt
Substituting h = 3m and
dV
dt
= 2m
3
/min.
we get,
dh
dt
=
4
π(3)
2
. 2=
8
9π
m/min
EXERCISE 5.1
(1) A missile fired from ground level rises x metres vertically upwards in
t seconds and x = 100t 
25
2
t
2
. Find (i) the initial velocity of the missile,
(ii) the time when the height of the missile is a maximum (iii) the
maximum height reached and (iv) the velocity with which the missile
strikes the ground.
(2) A particle of unit mass moves so that displacement after t secs is given by
x = 3 cos (2t – 4). Find the acceleration and kinetic energy at the end of 2
secs.
K.E. =
1
2
mv
2
. m is mass
(3) The distance x metres traveled by a vehicle in time t seconds after the
brakes are applied is given by : x = 20 t − 5/3t
2
. Determine (i) the speed
of the vehicle (in km/hr) at the instant the brakes are applied and (ii) the
distance the car travelled before it stops.
h
4m
r m
2m
h
4m
r m
2m
10
(4) Newton’s law of cooling is given by θ = θ
0
°
e
−kt
, where the excess of
temperature at zero time is θ
0
°
C and at time t seconds is θ
°
C. Determine
the rate of change of temperature after 40 s, given that θ
0
= 16
°
C and
k = − 0.03. [e
1.2
= 3.3201)
(5) The altitude of a triangle is increasing at a rate of 1 cm/min while the area
of the triangle is increasing at a rate of 2 cm
2
/min. At what rate is the
base of the triangle changing when the altitude is 10 cm and the area is
100 cm
2
.
(6) At noon, ship A is 100 km west of ship B. Ship A is sailing east at 35
km/hr and ship B is sailing north at 25 km/hr. How fast is the distance
between the ships changing at 4.00 p.m.
(7) Two sides of a triangle are 4m and 5m in length and the angle between
them is increasing at a rate of 0.06 rad/sec. Find the rate at which the
area of the triangle is increasing when the angle between the sides of
fixed length is π/3.
(8) Two sides of a triangle have length 12 m and 15 m. The angle between
them is increasing at a rate of 2° /min. How fast is the length of third side
increasing when the angle between the sides of fixed length is 60°?
(9) Gravel is being dumped from a conveyor belt at a rate of 30 ft
3
/min and
its coarsened such that it forms a pile in the shape of a cone whose base
diameter and height are always equal. How fast is the height of the pile
increasing when the pile is 10 ft high ?
5.4 Tangents and Normals (Derivative as a measure of slope)
In this section the applications
of derivatives to plane geometry is
discussed. For this, let us consider a
curve whose equation is y = f(x).
On this curve take a point
P(x
1
,y
1
). Assuming that the tangent
at this point is not parallel to the co
ordinate axes, we can write the
equation of the tangent line at P.
Fig. 5.8
N
o
r
m
a
l
Time
y =f (x)
P (x
1
,y
1
)
y
x
O
α
N
o
r
m
a
l
Time
y =f (x)
P (x
1
,y
1
)
y
x
O
α
11
The equation of a straight line with slope (gradient) m passing through
(x
1
,y
1
) is of the form y – y
1
= m(x – x
1
). For the tangent line we know the slope
m = f ′(x
1
) =
\

.

dy
dx
at (x
1
,y
1
) and so the equation of the tangent is of the form
y – y
1
= f ′(x
1
) (x – x
1
). If m=0, the curve has a horizontal tangent with equation
y = y
1
at P(x
1
,y
1
). If f(x) is continuous at x = x
1
, but
lim
x → x
1
f ′(x) = ∞ ⇒ the
curve has a vertical tangent with equation x = x
1
.
In addition to the tangent to a curve at a given point, one often has to
consider the normal which is defined as follows :
Definition : The normal to a curve at a given point is a straight line passing
through the given point, perpendicular to the tangent at this point.
From the definition of a normal it is clear that the slope of the normal m′
and that of the tangent m are connected by the equation m′ = –
1
m
.
i.e., m′ = –
1
f ′(x
1
)
=
− 1
\

.

dy
dx
(x
1
,y
1
)
Hence the equation of a normal to a curve y = f(x) at a point P(x
1
,y
1
) is
of the form y – y
1
= –
1
f ′(x
1
)
( x – x
1
).
The equation of the normal at (x
1
,y
1
) is
(i) x = x
1
if the tangent is horizontal (ii) y = y
1
if the tangent is vertical and
(iii) y – y
1
=
–1
m
(x
– x
1
) otherwise.
Example 5.10: Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve y = x
3
at the point (1,1).
Solution : We have y = x
3
; slope y′= 3x
2
.
At the point (1,1), x = 1 and m = 3(1)
2
= 3.
Therefore equation of the tangent is y − y
1
= m(x − x
1
)
y – 1 = 3(x – 1) or y = 3x – 2
The equation of the normal is y − y
1
= −
1
m
(x − x
1
)
y – 1 =
–1
3
(x – 1) or y = –
1
3
x +
4
3
12
Example 5.11 : Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve
y = x
2
– x – 2 at the point (1,− 2).
Solution : We have y = x
2
– x – 2 ; slope, m =
dy
dx
= 2x – 1.
At the point (1,–2), m = 1
Hence the equation of the tangent is y – y
1
= m(x – x
1
) i.e., y – (–2) = x – 1
i.e., y = x – 3
Equation of the normal is y – y
1
=
–1
m
(x – x
1
)
i.e., y – (–2) =
–1
1
(x – 1)
or y = – x – 1
Example 5.12 : Find the equation of the tangent at the point (a,b) to the
curve xy = c
2
.
Solution : The equation of the curve is xy = c
2
.
Differentiating w.r.to x we get,
y +x
dy
dx
= 0
or
dy
dx
=
–y
x
and m =
\

.

dy
dx
(a, b)
=
–b
a
.
Hence the required equation of the tangent is
y –b =
–b
a
(x – a)
i.e., ay – ab = – bx + ab
bx + ay = 2ab or
x
a
+
y
b
= 2
Example 5.13 : Find the equations of the tangent and normal at θ =
π
2
to the
curve x = a (θ + sin θ), y = a (1 + cos θ).
Solution : We have
dx
dθ
= a (1 + cosθ) = 2a cos
2
θ
2
dy
dθ
= – a sin θ = – 2a sin
θ
2
cos
θ
2
Then
dy
dx
=
dy
dθ
dx
dθ
= – tan
θ
2
13
∴ Slope m =
\

.

dy
dx
θ =
π
/
2
= – tan
π
4
= –1
Also for θ =
π
2
, the point on the curve is
\

.

a
π
2
+ a. a .
Hence the equation of the tangent at θ =
π
2
is
y – a = (–1)
x − a
\

.

π
2
+ 1
i.e., x + y =
1
2
a π + 2a or x + y –
1
2
a π – 2a = 0
Equation of the normal at this point is
y – a = (1)
x − a
\

.

π
2
+ 1
or x – y –
1
2
a π = 0
Example 5.14 : Find the equations of tangent and normal to the curve
16x
2
+ 9y
2
= 144 at (x
1
,y
1
) where x
1
= 2 and y
1
> 0.
Solution : We have 16x
2
+ 9y
2
= 144
(x
1
,y
1
) lies on this curve, where x
1
= 2 and y
1
> 0
∴ (16 × 4) + 9 y
1
2
= 144 or 9 y
1
2
= 144 – 64 = 80
y
1
2
=
80
9
∴ y
1
= ±
80
3
. But y
1
> 0 ∴ y
1
=
80
3
∴ The point of tangency is (x
1
,y
1
) =
\

.

2 .
80
3
We have 16x
2
+ 9y
2
= 144
Differentiating w.r.to x we get
dy
dx
= –
32
18
x
y
= –
16
9
\

.

x
y
∴ The slope at
\

.

2 .
80
3
=
\

.

dy
dx
\

.

2 .
80
3
= –
16
9
×
2
80
3
= –
8
3 5
14
∴ The equation of the tangent is y –
80
3
= –
8
3 5
(x – 2)
On simplification we get 8x + 3 5 y = 36
Similarly the equation of the normal can be found as 9 5 x – 24 y + 14 5 = 0
Example 5.15 : Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the ellipse
x = a cosθ, y = b sin θ at the point θ =
π
4
.
Solution : At θ =
π
4
, (x
1
,y
1
) =
\

.

a cos
π
4
. b sin
π
4
=
\

.

a
2
.
b
2
dx
dθ
= – a sin θ,
dy
dθ
= b cos θ.
dy
dx
=
dy
dθ
dx
dθ
=
–b
a
cotθ
⇒ m = =
–b
a
cot
π
4
=
–b
a
Fig. 5.9
Thus the point of tangency is
\

.

a
2
.
b
2
and the slope is m =
–b
a
.
The equation of the tangent is y −
b
2
= −
b
a
\

.

x −
a
2
or bx + ay − ab 2 = 0
The equation of the normal is y –
b
2
=
a
b
\

.

x –
a
2
or (ax – by) 2 – (a
2
– b
2
) = 0.
Example 5.16 : Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola, y
2
= 20 x
which forms an angle 45° with the x – axis.
Solution : We have y
2
= 20x . Let (x
1
,y
1
) be the tangential point
Now 2yy′ = 20 ∴ y′ =
10
y
ie., at (x
1
, y
1
) m =
10
y
1
… (1)
But the tangent makes an angle 45° with the x – axis.
∴ slope of the tangent m=tan 45° = 1 … (2)
From (1) and (2)
10
y
1
= 1 ⇒ y
1
= 10
But (x
1
,y
1
) lies on y
2
= 20x ⇒ y
1
2
= 20 x
1
x
y
O
P
N
T
‘θ’ =π/4
x
y
O
P
N
T
‘θ’ =π/4
15
100 = 20 x
1
or x
1
= 5
i.e., (x
1
,y
1
) = (5,10)
and hence the equation of the tangent at (5, 10) is
y – 10 = 1(x – 5)
or y = x + 5.
Note : This problem is suitable for equation of any tangent to a parabola
i.e., y = mx +
a
m
5.5 Angle between two curves :
The angle between the curves C
1
and C
2
at a point of intersection P is
defined to be the angle between the tangent lines to C
1
and C
2
at P (if these
tangent lines exist) Let us represent the two curves C
1
and C
2
by the Cartesian
equation y = f(x) and y = g(x) respectively. Let them intersect at P (x
1
,y
1
) .
If ψ
1
and ψ
2
are the angles made by the tangents PT
1
and PT
2
to
C
1
and C
2
at P, with the positive direction of the x – axis, then m
1
= tan ψ
1
and
m
2
= tan ψ
2
are the slopes of PT
1
and PT
2
respectively.
Let ψ be the angle between PT
1
and PT
2
. Then ψ = ψ
2
– ψ
1
and
tan ψ = tan (ψ
2
– ψ
1
)
=
tan ψ
2
– tan ψ
1
1 + tan ψ
1
tan ψ
2
=
m
2
– m
1
1 + m
1
m
2
where 0 ≤ ψ
< π
Fig. 5.10
We observe that if their slopes are equal namely m
1
= m
2
then the two
curves touch each other. If the product m
1
m
2
= – 1 then these curves are said to
cut at right angles or orthogonally. We caution that if they cut at right angles
then m
1
m
2
need not be –1.
Note that in this case ψ
1
is acute and ψ
2
is obtuse and ψ
= ψ
2
− ψ
1
. If ψ
1
is
obtuse and ψ
2
is acute, then ψ = ψ
1
−ψ
2
.
Time
y =f (x)
y
x
O
ψ
1
1
8
0
–
ψ
2
P
C
1
C
2
y =g (x)
T
2
T
1
ψ
2
Time
y =f (x)
y
x
O
ψ
1
1
8
0
–
ψ
2
P
C
1
C
2
y =g (x)
T
2
T
1
ψ
2
16
Combining together the angle between tangents can be given as ψ
1
∼ψ
2
or
tan ψ = tan(ψ
1
∼ψ
2
) =
tan ψ
1
∼ tanψ
2
1 + tan ψ
1
tan ψ
2
=
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
m
1
− m
2
1 + m
1
m
2
Example 5.17 : Find the angle between the curves y = x
2
and y = (x – 2)
2
at the
point of intersection.
Solution : To get the point of intersection of the curves solve the equation
we get x
2
= (x− 2)
2
This gives x = 1. When x = 1, y = 1
∴ The point of intersection is (1, 1)
Now y = x
2
⇒
dy
dx
= 2x
⇒ m
1
=
\

.

dy
dx
(1.1)
= 2
Fig. 5.11
y = (x – 2)
2
⇒
dy
dx
= 2(x – 2) ⇒ m
2
=
\

.

dy
dx
(1.1)
= – 2.
If ψ is the angle between them, then
tan ψ =
¦
¦
¦
¦
– 2 – 2
1 – 4
=
¦
¦
¦
¦
– 4
− 3
⇒ ψ = tan
–1
4
3
Example 5.18 : Find the condition for the curves
ax
2
+ by
2
= 1, a
1
x
2
+ b
1
y
2
= 1 to intersect orthogonally.
Solution :
If (x
1
,y
1
) is the point of intersection, then ax
1
2
+ by
1
2
= 1 ; a
1
x
1
2
+ b
1
y
1
2
= 1
then, x
1
2
=
b
1
– b
ab
1
– a
1
b
, y
1
2
=
a – a
1
ab
1
– a
1
b
(By Cramer’s rule)
For ax
2
+ by
2
= 1, m
1
=
\

.

dy
dx
(x
1
.y
1
)
=
– ax
1
by
1
and for a
1
x
2
+ b
1
y
2
= 1, m
2
=
\

.

dy
dx
(x
1
.y
1
)
=
– a
1
x
1
b
1
y
1
For orthogonal intersection, we have m
1
m
2
= –1. This gives
\

.


– ax
1
by
1
\

.


– a
1
x
1
b
1
y
1
= –1 or
a a
1
x
1
2
bb
1
y
1
2
= –1.
(0,0)
x
y
2
1
2
y
=
x
2
y
=
(
x

2
)
2
Tan
1
(4/3)
(1,1)
(0,0)
x
y
2
1
2
y
=
x
2
y
=
(
x

2
)
2
Tan
1
(4/3)
(1,1)
17
aa
1
x
1
2
+ bb
1
y
1
2
= 0 ⇒ aa
1
\

.


b
1
– b
ab
1
– a
1
b
+ bb
1
\

.


a – a
1
ab
1
– a
1
b
= 0
⇒ aa
1
(b
1
– b) + bb
1
(a – a
1
) = 0 ⇒
b
1
– b
bb
1
+
a – a
1
aa
1
= 0
or
1
b
–
1
b
1
+
1
a
1
–
1
a
= 0 or
1
a
–
1
a
1
=
1
b
–
1
b
1
which is the required condition.
Example 5.19 : Show that x
2
– y
2
= a
2
and xy = c
2
cut orthogonally.
Solution : Let (x
1
,y
1
) be the point of intersection of the given curves
∴ x
1
2
– y
1
2
= a
2
and x
1
y
1
= c
2
x
2
– y
2
= a
2
⇒ 2x – 2y
dy
dx
= 0 ⇒
dy
dx
=
x
y
∴ m
1
=
\

.

dy
dx
(x
1
.y
1
)
=
x
1
y
1
ie., m
1
=
x
1
y
1
xy = c
2
⇒ y =
c
2
x
⇒
dy
dx
= –
c
2
x
2
∴ m
2
=
\

.

dy
dx
(x
1
.y
1
)
=
– c
2
x
1
2
i.e., m
2
=
– c
2
x
1
2
∴ m
1
m
2
=
\

.


x
1
y
1
\

.

 – c
2
x
1
2
=
– c
2
x
1
y
1
=
– c
2
c
2
= –1
⇒ the curves cut orthogonally.
Example 5.20 : Prove that the sum of the intercepts on the coordinate axes of
any tangent to the curve x = a cos
4
θ, y = a sin
4
θ, 0 ≤ θ ≤
π
2
is equal to a.
Solution : Take any point ‘θ’ as (a cos
4
θ, a sin
4
θ, )
Now
dx
dθ
= – 4a cos
3
θ sin θ ;
and
dy
dθ
= 4a sin
3
θ cos θ
∴
dy
dx
= –
sin
2
θ
cos
2
θ
Fig. 5.12
(0,a)
O
x
y
(a,0)
θ = π/2
θ = 0
(0,a)
O
x
y
(a,0)
θ = π/2
θ = 0
18
i.e., slope of the tangent at ‘θ’ is = –
sin
2
θ
cos
2
θ
Equation of the tangent at ‘θ’ is (y − a sin
4
θ) =
− sin
2
θ
cos
2
θ
(x − a cos
4
θ)
or x sin
2
θ + y cos
2
θ = a sin
2
θ cos
2
θ
⇒
x
a cos
2
θ
+
y
a sin
2
θ
= 1
i.e., sum of the intercepts = a cos
2
θ + a sin
2
θ = a
EXERCISE 5.2
(1) Find the equation of the tangent and normal to the curves
(i) y = x
2
– 4x – 5 at x = – 2 (ii) y = x – sin x cos x, at x =
π
2
(iii) y = 2 sin
2
3x at x =
π
6
(iv) y =
1 + sinx
cos x
at x =
π
4
(2) Find the points on curve x
2
– y
2
=2 at which the slope of the tangent is 2.
(3) Find at what points on the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 13, the tangent is parallel to
the line 2x + 3y = 7
(4) At what points on the curve x
2
+ y
2
– 2x – 4y + 1 = 0 the tangent is
parallel to (i) x – axis (ii) y – axis.
(5) Find the equations of those tangents to the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 52, which
are parallel to the straight line 2x + 3y = 6.
(6) Find the equations of normal to y = x
3
– 3x that is parallel to
2x + 18y – 9 = 0.
(7) Let P be a point on the curve y = x
3
and suppose that the tangent line at
P intersects the curve again at Q. Prove that the slope at Q is four times
the slope at P.
(8) Prove that the curve 2x
2
+ 4y
2
= 1 and 6x
2
– 12y
2
= 1 cut each other at
right angles.
(9) At what angle θ do the curves y = a
x
and y = b
x
intersect (a ≠ b) ?
(10) Show that the equation of the normal to the curve
x = a cos
3
θ ; y = a sin
3
θ at ‘θ’ is x cos θ – y sin θ = a cos 2θ.
(11) If the curve y
2
= x and xy = k are orthogonal then prove that 8k
2
= 1.
19
5.6 Mean value theorems and their applications :
In this section our main objective is to prove that between any two points
of a smooth curve there is a point at which the tangent is parallel to the chord
joining two points. To do this we need the following theorem due to Michael
Rolle.
5.6.1 Rolle’s Theorem : Let f be a real valued function that satisfies the
following three conditions :
(i) f is defined and continuous on the closed interval [a, b]
(ii) f is differentiable on the open interval (a, b)
(iii) f (a) = f (b)
Then there exists atleast one point c ∈ (a,b) such that f ′(c) = 0
Some observations :
Rolle’s theorem is applied to the position function s = f(t) of a moving
object.
If the object is in the same place at two different instants t = a and
t = b then f(a) = f(b) satisfying hypothesis of Rolle’s theorem.
Therefore the theorem says that there is some instant of time t = c
between a and b where f ′(c) = 0 i.e., the velocity is 0 at t = c.
Note that this is also true for an object thrown vertically upward
(neglecting air resistance).
Rolle’s Theorem applied to theory of equations : If a and b are two
roots of a polynomial equation f(x) = 0, then Rolle’s Theorem says
that there is atleast one root c between a and b for f ′(x) = 0.
Rolle’s theorem implies that a smooth curve cannot intersect a
horizontal line twice without having a horizontal tangent in between.
Rolle’s theorem holds trivially for the function f(x) = c, where c is a
constant on [a,b].
The converse of Rolle’s Theorem is not true ie., if a function
f satisfies f ′(c) = 0 for c ∈ (a,b) then the conditions of hypothesis
need not hold.
Example 5.21 : Using Rolle’s theorem find the value(s) of c.
(i) f(x) = 1 − x
2
, −1 ≤ x ≤ 1
(ii) f(x) = (x − a) (b − x), a ≤ x ≤ b, a ≠ b.
(iii) f(x) = 2x
3
− 5x
2
− 4x + 3,
1
2
≤ x ≤ 3
20
Solution :
(i) The function is continuous in [−1,1] and differentiable in (−1,1).
f(1) = f (−1) = 0 all the three conditions are satisfied.
f ′(x) =
1
2
− 2x
1 −x
2
=
− x
1 − x
2
f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ x = 0.
(Note that for x = 0, denominator = 1 ≠ 0) Thus the suitable point for which
Rolle’s theorem holds is c = 0.
(ii) f(x) = (x − a) (b − x), a ≤ x ≤ b, a ≠ b.
f (x) is continuous on [a,b] and f ′(x) exists at every point of (a,b).
f(a) = f(b) = 0 All the conditions are satisfied.
∴ f ′(x) = (b − x) − (x − a)
f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ − 2x = − b − a ⇒ x =
a + b
2
The suitable point ‘c’ of Rolle’s theorem is c =
a + b
2
(iii) f(x) = 2x
3
− 5x
2
− 4x + 3,
1
2
≤ x ≤ 3
f is continuous on
1
2
.
3 and differentiable in
\

.

1
2
.
3
f(½) = 0 = f(3). All the conditions are satisfied.
f ′(x) = 6x
2
− 10x − 4
f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ 3x
2
− 5x− 2 = 0 ⇒ (3x + 1) (x −2) = 0 ⇒ x = −
1
3
or x = 2.
x = −
1
3
does not lie in
\

.

1
2
. 3 ∴x = 2 is the suitable ‘c’ of Rolle’s theorem
Remark : Rolle’s theorem cannot be applied if any one of the conditions does not hold.
Example 5.22 : Verify Rolle’s theorem for the following :
(i) f(x) = x
3
− 3x + 3 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
(ii) f(x) = tan x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
(iii) f(x) =  x , −1 ≤ x ≤ 1
(iv) f(x) = sin
2
x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
(v) f(x) = e
x
sin x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
(vi) f(x) = x (x − 1) (x − 2), 0 ≤ x ≤ 2
21
Solution :
(i) f(x) = x
3
− 3x + 3 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
f is continuous on [0,1] and differentiable in (0,1)
f(0) = 3 and f(1) = 1 ∴ f (a) ≠ f (b)
∴ Rolle’s theorem, does not hold, since f (a) = f (b) is not satisfied.
Also note that f ′(x) = 3x
2
− 3 = 0 ⇒ x
2
= 1 ⇒ x = ±1
There exists no point c ∈ (0,1) satisfying f ′(c) = 0.
(ii) f(x) = tan x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
f ′(x) is not continuous in [0,π] as tan x tends to + ∞ at x =
π
2
,
∴ Rolles theorem is not applicable.
(iii) f(x) =  x , −1 ≤ x ≤ 1
f is continuous in [−1,1] but not differentiable in (−1,1) since f ′(0) does
not exist.
∴ Rolles theorem is not applicable.
(iv) f(x) = sin
2
x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
f is continuous in [0,π] and differentiable in (0,π). f(0) = f (π) = 0
(ie.,) f satisfies hypothesis of Rolle’s theorem.
f ′(x) = 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x
f ′(c) = 0 ⇒ sin 2c = 0 ⇒ 2c = 0, π, 2π, 3π. ... ⇒ c = 0,
π
2
, π,
3π
2
, ...
since c =
π
2
∈ (0,π), the suitable c of Rolle’s theorem is c =
π
2
.
(v) f(x) = e
x
sin x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
e
x
and sin x are continuous for all x, therefore the product e
x
sin x is
continuous in 0 ≤ x ≤ π.
f ′(x) = e
x
sin x + e
x
cos x = e
x
(sin x + cos x) exist in 0 < x < π
⇒ f ′(x) is differentiable in (0,π).
f(0) = e
0
sin 0 = 0
f(π) = e
π
sin π = 0
∴ f satisfies hypothesis of Rolle’s theorem
Thus there exists c∈ (0, π) satisfying f ′(c) = 0 ⇒ e
c
(sin c + cos c) = 0
⇒ e
c
= 0 or sin c + cos c = 0
22
e
c
= 0 ⇒ c = − ∞ which is not meaningful here.
⇒ sin c = − cos c ⇒
sin c
cos c
=−1 ⇒ tan c = − 1 = tan
3π
4
⇒ c =
3π
4
is the required point.
(vi) f(x) = x (x − 1) (x − 2), 0 ≤ x ≤ 2,
f is continuous in [0,2] and differentiable in (0,2)
f(0) = 0 = f(2), satisfying hypothesis of Rolle’s theorem
Now f ′(x) = (x − 1) (x − 2) + x (x −2) + x (x −1) = 0
⇒ 3x
2
− 6x + 2 = 0 ⇒ x = 1 ±
1
3
The required c in Rolle’s theorem is 1 ±
1
3
∈ (0,2)
Note : There could exist more than one such ‘c’ appearing in the statement of
Rolle’s theorem.
Example 5.23 : Apply Rolle’s theorem to find points on curve y = − 1 + cos x,
where the tangent is parallel to xaxis in [0, 2π].
Solution :
f(x) is continuous in [0,2π] and
differentiable in (0,2π)
f(0) = 0 = f(2π) satisfying hypothesis
of Rolle’s theorem.
Now f ′(x) = − sin x = 0 ⇒ sin x = 0
x = 0, π, 2π, . . .
Fig. 5.13
x = π, is the required c in (0,2π). At x = π, y = −1 + cos π = −2.
⇒ the point (π,−2) is such that at this point the tangent to the curve is parallel
to xaxis.
EXERCISE 5.3
(1) Verify Rolle’s theorem for the following functions :
(i) f(x) = sin x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
(ii) f(x) = x
2
, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
(iii) f(x) =  x − 1, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2
(iv) f(x) = 4x
3
− 9x, −
3
2
≤ x ≤
3
2
(0,0)
x
y
π
1
2
2π
(π,2)
(0,0)
x
y
π
1
2
2π
(π,2)
23
(2) Using Rolle’s theorem find the points on the curve y = x
2
+1, −2 ≤ x ≤ 2
where the tangent is parallel to x − axis.
5.6.2 Mean Value Theorem (Law of the mean due to Lagrange) :
Many results in this section depend on one central fact called law of the
mean or mean value theorem due to Joseph – Louis Lagrange.
Theorem :Let f(x) be a real valued function that satisfies the following
conditions :
(i) f(x) is continuous on the closed interval [a,b]
(ii) f(x) is differentiable on the open interval (a,b)
Then there exists at least one point c ∈ (a,b) such that
f ′(c) =
f(b) − f(a)
b − a
…(1)
Some Observations :
Note that if f(a) = f(b) then the law of the mean reduces to the Rolle’s
theorem.
Interpretation of law of the mean when applied to an equation of motion
s = f(t) :
The quantity ∆s = f(b) − f(a) is the change in s corresponding to
∆t = b – a and R.H.S. of (1) is
f(b) − f(a)
b − a
=
∆s
∆t
= average velocity from t = a to t = b.
The equation then tells us that there is an instant ‘c’ between a and b at
which the instantaneous velocity f ′(c) is equal to the average velocity. For
example, if a car has traveled 180 kms in 2 hours then the speedometer must
have read 90 kms/hr at least once.
The slope f ′(c)of the curve at C ( ) c. f(c)
is the same as the slope
f(b) − f(a)
b − a
of the
chord joining the points A ( ) a. f(a) and
B ( ) b. f(b) . Geometrically means that if the
function f is continuous on [a,b] and
differentiable on (a,b) then there is atleast one
number c in (a,b) where the tangent to the
curve is parallel to the chord through A and B.
Fig. 5.14
(0,0)
x
y
1
2
y
=
f
(
x
)
A
C
B
(0,0)
x
y
1
2
y
=
f
(
x
)
A
C
B
24
Remarks (1) : Since the value of c satisfies the condition a < c < b, it follows
that (c − a) < (b − a) or
c − a
b − a
(< 1) = θ, (say).
i.e.,
c − a
b − a
= θ ⇒ c − a = θ (b − a), 0 < θ < 1.
But then c = a + θ (b − a)
∴ the law of the mean can be put in the form
f(b) − f(a) = (b − a) f ′(c)
= (b − a) f ′[a + θ (b − a)], 0 < θ < 1
and this is used in calculating approximate values of functions.
(2) Letting b − a = h, the above result can be written as
f(a + h) = f(a) + hf ′(a + θh), 0 < θ < 1
(3) If we let a = x, h = ∆x, law of the mean becomes
f(x + ∆x) = f(x) + ∆x f ′(x + θ∆x) for some θ such that 0 < θ < 1.
Example 5.24 : Verify Lagrange’s law of the mean for f(x) = x
3
on [−2,2]
Solution : f is a polynomial, hence continuous and differentiable on [− 2, 2].
f(2) = 2
3
= 8 ; f (−2) = (−2)
3
= −8
f ′(x) = 3x
2
⇒ f ′(c) = 3c
2
By law of the mean there exists an element c ∈ (− 2, 2) such that
f ′(c) =
f(b) − f(a)
b − a
⇒ 3c
2
=
8 − (−8)
4
= 4
i.e., c
2
=
4
3
⇒ c = ±
2
3
The required ‘c’ in the law of mean are
2
3
and −
2
3
as both lie in [−2,2].
Example 5.25 :
A cylindrical hole 4 mm in diameter and 12 mm deep in a metal block is
rebored to increase the diameter to 4.12 mm. Estimate the amount of metal
removed.
Solution : The volume of cylindrical hole of radius x mm and depth 12 mm is
given by
25
V = f(x) = 12 πx
2
⇒ f ′(c) = 24πc.
To estimate f(2.06) − f(2) :
By law of mean,
f(2.06) − f(2) = 0.06 f ′(c)
= 0.06 (24 πc), 2 < c < 2.06
Take c = 2.01
f(2.06) − f(2) = 0.06 × 24 π × 2.01
= 2.89 π cubic mm.
Fig. 5.15
Note : Any suitable c between 2 and 2.06 other than 2.01 also will give other
estimates.
Example 5.26 : Suppose that f(0) = − 3 and f ′(x) ≤ 5 for all values of x, how
large can f(2) possibly be?
Solution : Since by hypothesis f is differentiable, f is continuous everywhere.
We can apply Lagrange’s Law of the mean on the interval [0,2]. There exist
atleast one ‘c’∈(0, 2) such that
f(2) − f(0) = f ′(c) ( 2 − 0)
f(2) = f(0) + 2 f ′(c)
= −3 + 2 f ′(c)
Given that f ′(x) ≤ 5 for all x. In particular we know that f ′(c) ≤ 5.
Multiplying both sides of the inequality by 2, we have
2f ′(c) ≤ 10
f(2) = −3 + 2 f ′(c) ≤ −3 + 10 = 7
i.e., the largest possible value of f(2) is 7.
Example 5.27 : It took 14 sec for a thermometer to rise from −19°C to 100°C
when it was taken from a freezer and placed in boiling water. Show that
somewhere along the way the mercury was rising at exactly 8.5°C/sec.
Solution : Let T be the temperature reading shown in the thermometer at any
time t. Then T is a function of time t. Since the temperature rise is continuous
and since there is a continuous change in the temperature the function is
differentiable too. ∴ By law of the mean there exists a ‘t
0
’ in (0, 14)
such that
T(t
2
) − T(t
1
)
t
2
− t
1
= T ′(t
0
)
Here T ′(t
0
) is the rate of rise of temperature at C.
4mm
1
2
m
m
4mm
1
2
m
m
26
Here t
2
− t
1
= 14, T(t
2
) = 100 ; T(t
1
) = − 19
T ′(t
0
) =
100 + 19
14
=
119
14
= 8.5C/sec
EXERCISE 5.4
(1) Verify Lagrange’s law of mean for the following functions :
(i) f(x) = 1 − x
2
, [0,3] (ii) f(x) =
1
x
, [1,2]
(iii) f(x) = 2x
3
+ x
2
− x − 1, [0,2] (iv) f(x) = x
2/3
, [−2,2]
(v) f(x) = x
3
− 5x
2
− 3x , [1,3]
(2) If f(1) = 10 and f ′(x) ≥ 2 for 1 ≤ x ≤ 4 how small can f(4) possibly be?
(3) At 2.00 p.m a car’s speedometer reads 30 miles/hr., at 2.10 pm it reads
50 miles / hr. Show that sometime between 2.00 and 2.10 the
acceleration is exactly 120 miles /hr
2
.
Generalised Law of the Mean :
If f(x) and g(x) are continuous real valued functions on [a,b] and f and g
are differentiable on (a,b) with g ′(x) ≠ 0 everywhere on (a,b) then there exist
atleast one value of x, say x = c, between a and b such that
f(b) − f(a)
g(b) − g(a)
=
f ′(c)
g′(c)
Remarks :
(1) This theorem is also known as Cauchy’s generalised law of the mean.
(2) Lagrange’s law of the mean is a particular case of Cauchy law of the
mean for the case g(x) = x for all x ∈ [a,b]
(3) Note that g(b) ≠ g(a), for, suppose g(b) = g(a), then by Rolle’s
theorem, g′(x) = 0 for some x in (a,b) contradicting hypothesis of the
generalized law of the mean.
Extended Law of the mean :
If f(x) and its first (n − 1) derivatives are continuous on [a,b] and if f
(n)
(x)
exists in (a,b), then there exist atleast one value of x, x = c say, in (a,b) such
that
f(b)=f(a)+
f ′(a)
1!
(b−a)+
f ′′(a)
2!
(b−a)
2
+...+
f
(n−1)
( a)
(n −1)!
(b−a)
n−1
+
f
(n)
(c)
n!
(b−a)
n
...(1)
27
Remarks : (1) If in the extended law of the mean b − a = h then b = a + h
and (1) becomes
f(a + h) = f(a) +
f ′(a)
1!
h +
f ′′(a)
2!
h
2
+ ...
f
(n−1)
( a)
(n −1)!
h
n − 1
+
f
(n)
(c)
n!
h
n
...(2)
for some c ∈ (a, a + h) and this is known as Taylor’s theorem.
(2) When b is replaced by the variable x then (1) becomes
f(x) = f(a) +
f ′(a)
1!
(x − a) +...
f
(n−1)
( a)
(n −1)!
(x − a)
n − 1
+
f
(n)
(c)
n!
(x − a)
n
for some c ∈ (a, x)
(3) If n becomes sufficiently large (i.e., ; as n → ∞) in Taylors theorem, then
(2) becomes
f(a + h) = f(a) +
f ′(a)
1!
h +
f ′′(a)
2!
h
2
+ . . . +
f
(n)
(a)
n!
h
n
+ ... ...(3)
provided f is differentiable any number of times. This series of expansion
of f(a + h) about the point a is usually known as Taylor’s Series.
(4) If in the extended law of the mean a is replaced by 0 and b is replaced with
the variable x, (1) becomes,
f(x) = f(0) +
f ′(0)
1!
x +
f ′′(0)
2!
x
2
+...+
f
(n−1)
(0)
(n−1)!
x
n − 1
+
f
(n)
(c)
n!
x
n
___(4)
for some c ∈ (0,x) and is known as Maclaurin’s theorem.
(5) If n is sufficiently large (i.e., n → ∞) in Maclaurin’s theorem, then it
becomes f(x) = f(0) +
f ′(0)
1!
x +
f ′′(0)
2!
x
2
+ . . .
provided f is differentiable any number of times, This series expansion of f(x)
about the point 0 is usually known as Maclaurin’s Series.
Illustration : The Taylor’s series expansion of f(x) = sin x about x =
π
2
is
obtained by the following way.
f(x) = sin x ; f
\

.

π
2
= sin
π
2
= 1
f ′(x) = cos x ; f ′
\

.

π
2
= cos
π
2
= 0
f ′′(x) = − sin x ; f ′′
\

.

π
2
= −1
f ′′′(x) = − cos x ; f ′′′
\

.

π
2
= 0
28
∴ f(x) = sin x = f
\

.

π
2
+
f ′
\

.

π
2
1!
\

.

x −
π
2
+
f″
\

.

π
2
2!
\

.
 x −
π
2
2
+ ...
= 1 + 0
\

.

x −
π
2
+
(−1)
2!
\

.
 x −
π
2
2
+ ...
sin x = 1 −
1
2!
\

.

x −
π
2
2
+
1
4!
\

.
 x −
π
2
4
− ...
Example 5.28 :
Obtain the Maclaurin’s Series for
1) e
x
2) log
e
(1 + x) 3) arc tan x or tan
−1
x
Solution :
(1) f(x) = e
x
; f(0) = e
0
= 1
f ′(x) = e
x
; f ′(0) = 1
f ′′(x) = e
x
; f ′′(0) = 1
!
f(x) = e
x
= 1 +
1 . x
1!
+
1
2!
x
2
+
1
3!
x
3
…
= 1 +
x
1!
+
x
2
2!
+
x
3
3!
+ ... holds for all x
(2) f(x) = log
e
(1 + x) : f(0) = log
e
1
= 0
f ′(x) =
1
1 + x
; f ′(0) = 1
f ′′(x) =
−1
(1 + x)
2
; f ′′(0) = −1
f ′′′(x) =
+1.2
(1 + x)
3
; f ′′′(0) = 2!
f ′′′′(x) =
−1.2.3
(1 + x)
4
; f ′′′′(0) = − (3!)
f(x) = log
e
(1 + x) = 0 +
1
1!
x −
1
2!
x
2
+
2!
3!
x
3
−
3!
4!
x
4
− ... + ….
x −
x
2
2
+
x
3
3
−
x
4
4
+ .... −1 < x ≤ 1.
29
(3) f(x) = tan
−1
x
;
f(0) = 0
f ′(x) =
1
1 + x
2
= 1 −x
2
+ x
4
– x
6
…. ; f ′(0) = 1 = 1!
f ′′(x) = − 2x + 4x
3
– 6x
5
…. ; f ′′(0) = 0
f ′′′(x) = − 2 + 12x
2
– 30x
4
…. ; f ′′′(0) = −2 = −(2!)
f
iv
(x) = 24x − 120x
3
…. ; f
iv
(0) = 0
f
v
(x) = 24 − 360x
2
…. ; f
v
(0) = 24 = 4!
tan
−1
x = 0 +
1
1!
x +
0
2!
x
2
−
2
3!
x
3
+
0
4!
x
4
+
4!
5!
x
5
+ …
= x −
1
3
x
3
+
1
5
x
5
− …
holds in  x  ≤ 1.
EXERCISE 5.5
Obtain the Maclaurin’s Series expansion for :
(1) e
2x
(2) cos
2
x (3)
1
1 + x
(4) tan x, −
π
2
< x <
π
2
5.7 Evaluating Indeterminate forms :
Suppose f(x) and g(x) are defined on some interval [a,b], satisfying
Cauchy’s generalized law of the mean and vanish at a point x = a of this interval
such that f(a) = 0 and g(a) = 0, then the ratio
f(x)
g(x)
is not defined for x = a
and gives a meaningless expression
0
0
but has a very definite meaning for
values of x ≠ a. Evaluating the limit x → a of this ratio is known as evaluating
indeterminate forms of the type
0
0
.
If f(x) = 3x − 2 and g(x) = 9x + 7, then
3x −2
9x + 7
is an indeterminate form
of the type
∞
∞
as the numerator and denominator becomes ∞ in the limiting
case, x tends to ∞.
30
We also have other limits
lim
x→ ∞
e
x
x
,
lim
x→ ∞
(x − e
x
),
lim
x→ 0
x
x
,
lim
x→ ∞
x
1/x
and
lim
x→ 1
x
1
/(x−1)
which lead to other indeterminate forms of the types
0 . ∞, ∞ − ∞, 0
0
, ∞
0
and 1
∞
respectively. These symbols must not be taken
literally. They are only convenient labels for distinguishing types of behaviour
at certain limits. To deal with such indeterminate forms we need a tool that
facilitates the evaluation. This tool was devised by John Bernoulli for
calculating the limit of a fraction whose numerator and denominator approach
zero. This tool today is known as l’Hôpital’s rule after Guillaume Francois
Antoinede l’Hôpital.
l’Hôpital’s rule :
Let f and g be continuous real valued functions defined on the closed
interval [a,b], f, g be differentiable on (a,b) and g′(c) ≠ 0.
Then if lim
x→ c
f(x) = 0, lim
x→ c
g(x) = 0 and if lim
x→ c
f ′(c)
g′(c)
= L it follows that
lim
x→ c
f(x)
g(x)
= L.
Remarks :
(1) Using l’Hôpital’s method, evaluation of the limits of indeterminate
forms works faster than conventional methods. For instance, consider
lim
x→ 0
sin x
x
. This limit we know is 1, which we obtained through
geometrical constructions, a laborious method.
But
lim
x→ 0
sin x
x
=
lim
x→ 0
cos x
1
= cos 0 = 1
(2) Note that l’Hôpital’s rule can be applied only to differentiable
functions for which the limits are in the indeterminate form. For,
lim
x→ 0
x + 1
x + 3
is
1
3
while if l’Hôpital’s rule is applied
lim
x→ 0
x + 1
x + 3
=
1
1
= 1.
Here f(x) = x + 1 g(x) = x + 3 are both differentiable but not in the
indeterminate form
(3) The conclusion of l’Hôpital’s rule is unchanged if lim
x→ a
f(x) = 0 and
lim
x→ a
g(x) = 0 and replaced by lim
x→ a
f(x) = ± ∞ and lim
x→ a
f(x) = ± ∞.
31
(4) All other indeterminate forms mentioned above can also be reduced to
0
0
or
∞
∞
by a suitable transformation.
We need the following result in some problems
Composite Function Theorem :
Result : If lim
x→ a
g(x) = b and f is continuous at b,
then lim
x→ a
f(g(x) = f
\

.

lim
x→a
g(x)
Example 5.29 : Evaluate :
lim
x→ 0
x
tan x
Solution :
lim
x→ 0
x
tan x
is of the type
0
0
.
∴
lim
x→ 0
x
tan x
=
lim
x→ 0
1
sec
2
x
=
1
1
= 1
Example 5.30 : Find lim
x → + ∞
sin
1
x
tan
−1
1
x
if exists
Solution : Let y =
1
x
As x → ∞, y → 0
lim
x → + ∞
sin
1
x
tan
−1
1
x
= lim
y → 0
sin y
tan
−1
y
=
0
0
= lim
y → 0
cos y
1
1 + y
2
=
1
1
= 1
Example 5.31 :
lim
x→
π
/2
log(sin x)
(π − 2x)
2
Solution : It is of the form
0
0
lim
x→
π
/2
log(sin x)
(π − 2x)
2
=
lim
x→
π
/2
1
sin x
cos x
2(π − 2x) × (−2)
32
=
lim
x→
π
/2
cotx
− 4(π − 2x)
=
0
0
=
lim
x→
π
/2
− cosec
2
x
− 4 × − 2
=
−1
8
Note that here l’Hôpital’s rule, applied twice yields the result.
Example 5.32 : Evaluate : lim
x → ∞
x
2
e
x
Solution : lim
x → ∞
x
2
e
x
is the type
∞
∞
lim
x → ∞
x
2
e
x
= lim
x → ∞
2x
e
x
= lim
x → ∞
2
e
x
=
2
∞
= 0
Example 5.33 : Evaluate :
lim
x→ 0
\

.

cosec x −
1
x
Solution :
lim
x→ 0
\

.

cosec x −
1
x
is of the type ∞ − ∞.
lim
x→ 0
\

.

cosec x −
1
x
=
lim
x→ 0
\

.

1
sin x
−
1
x
=
lim
x→ 0
x − sin x
x sinx
=
0
0
lim
x→ 0
1 − cos x
sin x + x cos x
\

.

=
0
0
type =
lim
x→ 0
sinx
cos x + cos x − x sin x
=
0
2
= 0
Example 5.34 : Evaluate :
lim
x→ 0
(cot x)
sin x
Solution :
lim
x→ 0
(cot x)
sin x
is of the type ∞
0
.
Let y = (cot x)
sin x
⇒ log y = sin x log (cot x)
lim
x→ 0
(log y) =
lim
x→ 0
sin x log (cot x)
=
lim
x→ 0
log (cot x)
cosec x
is of the type
∞
∞
33
Applying l’Hôpital’s rule,
lim
x→ 0
log (cot x)
cosec x
=
lim
x→ 0
1
cotx
(− cosec
2
x)
−cosec x cot x
=
lim
x→ 0
sin x
cos x
×
1
cos x
=
0
1
= 0
i.e.,
lim
x→ 0
log y = 0
By Composite Function Theorem, we have
0 =
lim
x→ 0
log y = log
\

.

lim
x→ 0
y ⇒
lim
x→ 0
y = e
0
= 1
Caution : When the existence of
lim
x→ a
f(x) is not known, log
¹
´
¦
)
`
¹ lim
x→ a
f(x) is
meaningless.
Example 5.35 : Evaluate
lim
x→ 0 +
x
sinx
Solution :
lim
x→ 0 +
x
sinx
is of the form 0
0
.
Let y = x
sinx
⇒ log y = sin x log x.
Note that x approaches 0 from the right so that log x is meaningful
i.e., log y =
log x
cosec x
lim
x→ 0 +
log y =
lim
x→ 0 +
log x
cosec x
which is of the type
− ∞
∞
.
Applying l’Hôpital’s rule,
lim
x→ 0 +
log x
cosec x
=
lim
x→ 0 +
1
x
−cosec x cot x
=
lim
x→ 0 +
− sin
2
x
x cos x
\

.

of the type
0
0
34
=
lim
x→ 0 +
2 sin x cos x
x sin x − cos x
= 0
ie.,
lim
x→ 0 +
logy = 0
By Composite Function Theorem, we have
0 =
lim
x→ 0 +
log y = log
lim
x→ 0 +
y ⇒
lim
x→ 0 +
y = e
0
= 1
Example 5.36 :
The current at time t in a coil with resistance R, inductance L and subjected
to a constant electromotive force E is given by i =
E
R
\

.

1− e
−Rt
L
. Obtain a
suitable formula to be used when R is very small.
Solution :
lim
R→0
i = lim
R → 0
E \

.

1− e
−Rt
L
R
(is of the type
0
0
.)
= lim
R → 0
E ×
t
L
e
−Rt
L
1
=
Et
L
⇒ lim
R → 0
i =
Et
L
is the suitable formula.
EXERCISE 5.6
Evaluate the limit for the following if exists,
(1)
lim
x→ 2
sin πx
2 −x
(2)
lim
x→ 0
tan x − x
x − sinx
(3)
lim
x→ 0
sin
−1
x
x
(4)
lim
x→ 2
x
n
− 2
n
x − 2
(5) lim
x → ∞
sin
2
x
1/
x
(6) lim
x → ∞
1
x
2
− 2 tan
−1
\

.

1
x
1
x
(7) lim
x→ ∞
log
e
x
x
(8) lim
x → 0
cotx
cot 2x
(9) lim
x → 0 +
x
2
log
e
x. (10) lim
x → 1
x
1
x−1
35
(11)
lim
x→
π
/2
−
(tanx)
cos x
(12)
lim
x→0+
x
x
(13)
lim
x → 0
(cos x)
1
/x
5.8 Monotonic Functions :
Increasing, Decreasing Functions
Differential calculus has varied applications. We have already seen some
applications to geometrical, physical and practical problems in sections 5.2, 5.3
and 5.4 In this section, we shall study some applications to the theory of real
functions.
In sketching the graph of a
function it is very useful to
know where it raises and where
it falls. The graph shown in
Fig. 5.16 raises from A to B,
falls from B to C, and raises
again from C to D.
The function f is said to be
increasing on the interval [a,b],
decreasing on [b,c], and
increasing again on [c,d]. We
use this as the defining property
of an increasing function.
Fig. 5.16
Definition : A function f is called increasing on an interval I if
f(x
1
) ≤ f(x
2
) whenever x
1
< x
2
in I. It is called decreasing on I if f(x
1
) ≥ f(x
2
)
whenever x
1
< x
2
in I.
A function that is completely increasing or completely decreasing on I is
called monotonic on I.
In the first case the function f preserves the order.
i.e., x
1
< x
2
⇒ f(x
1
) ≤ f(x
2
) and in the later case the function f reverses the
order i.e., x
1
< x
2
⇒ f(x
1
) ≥ f(x
2
). Thanks to the order preserving property,
increasing functions are also known as order preserving functions. Similarly,
the decreasing functions are also known as order reversing functions.
Illustrations :
(i) Every constant function is an increasing function.
(ii) Every identity function is an increasing function.
A
B
C
D
O x
1
a x
2 b
c d
φ
ψ
y =f(x)
Positive
Gradient
(slope)
Negative
Gradient
(slope)
Positive
Gradient
(slope)
x
y
A
B
C
D
O x
1
a x
2 b
c d
φ
ψ
y =f(x)
Positive
Gradient
(slope)
Negative
Gradient
(slope)
Positive
Gradient
(slope)
x
y
36
(iii) The function f(x) = sin x is not an increasing function on R; but
f(x) = sin x is increasing on
0.
π
2
.
(iv) The function f(x) = 4 – 2x is decreasing
(v) The function f(x) = sin x is decreasing in the interval
π
2
. π
Note that f is increasing is equivalent to (− f) is decreasing.
Do you agree that each constant function is both increasing and
decreasing?
Caution : It is incorrect to say that if a function is not increasing, then it is
decreasing. It may happen that a function is neither increasing nor decreasing.
For instance, if we consider the interval [0,π], the function sin x is neither
increasing nor decreasing. It is increasing on
0.
π
2
and decreasing on
π
2
. π .
There are other functions that are even worse. They are not monotonic on any
subinterval also. But most of the functions that we consider are not so bad.
Usually, by looking at the graph of the function one can say whether the
function is increasing or decreasing or neither. The graph of an increasing
function does not fall as we go from left to right while the graph of a decreasing
function does not rise as we go from left to right. But if we are not given the
graph, how do we decide whether a given function is monotonic or not ?
Theorem 1 gives us a criterion to do just that.
Theorem 1 : Let I be an open interval. Let f : I → R be differentiable. Then
(i) f is increasing if and only if f ′(x) ≥ 0 for all x in I.
(ii) f is decreasing if and only if f ′(x) ≤ 0 for all x in I.
Proof : (i) Let f be increasing and x ∈ I. Since f is differentiable f ′(x) exists and
is given by f ′(x) =
lim
h→0
f(x + h) – f(x)
h
. If h > 0, then x + h > x and since f is
increasing, f(x + h) ≥ f(x). Hence f(x + h) – f(x) ≥ 0.
If h < 0, then x + h < x and f (x + h) ≤ f(x). Hence f(x + h) − f(x) ≤ 0
So either f(x + h) – f(x) and h are both nonnegative or they are both
non – positive.
Therefore
f(x + h) – f(x)
h
is nonnegative for all nonzero values of h and
lim
h → 0
f(x + h) – f(x)
h
must also be nonnegative. Thus, f ′(x) ≥ 0
37
Conversely, let f ′(x) ≥ 0, for all x in I. Let x
1
< x
2
in I. We shall prove
that f(x
1
) ≤ f(x
2
).
By the Law of mean,
f(x
2
) – f(x
1
)
x
2
– x
1
= f ′(c) , for x
1
< c < x
2
Since, f ′(c) ≥ 0, we have
f(x
2
) – f(x
1
)
x
2
– x
1
≥ 0. Also x
2
– x
1
> 0 ( ∴ x
1
< x
2
)
Thus f(x
2
) – f(x
1
) ≥ 0 or f(x
1
) ≤ f(x
2
). Hence f is increasing
(ii) can be proved in a similar way. It can also be deduced by applying result
(i) to the function (– f).
Geometrical interpretation : The above theorem expresses the following
geometric fact. If on an interval I = [a,b] a function f(x) increases, then the
tangent to the curve y = f(x) at each point on this interval forms an acute angle ϕ
with the xaxis or (at certain points) is horizontal (See Fig.5.16), the tangent of
this angle is not negative. Therefore f ′(x) = tan ϕ ≥ 0. If the function f(x)
decreases on the interval [b,c] then the angle of inclination of the tangents form
an obtuse angle (or, at some points, the tangent is horizontal) ; the tangent of
this angle is not positive f ′(x) = tan ψ ≤ 0.
From the class of increasing functions we can separate out functions which
are strictly increasing. The following definition gives the precise meaning of the
term strictly increasing function.
Definition : f : I → R is said to be strictly increasing if x
1
< x
2
implies that f(x
1
)
< f(x
2
). We can similarly say that a function defined on I is strictly decreasing
if x
1
< x
2
implies f(x
1
) > f(x
2
)
For example, a constant function is not strictly increasing, nor is it strictly
decreasing (Fig. 5.17). The greatest integer function f(x)= x too, is increasing
(Fig. 5.18), but not strictly increasing, where as the function f(x) = x is strictly
increasing (Fig. 5.19).
Fig. 5.17 Fig. 5.18 Fig. 5.19
0
1
y
f(x) =1
x
y
1 3
1
3
2
2
y
x
O
f
(
x
)
=
x
0
1
y
f(x) =1
0
1
y
f(x) =1
x
y
1 3
1
3
2
2
x
y
1 3
1
3
2
2
y
x
O
f
(
x
)
=
x
y
x
O
f
(
x
)
=
x
38
Theorem 2 :
(i) Let f ′ be positive on I. Then f is strictly increasing on I.
(ii) Let f ′ be negative on I. Then f is strictly decreasing on I.
The proof of the theorem is easy and is left as an exercise.
Corollary : f is strictly monotonic on the interval I, if f ′ is of the same sign
through out I.
You may have noticed that there is a difference between the statement of
Theorem 1 and Theorem 2.
“f is increasing if and only if f ′ is non – negative”
“ If f ′ > 0, then f is strictly increasing”.
Can we have if and only if in Theorem 2 also ?
The answer is no as shown in the following example.
Illustration : Define f : R→ R by f(x) = x
3
.
Suppose x
1
< x
2
, Then x
2
– x
1
> 0 and x
1
2
+ x
2
2
> 0
This implies x
2
3
– x
1
3
= (x
2
– x
1
) (x
2
2
+ x
1
2
+ x
1
x
2
)
= (x
2
– x
1
)
1
2
[(x
1
2
+ x
2
2
)+ (x
1
+ x
2
)
2
] > 0
⇒ x
1
3
< x
2
3
Thus whenever x
1
< x
2
, f(x
1
) < f(x
2
).
Hence f(x) = x
3
is strictly increasing.
But its derivate f ′(x) = 3x
2
and f ′(0) = 0.
Hence its derivate f ′ is not strictly positive.
Note: If a function changes its signs at different points of a region (interval)
then the function is not monotonic in that region. So to prove the
non monotonicity of a function, it is enough to prove that f ′ has different signs
at different points.
Example 5.37 : Prove that the function f (x) = sin x + cos2x is not monotonic on
the interval
0.
π
4
.
Solution : Let f(x) = sin x + cos 2x
Then f ′(x) = cos x – 2sin 2x
Now f ′(0) = cos 0 – 2 sin 0 = 1 – 0 = 1 > 0
and f ′
\

.

π
4
= cos
\

.

π
4
– 2 sin 2
\

.

π
4
=
1
2
– 2 × 1 < 0
39
Thus f ′ is of different signs at 0 and
π
4
Therefore f is not monotonic on
0.
π
4
Example 5.38 : Find the intervals in which f(x) = 2x
3
+ x
2
−20x is increasing
and decreasing.
Solution : f ′(x) = 6x
2
+ 2x – 20 = 2(3x
2
+ x − 10) = 2 (x + 2) ( 3x −5)
Now f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ x = − 2, and x = 5/3. The values − 2 and
5
/
3
divide the real
line (the domain of f(x)) into intervals (−∞, −2), ( ) − 2. 5/3 and ( ) 5/3. ∞ .
Fig. 5.20
Interval x + 2 3x – 5 f ′(x) Interval of inc / dec
− ∞ < x < –2 – – + Increasing on (– ∞, –2]
− 2 < x < 5/3 + − − decreasing on [ ] − 2. 5/3
5/3 < x < ∞ + + + increasing on [5/3, ∞)
Note (i) : If the critical numbers are not included in the intervals, then the
intervals of increasing (decreasing) becomes strictly increasing (strictly
decreasing)
Note : (ii) The intervals of inc / dec can be obtained by taking and checking a
sample point in the subinterval.
Example 5.39 : Prove that the function f(x) = x
2
− x + 1 is neither increasing nor
decreasing in [0,1]
Solution : f (x) = x
2
− x + 1
f ′(x) = 2x − 1
f ′(x) ≥ 0 for x ≥
1
2
i.e., x ∈
1
2
. 1 ∴ f(x) is increasing on
1
2
. 1
Also f ′(x) ≤ 0 for x ≤
1
2
⇒ x ∈
0.
1
2
. Also f ′(x) is decreasing on
0.
1
2
Therefore in the entire interval [0,1] the function f(x) is neither increasing
nor decreasing.
Example 5.40 : Discuss monotonicity of the function
f(x) = sin x, x ∈ [0, 2π]
2
0 − ∞ ∞
5/3 2
0 − ∞ ∞
5/3
40
Solution : f (x) = sin x and f ′(x) = cos x = 0 for x =
π
2
,
3π
2
in [0,2π] Now
f ′(x) ≥0 for 0 ≤ x ≤
π
2
and
3π
2
≤ x ≤ 2π. Therefore f(x) = sin x is increasing on
0.
π
2
and
3π
2
. 2π i.e., sin x is increasing on
0.
π
2
∪
3π
2
. 2π
Also, f ′(x) ≤ 0 for
π
2
≤ x ≤
3π
2
. Therefore f(x) = sin x is decreasing on
π
2
.
3π
2
Example 5.41 : Determine for which values of x, the function y =
x −2
x + 1
,
x ≠ −1 is strictly increasing or strictly decreasing.
Solution :
y =
x −2
x + 1
, x ≠ −1
dy
dx
=
(x + 1) 1 − (x −2) 1
(x + 1)
2
=
3
(x +1)
2
> 0 for all x ≠ − 1.
∴ y is strictly increasing on R − {−1}.
Example 5.42 : Determine for which values of x, the function
f(x) = 2x
3
− 15x
2
+ 36x + 1 is increasing and for which it is decreasing. Also
determine the points where the tangents to the graph of the function are parallel
to the x axis.
Solution : f ′(x) = 6x
2
− 30x + 36 = 6(x − 2) (x − 3)
f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ x = 2, 3. Therefore the points 2 and 3 divide the real line
into (− ∞, 2), (2, 3) (3, ∞).
Interval x − 2 x – 3
f ′(x)
Intervals of inc / dec
− ∞ < x < 2 – – + increasing on (– ∞, 2]
2 < x < 3 + − − decreasing on [2, 3]
3 < x < ∞ + + + increasing on [3, ∞)
The points where the tangent to the graph of the function are parallel to the
x − axis are given by f ′(x)= 0, ie., when x = 2, 3 Now f(2) = 29 and f(3) = 28.
Therefore the required points are (2, 29) and (3, 28)
41
Example 5.43 :
Show that f(x) = tan
−1
(sin x + cos x), x > 0 is a strictly increasing function
in the interval
\

.

0.
π
4
.
Solution : f(x) = tan
−1
(sin x + cos x).
f ′(x) =
1
1 + (sin x + cos x)
2
(cos x − sin x) =
cos x − sin x
2 + sin 2x
> 0
since cos x−sin x > 0 in the interval
\

.

0.
π
4
and 2 + sin 2x > 0)
∴ f(x) is strictly increasing function of x in the interval
\

.

0 .
π
4
EXERCISE 5.7
(1) Prove that e
x
is strictly increasing function on R.
(2) Prove that log x is strictly increasing function on (0, ∞)
(3) Which of the following functions are increasing or decreasing on the
interval given ?
(i) x
2
– 1 on [0,2] (ii) 2x
2
+ 3x on
−
1
2
.
1
2
(iii) e
−x
on [0,1] (iv) x(x − 1) (x + 1) on [−2, −1]
(v) x sin x on
0.
π
4
(4) Prove that the following functions are not monotonic in the intervals
given.
(i) 2x
2
+ x − 5 on [−1,0] (ii) x (x − 1) (x + 1) on [0,2]
(iii) x sin x on [0,π] (iv) tan x + cot x on
\

.

0.
π
2
(5) Find the intervals on which f is increasing or decreasing.
(i) f(x) = 20 − x − x
2
(ii) f(x) = x
3
− 3x + 1
(iii) f(x) = x
3
+ x + 1 (iv) f(x) = x −2sin x, [0, 2π]
(v) f(x) = x + cos x in [0, π] (vi) f(x) = sin
4
x + cos
4
x in [0, π/2]
42
Inequalities :
Example 5.44 :
Prove that e
x
> 1 + x for all x > 0.
Solution : Let f(x) = e
x
− x − 1 ⇒ f ′(x) = e
x
− 1 > 0 for x > 0
i.e., f is strictly increasing function. ∴ for x > 0, f(x) > f(0)
i.e., (e
x
− x − 1) > (e
0
− 0 − 1) ; e
x
> x + 1
Example 5.45 :
Prove that the inequality (1 + x)
n
> 1+nx is true whenever x > 0 and n > 1.
Solution : Consider the difference f(x) = (1 + x)
n
− (1 + nx)
Then f ′(x) = n(1 + x)
n−1
− n = n[(1 + x)
n−1
− 1]
Since x > 0 and n − 1 > 0, we have (1 + x)
n−1
> 1, so f ′(x) > 0.
Therefore f is strictly increasing on [0, ∞).
For x > 0 ⇒ f(x) > f(0) i.e., (1 + x)
n
− (1 + nx) > (1 + 0) − (1 + 0)
i.e., (1 + x)
n
− (1 + nx) > 0 i.e., (1 + x)
n
> (1 + nx)
Example 5.46 : Prove that sin x < x < tan x, x∈
\

.

0.
π
2
Solution :
Let f(x) = x − sin x
f ′(x) = 1 − cos x > 0 for 0 < x <
π
2
∴ f is strictly increasing.
For x > 0, f(x) > f(0)
⇒ x − sin x > 0 ⇒ x > sin x … (1)
Let g(x) = tan x − x
g′(x) = sec
2
x − 1 = tan
2
x > 0 in
\

.

0.
π
2
Fig. 5.21
∴ g is strictly increasing
For x > 0, f(x) > f(0) ⇒ tan x − x > 0 ⇒ tan x > x … (2)
From (1) and (2) sin x < x < tan x
y
x
0 π/2
y
=
t
a
n
x
y =sin x
y
=
x
x =π/2
y
x
0 π/2
y
=
t
a
n
x
y =sin x
y
=
x
x =π/2
43
EXERCISE 5.8
(1) Prove the following inequalities :
(i) cos x > 1 −
x
2
2
, x > 0 (ii) sin x > x −
x
3
6
, x > 0
(iii) tan
−1
x < x for all x > 0 (iv) log (1 + x) < x for all x > 0.
5.9 Maximum and Minimum values and their applications :
“For since the fabric of the Universe is most perfect and the work of a
most wise creator, nothing at all takes place in the Universe in which some rule
of maximum or minimum does not appear”
Leonard Euler
Some of the most important
applications of differential calculus are
optimization problems, in which we are
required to find the optimal (best) way of
doing something. In many cases these
problems can be reduced to finding the
maximum or minimum values of a
function. Many practical problems
require us to minimize a cost or maximize
an area or somehow find the best possible
outcome of a situation.
Fig. 5.22
Let us first explain exactly what we mean by maximum and minimum values.
In fig 5.22 the gradient (rate
of change) of the curve changes
from positive between O and P
to negative between P and Q and
positive again between Q and R.
At point P, the gradient is zero
and as x increases, the gradient
(slope) of the curve changes
from positive just before P to
negative just after. Such a point
is called a maximum point and
appears as the ‘crest of a wave’.
Fig. 5.23
O
P
Q
R
x
y
P
o
s
i
t
i
v
e
G
r
a
d
i
e
n
t
(
s
l
o
p
e
)
P
o
s
i
t
i
v
e
G
r
a
d
i
e
n
t
(
s
l
o
p
e
)
N
egative
G
radient
(slope)
O
P
Q
R
x
y
P
o
s
i
t
i
v
e
G
r
a
d
i
e
n
t
(
s
l
o
p
e
)
P
o
s
i
t
i
v
e
G
r
a
d
i
e
n
t
(
s
l
o
p
e
)
N
egative
G
radient
(slope)
O
x
y
Maximum
Point
Maximum
Point
Minimum
Point
Point of
Inflexion
O
x
y
Maximum
Point
Maximum
Point
Minimum
Point
Point of
Inflexion
44
At point Q, the gradient is
also zero and as x increases the
gradient of the curve changes
from negative just before Q to
positive just after. Such a point is
called a minimum point and
appears as ‘the bottom of a
valley’. Points such as P and Q
are given the general name,
turning points.
Fig. 5.24
It is possible to have a turning point, the gradient on either side of which is
the same. Such a point is given the special name of a point of inflection as
shown in Fig 5.23.
Definition : A function f has an absolute maximum at c if
f(c) ≥ f(x) for all x in D, where D is the domain of f. The number f(c) is called
maximum value of f on D. Similarly f has an absolute minimum at c if
f(c) ≤ f(x) for all x in D and the number f(c) is called the minimum value of f on
D. The maximum and minimum values of f are called extreme values of f.:
Fig.5.24 shows the graph of a function f with absolute maximum at d and
absolute minimum at a. Note that (d, f(d)) is the highest point on the graph and
(a, f(a)) is the lowest point.
In Fig. 5.24 if we consider only values of x near b, for instance, if we
restrict our attention to the interval (a,c) then f(b) is the largest of those values
of f(x) and is called a local maximum value of f. Likewise f(c) is called a local
minimum value of f because f(c) ≤ f(x) for x near c, in the interval (b,d). The
function f also has a local minimum at e. In general we have the following
definition.
Definition : A function f has a local maximum (or relative maximum) at c
if there is an open interval I containing c such that f(c) ≥ f(x) for all x in I.
Similarly, f has a local minimum at c if there is an open interval I containing c
such that f(c) ≤ f(x) for all x in I.
Illustrations : (1) The function f(x)=cos x takes on its (local and absolute)
maximum value of 1 infinitely many times since cos 2nπ = 1 for any integer and
−1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 for all x. Like wise cos (2n + 1)π = −1 is its (local and absolute)
minimum value, n is any integer.
O
x
y
f (a)
f (d)
a
b c d
e O
x
y
f (a)
f (d)
a
b c d
e
45
(2) If f(x) = x
2
, then f(x) ≥ f(0)
because x
2
≥ 0 for all x. Therefore
f(0) = 0 is the absolute (and local)
minimum value of f. This
corresponds to the fact that the
origin is the lowest on the parabola
y = x
2
See Fig.5.25 However, there
is no highest point on the parabola
and so this function has no
maximum value.
Fig. 5.25
(3) If f(x) = x
3
then from the graph
of f(x) shown in Fig 5.26, we see
that this function has neither an
absolute maximum value nor an
absolute minimum value. In fact it
has no local extreme values either.
Fig. 5.26
(4) Consider the function
f(x) = 3x
4
− 16x
3
+ 18x
2
; −1 ≤ x ≤ 4.
The graph is shown in Fig. 5.27.
We can see that f(1) = 5 is a local
maximum, whereas the absolute maximum
is f(−1)=37. Also f(0) = 0 is a local minimum
and f(3)= −27 is both local and absolute
minimum.
We have seen that some functions have
extreme values, while others do not. The
following theorem gives conditions under
which a function is guaranteed to possess
extreme values.
Fig. 5.27
O
x
y
y =x
2
Min. value =0; No Max.
O
x
y
y =x
2
Min. value =0; No Max.
2 4
2
4
6
8
0
2
4
6
8
2 4
x
y
y =x
3
No Minimum
No Maximum
2 4
2
4
6
8
0
2
4
6
8
2 4
x
y
y =x
3
No Minimum
No Maximum
y
0
x
3
40
1
10
20
30
1
(1,37)
10
20
30
2
(1,5)
(3,27)
(4,32)
(2,8)
y
0
x
3
40
1
10
20
30
1
(1,37)
10
20
30
2
(1,5)
(3,27)
(4,32)
(2,8)
46
The Extreme value theorem : If f is continuous on a closed interval [a,b]
then f attains an absolute maximum value f(c) and an absolute minimum value
f(d) at some number c and d in [a,b]
The next two examples show that a function need not possess extreme
values if either of the hypotheses (continuity or closed interval) is omitted from
the extreme value theorem.
(5) Consider the function
f(x) =
¹¦
´
¦
¦
x
2
. 0 ≤ x < 1
0 . 1 ≤ x ≤ 2
The function is defined on the
closed interval [0,2] but has no
maximum value. Notice that the
range of f is the interval [0,1). The
function takes on value close to 1
but never attains the value 1.
Fig. 5.28
This is because the hypotheses of f to be continuous fails. Note that x = 1 is a
point of discontinuity, for,
Lim
x→ 1 −
f(x) =
Lim
x→ 1 −
(x
2
) = 1 ;
Lim
x→ 1 +
f(x) = 0
(6) The function f(x) =x
2
, 0 < x < 2
is continuous on the interval (0,2)
but has neither a maximum nor a
minimum value. The range of f is
the interval (0,4). The values 0 and
4 are never taken on by f. This is
because the interval (0,2) is not
closed.
Fig. 5.29
If we alter the function by including either end point of the interval (0,2)
then we get one of the situations shown in Fig. 5.30, Fig. 5.31, Fig. 5.32 In
particular the function f(x) = x
2
, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 is continuous on the closed interval
[0,2]. So the extreme value theorem says that the function has an absolute
maximum and an absolute minimum.
y
0
x
1
1
y
0
x
1
1
y
0
x
2
4
f (x) =x
2
, 0<x<2
No Maximum
No Minimum
y
0
x
2
4
f (x) =x
2
, 0<x<2
No Maximum
No Minimum
47
Fig. 5.30
Fig. 5.31
Fig. 5.32
Inspite of the above examples we point out that there are functions which
are neither continuous nor differentiable but still attains minimum and
maximum values. For instance, consider
f(x) =
¹
´
¦
1 . x is irrational
0 . x is rational
(This function is known as characteristic function on the set of irrational
numbers)
This function is nowhere differentiable and everywhere discontinuous. But
the maximum value is 1 and the minimum value is 0.
The extreme value theorem says that a continuous function on a closed
interval has a maximum value and minimum value, but it does not tell us how to
find their extreme values.
Fig. 5.33 shows the graph of a
function f with a local maximum at
c and a local minimum at d. It
appears that at the maximum and
minimum points the tangent line is
horizontal and therefore has slope
zero. We know that the derivative
is the slope of the tangent line, so it
appear that f ′(c) = 0 and f ′(d) = 0.
Fig. 5.33
The following theorem shows that this is always true for differentiable
functions.
Fermat’s Theorem : If f has a local extremum (maximum or minimum) at c
and if f ′(c) exists then f ′(c) = 0.
The following examples caution us that we cannot locate extreme values
simply by setting f ′(x) = 0 and solving for x.
O
x
y
(c, f (c))
c
d
(d, f (d))
O
x
y
(c, f (c))
c
d
(d, f (d))
y
O
x
2
4
f
1
(x) =x
2
, 0<x≤2
Maximum f
1
(2) =4
No Minimum
y
O
x
2
4
f
1
(x) =x
2
, 0<x≤2
Maximum f
1
(2) =4
No Minimum
y
0
x
2
4
f
2
(x) =x
2
, 0≤x<2
No Maximum
Minimum f
2
(0) =0
y
0
x
2
4
f
2
(x) =x
2
, 0≤x<2
No Maximum
Minimum f
2
(0) =0
y
0
x
2
4
f
3
(x) =x
2
, 0≤x≤2
Maximum f
3
(2) =4
Minimum f
3
(0) =0
y
0
x
2
4
f
3
(x) =x
2
, 0≤x≤2
Maximum f
3
(2) =4
Minimum f
3
(0) =0
48
(7) The function f(x) =  x  has its
(local and absolute) minimum value at
0, but that value cannot be found by
setting f ′(x) = 0 because f ′(x) does
not exist.
Fig. 5.34
(8) The function f(x) = 3x − 1, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
has its maximum value when x = 1 but
f ′(1) = 3 ≠ 0. This does not contradict
Fermat’s Theorem. Since f(1) = 2 is not a
local maximum.
Note that the number 1 is not
contained in an open interval in the
domain of f.
Fig. 5.35
Remark : The above examples demonstrate that even when f ′(c) = 0 there
need not be a maximum or minimum at c. Further more, there may be an
extreme value even when f ′(c) ≠ 0 or when f ′(c) does not exist.
(9) If f(x) = x
3
. Then f ′(x) = 3x
2
,
so f ′(0) = 0.
But f has no maximum or minimum
at 0 as you can see from its graph.
(observe that x
3
> 0 for x > 0 and x
3
< 0
for x < 0).
The fact that f ′(0) = 0 simply means
that the curve y = x
3
has a horizontal
tangent at (0,0). Instead of having a
maximum or minimum at (0, 0) the curve
crosses its horizontal tangent there.
Fig. 5.36
Fermats’ theorem does suggest that we should atleast start looking for
extreme values of f at the numbers c where f ′(c) = 0 or f ′(c) does not exist.
Definition : A critical number of a function f is a number c in the domain of f
such that either f ′(c) = 0 or f ′(c) does not exist.
x
y
y =x
O
y =x
y = x
x
y
y =x
O
y =x
y = x
y
0
x
1
1
1
1
2
2
(1,2)
(0,1)
y =3x – 1
0 ≤ x ≤ 1
y
0
x
1
1
1
1
2
2
(1,2)
(0,1)
y =3x – 1
0 ≤ x ≤ 1
2
4
 2
 4
 6
 8
0
2
4
6
8
2
x
y
y =x
3
2
4
 2
 4
 6
 8
0
2
4
6
8
2
x
y
y =x
3
49
Stationary points are critical numbers c in the domain of f, for which f ′(c)= 0.
Example 5.47 : Find the critical numbers of x
3
/
5
(4 − x)
Solution : f(x) = 4 x
3
/
5
− x
8
/
5
f ′(x) =
12
5
x
−2
/
5
−
8
5
x
3
/
5
=
4
5
x
−2
/
5
(3 − 2x)
Therefore f ′(x) = 0 if 3 − 2x = 0 i.e., if x =
3
2
. f ′(x) does not exist when
x = 0. Thus the critical numbers are 0 and
3
2
.
Note that if f has a local extremum at c, then c is a critical number of f, but
not vice versa.
To find the absolute maximum and absolute minimum values of a
continuous function f on a closed interval [a,b] :
(1) Find the values of f at the critical numbers, of f in (a,b).
(2) Find the values of f(a) and f(b)
(3) The largest of the values from steps 1 and 2 is the absolute maximum
value, the smallest of these values is the absolute minimum value.
Example 5.48 : Find the absolute maximum and minimum values of the
function. f(x) = x
3
− 3x
2
+ 1 , −
1
2
≤ x ≤ 4
Solution : Note that f is continuous on ;
[ ]
−
1
2
. 4
f(x) = x
3
− 3x
2
+ 1
f ′(x) = 3x
2
− 6x = 3x (x − 2)
Fig. 5.37
Since f ′(x) exists for all x, the only critical numbers of f are x = 0, x = 2.
Both of these critical numbers lie in the interval
−
1
2
. 4 . Value of f at
these critical numbers are f(0) = 1 and f(2) = −3.
0
1
1/2
2 3
4
0
1
1/2
2 3
4
50
The values of f at the end points of the interval are
f
( )
−
1
2
=
( )
−
1
2
3
− 3
( )
−
1
2
2
+ 1 =
1
8
and f(4) = 4
3
− 3 × 4
2
+ 1 = 17
Comparing these four numbers, we see that the absolute maximum value is
f(4) = 17 and the absolute minimum value is f(2) = − 3.
Note that in this example the absolute maximum occurs at an end point, whereas
the absolute minimum occurs at a critical number.
Example 5.48(a): Find the absolute maximum and absolute minimum values of
f(x) =x − 2sin x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.
Solution : f(x) =x − 2 sin x, is continuous in [0, 2π]
f ′(x) = 1 − 2 cos x
f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ cos x =
1
2
⇒ x =
π
3
or
5π
3
The value of f at these critical points are
f
\

.

π
3
=
π
3
− 2 sin
π
3
=
π
3
− 3
f
\

.

5π
3
=
5π
3
− 2 sin
5π
3
=
5π
3
+ 3
≈ 6.968039
The values of f at the end points are f(0) = 0 and f(2π) = 2 π ≈ 6.28
Comparing these four numbers, the absolute minimum is f
\

.

π
3
=
π
3
− 3 and
the absolute maximum is f
\

.

5π
3
=
5π
3
+ 3 . In this example both absolute
minimum and absolute maximum occurs at the critical numbers.
Let us now see how the second derivatives of functions help determining
the turning nature (of graphs of functions) and in optimization problems.
The second derivative test : Suppose f
is continuous on an open interval
that contains c.
(a) If f ′(c) = 0 and f ′′(c) > 0, then f has a local minimum at c.
(b) If f ′(c) = 0 and f ′′(c) < 0, then f has a local maximum at c.
51
Example 5.49 : Discuss the curve y = x
4
− 4x
3
with respect to local extrema.
Solution : f(x) = x
4
− 4x
3
f ′(x) = 4x
3
− 12x
2
, f ′′(x) = 12x
2
− 24x
To find the critical numbers we set f ′(x) = 0 and obtain x = 0 and x = 3. To
use the second derivative test we evaluate the sign of f ′′
at these critical
numbers.
f ′′(0) = 0, f ′′(3) = 36 > 0. Since f ′(3) = 0 and f ′′(3) > 0, f(3) = − 27 is a local
minimum value and the point (3, −27) is a minimum point. Since f ′′(0) = 0 the
second derivative test gives no information about the critical number 0. But
since f ′(x) < 0 for x < 0 and also for 0 < x < 3, the first derivative test tells us
that f does not have a local extremum at 0.
We summarise the above discussion as follows :
Procedure for finding and distinguishing stationary points.
(i) Given y = f(x) determine
dy
dx
( ) i.e.. f ′(x)
(ii) Let
dy
dx
= 0 and solve for the critical numbers x.
(iii) Substitute the values of x into the original function y = f(x) to find the
corresponding ycoordinate values. This establish the coordinates of
the stationary points. To determine the nature of the stationary points,
(iv) Find
d
2
y
dx
2
and substitute into it the values of x found in (ii).
If the result is :
(a) positive − the point is a minimum one
(b) negative − the point is a maximum one
(c) zero − the point cannot be an extremum (minimum or maximum)
OR
(v) Determine the sign of the gradient (slope f ′(x) of the curve just before
and just after the stationary points. If the sign change for the gradient
of the curve is
(a) positive to negative − this point is a maximum one
(b) negative to positive − this point is a minimum one
Example 5.50 : Locate the extreme point on the curve y = 3x
2
− 6x and
determine its nature by examining the sign of the gradient on either side.
52
Solution : Following the above procedure
(i) Since y = 3x
2
− 6x,
dy
dx
= 6x − 6
(ii) At a stationary point,
dy
dx
= 0, hence x = 1
(iii) When x = 1, y = 3(1)
2
− 6(1) = − 3. Hence the coordinates of the
stationary point is (1, − 3).
If x is slightly less than 1, say 0.9, then
dy
dx
= 6(0.9) − 6 = − 0.6 < 0.
If x is slightly greater than 1, say 1.1 then
dy
dx
= 6(1.1) − 6 = 0.6 > 0.
Since the gradient (slope of the curve) changes its sign from negative to
positive (1, − 3) is a minimum point.
Example 5.51 :
Find the local minimum and maximum values of f(x) = x
4
− 3x
3
+ 3x
2
− x
Solution : f(x) = x
4
− 3x
3
+ 3x
2
− x
f ′(x) = 4x
3
− 9x
2
+ 6x − 1
At a turning point, f ′(x) = 0 gives 4x
3
− 9x
2
+ 6x − 1 = 0
(x − 1)
2
(4x − 1) = 0 ⇒ x = 1, 1,
1
4
When x = 1, f(1) = 0 and when x =
1
4
, f
\

.

1
4
=
− 27
256
Hence the coordinates of the stationary points are (1, 0) and
\

.

1
4
.
− 27
256
f ′′(x) = 12x
2
− 18x + 6 = 6(2x
2
− 3x + 1) = 6(x − 1) (2x − 1)
When x = 1, f ′′(1) = 0. Thus the second derivative test gives no
information about the extremum nature of f at x = 1.
When x =
1
4
, f ′′
\

.

1
4
=
9
4
> 0, hence
\

.

1
4
.
− 27
256
is a minimum point.
Caution :
No function will attain local maximum / minimum at the end points of its
domain.
53
EXERCISE 5.9
(1) Find the critical numbers and stationary points of each of the following
functions.
(i) f(x) = 2x − 3x
2
(ii) f(x) = x
3
− 3x + 1
(iii) f(x) = x
4/5
(x − 4)
2
(iv) f(x) =
x + 1
x
2
+ x + 1
(v) f(θ) = sin
2
2θ in [0, π]
(vi) f(θ) = θ + sin
θ in [0, 2π]
(2) Find the absolute maximum and absolute minimum values of f on the
given interval :
(i) f(x) = x
2
− 2x + 2, [0,3]
(ii) f(x) = 1 − 2x − x
2
, [−4,1]
(iii) f(x) = x
3
− 12x + 1, [−3,5]
(iv) f(x) = 9 − x
2
, [−1,2]
(v) f(x) =
x
x + 1
, [1,2]
(vi) f(x) = sin x + cos x,
0.
π
3
(vii) f(x) = x − 2 cos x, [−π, π]
(3) Find the local maximum and minimum values of the following :
(i) x
3
− x (ii) 2x
3
+ 5x
2
− 4x (iii) x
4
− 6x
2
(iv) (x
2
− 1)
3
(v) sin
2
θ , [0, π] (vi) t + cos t
5.10 Practical problems involving maximum and minimum values :
The methods we have learnt in this section for finding extreme values have
practical applications in many areas of life. A business person wants to
minimise costs and maximise profits. We also solve such problems as
maximising areas, volumes and profits and minimising distances, times and
costs. In solving such practical problems, the greatest challenge is often to
convert the word problem into maximum – minimum problem by setting up the
function that is to be maximised or minimised.
54
As a problem solving technique we suggest the following principles.
(1) Understand the problem : The first step is to read the problem
carefully until it is clearly understood. Ask yourself what is the
unknown? What are the given quantities? What are the given conditions?
(2) Draw diagram : In most problems it is useful to draw a diagram and
identify the given and required quantities on the diagram.
(3) Introduce notation : Assign a symbol to the quantity to be maximised or
minimised, say Q. Also select symbols (a,b,c …,x, y, z) for the other
unknown quantities and lable the diagram with these symbols.
(4) Express Q in terms of some other symbols from step 3.
(5) If Q has been expressed as a function of more than one variable in
step 4, use the given information to find relationship (in the form of
equation) among these variables. Then use these equations to
eliminate all but one of these variables in the expression for Q.Thus Q
will be given as a function of one variable x, say, Q = f(x). Write the
domain of this function.
(6) Use the methods discussed to find the absolute maximum or minimum
value of f.
Remarks :
(1) If the domain is a closed interval then we apply the absolute max/min
property to maximize / minimize the given function (see 5.52, 5.58).
(2) If the domain is an open interval then we apply either first derivative
test (5.53) or second test for finding local max / min. Instead of first
derivative one can also apply second derivative test if the second test
exist. Similarly instead of second derivative test one can also apply
first derivative test.
(3) All these cases ultimately lead us to the absolute max / min only.
Example 5.52 : A farmer has 2400 feet of fencing and want to fence of a
rectangular field that borders a straight river. He needs no fence along the river.
What are the dimensions of the field that has the largest area ?
Solution :
We wish to maximize the area A
of the rectangle. Let x and y be the
width and length of the rectangle (in
feet). Then we express A in terms of
x and y as A = xy
Fig. 5.38
x x
y
x x
y
55
We want to express A as a function of just one variable, so we eliminate y
by expressing it in terms of x. To do this we use the given information that the
total length of the fencing is 2400 ft. Therefore 2x + y = 2400
Hence y = 2400 − 2x and the area is A= x (2400 – 2x) = 2400 x − 2x
2
Note that x ≥ 0 and x ≤ 1200 (otherwise A < 0). So the function that we
wish to maximize is
A (x) = 2400 x − 2x
2
, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1200.
A′(x) = 2400 − 4x, so to find the critical numbers we solve the equation
2400 − 4x = 0 which gives x = 600. The maximum of A must occur either at this
critical number or at an end point of the interval.
Since A(0) = 0, A(600) = 7,20,000 and A(1200) = 0, thus the maximum
value is A (600) = 720,000. When x = 600, y = 2400 − 1200 = 1200
Hence the rectangular field should be 600 ft wide and 1200 ft long.
Note : This problem also be done by using second derivative test (local). In this
case x > 0 and y > 0.
Example 5.53 :
Find a point on the parabola y
2
= 2x that is closest to the point (1,4)
Solution : Let (x,y) be the point
on the parabola y
2
= 2x. The
distance between the points (1,4)
and
(x,y) is d = (x −1)
2
+ (y − 4)
2
.
(x,y) lies on y
2
= 2x ⇒ x =
y
2
2
,
so d
2
= f(y) = (
y
2
2
− 1)
2
+ (y − 4)
2
Fig. 5.39
(Note that the minimum of d occurs at the same point as the minimum of d
2
)
Now f ′(y) = 2
\

.

 y
2
2
− 1 (y) + 2 (y − 4)
= y
3
− 8 = 0 at a critical point.
y
3
− 8 = 0 ⇒ y = 2 (since y
2
+ 2y + 4 = 0 is not possible)
y
2
=2x
(x,y)
y
0
x
2
4
1
(1,4)
y
2
=2x
(x,y)
y
0
x
2
4
1
(1,4)
56
Observe that
f ′(y) < 0 when y < 2 and f ′(y) > 0 when y > 2, so by the
first derivate test, for absolute extrema, the absolute minimum occurs when
y = 2. The corresponding value of x is x =
y
2
2
= 2. Thus the point on y
2
= 2x
closest to (1,4) is (2,2).
Note : This problem also be done by using second derivative test
Example 5.54 :
Find the area of the largest rectangle that can be inscribed in a semi circle
of radius r.
Solution :
Let θ be the angle made by OP
with the positive direction of x–axis.
Then the area of the rectangle A is
A(θ) = (2 r cosθ) (r sinθ)
= r
2
2 sin θ cos θ = r
2
sin 2θ
Fig. 5.40
Now A(θ) is maximum when sin 2θ is maximum. The maximum value of
sin 2θ = 1 ⇒ 2θ =
π
2
or θ =
π
4
. (Note that A′ (θ) = 0 when θ =
π
4
)
Therefore the critical number is
π
4
. The area A
\

.

π
4
= r
2
.
Note : The dimensions of the largest rectangle that can be inscribed in a
semicircle are 2r ,
r
2
Aliter : A ′(θ) = 2r
2
cos 2θ = 0 ⇒ 2θ =
π
2
; θ =
π
4
A ′′(θ) = −4r
2
sin 2 θ < 0, for θ =
π
4
⇒ θ =
π
4
gives the
maximum point and the maximum point is
\

.

π
4
. r
2
From the above problem, we understand that the method of calculus gives
the solution faster than the algebraic method.
Example 5.55 : The top and bottom margins of a poster are each 6 cms and the
side margins are each 4 cms. If the area of the printed material on the poster is
fixed at 384 cms
2
, find the dimension of the poster with the smallest area.
Solution : Let x and y be the length and breadth of printed area, then the area
xy = 384
θ
r
x
2
+y
2
=r
2
P(r cos θ. r sin θ)
x
θ
r
x
2
+y
2
=r
2
P(r cos θ. r sin θ)
x
57
Dimensions of the poster area are
(x + 8) and (y + 12) respectively.
Poster area A = (x + 8) (y + 12)
= xy +12x + 8y + 96
= 12x + 8y + 480
= 12x + 8
\

.

384
x
+ 480
A′ = 12 − 8 × 384 ×
1
x
2
Fig. 5.41
A″ = 16 × 384 ×
1
x
3
A′ = 0 ⇒ x = ± 16
But x > 0
∴ x = 16
when x = 16, A′′ > 0
∴ when x = 16, the area is minimum
∴ y = 24
∴ x + 8 = 24, y + 12 = 36
Hence the dimensions are 24cm and 36 cm.
Example 5.56 : Show that the volume of the largest right circular cone that can
be inscribed in a sphere of radius a is
8
27
(volume of the sphere).
Solution : Given that a is the radius of
the sphere and let x be the base radius of
the cone. If h is the height of the cone,
then its volume is
V =
1
3
π x
2
h
=
1
3
π x
2
(a + y) …(1)
Fig. 5.42
where OC = y so that height h = a + y.
From the diagram x
2
+ y
2
= a
2
(2)
Using (2) in (1) we have
V =
1
3
π (a
2
− y
2
) (a + y)
x
y
a
α
c
O x
y
a
α
c
O
6 cms
4
4
4
x
x +8
y
6 cms
y +12
58
For the volume to be maximum :
V ′=0 ⇒
1
3
π [a
2
− 2ay − 3y
2
] = 0
⇒ 3y = +a or y = −a
⇒ y =
a
3
and y = − a is not possible
Now V″ = − π
2
3
(a + 3y) < 0 at y =
a
3
∴ the volume is maximum when y =
a
3
and the maximum volume is
1
3
π ×
8a
2
9
(a +
1
3
a) =
8
27
(
4
3
πa
3
) =
8
27
(volume of the sphere)
Example 5.57 : A closed (cuboid) box with a square base is to have a volume
of 2000 c.c. The material for the top and bottom of the box is to cost Rs. 3 per
square cm. and the material for the sides is to cost Rs. 1.50 per square cm. If the
cost of the materials is to be the least, find the dimensions of the box.
Solution : Let x, y respectively denote the length of the side of the square base
and depth of the box. Let C be the cost of the material
Area of the bottom = x
2
Area of the top = x
2
Combined area of the top and bottom = 2x
2
Area of the four sides = 4xy
Cost of the material for the top and bottom = 3(2x
2
)
Cost of the material for the sides = (1.5) (4xy) = 6xy
Total cost C = 6x
2
+ 6xy …(1)
Volume of the box V = (area) (depth) = x
2
y=2000 …(2)
Eliminating y from (1) & (2) we get C(x) = 6x
2
+
12000
x
…(3)
where x > 0, ie., x ∈ (0,+ ∞) and C(x) is continuous on (0, + ∞).
C ′ (x) = 12x −
12000
x
2
C ′ (x) = 0 ⇒ 12x
3
− 12000 = 0 ⇒ 12(x
3
− 10
3
) = 0
⇒ x = 10 or x
2
+ 10x + 100 = 0
59
x
2
+ 10x + 100 = 0 is not possible
∴ The critical numbers is x = 10.
Now C ″(x) = 12 +
24000
x
3
; C ″(10) = 12 +
24000
1000
= 36 > 0
∴ C is minimum at (10,C(10)) = (10, 1800) ∴ the base length is 10cm and
depth is y =
2000
100
= 20 cm.
Example 5.58 :
A man is at a point P on a bank of a straight river, 3 km wide, and wants to
reach point Q, 8 km downstream on the opposite bank, as quickly as possible.
He could row his boat directly across the river to point R and then run to Q, or
he could row directly to Q, or he could row to some point S between Q and R
and then run to Q. If he can row at 6 km/h and run at 8 km/h where should he
land to reach Q as soon as possible ?
Solution :
Let x be the distance from R to S. Then the
running distance is 8 − x and the distance
PS = x
2
+ 9 . We know that time =
distance
rate
.
Then the rowing time
R
t
=
x
2
+ 9
6
and the running time r
t
=
(8 −x)
8
Fig. 5.43
Therefore the total time T = R
t
+ r
t
=
x
2
+ 9
6
+
(8 −x)
8
, 0 ≤ x ≤ 8.
Notice that if x = 0, he rows to R and if x = 8 he rows directly to Q.
T ′(x) = 0 ⇒ T ′(x) =
x
6 x
2
+ 9
−
1
8
= 0 for critical points.
4x = 3 x
2
+ 9
16x
2
= 9 (x
2
+ 9)
7x
2
= 81
P R
S
Q
x
8

x
3km
√
(
x
2
+
9
)
P R
S
Q
x
8

x
3km
√
(
x
2
+
9
)
60
⇒ x =
9
7
since x = −
9
7
is not admissible.
The only critical number is x =
9
7
. We calculate T at the end point of the
domain 0 and 8 and at x =
9
7
.
T(0) = 1.5, T
\

.

9
7
= 1 +
7
8
≈ 1.33, and T(8) =
73
6
≈ 1.42
Since the smallest of these values of T occurs when x =
9
7
, the man
should land the boat at a point
9
7
km (≈ 3.4 km) down stream from his starting
point.
EXERCISE 5.10
(1) Find two numbers whose sum is 100 and whose product is a maximum.
(2) Find two positive numbers whose product is 100 and whose sum is
minimum.
(3) Show that of all the rectangles with a given area the one with smallest
perimeter is a square.
(4) Show that of all the rectangles with a given perimeter the one with the
greatest area is a square.
(5) Find the dimensions of the rectangle of largest area that can be
inscribed in a circle of radius r.
(6) Resistance to motion, F, of a moving vehicle is given by, F =
5
x
+ 100x.
Determine the minimum value of resistance.
5.11 Concavity (convexity) and points of inflection :
Figure 5.44 (a), (b) shows the graphs of two increasing functions on [a, b].
Both graphs join point A to point B but they look different because they bend in
different directions. How can we distinguish between these two types of
behaviour? In fig. 5.44 (c), (d) tangents to these curves have been drawn at
several points. In (a) the curve lies above the tangents and f is called concave
upward (convex downward) on [a, b]. In (b) the curve lies below the tangents
and g is called concave downward (convex upward) on [a, b]
61
Fig. 5.44 (a) Fig. 5.44 (b)
Fig. 5.44(c) Fig. 5.44 (d)
Definition :
If the graph of f lies above all of its tangents on an interval I, then it is
called concave upward (convex downward) on I. If the graph of f lies below all
of its tangents on I, it is called concave downward (convex upward) on I.
Let us see how the second derivative helps to determine the intervals of
concavity (convexity). Looking at Fig.5.44(c), you can see that, going from left
to right, the slope of the tangent increases. This means that the derivative f ′(x)
is an increasing function and therefore its derivative f ′′(x) is positive. Likewise
in Fig.5.44 (d) the slope of the tangent decreases from left to right, so f ′(x)
decreases and therefore f ′′(x) is negative. This reasoning can be reversed and
suggests that the following theorem is true.
The test for concavity (convexity) :
Suppose f is twice differentiable on an interval I.
(i) If f ′′(x) > 0 for all x in I, then the graph of f is concave upward
(convex downward) on I.
(ii) If f
′′
(x) < 0 for all x in I, then the graph of f is concave downward
(convex upward) on I.
0
y
x
a
b
g
A
B
0
y
x
a
b
g
A
B
y
0
x
A
B
y
0
x
A
B
y
0
x
A
B
y
0
x
A
B
y
0
x
a
b
f
A
B
y
0
x
a
b
f
A
B
62
Definition : A point P on a curve is called a point of inflection if the curve
changes from concave upward (convex downward) to concave downward
(convex upward) or from concave downward (convex upward) to concave
upward (convex downward) at P.
That is the point that separates the convex part of a continuous curve from
the concave part is called the point of inflection of the curve.
It is obvious that at the point of inflection the tangent line, if it exists, cuts
the curve, because on one side the curve lies under the tangent and on the other
side, above it. The following theorem says under what situation a critical point
of f
′
becomes a point of inflection.
Theorem :
Let a curve be defined by an equation y = f(x). If f ′′(x
0
) = 0 or
f ′′(x
0
) does not exist and if the derivative f ′′(x) changes sign when passing
through x = x
0
, then the point of the curve with abcissa x = x
0
is the point of
inflection. Equivalently the point (x
0
, f(x
0
)) is a point of inflection of the graph
of f if there exists a neighbourhood (a, b) of x
0
such that
f ′′(x) > 0 for every x in (a, x
0
) and f ′′(x) < 0 for every x in (x
0
, b) or vice versa.
That is in the neighbourhood of x
0
, f ′′(a) and f ′′(b) differ in sign.
Fig. 5.45
Remark :
We caution the reader that points of inflections need not be critical points
and critical points need not be points of inflections. However x = x
0
is a critical
point such that f ′(x) does not change its sign as f(x) passes through x
0
, then
x
0
is a point of inflection and for points of inflections x
0
, it is necessary that
f ′′(x
0
) = 0. If f ′′(x) does not change its sign even if f ′′(x
0
) = 0 then x
0
cannot be
a point of inflection. Thus the conjoint of the above discussion is that for points
of inflections x
0
, f ′′(x
0
) = 0 and in the immediate neighbourhood (a, b) of x
0
, f
′′(a) and f ′′(b) must differ in sign.
O
x
y
B
O
x
y
A
O
x
y
B
O
x
y
A
O
x
y
B
O
x
y
B
O
x
y
A
O
x
y
A
O
x
y
B
O
x
y
B
O
x
y
A
O
x
y
A
63
If x = x
0
is a root of odd order − simple, triple, etc. of the function
f ′(x) = 0, then x = x
0
yields a maximum or minimum. If x = x
0
is a root of even
order, x = x
0
yield a point of inflection with a horizontal tangent. These
concepts are made clear in the following illustrative example y = x
3
.
y′ = 3x
2
and y ′′ = 6x.
Here y′(0) = 0 and y′′(0) = 0 and x = 0 happens to be a critical point of both
y and y′. Clearly y′ (x) > 0 for x < 0 and x > 0. Thus y′
does not change its sign
as f(x) passes through x = 0.
That is y′ (− 0.1) > 0 and y′(0.1) > 0 i.e., in the neighbourhood (− 0.1, 0.1)
of 0, y′ does not change its sign. Thus the first derivative test confirms that
(0, 0) is a point of inflection.
Again y′′(0) = 0, y′′(− 0.1) < 0
and y′′(0.1) > 0. Here y′′
changes its
sign as y(x) passes through x = 0. In
this case the second derivative
(concavity) test also confirms that (0,
0) is a point of inflection. Note that (0,
0) separates the convex part of y = x
3
from the concave part.
Note also that y′(x) = 3x
2
and
x = 0 is a double root of y′(x) = 0. The
root order test also confirms that (0, 0)
is a point of inflection with xaxis as
the horizontal tangent at (0, 0)
Fig. 5.46
Example 5.59 :
Determine the domain of concavity (convexity) of the curve
y = 2 − x
2
.
Solution : y = 2 − x
2
y′ = − 2x and y′′ = − 2 < 0 for x ∈ R
Here the curve is everywhere concave downwards (convex upwards).
Example 5.60 :
Determine the domain of convexity of the function y = e
x
.
Solution : y = e
x
; y′′ = e
x
> 0 for x
Hence the curve is everywhere convex downward.
0
x
y
y =x
3
Convex
upward
Concave
upward
Concave
downward
Convex
downward
0
x
y
y =x
3
Convex
upward
Concave
upward
Concave
downward
Convex
downward
64
Example 5.61 : Test the curve y = x
4
for points of inflection.
Solution : y = x
4
y′′ = 12x
2
= 0 for x = 0
and y′′ > 0 for x < 0 and x > 0
Therefore the curve is concave
upward and y′′ does not change sign
as y(x) passes through x = 0. Thus the
curve does not admit any point of
inflection.
Fig. 5.47
Note : The curve is concave upward in (− ∞, 0) and (0, ∞).
Example 5.62 : Determine where the curve y = x
3
− 3x + 1 is cancave upward,
and where it is concave downward. Also find the inflection points.
Solution :
f(x) = x
3
− 3x + 1
f ′(x) = 3x
2
− 3 = 3(x
2
− 1)
Fig. 5.48
Now f ′′(x) = 6x
Thus f ′′(x) > 0 when x > 0 and f ′′(x) < 0 when x < 0.
The test for concavity then tells us that the curve is concave downward on
(− ∞, 0) and concave upward on (0, ∞). Since the curve changes from concave
downward to concave upward when x = 0, the point (0, f(0)) i.e., (0, 1) is a
point of inflection. Note that f ′′(0) = 0
Example 5.63 :
Discuss the curve y = x
4
− 4x
3
with respect to concavity and points of
inflection.
Solution :
f(x) = x
4
− 4x
3
⇒ f ′(x) = 4x
3
− 12x
2
f ′′(x) = 12x
2
− 24x = 12x (x − 2)
Since f ′′(x) = 0 when x = 0
or 2, we divide the real line into
three intervals.
Fig. 5.49
(− ∞, 0), (0, 2), (2, ∞) and complete the following chart.
1 2
0
4
8
12
16
1 2
x
y
y =x
4
1 2
0
4
8
12
16
1 2
x
y
y =x
4
x =0
∞  ∞ x =0
∞  ∞
2
0
∞  ∞ 2
0
∞  ∞
65
Inerval f ′′(x) = 12x (x − 2) concavity
(− ∞, 0) + upward
(0, 2) − downward
(2, ∞) + upward
The point (0, f(0)) i.e., (0, 0) is an inflection point since the curve changes
from concave upward to concave downward there. Also (2, f(2)) i.e., (2, − 16) is
an inflection point since the curve changes from concave downward to concave
upward there.
Note : The intervals of concavity can be obtained by taking and checking a
sample point in the subinterval.
Example 5.64 : Find the points of inflection and determine the intervals of
convexity and concavity of the Gaussion curve y = e
−x
2
Solution : y′ = − 2xe
−x
2
; y′′ = 2e
−x
2
(2x
2
− 1)
(The first and second derivatives exist everywhere). Find the values of x
for which y′′ = 0
2e
−x
2
(2x
2
− 1) = 0
x = −
1
2
, or x =
1
2
Fig. 5.50
when x < −
1
2
we have y′′ > 0 and when x > −
1
2
we have y′′ < 0
The second derivative changes sign from positive to negative when passing
through the point x = −
1
2
. Hence, for x = −
1
2
, there is a point of inflection
on the curve; its coordinates are
\

.


−
1
2
. e
−
1
2
When x <
1
2
we have y′′ < 0 and when x >
1
2
we have y′′ > 0 . Thus
there is also a point of inflection on the curve for x =
1
2
; its coordinates are
\

.

 1
2
. e
−
1
2
. (Incidentally, the existence of the second point of inflection follows
directly from the symmetry of the curve about the yaxis). Also from the signs
of the second derivatives, it follows that
1/√2
0 ∞  ∞
1/√2 1/√2
0 ∞  ∞
1/√2
66
for − ∞ < x < −
1
2
the curve is concave upward ;
for −
1
2
< x <
1
2
the curve is convex upward ;
for
1
2
< x < ∞ the curve is concave upward.
Example 5.65 :
Determine the points of inflection if any, of the function
y = x
3
− 3x + 2
Solution : y = x
3
− 3x + 2
dy
dx
= 3x
2
− 3 = 3(x + 1) (x − 1)
d
2
y
dx
2
= 6x = 0 ⇒ x = 0
Now
d
2
y
dx
2
(− 0.1) = 6(− 0.1) < 0 and
d
2
y
dx
2
(0.1) = 6(0.1) > 0. In the neighbourhood (− 0.1, 0.1)
of 0, y′′ (− 0.1) and y′′(0.1) are of opposite signs. Therefore (0, y (0)) i.e.,
(0, 2) is a point of inflection.
Note : Note that x = 0 is not a critical point since y′ (0) = − 3 ≠ 0.
Example 5.66 :
Test for points of inflection of the curve y = sinx, x ∈ (0, 2π)
Solution : y′ = cosx
y′′ = − sinx = 0 ⇒ x = nπ, n = 0, ±1, ± 2, ...
since x ∈(0, 2π), x = π corresponding to n = 1.
Now y′′ (.9π) = − sin (.9π) < 0 and
y′′(1.1π) = − sin (1.1 π) > 0 since sin (1.1π) is negative
The second derivative test confirms that (π, f(π)) = (π, 0) is a point of
inflection.
67
Note : Note that x = π is not a stationary point since y′(π) = cos π = − 1 ≠ 0.
In fact y = sin x admits countable number of points of inflections in the range
(− ∞, ∞), each of which is given by (nπ, 0), n = 0, ± 1, ±2, … and in none of the
cases, y′(nπ) = (− 1)
n
vanishes. This shows that points of inflections need not be
stationary points.
EXERCISE 5.11
Find the intervals of concavity and the points of inflection of the following
functions :
(1) f(x) = (x − 1)
1/3
(2) f(x) = x
2
− x
(3) f(x) = 2x
3
+ 5x
2
− 4x
(4) f(x) = x
4
− 6x
2
(5) f(θ) = sin 2θ in (0, π)
(6) y = 12x
2
− 2x
3
− x
4
68
Testing a differentiable function for maximum and minimum with a first
derivative
This gives us the following diagram of possible cases.
Signs of derivative f ′(x) when passing through
critical point x
0
Character of critical
point
x < x
0
x = x
0
x > x
0
+ f ′ (x
0
) = 0 or is
discontinuous
− Maximum point
− f ′ (x
0
) = 0 or is
discontinuous
+ Minimum point
+ f ′(x
0
) = 0 or is
discontinuous
+ Neither maximum nor
minimum (function
increases). But is a point
of inflection.
− f ′(x
0
) = 0 or is
discontinuous
− Neither maximum nor
minimum (function
decreases) But is a point
of inflection.
Second derivative test
This gives us the following diagram of possible cases.
Signs of derivative f ′′(x) at the critical point of f(x) or f ′(x)
Character of
the point
x = x
0
f ′(x
0
) f ′′(x
0
)
0 −
Critical point
of f
Maximum
point
0 +
Critical point
of f
Minimum
point
x < x
0
f ′′(x
0
)
x > x
0
+ 0 or ≠ 0 0 −
Point of
Inflection
− 0 or ≠ 0 0 +
Point of
inflection
+ 0 or ≠ 0 0 + Unknown
− 0 or ≠ 0 0 − Unknown
69
6. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
APPLICATIONSII
6.1 Differentials : Errors and Approximation
We have used the Liebnitz notation
dy
dx
to denote the derivative of
y with respect to x but we have regarded it as a single entity and not as a ratio.
In this section we give the quantities dy and dx separate meanings in such a way
that their ratio is equal to the derivative. We also see that these quantities, called
differentials, are useful in finding the approximate values of functions.
Definition 1 : Let y = f(x) be a differentiable function. Then the quantities
dx and dy are called differentials. The differential dx is an independent variable
that is dx can be given any real number as the value. The differential dy is then
defined in terms of dx by the relation
dy = f ′(x) dx (dx ≈ ∆x)
Note :
(1) The differentials dx and dy are both variables, but dx is an independent
variable, where as dy is a dependent variable – it depends on the
values of x and dx. If dx is given a specific value and x is taken to be
some specific number in the domain of f, then the numerical value of
dy is determined.
(2) If dx ≠ 0 we can divide both sides of dy = f ′(x) dx by dx to obtain
dy
dx
= f ′(x). Thus
dy
dx
now is the ratio of differentials.
Example 6.1 : If y = x
3
+ 2x
2
(i)find dy
(ii) find the value of dy when x = 2 and dx = 0.1
Solution :
(i) If f(x) = x
3
+ 2x
2
, then f ′(x) = 3x
2
+ 4x, so dy = (3x
2
+ 4x) dx
(ii) Substituting x = 2 and dx = 0.1, we get dy = (3 × 2
2
+ 4 × 2)0.1 = 2.
70
6.1.1 Geometric meaning of differentials :
Let P(x,f(x)) and Q(x + ∆x, f(x +∆x)) be
points on the graph of f and set
dx = ∆x. The corresponding change in y is
∆y = f(x + ∆x) − f(x)
The slope of the tangent line PR is the
derivate f ′(x). Thus the directed distance
from S to R is f ′(x) dx = dy.
Fig. 6.1
Therefore dy represents the amount that the tangent line rises or falls
whereas ∆y represents the amount that the curve y = f(x) rises or falls when x
changes by an amount dx.
Since
dy
dx
=
lim
∆x → 0
∆y
∆x
, we have
∆y
∆x
≈
dy
dx
….(1) when ∆x is small.
Geometrially, this says that the slope of the secant line PQ is very close to
the slope of the tangent line at P when ∆x is small. If we take dx = ∆x, then (1)
becomes ∆y ≈ dy ….(2) which says that if ∆x is small, then the actual change
in y is approximately equal to the differential dy. Again this is geometrically
evident in the case illustrated by Fig. 6.1. The actual change in y is referred as
absolute error.
The actual error in y is ∆y ≈ dy.
The quantity
∆y
y
=
Actual change in y
Actual value of y
is called relative error and the
quantity
\

.

∆y
y
× 100 is called percentage error.
The approximation given by (2) can be used in computing approximate
values of functions. Suppose that f(a) is a known number and an approximate
value is calculated for f(a + ∆x) where dx is small, since f(a + ∆x) = f(a) + ∆y,
(2) gives, f(a + ∆x) ≈ f(a) + dy….(3)
Example 6.2 : Compute the values of ∆y and dy if y = f(x) = x
3
+ x
2
− 2x + 1
where x changes (i) from 2 to 2.05 and (ii) from 2 to 2.01
Solution :
(i) We have f(2) = 2
3
+ 2
2
− 2(2) + 1 = 9
f(2.05) = (2.05)
3
+ (2.05)
2
− 2(2.05) + 1 = 9.717625.
and ∆y = f(2.05) − f(2) = 0.717625.
In general dy = f ′(x) dx = (3x
2
+ 2x − 2)dx
When x = 2, dx = ∆x = 0.05 and dy = [(3(2)
2
+2(2)−2] 0.05 = 0.7
P
x
R
Q
y =f (x)
0
x
y
x +∆x
dx =∆x
S
dy
∆y
P
x
R
Q
y =f (x)
0
x
y
x +∆x
dx =∆x
S
dy
∆y
71
(ii) f(2.01) = (2.01)
3
− (2.01)
2
− 2(2.01) + 1 = 9.140701
∴ ∆y = f(2.01) − f(2) = 0.140701
When dx = ∆x = 0.01, dy = [3(2)
2
+ 2(2) − 2]0.01 = 0.14
Remark : The approximation ∆y ≈ dy becomes better as ∆x becomes smaller
in Example 6.2. Also dy was easier than to compute ∆y. For more complicated
functions it may be impossible to compute ∆y exactly. In such cases the
approximation by differentials is especially useful.
Example 6.3 : Use differentials to find an approximate value for
3
65.
Solution : Let y = f(x) =
3
x = x.
1
3
Then dy =
1
3
x.
−2
3
dx
Since f(64) = 4. We take x = 64 and dx = ∆x = 1
This gives dy =
1
3
(64)
−2
3
(1) =
1
3(16)
=
1
48
∴
3
65 = f(64 + 1) ≈ f(64) + dy = 4 +
1
48
≈ 4.021
Note : The actual value of
3
65 is 4.0207257... Thus the approximation by
differentials is accurate to three decimal places even when ∆x = 1.
Example 6.4 : The radius of a sphere was measured and found to be 21 cm with
a possible error in measurement of atmost 0.05 cm. What is the maximum error
in using this value of the radius to compute the volume of the sphere ?
Solution : If the radius of the sphere is r, then its volume is V =
4
3
π r
3
. If the
error in the measured value of r is denoted by dr = ∆r, then, the corresponding
error in the calculated value of V is ∆V. which can be approximated by the
differential dV = 4πr
2
dr.
When r = 21 and dr=0.05, this becomes dV = 4π(21)
2
0.05 ≈ 277.
The maximum error in the calculated volume is about 277 cm
3
.
Note : Although the possible error in the above example may appear to be
rather large, a better picture of the error is given by the relative error, which is
computed by dividing the error by the total volume.
∆V
V
≈
dV
V
≈
277
38.808
≈ 0.00714
72
Thus a relative error of
dr
r
=
0.05
21
≈ 0.0024 in the radius produces a
relative error of about 0.007 in the volume. The errors could also be expressed
as percentage errors of 0.24% in the radius and 0.7% in the volume.
Example 6.5 : The time of swing T of a pendulum is given by T = k l where k
is a constant. Determine the percentage error in the time of swing if the length
of the pendulum l changes from 32.1 cm to32.0 cm.
Solution : If T = k l = k l
1
2
Then
dT
dl
= k
\

.


1
2
× l
−
1
2
=
\

.

k
2 l
and dl = 32.0 − 32.1 = −0.1 cm
Error in T = Approximate change in T.
∆T ≈ dT =
\

.

dT
dl
dl =
\

.

k
2 l
(−0.1)
Percentage error =
\

.

∆T
T
× 100 % =
k
2 l
(−0.1)
k l
× 100 %
=
\

.

−0.1
2l
× 100 % =
\

.

−0.1
2(32.1)
× 100%
= − 0.156%
Hence the percentage error in the time of swing is a decrease of 0.156%.
Aliter : T = k l
Taking log on both sides, log T = log k +
1
2
log l
Taking differential on both sides,
1
T
dT = 0 +
1
2
1
l
× dl
i.e,
∆T
T
≈
1
T
dT = 0 +
1
2
1
l
× dl
∆T
T
× 100 =
1
2
×
dl
l
× 100
=
1
2
×
(−0.1)
32.1
× 100
= − 0.156%
ie., the percentage error in the time of swing is a decrease of 0.156.
Caution : Differentiation is carried out with the common understanding that the
function involved admit logarithmic differentiation.
73
Example 6.6 : A circular template has a radius of 10 cm (± 0.02). Determine the
possible error in calculating the area of the templates. Find also the percentage
error.
Solution : Area of circular template A = πr
2
, hence
dA
dr
= 2πr, Approximate
change in area ∆A ≈ (2πr)dr. When r = 10 cm and dr = 0.02
∆A = (2π 10) (0.02) ≈ 0.4π cm
2
i.e, the possible error in calculating the
template area is approximately 1.257 cm
2
Percentage error ≈
\

.


0.4π
π(10)
2
× 100 = 0.4%
Example 6.7 : Show that the percentage error in the n
th
root of a number is
approximately
1
n
times the percentage error in the number .
Solution : Let x be the number. Let y = f(x) = (x)
1
n
Then log y =
1
n
log x
Taking differential on both sides, we have
1
y
dy =
1
n
×
1
x
dx
i.e.,
∆y
y
≈
1
y
dy =
1
n
.
1
x
dx
∴
∆y
y
× 100 ≈
1
n
\

.

dx
x
× 100
=
1
n
times the percentage error in the number.
Example 6.8 : Find the approximate change in the volume V of a cube of side x
meters caused by increasing the side by 1%
Solution : The volume of the cube of side x is,
V = x
3
; dV = 3x
2
dx
When dx = 0.01x, dV = 3x
2
× (0.01x) = 0.03 x
3
m
3
.
EXERCISE 6.1
(1) Find the differential of the functions
(i) y = x
5
(ii) y =
4
x (iii) y = x
4
+ x
2
+ 1
(iv) y =
x − 2
2x + 3
(v) y = sin 2x (vi) y = x tan x
74
(2) Find the differential dy and evaluate dy for the given values of x and dx.
(i) y = 1 − x
2
, x = 5, dx =
1
2
(ii) y = x
4
− 3x
3
+ x −1, x = 2, dx = 0.1.
(iii) y = (x
2
+ 5)
3
, x = 1, dx = 0.05
(iv) y = 1 − x , x = 0, dx = 0.02
(v) y = cos x, x =
π
6
dx = 0.05
(3) Use differentials to find an approximate value for the given number
(i) 36.1 (ii)
1
10.1
(iii) y =
3
1.02 +
4
1.02 (iv) (1.97)
6
(4) The edge of a cube was found to be 30 cm with a possible error in
measurement of 0.1 cm. Use differentials to estimate the maximum
possible error in computing (i) the volume of the cube and (ii) the
surface area of cube.
(5) The radius of a circular disc is given as 24 cm with a maximum error in
measurement of 0.02 cm.
(i) Use differentials to estimate the maximum error in the calculated
area of the disc.
(ii) Compute the relative error ?
6.2 Curve Tracing :
The study of calculus and its applications is best understood when it is
studied through the geometrical representation of the functions involved. In
order to investigate the nature of a function (graph) it is not possible to locate
each and every point of the graph. But we can sketch the graph of the function
and know its nature by certain specific properties and some special points. To
do this we adopt the following strategies.
(1) Domain, Extent, Intercepts and origin :
(i) Domain of a function y = f(x) is determined by the values of x for
which the function is defined.
75
(ii) Horizontal (vertical) extent of the curve is determined by the intervals
of x (y) for which the curve exists.
(iii) x = 0 yields the y − intercept and y = 0 yields the x – intercept
(iv) If (0,0) satisfies the given equation then the curve will pass through
the origin.
(2) Symmetry : Find out whether the curve is symmetrical about any line with
the help of the following rules :
The curve is symmetrical about
(i) the xaxis if its equation is unaltered when y is replaced by − y
(ii) the yaxis if its equation is unaltered when x is replaced by − x.
(iii) the origin if it is unaltered when x is replaced by − x and y is replaced
by − y simultaneously.
(iv) the line y = x if its equation is unchanged when x and y are replaced by
y and x.
(v) the line y = − x if its equation is unchanged when x and y are replaced
by − y and − x.
(3) Asymptotes (parallel to the coordinate axes only) :
If y → c, c finite [x → k, k finite] whenever x → ± ∞ [y → ± ∞] then the
line y = c [x = k] is an asymptote parallel to x − axis [y – axis].
(4) Monotonicity : Determine the intervals of x for which the curve is
decreasing or increasing using the first derivates test.
(5) Special points (Nature of bending) :
Determine the intervals of concavity and inflection points using the first
and second derivatives test.
Illustrative Example :
Example 6.9 : Trace the curve y = x
3
+ 1
Solution :
(1) Domain, Extent, intercepts and origin :
The function is defined for all real values of x and hence the domain is the
entire interval (−∞, ∞). Horizontal extent is −∞ < x < ∞ and vertical extent is
− ∞ < y < ∞. Clearly x = 0 yields the y intercept as + 1 and y = 0 yields the
x intercepts as −1. It is obvious that the curve does not pass through (0,0).
76
(2) Symmetry Test : The symmetry test shows that the curve does not possess
any of the symmetry properties.
(3) Asymptotes : As x → c (for c finite) y does not tend to ± ∞ and vice versa.
Therefore the curve doest not admit any asymptote.
(4) Monotonicity : The first derivative test shows that the curve is increasing
throughout (−∞,∞) since y′ ≥ 0 for all x.
(5) Special points : The curve is
concave downward in (−∞, 0) and
concave upward in (0, ∞) since
y′′ = 6x < 0 for x < 0
y′′ = 6x > 0 for x > 0 and
y′′ = 0 for x = 0 yields (0,1)
as the inflection point
Fig. 6.2
Example 6.10 : Trace the cure y
2
= 2x
3
.
Solution :
(1) Domain, extent, Intercept and Origin :
When x ≥ 0, y is well defined. As x → ∞, y → ± ∞,
The curve exists in first and fourth quadrant only
The intercepts with the axes are given by :
x = 0, y = 0 and when y = 0, x = 0
Clearly the curve passes through origin.
(2) Symmetry : By symmetry test, we have, the curve is symmetric about
x – axis only.
(3) Asymptotes : As x → + ∞, y → ± ∞, and vice versa.
∴ the curve does not admit asymptotes.
(4) Monotonicity : For the branch y = 2 x
3/2
of the curve is increasing since
dy
dx
> 0 for x > 0 and the branch y = − 2x
3/2
of the curve is decreasing
since
dy
dx
< 0 for x > 0
2 4
2
4
6
8
0
2
4
6
8
2 4 6
x
y
y =x
3
+1
2 4
2
4
6
8
0
2
4
6
8
2 4 6
x
y
y =x
3
+1
77
(5) Special points : (0,0) is not a point of inflection.
This curve is called a semi – cubical
parabola.
Note :
(0, 0) admits a pair of tangents
which coincide, resulting in a special
point, called cusp.
Fig. 6.3
Example 6.11 : Discuss the curve y
2
( 1 + x) = x
2
(1 − x)
for (i) existence (ii) symmetry (iii) asymptotes (iv) loops
Solution :
(i) Existence : The function is not well defined when x >1 and x ≤ −1 and the
curve lies between −1 < x ≤ 1.
(ii) Symmetry : The curve is symmetrical about the x − axis only.
(iii) Asymptotes : x = −1 is a vertical asymptote to the curve parallel to
y − axis.
(iv) Loops : (0,0) is a point through which the curve passes twice and hence a
loop is formed between x = 0 and x = 1.
Fig. 6.4
Example 6.12 : Discuss the curve a
2
y
2
= x
2
(a
2
− x
2
), a > 0
for (i) existence (ii) symmetry (iii) asymptotes (iv) loops
Solution :
(i) Existence :
The curve is well defined for (a
2
− x
2
) ≥ 0 i.e., x
2
≤ a
2
i.e., x ≤ a and x ≥ − a
(0,0)
x
y
(0,0)
x
y
(

1
,
0
)
(0,0)
x
=

1
(1,0)
x
y
(

1
,
0
)
(0,0)
x
=

1
(1,0)
x
y
78
(ii) Symmetry : The curve is symmetrical about xaxis, y – axis, and hence
about the origin.
(iii) Asymptotes : It has no asymptote.
(iv) Loops : For −a < x < 0 and 0 < x < a, y
2
> 0 ⇒ y is positive and
negative ∴ a loop is formed between x = 0 and x = a and another loop is
formed between x = −a and x = 0.
Fig. 6.5
Example 6.13 : Discuss the curve y
2
= (x − 1) (x − 2)
2
.
for (i) existence (ii) symmetry (iii) asymptotes (iv) loops
Solution :
(i) Existence :
The curve is not defined for x − 1 < 0, ie., whenever x < 1, the R.H.S. is
negative ⇒ y
2
< 0 which is impossible. The curve is defined for x ≥ 1.
(ii) Symmetry : The curve is symmetrical about xaxis.
(iii) Asymptote : The curve does not admit asymptotes.
(iv) Loops : Clearly a loop is formed between (1, 0) and (2, 0).
Fig. 6.6
EXERCISE 6.2
(1) Trace the curve y = x
3
Discuss the following curves for (i) existence (ii) symmetry
(iii) asymptotes (iv) loops
(2) y
2
= x
2
(1 − x
2
) (3) y
2
(2 + x) = x
2
(6 − x)
(4) y
2
= x
2
(1 − x) (5) y
2
= (x − a) (x − b)
2
; a, b > 0, a > b.
a
(0,0)
a
x
y
a
(0,0)
a
x
y
0
x
y
1 2 3
1
2
0
x
y
1 2 3
1
2
79
6.3 Partial Differentiation :
A nation’s economy (E) depends on many factors. An yield (Y) of a crop
also depends on various factors such as rain, soil, manure etc., Similarly the
character (C) of a child is formed by its parent’s characters, environment etc., In
plane geometry, area (A) and volume (V) also depend on the dimensions like
length, breadth and height. In all the above cases either economy or yield or
character or area or volume depends on more than one variable (factor). If any
small change is effected in any of the variables (factors), it becomes necessary
to know what changes will be caused in the respective dependent variable E or
Y or C or A or V. These small changes can take place in all the variables
(independent) simultaneously or in some of them while others are not subjected
to any change. The study of these changes in the dependent variable while a
corresponding change is made in one or more of the independent variables,
keeping the remaining independent variables fixed leads to what is known as
partial differentiation.
For clarity, let us consider the
area (A) of a rectangle of length x
and breadth y. Then A = xy = f(x,y).
Note that ‘A’ depends on two
independent variables x and y.
A = xy = area of abcd
Fig. 6.7
Suppose a small change is made in y ie., y + ∆y instead of y, then the new
area A′ = x(y + ∆y). Note that x is fixed still there is change in the area A.
Similarly, if we interchange roles of x and y in the above we get
new area abgh = A′′ = (x + ∆x)y.
Note that change in both x and y will also cause change in area A. In this
case the area is (x +∆x) (y + ∆y) = area of aeih.
But we shall restrict ourselves to the discussion of the change in one
variable fixing the rest. We may consider functions of two or three independent
variables only.
We can also discuss the continuity problems and the limit process for
functions depending on more than one variable similar to that of their
counterpart in single variable differential calculus.
a b
d
c
e
f
h
g
∆x
∆y
x
y
A
a b
d
c
e
f
h
g
∆x
∆y
x
y
A
80
Partial Derivatives :
Let (x
0
,y
0
) be any point in the domain of definition of f(x,y). Let u = f(x, y)
We define partial derivative of u with respect to x at the point (x
0
,y
0
) as the
ordinary derivative of f(x,y
0
) with respect to x at the point x = x
0
.
i.e.,
∂u
∂x
(x
0
, y
0
)
=
d
dx
f(x.y
0
)
x = x
0
=
lim
h → 0
f(x
0
+ h. y
0
) − f(x
0
,y
0
)
h
, (denoted by f
x
or u
x
at (x
0
, y
0
))
provided the limit exists.
Similarly, partial derivatives of u = f(x,y) with respect to y at the point
(x
0
,y
0
) is
∂u
∂y
(x
0
, y
0
)
=
d
dy
f(x
0
.y)
y = y
0
=
lim
h → 0
f(x
0
. y
0
+ h) − f(x
0
,y
0
)
h
(denoted by f
y
or u
y
at (x
0
, y
0
))
provided the limit exists.
A function is said to be differentiable at a point (at all points on a domain)
if its partial derivatives exist at that point (at all points of a domain). The
process of finding partial derivatives is called partial differentiation.
Remark :
Throughout we shall consider only continuous functions of two or three
variables possessing continuous first order partial derivatives.
Second Order Partial Derivatives : When we differentiate a function
u = f(x,y) twice we obtain its second order derivatives, defined by,
∂
2
f
∂x
2
=
∂
∂x
\

.


∂f
∂x
;
∂
2
f
∂y
2
=
∂
∂y
\

.


∂f
∂y
and
∂
2
f
∂x ∂y
=
∂
∂x
\

.


∂f
∂y
=
∂
∂y
\

.


∂f
∂x
=
∂
2
f
∂y ∂x
denoted respectively
as f
xx
or u
xx
, f
yy
or u
yy
and f
xy
= f
yx
or u
xy
= u
yx
Note that since the function and its partial derivaties are continuous the
order of differentiation is immaterial (A result due to Euler)
81
Chain rule (function of a function rule) of two variables :
If u = f(x,y) is differentiable and
x and y are differentiable functions of
t, then u is a differentiable function
of t and
du
dt
=
∂f
∂x
dx
dt
+
∂f
∂y
dy
dt
Tree diagram to remember the
chain rule : (2 variables)
Fig. 6.8
Chain rule (function of a function rule) of three variables :
If u = f(x,y, z) is differentiable
and x, y, z are differentiable functions
of t, then u is a differentiable
function of t and
du
dt
=
∂f
∂x
dx
dt
+
∂f
∂y
dy
dt
+
∂f
∂z
dz
dt
Tree diagram to remember the
chain rule : (3 – variables)
Fig. 6.9
Chain rule for partial derivatives :
If w = f(u,v), u = g(x,y), ; v = h (x,y) then
∂w
∂x
=
∂w
∂u
∂u
∂x
+
∂w
∂v
∂v
∂x
;
∂w
∂y
=
∂w
∂u
∂u
∂y
+
∂w
∂v
∂v
∂y
Fig. 6.10
∂u / ∂x
dx / dt
∂u / ∂y
dy / dt
x y
u =f (x,y) dependent variable
t independent variable
∂u / ∂x
dx / dt
∂u / ∂y
dy / dt
x y
u =f (x,y) dependent variable
t independent variable
∂u / ∂x
dx / dt
∂u / ∂z
dz / dt
x z
u dependent variable
t independent variable
y
∂
u
/
∂
y
d
y
/
d
t
∂u / ∂x
dx / dt
∂u / ∂z
dz / dt
x z
u dependent variable
t independent variable
y
∂
u
/
∂
y
d
y
/
d
t
∂w / ∂u
∂u / ∂x
∂w / ∂v
∂v / ∂x
u v
w =f (u,v)
x
∂w / ∂u
∂u / ∂x
∂w / ∂v
∂v / ∂x
u v
w =f (u,v)
x
∂w / ∂u
∂u / ∂y
∂w / ∂v
∂v / ∂y
u v
w =f (u,v)
y
∂w / ∂u
∂u / ∂y
∂w / ∂v
∂v / ∂y
u v
w =f (u,v)
y
82
Homogeneous functions :
A function of several variables is said to be homogeneous of degree n if
multiplying each variables by t (where t > 0) has the same effect as multiplying
the original function by t
n
. Thus, f(x,y) is homogeneous of degree
n if f(tx, ty) = t
n
f(x,y)
Euler’s Theorem :
If f(x,y) is a homogeneous function of degree n, then x
∂f
∂x
+ y
∂f
∂y
= nf
Remark : Euler’s theorem can be extended to several variables.
Example 6.14 : Determine :
∂u
∂x
,
∂u
∂y
,
∂
2
u
∂x
2
,
∂
2
u
∂y
2
,
∂
2
u
∂x ∂y
and
∂
2
u
∂y∂x
if u(x,y) = x
4
+ y
3
+ 3x
2
y
2
+ 3x
2
y
Solution :
∂u
∂x
= 4x
3
+ 6xy
2
+ 6xy ;
∂u
∂y
= 3y
2
+ 6x
2
y + 3x
2
∂
2
u
∂x
2
= 12x
2
+ 6y
2
+ 6y ;
∂
2
u
∂y
2
= 6y + 6x
2
∂
2
u
∂x ∂y
= 12 xy + 6x ;
∂
2
u
∂y∂x
= 12xy + 6x
Note that
∂
2
u
∂x ∂y
=
∂
2
u
∂y∂x
due to continuity of u and its first order partial
derivatives.
Example 6.15 : If u = log (tan x + tan y + tan z), prove that ∑ sin 2x
∂u
∂x
= 2
Solution :
∂u
∂x
=
sec
2
x
tanx + tany + tanz
sin 2x
∂u
∂x
=
2 sin x cos x . sec
2
x
tan x + tan y + tan z
=
2 tan x
tan x + tan y + tan z
similarly, sin 2y
∂u
∂y
=
2 tan y
tan x + tan y + tan z
sin 2z
∂u
∂z
=
2 tan z
tan x + tan y + tan z
L.H.S. = ∑ sin 2x
∂u
∂x
=
2 (tan x + tan y + tan z)
tan x + tan y + tan z
= 2 = R.H.S
83
Example 6.16 :
If U =(x − y) (y − z) (z − x) then show that U
x
+ U
y
+ U
z
= 0
Solution : U
x
= (y − z) { } (x − y) (− 1) + (z − x).1
= (y − z) [(z − x) − (x − y)]
Similarly U
y
= (z − x) [(x − y) − (y − z)]
U
z
= (x − y) [(y − z) − (z − x)]
U
x
+ U
y
+ U
z
= (y − z) [(z − x) − (z − x)] + (x − y) [− (y − z) + (y − z)]
+ (z − x) [(x − y) − (x − y)]
= 0
Example 6.17 : Suppose that z = ye
x
2
where x = 2t and y = 1 − t then find
dz
dt
Solution :
dz
dt
=
∂z
∂x
dx
dt
+
∂z
∂y
dy
dt
∂z
∂x
= ye
x
2
2x ;
∂z
∂y
= e
x
2
;
dx
dt
= 2 ;
dy
dt
= −1
dz
dt
= y 2x e
x
2
(2) + e
x
2
(−1)
= 4 xy e
x
2
− e
x
2
= e
4t
2
[ ] (8t (1 − t) − 1) = e
4t
2
(8t − 8t
2
−1)
(Since x = 2t and y = 1 − t)
Example 6.18 : If w = u
2
e
v
where u =
x
y
and v = y log x, find
∂w
∂x
and
∂w
∂y
Solution : We know
∂w
∂x
=
∂w
∂u
∂u
∂x
+
∂w
∂v
∂v
∂x
; and
∂w
∂y
=
∂w
∂u
∂u
∂y
+
∂w
∂v
∂v
∂y
∂w
∂u
= 2ue
v
;
∂w
∂v
= u
2
e
v
;
∂u
∂x
=
1
y
;
∂u
∂y
=
−x
y
2
∂v
∂x
=
y
x
;
∂v
∂y
= log x.
∴
∂w
∂x
=
2ue
v
y
+ u
2
e
v
y
x
= x
y
x
y
2
(2 + y)
84
∴
∂w
∂y
= 2ue
v
−x
y
2
+ u
2
e
v
log x
=
x
2
y
3
x
y
[ylog x − 2], (since u =
x
y
and v = y log x)
Example 6.19 : If w = x + 2y + z
2
and x = cos t ; y = sin t ; z = t. Find
dw
dt
Solution : We know
dw
dt
=
∂w
∂x
dx
dt
+
∂w
∂y
dy
dt
+
∂w
∂z
dz
dt
∂w
∂x
= 1 ;
dx
dt
= − sin t
∂w
∂y
= 2 ;
dy
dt
= cos t
∂w
∂z
= 2 z ;
dz
dt
= 1
∴
dw
dt
= 1 ( − sin t) + 2 cos t + 2z = − sin t + 2 cos t + 2 t
Example 6.20 : Verify Euler’s theorem for f(x,y) =
1
x
2
+ y
2
Solution : f(tx, ty) =
1
t
2
x
2
+ t
2
y
2
=
1
t
f(x,y) = t
−1
f(x, y)
∴ f is a homogenous function of degree −1 and by Euler’s theorem,
x
∂f
∂x
+ y
∂f
∂y
= −f
Verification : f
x
= −
1
2
2x
( ) x
2
+y
2
3
/2
=
−x
( ) x
2
+y
2
3
/2
Similarly, f
y
=
−y
( ) x
2
+y
2
3
/2
xf
x
+ yf
y
= −
x
2
+ y
2
( ) x
2
+y
2
3
/2
=
−1
x
2
+ y
2
= − f.
Hence Euler’s theorem is verified.
85
Example 6.21 : If u is a homogenous function of x and y of degree n, prove that
x
∂
2
u
∂x ∂y
+ y
∂
2
u
∂y
2
= (n − 1)
∂u
∂y
Solution : Since U is a homogeneous function in x and y of degree n, U
y
is
homogeneous function in x and y of degree n − 1. Applying Euler’s theorem for
U
y
we have,
x(U
y
)
x
+ y (U
y
)
y
= (n −1) U
y
i.e., xU
yx
+ y U
yy
= (n −1) U
y
i.e., x
∂
2
u
∂x ∂y
+ y
∂
2
u
∂y
2
= (n − 1)
∂u
∂y
Example 6.22 : Using Euler’s theorem, prove that x
∂u
∂x
+ y
∂u
∂y
=
1
2
tan u if
u = sin
−1
\

.


x − y
x + y
Solution: R.H.S. is not homogeneous and hence
define f = sin u =
x − y
x + y
⇒ f is homogeneous of degree
1
2
.
∴ By Euler’s theorem, x
∂f
∂x
+ y
∂f
∂y
=
1
2
f
i.e., x .
∂
∂x
(sin u) + y
∂
∂y
(sin u) =
1
2
sin u
x
∂u
∂x
. cos u + y
∂u
∂y
. cos u =
1
2
sin u
x
∂u
∂x
+ y
∂u
∂y
=
1
2
tan u
EXERCISE 6.3
(1) Verify
∂
2
u
∂x ∂y
=
∂
2
u
∂y ∂x
for the following functions :
(i) u = x
2
+ 3xy + y
2
(ii) u =
x
y
2
−
y
x
2
(iii) u = sin 3x cos 4y (iv) u = tan
−1
\

.

x
y
.
86
(2) (i) If u = x
2
+ y
2
, show that x
∂u
∂x
+ y
∂u
∂y
= u
(ii) If u = e
x
y
sin
x
y
+ e
y
x
cos
y
x
, show that x
∂u
∂x
+ y
∂u
∂y
= 0.
(3) Using chain rule find
dw
dt
for each of the following :
(i) w = e
xy
where x = t
2
, y = t
3
(ii) w = log (x
2
+ y
2
) where x = e
t
, y = e
− t
(iii) w =
x
(x
2
+ y
2
)
where x = cos t, y = sin t.
(iv) w = xy + z where x = cos t, y = sin t, z = t
(4) (i) Find
∂w
∂r
and
∂w
∂θ
if w = log (x
2
+ y
2
) where x = r cos θ. y = r sin θ
(ii) Find
∂w
∂u
and
∂w
∂v
if w = x
2
+ y
2
where x = u
2
− v
2
, y = 2uv
(iii) Find
∂w
∂u
and
∂w
∂v
if w = sin
−1
xy where x = u
+ v, y = u − v.
(5) Using Euler’s theorem prove the following :
(i) If u = tan
−1
\

.

 x
3
+ y
3
x− y
prove that x
∂u
∂x
+ y
∂u
∂y
= sin 2u.
(ii) u = xy
2
sin
\

.

x
y
, show that x
∂u
∂x
+ y
∂u
∂y
= 3u.
(iii) If u is a homogeneous function of x and y of degree n, prove that
x
∂
2
u
∂x
2
+ y
∂
2
u
∂x ∂y
= (n − 1)
∂u
∂x
(iv) If V = ze
ax + by
and z is a homogenous function of degree n in x and
y prove that x
∂V
∂x
+ y
∂V
∂y
= (ax + by + n)V.
87
7. INTEGRAL CALCULUS AND ITS
APPLICATIONS
7.1. Introduction :
In class XI, we have studied the direct evaluation of definite integrals as
the limit of integral sums. Even when the integrands are very simple, direct
evaluation of definite integrals as the limit of integral sum involves great
difficulties. Sometimes this method involves cumbersome computations. There
is a formula called Second Fundamental Theorem on Calculus that yields a
practical and convenient method for computing definite integrals in case where
the antiderivative of the integrand is known. This method which was
discovered by Newton and Leibnitz utilises ‘the profound relationship’ that
exists between integration and differentiation. In this chapter we have the
following five sections dealing with the concept and applications of definite
integrals.
(i) To solve simple problems using second fundamental theorem of
calculus.
(ii) Properties of definite integral.
(iii) Reduction formulae
(iv) Area under the curve and volume of solid of revolution about an axis.
(v) Length of the curve and the surface area of a solid of revolution about
an axis.
7.2. Simple definite integrals :
First fundamental theorem of calculus :
Theorem 7.1 : If f(x) is a continuous function and F(x) =
⌡
⌠
a
x
f(t)dt, then we
have the equation F′(x) = f(x).
Second fundamental theorem of calculus :
Theorem 7.2 : If f(x) is a continuous function with domain a ≤ x ≤ b, then
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x)dx = F(b) − F(a) where F is any antiderivative of f.
Example 7.1 : Evaluate
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin x
1 + cos
2
x
dx
88
Solution: Let I =
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin x
1 + cos
2
x
dx
t = cos x
x 0 π / 2 Let t = cos x
dt = − sin x dx (or) sin x dx = − dt t 1 0
∴ I =
⌡
⌠
1
0
− dt
1 + t
2
= − [ ] tan
−1
t
0
1
= −
0 −
π
4
=
π
4
Example 7.2 : Evaluate
⌡
⌠
0
1
x e
x
dx
Solution:
Using the method of integration by parts
\

.

⌡
⌠ udv = uv −
⌡
⌠v du
⌡
⌠
0
1
x e
x
dx = (xe
x
)
1
0
−
⌡
⌠
0
1
e
x
dx
Here u = x
du = dx
dv = e
x
dx
v = e
x
= e − (e
x
)
1
0
= e − (e − 1)
= 1
Example 7.3 : Evaluate
⌡
⌠
0
a
a
2
− x
2
dx
Solution:
⌡
⌠
0
a
a
2
− x
2
dx =
x
2
a
2
− x
2
+
a
2
2
sin
−1
x
a
a
0
=
0 +
a
2
2
sin
−1
a
a
− (0 + 0)
=
a
2
2
sin
−1
(1) =
a
2
2
\

.

π
2
=
πa
2
4
89
Example 7.4 : Evaluate
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
e
2x
cos x dx
Solution: We know ∫e
ax
cos bx dx =
\

.

 e
ax
a
2
+ b
2
(a cos bx + b sin bx)
∴
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
e
2x
cos x dx =
\

.

 e
2x
2
2
+ 1
2
(2 cos x + sin x)
π/2
0
=
e
π
5
(0 + 1) −
e
0
5
(2 + 0)
=
e
π
5
−
2
5
=
1
5
(e
π
− 2)
EXERCISE 7.1
Evaluate the following problems using second fundamental theorem :
(1)
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
2
x dx (2)
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
cos
3
x dx (3)
⌡
⌠
0
1
9 − 4x
2
dx
(4)
⌡
⌠
0
π/4
2 sin
2
x sin 2x dx (5)
⌡
⌠
0
1
dx
4 − x
2
(6)
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin x dx
9 + cos
2
x
(7)
⌡
⌠
1
2
dx
x
2
+ 5x + 6
(8)
⌡
⌠
0
1
(sin
−1
x)
3
1 − x
2
dx (9)
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin 2x cos x dx
(10)
⌡
⌠
0
1
x
2
e
x
dx (11)
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
e
3x
cos x dx (12)
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
e
−x
sin x dx
7.3 Properties of Definite Integrals :
Property (1) :
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x)dx =
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(y) dy
Proof : Let F be any antiderivative of f
∴
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x) dx = [ ] F(b) − F(a) … (i)
90
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(y) dy = [ ] F(b) − F(a) … (ii)
From (i) and (ii)
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(y) dy
That is, integration is independent of change of variables provided the
limits of integration remain the same.
Property (2) :
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x)dx = −
⌡
⌠
b
a
f(x) dx
Proof : Let F be any antiderivative of f
∴
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x) dx = [ ] F(b) − F(a) … (i)
⌡
⌠
b
a
f(x) dx = [ ] F(a) − F(b)] = − [F(b) − F(a) … (ii)
From (i) and (ii)
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x) dx = −
⌡
⌠
b
a
f(x) dx
That is, if the limits of definite integral are interchanged, then the value of
integral changes its sign only.
Property (3) :
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x)dx =
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(a + b − x) dx
Proof : Let u = a + b − x u = a + b − x
x a b ∴ du = − dx
or dx = − du u b a
∴
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(a + b − x)dx = −
⌡
⌠
b
a
f(u) du =
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(u) du =
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x) dx
91
Property (4) :
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x)dx =
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(a − x) dx
Proof : Let u = a − x u = a − x
x o a ∴ du = − dx
or dx = − du u a o
∴
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(a − x)dx = −
⌡
⌠
a
o
f(u) du =
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(u) du =
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx
Property (5) (Without proof) : If f(x) is integrable on a closed interval
containing the three numbers a, b and c, then
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
a
c
f(x) dx +
⌡
⌠
c
b
f(x) dx
regardless of the order of a, b and c.
Property (6) :
⌡
⌠
0
2a
f(x)dx =
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx +
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(2a − x) dx
Proof : Consider
⌡
⌠
0
2a
f(x)dx =
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx +
⌡
⌠
a
2a
f(x) dx … (1)
u = 2a − x
x a 2a Put x = 2a − u in the second integral on the R.H.S.,
and dx = − du u a o
⌡
⌠
a
2a
f(x)dx = −
⌡
⌠
a
o
f(2a − u) du
=
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(2a − u) du
=
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(2a − x) dx
\

.



‡
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(y) dy
92
Hence (1) becomes
⌡
⌠
0
2a
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx +
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(2a − x) dx
Property (7) :
⌡
⌠
0
2a
f(x)dx = 2
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx if f(2a − x) = f(x)
= 0 if f(2a − x) = − f(x)
Proof : We know that by property
⌡
⌠
0
2a
f(x)dx =
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx +
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(2a − x) dx … (1)
If f(2a − x) = f(x) then (1) becomes
⌡
⌠
0
2a
f(x)dx =
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx +
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx = 2
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx
If f(2a − x) = − f(x) then (1) becomes
⌡
⌠
0
2a
f(x)dx =
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx −
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx = 0
Hence proved.
Property (8) : (i)
⌡
⌠
− a
a
f(x)dx = 2
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx, if f is an even function.
(ii)
⌡
⌠
− a
a
f(x) dx = 0 if f is an odd function.
Proof : Consider
⌡
⌠
− a
a
f(x)dx =
⌡
⌠
− a
0
f(x) dx +
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx … (1)
x = − t
x − a 0 Let x = − t in the first integral of the R.H.S.
Then dx = − dt t a 0
93
∴ (1) becomes
⌡
⌠
− a
a
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
a
o
f(− t) (− dt) +
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx
= −
⌡
⌠
a
0
f(− t) dt +
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx
=
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(− t) dt +
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx
∴
⌡
⌠
− a
a
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(− x) dx +
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx … (2)
Case (ii) : If ‘f’ is an even function, then (2) becomes
⌡
⌠
− a
a
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx +
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx
= 2
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx
Case (iii) : If ‘f’ is an odd function then (2) becomes
⌡
⌠
− a
a
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
0
a
(− f(x) dx +
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx
= −
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx +
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx = 0
Hence proved.
Example 7.5 : Evaluate
⌡
⌠
− π/4
π/4
x
3
sin
2
x dx.
Solution: Let f(x) = x
3
sin
2
x = x
3
(sin x)
2
∴ f(− x) = (− x)
3
(sin (− x))
2
= (− x)
3
(− sin x)
2
= − x
3
sin
2
x
= − f(x)
94
f(− x) = − f(x)
∴ f(x) is an odd function.
∴
⌡
⌠
− π/4
π/4
x
3
sin
2
x dx. = 0 (by property)
Example 7.6 :
Evaluate
⌡
⌠
− 1
1
log
\

.

3 − x
3 + x
dx
Solution: Let f(x) = log
\

.

3 − x
3 + x
∴ f(− x) = log
\

.

3 + x
3 −x
= log (3 + x) − log (3 − x)
= − [ ] log (3 − x) − log (3 + x)
= −
log
\

.

3 − x
3 + x
= − f(x)
Thus f(− x) = − f(x) ∴ f(x) is an odd function.
∴
⌡
⌠
− 1
1
log
\

.

3 − x
3 + x
dx = 0
Example 7.7 :
Evaluate :
⌡
⌠
− π/2
π/2
x sin x dx
Solution: Let f(x) = x sin x
f(− x) = (− x) sin (− x)
= x sin x (‡ sin (− x) = − sin x)
∴ f(x) is an even function.
⌡
⌠
− π/2
π/2
x sin x dx = 2
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
x sin x dx
= 2
{ } x (− cos x)
π/2
0
−
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
(− cos x) dx
95
Using the method of integration by parts
= 2
0 +
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
cos x dx = 2 [ ] sin x
π/2
0
= 2 [1 − 0] = 2
Example 7.8 : Evaluate
⌡
⌠
− π/2
π/2
sin
2
x dx
Solution: Let f(x) = sin
2
x = (sin x)
2
f(− x) = (sin (− x))
2
= (− sin x)
2
= sin
2
x = f(x)
Hence f(x) is an even function.
∴
⌡
⌠
− π/2
π/2
sin
2
x dx = 2
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
2
x dx = 2 ×
1
2
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
(1 − cos 2x) dx
=
x −
sin 2x
2
π/2
0
=
π
2
Example 7.9 : Evaluate
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
f(sin x)
f(sin x) + f(cos x)
dx
Solution: Let I =
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
f(sin x)
f(sin x) + f(cos x)
dx … (1)
=
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
f
\

.

sin
\

.

π
2
− x
f
\

.

sin
\

.

π
2
− x + f
\

.

cos
\

.

π
2
− x
dx
∴ I =
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
f (cos x)
f(cos x) + f (sin x)
dx … (2)
(1) + (2) gives 2 I =
⌡
⌠
o
π/2
f(sin x) + f(cos x)
f(cos x) + f(sin x)
dx =
⌡
⌠
o
π/2
dx = [x]
π/2
0
=
π
2
∴ I =
π
4
96
Example 7.10 : Evaluate
⌡
⌠
0
1
x(1 − x)
n
dx
Solution: Let I =
⌡
⌠
0
1
x(1 − x)
n
dx
=
⌡
⌠
0
1
(1 − x) [ ] 1 − (1 − x)
n
dx
‡
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
o
a
f(a − x) dx
=
⌡
⌠
0
1
(1 − x) x
n
dx =
⌡
⌠
0
1
(x
n
− x
n + 1
) dx
=
x
n + 1
n + 1
−
x
n + 2
n + 2
1
0
=
1
n + 1
−
1
n + 2
=
n + 2 − (n + 1)
(n + 1) (n + 2)
⌡
⌠
0
1
x(1 − x)
n
dx =
1
(n + 1) (n + 2)
Example 7.11 : Evaluate
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
log (tan x)dx
Solution: Let I =
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
log (tan x)dx … (1)
=
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
log
\

.

tan
\

.

π
2
− x dx
I =
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
log (cot x) dx … (2)
(1) + (2) gives 2I =
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
[ ] log (tan x) + log (cot x) dx
97
=
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
[ ] log (tan x) . (cot x) dx =
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
(log 1) dx = 0
∴ I = 0 (‡ log 1 = 0)
Example 7.12 : Evaluate
⌡
⌠
π/6
π/3
dx
1 + cot x
Solution: Let I =
⌡
⌠
π/6
π/3
dx
1 + cot x
I =
⌡
⌠
π/6
π/3
sin x
sin x + cos x
dx … (1)
=
⌡
⌠
π
6
π
3
sin
\

.

π
3
+
π
6
− x dx
sin
\

.

π
3
+
π
6
− x + cos
\

.

π
3
+
π
6
− x
\

.



‡
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(a + b − x) dx
=
⌡
⌠
π
6
π
3
sin
\

.

π
2
− x
sin
\

.

π
2
− x + cos
\

.

π
2
− x
dx
I =
⌡
⌠
π/6
π/3
cos x
cos x + sin x
dx … (2)
(1) + (2) gives 2I =
⌡
⌠
π/6
π/3
sin x + cos x
cos x + sin x
dx
98
2I =
⌡
⌠
π/6
π/3
dx = [ ] x
π/3
π/6
=
π
3
−
π
6
=
π
6
∴ I =
π
12
EXERCISE 7.2
Evaluate the following problems using properties of integration.
(1)
⌡
⌠
− 1
1
sin
x cos
4
x dx (2)
⌡
⌠
−π/4
π/4
x
3
cos
3
x dx (3)
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
3
x cos
x dx
(4)
⌡
⌠
− π/2
π/2
cos
3
x dx (5)
⌡
⌠
− π/2
π/2
sin
2
x cosx dx (6)
⌡
⌠
− π/4
π/4
x sin
2
x dx
(7)
⌡
⌠
0
1
log
\

.

1
x
− 1 dx (8)
⌡
⌠
0
3
x dx
x + 3 − x
(9)
⌡
⌠
0
1
x (1 − x)
10
dx
(10)
⌡
⌠
π/6
π/3
dx
1 + tan x
7.4 Reduction formulae :
A formula which expresses (or reduces) the integral of the nth indexed
function interms of that of (n − 1)th indexed (or lower indexed) function is
called a reduction formula.
Reduction formulae for ∫ sin
n
x dx.
⌡
⌠
cos
n
x dx (n is a positive integer) :
Result 1 : If I
n
= ∫ sin
n
x dx then I
n
= −
1
n
sin
n−1
x cos x +
n − 1
n
I
n − 2
Result 2 : If I
n
=
⌡
⌠
cos
n
x dx then I
n
=
1
n
cos
n−1
x sin x +
n − 1
n
I
n − 2
Result 3 :
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
n
x dx =
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
cos
n
x dx =
¹
´
¦
n − 1
n
.
n − 3
n − 2
.
n − 5
n − 4
...
2
3
.
1 when n is odd
n − 1
n
.
n − 3
n − 2
.
n − 5
n − 4
...
1
2
.
π
2
when n is even
99
Note : For the proofs of these above three results, refer Solution Book.
Example 7.13 : Evaluate :
⌡
⌠sin
5
x dx
Solution : If I
n
=
⌡
⌠sin
n
x dx, then we have
I
n
= −
1
n
sin
n−1
x cos x +
n − 1
n
I
n−2
… (I)
∴
⌡
⌠sin
5
x dx = I
5
= −
1
5
sin
4
x cos x +
4
5
I
3
(when n=5 in I)
= −
1
5
sin
4
x cos x +
4
5
−
1
3
sin
2
x cosx +
2
3
I
1
(when n=3 in I)
⌡
⌠sin
5
x dx = −
1
5
sin
4
x cos x −
4
15
sin
2
x cosx +
8
15
I
1
… (II)
I
1
=
⌡
⌠sin
1
x dx = − cos x + c
∴
⌡
⌠sin
5
x dx = −
1
5
sin
4
x cos x −
4
15
sin
2
x cos x −
8
15
cos x + c
Example 7.14 : Evaluate :
⌡
⌠sin
6
x dx
Solution : If I
n
=
⌡
⌠sin
n
x dx, then we have
I
n
= −
1
n
sin
n − 1
x cos x +
n − 1
n
I
n − 2
… (I)
∴
⌡
⌠sin
6
x dx = I
6
= −
1
6
sin
5
x cos x +
5
6
I
4
(when n=6 in I)
= −
1
6
sin
5
x cos x +
5
6
−
1
4
sin
3
x cosx +
3
4
I
2
(when n=4 in I)
⌡
⌠sin
6
x dx = −
1
6
sin
5
x cos x −
5
24
sin
3
x cos x +
5
8
I
2
(when n=2 in I)
= −
1
6
sin
5
x cos x −
5
24
sin
3
x cos x +
5
8
−
1
2
sin x cosx +
1
2
I
0
⌡
⌠sin
6
x dx = −
1
6
sin
5
x cos x −
5
24
sin
3
x cos x −
5
16
sin x cos x +
5
16
I
0
100
I
0
=
⌡
⌠sin
0
x dx =
⌡
⌠dx = x
∴
⌡
⌠sin
6
x dx = −
1
6
sin
5
x cos x −
5
24
sin
3
x cos x −
5
16
sin x cos x +
5
16
x
Example 7.15 : Evaluate :
(i)
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
7
x dx (ii)
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
cos
8
x dx (iii)
⌡
⌠
0
2π
sin
9
x
4
dx
(iv)
⌡
⌠
0
π/6
cos
7
3x dx
Solution : (i)We have
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
n
x dx =
n − 1
n
.
n − 3
n − 2
...
2
3
when ‘n’ is odd
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
7
x dx =
6
7
.
4
5
.
2
3
=
16
35
(ii)
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
cos
n
x dx =
n − 1
n
.
n − 3
n − 2
.
n − 5
n − 4
...
1
2
.
π
2
when ‘n’ is even
∴
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
cos
8
x dx =
7
8
.
5
6
.
3
4
.
1
2
.
π
2
=
35π
256
(iii)
⌡
⌠
0
2π
sin
9
x
4
dx
t = x / 4
x 0 2π
Put
x
4
= t
∴ dx = 4dt t 0 π/2
⌡
⌠
0
2π
sin
9
x
4
dx = 4
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
9
t dt = 4.
\

.

8
9
.
6
7
.
4
5
.
2
3
.
=
512
315
101
(iv)
⌡
⌠
0
π/6
cos
7
3x dx
t = 3x
x 0 π/6
Put 3x = t
3dx = dt
dx = 1/3 dt
t 0 π/2
⌡
⌠
0
π/6
cos
7
3x dx =
1
3
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
cos
7
t dt =
1
3
6
7
.
4
5
.
2
3
.
=
16
105
Example 7.16 : Evaluate :
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
4
x cos
2
x dx
Solution :
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
4
x cos
2
x dx=
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
4
x (1 − sin
2
x) dx
=
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
(sin
4
x − sin
6
x) dx =
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
4
x dx−
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
6
x dx
=
3
4
.
1
2
.
π
2
−
5
6
.
3
4
.
1
2
.
π
2
=
π
32
Two important results : The following two results are very useful in the
evaluation of certain types of integrals.
(1) If u and v are functions of x, then
∫udv = uv − u′v
1
+ u′′v
2
− u′′′v
3
+ ... + (− 1)
n
u
n
v
n
+ ...
where u′, u′′, u′′′ ... are successive derivatives of u and v
1
, v
2
, v
3
... are
repeated integrals of v
The above formula is well known as Bernoulli’s formula.
Bernoulli’s formula is advantageously applied when u = x
n
(n is a positive
integer).
(2) If n is a positive integer, then
⌡
⌠
0
∞
x
n
e
−ax
dx =
n
a
n+1
102
Note : The above formula is known as a particular case of Gamma Integral.
Example 7.17 : Evaluate :
(i) ∫x
3
e
2x
dx (ii)
⌡
⌠
0
1
x e
− 4x
dx (iii)
⌡
⌠
0
∞
x
5
e
−4x
dx (iv)
⌡
⌠
0
∞
e
−mx
x
7
dx
Solution :
(1) ∫x
3
e
2x
dx
Using Bernoulli’s formula
∫udv = uv − u′v
1
+ u′′v
2
...
We get
dv = e
2x
dx
u = x
3
v = 1/2 e
2x
u′ = 3x
2
v
1
= 1/4 e
2x
u′′ = 6x v
2
= 1/8 e
2x
u′′′ = 6 v
3
= 1/16 e
2x
⌡
⌠
x
3
e
2x
dx = (x
3
)
\

.

1
2
e
2x
− (3x
2
)
\

.

1
4
e
2x
+ (6x)
\

.

1
8
e
2x
− (6)
\

.

1
16
e
2x
=
1
2
e
2x
x
3
−
3
2
x
2
+
3x
2
−
3
4
(ii)
⌡
⌠
0
1
x e
− 4x
dx
Using Bernoulli’s formula we get
⌡
⌠
0
1
x e
− 4x
dx =
(x)
\

.

−
1
4
e
−4x
− (1)
\

.

1
16
e
−4x
1
0
dv = e
−4x
dx
u = x v = −
1
4
e
−4x
u′ = 1 v
1
=
1
16
e
−4x
=
\

.

−
1
4
e
−4
− 0 −
1
16
(e
−4
− e
0
)
=
1
16
−
5
16
e
−4
(iii)
⌡
⌠
0
∞
x
5
e
−4x
dx Using Gamma Integral
⌡
⌠
0
∞
x
5
e
−4x
dx =
5
4
6
(iv)
⌡
⌠
0
∞
e
−mx
x
7
dx =
7
m
8
(Using Gamma Integral)
103
EXERCISE 7.3
(1) Evaluate : (i)
⌡
⌠
sin
4
x dx (ii)
⌡
⌠
cos
5
x dx
(2) Evaluate : (i)
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
6
x dx (ii)
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
cos
9
x dx
(3) Evaluate : (i)
⌡
⌠
0
π/4
cos
8
2x dx (ii)
⌡
⌠
0
π/6
sin
7
3x dx
(4) Evaluate : (i)
⌡
⌠
0
1
x e
−2x
dx (ii)
⌡
⌠
0
∞
x
6
e
−x/2
dx
7.5 Area and Volume :
In this section, we apply the definite integral to compute measure of area,
length of arc and surface area. In our treatment it is understood that area,
volume etc. is a number without any unit of measurement attached to it.
7.5.1 Area of bounded regions :
Theorem : Let y = f(x) be a
continuous function defined on
[a, b], which is positive (f(x) lies on
or above xaxis) on the interval
[a, b]. Then, the area bounded by the
curve y = f(x), the xaxis and the
ordinates x = a and x = b is given by
Area =
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x)dx or
⌡
⌠
a
b
ydx
Fig. 7.1
If f(x) ≤ 0 (f(x) lies on or below
xaxis) for all x in a ≤ x ≤ b then area
is given by
Area =
⌡
⌠
a
b
(− y) dx =
⌡
⌠
a
b
(− f(x) dx)
(i.e., The area below the xaxis
is negative)
Fig. 7.2
x
y
x
=
a
x
=
b
y =f(x)
A
B
C
D
x
y
x
=
a
x
=
b
y =f(x)
A
B
C
D
x
y
x
=
a
x
=
b
y =f(x)
A
B
D
C
x
y
x
=
a
x
=
b
y =f(x)
A
B
D
C
104
Example 7.18 : Find the area of the region bounded by the line 3x − 2y + 6 = 0,
x = 1, x = 3 and xaxis.
Since the line 3x − 2y + 6 = 0 lies above
the xaxis in the interval [1, 3],
(i.e., y > 0 for x ∈ (1,3))
the required area
A =
⌡
⌠
1
3
ydx =
3
2
⌡
⌠
1
3
(x + 2) dx
=
3
2
x
2
2
+ 2x
3
1
Fig. 7.3
=
3
2
1
2
(9 − 1) + 2(3 − 1) =
3
2
[4 + 4]
Area = 12 sq. units
Example 7.19:
Find the area of the region bounded by the line 3x − 5y − 15 = 0, x = 1,
x = 4 and xaxis.
The line 3x − 5y − 15 = 0 lies
below the xaxis in the interval x = 1
and x = 4
∴Required area =
⌡
⌠
1
4
(− y) dx
Fig. 7.4
=
⌡
⌠
1
4
−
1
5
(3x − 15) dx =
3
5
⌡
⌠
1
4
(5 − x) dx =
3
5
5x −
x
2
2
4
1
=
3
5
5(4 − 1) −
1
2
(16 − 1)
=
3
5
15 −
15
2
=
9
2
sq. units.
Example 7.20: Find the area of the region bounded y = x
2
− 5x + 4, x = 2, x = 3
and the xaxis.
x
y
1 3 0 2
y
=
(
3
/
2
)
(
x
+
2
)
x
y
1 3 0 2
y
=
(
3
/
2
)
(
x
+
2
)
x
y
1 4
y
=
(
1
/
5
)
(
3
x

1
5
)
x
y
1 4
y
=
(
1
/
5
)
(
3
x

1
5
)
105
For all x, 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 the curve lies
below the xaxis.
Required area =
⌡
⌠
2
3
(− y) dx
=
⌡
⌠
2
3
− (x
2
− 5x + 4) dx
= −
x
3
3
− 5
x
2
2
+ 4x
3
2
Fig. 7.5
= −
\

.

9 −
45
2
+ 12 −
\

.

8
3
−
20
2
+ 8 = −
− 13
6
=
13
6
sq. units
Area between a continuous curve and yaxis :
Let x = f(y) be a continuous
function of y on [c, d]. The area
bounded by the curve x = f(y) and the
abscissae y = c, y = d to the right of
yaxis is given by
⌡
⌠
c
d
xdy
Fig. 7.6
If the curve lies to the left of
yaxis between the lines y = c and
y = d, the area is given by
⌡
⌠
c
d
(− x) dy.
Fig. 7.7
Example 7.21: Find the area of the
region bounded by y = 2x + 1, y = 3,
y = 5 and y – axis.
Solution : The line y = 2x + 1 lies to
the right of yaxis between the lines
y = 3 and y = 5.
∴ The required area A =
⌡
⌠
c
d
xdy
Fig. 7.8
x
y
1
2
1
3 0 4 2
x
y
1
2
1
3 0 4 2
x
y
y =d
y =c
x =f(y)
B
A
D
C
x
y
y =d
y =c
x =f(y)
B
A
D
C
x
y
y =d
y =c
x =f(y)
B
A
D
C
x
y
y =d
y =c
x =f(y)
B
A
D
C
x
y
0
y =3
y =5
y
=
2
x
+
1
x
y
0
y =3
y =5
y
=
2
x
+
1
106
=
⌡
⌠
3
5
y − 1
2
dy =
1
2
⌡
⌠
3
5
(y − 1)dy
=
1
2
y
2
2
− y
5
3
=
1
2
\

.

25
2
−
9
2
− (5 − 3)
=
1
2
[8 − 2] = 3 sq. units
Example 7.22: Find the area of the region bounded y = 2x + 4, y = 1 and y = 3
and yaxis.
The curve lies to the left of yaxis
between the lines y = 1 and y = 3
∴ Area is given by
A =
⌡
⌠
1
3
(− x) dy
=
⌡
⌠
1
3
−
\

.

y − 4
2
dy
Fig. 7.9
=
1
2
⌡
⌠
1
3
(4 − y)dy =
1
2
4y −
y
2
2
3
1
=
1
2
[8 − 4] = 2 sq. units.
Remark :
If the continuous curve f crosses
the xaxis, then the integral
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x) dx
gives the algebraic sum of the areas
between the curve and the axis,
counting area above as positive and
below as negative.
Fig. 7.10
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x) dx
=
⌡
⌠
a
c
f(x) dx +
↓
above axis
⌡
⌠
c
d
(− f(x)) dx +
↓
below axis
⌡
⌠
d
b
f(x) dx
↓
above axis
x
1 3
0
2
y
=
2
x
+
4
y =1
y =3
x
1 3
0
2
y
=
2
x
+
4
y =1
y =3
x
1
x
b a c d
f (x) f (x)
x
1
x
b a c d
f (x) f (x)
107
Example 7.23: (i) Evaluate the integral
⌡
⌠
1
5
(x − 3)dx
(ii) Find the area of the region bounded by the line y + 3 = x, x = 1 and x = 5
Solution :
(i)
⌡
⌠
1
5
(x − 3) dx =
x
2
2
− 3x
5
1
=
\

.

25
2
− 15 −
\

.

1
2
− 3 = 12 − 12 = 0 … I
(ii) The line y = x − 3 crosses xaxis at x = 3
From the diagram it is clear that A
1
lies below xaxis.
∴ A
1
=
⌡
⌠
1
3
(− y) dx.
As A
2
lies above the xaxis
A
2
=
⌡
⌠
3
5
ydx
Fig. 7.11
∴ Total area =
⌡
⌠
1
5
(x − 3)dx =
⌡
⌠
1
3
− (x − 3) dx +
⌡
⌠
3
5
(x − 3) dx
= (6 − 4) + (8 − 6)
= 2 + 2
= 4 sq. units … (II)
Note :
From I and II it is clear that the integral f(x) is not always imply an area.
The fundamental theorem asserts that the antiderivative method works even
when the function f(x) is not always positive.
Example 7.24:
Find the area bounded by the curve y = sin 2x between the ordinates x = 0,
x = π and xaxis.
Solution :
The points where the curve y = sin 2x meets the xaxis can be obtained by
putting y = 0.
sin 2x = 0 ⇒ 2x = nπ , n ∈ Z
y
=
x
−
3
y
x
O
1
3 5
A
1
A
2
108
x =
n
2
π. i.e., x =
¹
´
¦
)
`
¹
0. ±
π
2
. ± π. ± 3
π
2
…
∴ The values of x between x = 0 are x = π are x = 0,
π
2
, π
The limits for the first arch are 0 and
π
2
and the curve lies above xaxis.
The limits for the second arch are
π
2
and π and the curve lies below xaxis.
∴Required area
A =
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin 2x dx +
⌡
⌠
π/2
π
(− sin 2x)dx
=
\

.

− cos2x
2
π/2
0
+
\

.

cos2x
2
π
π/2
Fig. 7.12
=
1
2
[−cos π + cos 0 + cos 2π − cos π]
=
1
2
[1 + 1 + 1 + 1] = 2 sq. units.
Example 7.25:
Find the area between the curves y = x
2
− x − 2, xaxis and the lines
x = − 2 and x = 4
Solution : y = x
2
− x − 2
= (x + 1) (x − 2)
This curve intersects xaxis at x = − 1 and
x = 2
Required area = A
1
+ A
2
+ A
3
The part A
2
lies below xaxis.
∴ A
2
= −
⌡
⌠
− 1
2
y dx
Hence required area
Fig. 7.13
π π/2
y
x
0
y =sin 2x
π π/2
y
x
0
π π/2
y
x
0
y =sin 2x
4 2
2
x
=

2
x
=
4
A
1
A
2
A
3 y
=
x
2
–
x

2
x
y
2 4 2
2
x
=

2
x
=
4
A
1
A
2
A
3 y
=
x
2
–
x

2
x
y
2
109
=
⌡
⌠
− 2
− 1
y dx +
⌡
⌠
− 1
2
(− y)dx +
⌡
⌠
2
4
y dx
=
⌡
⌠
− 2
− 1
(x
2
− x − 2) dx +
⌡
⌠
− 1
2
− (x
2
− x − 2)dx +
⌡
⌠
2
4
(x
2
− x − 2) dx
=
11
6
+
9
2
+
26
3
= 15 sq. units
General Area Principle :
Let f and g be two continuous
curves, with f lying above g. then the
area R between f and g, from
x = a to x = b, is given by
R =
⌡
⌠
a
b
(f − g)dx
No restriction on f and g where
they lie. Both may be lie above or
below the xaxis or g lies below and
f lies above the xaxis.
Fig. 7.14
Example 7.26: Find the area between the line y=x + 1 and the curve y = x
2
− 1.
Solution : To get the points of intersection of the curves we should solve the
equations y = x + 1 and y = x
2
− 1.
we get, x
2
− 1 = x + 1
x
2
− x − 2 = 0
⇒ (x − 2) (x + 1) = 0
∴ x = −1 or x = 2
∴ The line intersects the curve at
x = − 1 and x = 2.
Required area =
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x)
above
−
g(x)
below
dx
Fig. 7.15
=
⌡
⌠
− 1
2
[ ] (x + 1) − (x
2
− 1) dx
(a, f (a))
g
(b, f (b))
(a, g (a)) (b, g (b))
f
x
=
a
x
=
b
(a, f (a))
g
(b, f (b))
(a, g (a)) (b, g (b))
f
x
=
a
x
=
b
1 2 1
A
b
o
v
e
:
y
=
x
+
1
Below : y =x
2
 1
x
y
1 2 1
A
b
o
v
e
:
y
=
x
+
1
Below : y =x
2
 1
x
y
110
=
⌡
⌠
− 1
2
[2 + x − x
2
]dx =
2x +
x
2
2
−
x
3
3
2
−1
=
4 + 2 −
8
3
−
− 2 +
1
2
+
1
3
=
9
2
sq. units
Example 7.27:
Find the area bounded by the curve y = x
3
and the line y = x.
Solution : The line y = x lies above the curve y = x
3
in the first quadrant and
y = x
3
lies above the line y = x in the third quadrant. To get the points of
intersection, solve the curves y = x
3
, y = x ⇒ x
3
= x . We get x = {0, ± 1}
The required area = A
1
+ A
2
=
⌡
⌠
−1
0
[ ] g(x) − f(x) dx +
⌡
⌠
0
1
[ ] f(x) − g(x) dx
=
⌡
⌠
−1
0
(x
3
− x)dx +
⌡
⌠
0
1
(x − x
3
)dx
=
x
4
4
−
x
2
2
0
−1
+
x
2
2
−
x
4
4
1
0
=
\

.

0 −
1
4
−
\

.

0 −
1
2
+
\

.

1
2
− 0 −
\

.

1
4
− 0
= −
1
4
+
1
2
+
1
2
−
1
4
=
1
2
sq. units.
Fig. 7.16
Example 7.28: Find the area of the region enclosed by y
2
= x and y = x − 2
Solution : The points of intersection of the parabola y
2
= x and the line
y = x − 2 are (1, − 1) and (4, 2)
To compute the region [shown in
figure (6.17)] by integrating with
respect to x, we would have to split
the region into two parts, because the
equation of the lower boundary
changes at x = 1. However if we
integrate with respect to y no
splitting is necessary.
Fig. 7.17
1
1 0
y
=
x
y =x
3
(1, 1)
(1, 1)
y
=
x
y =x
3
x
y
1
1 0
y
=
x
y =x
3
(1, 1)
(1, 1)
y
=
x
y =x
3
x
y
x
y
(4, 2)
(1, 1)
y =x  2
x =y
2
x
y
(4, 2)
(1, 1)
y =x  2
x =y
2
111
Required area =
⌡
⌠
− 1
2
(f(y) − g(y) dy
=
⌡
⌠
− 1
2
[ ] (y + 2) − y
2
dy =
\

.

 y
2
2
+ 2y −
y
3
3
2
−1
=
\

.

4
2
−
1
2
+ (4 + 2) −
\

.

8
3
+
1
3
=
3
2
+ 6 −
9
3
=
9
2
sq. units.
Example 7.29: Find the area of the region common to the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 16
and the parabola y
2
= 6x
Solution : The points of intersection
of x
2
+ y
2
= 16 and y
2
= 6x are
( ) 2. 2 3 and ( ) 2. − 2 3
Required area is OABC
Due to symmetrical property, the
required area
OABC = 2 OBC
i.e., 2{[Area bounded by y
2
= 6x,
x = 0, x = 2 and xaxis] + [Area
bounded by x
2
+ y
2
= 16, x = 2, x = 4
and xaxis]}
Fig. 7.18
= 2
⌡
⌠
0
2
6x dx + 2
⌡
⌠
2
4
16 − x
2
dx
= 2 6
x
3/2
3/2
2
0
+ 2
x
2
4
2
− x
2
+
4
2
2
sin
−1
x
4
4
2
=
8 12
3
− 2 12 + 8π −
8π
3
=
4
3
( ) 4π + 3
x
y
y =√6x
(2,2√3)
y
=
√
(
1
6
–
x
2 )
2 O
A
B
C
D
x
y
y =√6x
(2,2√3)
y
=
√
(
1
6
–
x
2 )
2 O
A
B
C
D
112
Example 7.30: Compute the area between the curve y = sin x and y = cosx and
the lines x = 0 and x = π
Solution : To find the points of
intersection solve the two equations.
Sin x = cos x =
1
2
⇒ x =
π
4
sin x = cos x =
− 1
2
⇒ x =
5π
4
Fig. 7.19
From the figure we see that cos x > sin x for 0 ≤ x <
π
4
and sin x > cos x for
π
4
< x < π
∴ Area A =
⌡
⌠
0
π/4
(cos x − sin x) dx +
⌡
⌠
π/4
π
(sin x − cos x)dx
= (sin x + cos x)
π/4
0
+ (− cos x − sin x)
π
π/4
=
\

.

sin
π
4
+ cos
π
4
−(sin 0 + cos0) + (−cosπ − sin π) −
\

.

− cos
π
4
−sin
π
4
=
\

.

1
2
+
1
2
− (0 + 1) + (1 − 0) −
\

.

−
1
2
−
1
2
= 2 2 sq. units.
Example 7.31: Find the area of the region bounded by the ellipse
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1
Solution : The curve is symmetric
about both axes.
∴Area of the ellipse = 4 × Area
of the ellipse in the I quadrant.
I = 4
⌡
⌠
0
a
ydx
= 4
⌡
⌠
0
a
b
a
a
2
− x
2
dx
Fig. 7.20
x
y
0
a
y =(b/a) √(a
2
– x
2
)
x
y
0
a
y =(b/a) √(a
2
– x
2
)
π/4
π/2
π
3π/2
1
0
1
y
x
y
=
c
o
s
x
y
=
s
i
n
x
π/4
π/2
π
3π/2
1
0
1
y
x
y
=
c
o
s
x
y
=
s
i
n
x
113
=
4b
a
⌡
⌠
0
a
a
2
− x
2
dx =
4b
a
x
2
a
2
− x
2
+
a
2
2
sin
−1
\

.

x
a
a
0
=
4b
a
0 +
a
2
2
sin
−1
(1) − 0 =
4b
a
\

.

 a
2
2
\

.

π
2
= π ab sq. units.
By using parametric form i.e., 4
⌡
⌠
0
a
y dx = 4
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
b sin θ (− a sin θ) dθ, we
get the same area.
Example 7.32: Find the area of the curve y
2
= (x − 5)
2
(x − 6)
(i) between x = 5 and x = 6 (ii) between x = 6 and x = 7
Solution :
(i) y
2
= (x − 5)
2
(x − 6)
∴y = (x − 5) x − 6
This curve cuts the xaxis at x = 5 and at x = 6
When x takes any value between 5 and 6, y
2
is negative.
∴ The curve does not exist in the interval 5 < x < 6.
Hence the area between the curve at x = 5 and x = 6 is zero.
(ii) Required area =
⌡
⌠
a
b
ydx
= 2
⌡
⌠
6
7
(x − 5) x − 6 dx
(Since the curve is symmetrical
about xaxis)
Fig. 7.21
= 2
⌡
⌠
6
7
(t + 1) t dt
= 2
⌡
⌠
0
1
(t
3/2
+ t
1/2
)dt
Take t = x − 6
dt = dx
t = x − 6
x 6 7
t 0 1
x
y
=
(
x
–
5
)
√
(
x
–
6
)
5 6 7
x
=
7
x
y
=
(
x
–
5
)
√
(
x
–
6
)
5 6 7
x
=
7
114
= 2
t
5/2
5
2
+
t
3/2
3
2
1
0
= 2
\

.

2
5
+
2
3
= 2
\

.

6 + 10
15
=
32
15
sq. units
Example 7.33: Find the area of the loop of the curve 3ay
2
= x(x − a)
2
Solution :
Put y = 0 ; we get x = 0, a
It meets the xaxis at x = 0 and x = a
∴ Here a loop is formed between
the points (0, 0) and (a, 0) about
xaxis. Since the curve is symmetrical
about xaxis, the area of the loop is
twice the area of the portion above the
xaxis.
Fig. 7.22
Required area = 2
⌡
⌠
0
a
y dx
= − 2
⌡
⌠
0
a
x (x − a)
3a
dx = −
2
3a
⌡
⌠
0
a
[ ] x
3/2
− a x dx
= −
2
3a
2
5
x
5/2
−
2a
3
x
3/2
a
0
=
8a
2
15 3
=
8 3 a
2
45
∴ Required area =
8 3 a
2
45
sq. units.
Example 7.34:
Find the area bounded by xaxis and an arch of the cycloid
x = a (2t − sin 2t), y = a (1 − cos 2t)
Solution : The curves crosses xaxis when y = 0.
∴ a(1 − cos 2t) = 0
∴ cos 2t = 1 ; 2t = 2nπ, n ∈ z
∴ t = 0, π, 2π, …
∴ One arch of the curve lies between 0 and π
x
y
(a,0)
x
y
(a,0)
115
Required area =
⌡
⌠
a
b
y dx
=
⌡
⌠
0
π
a(1 − cos 2t) 2a (1 − cos 2t) dt
y = a(1 − cos2t)
x = a (2t − sin 2t)
dx = 2a(1 − cos 2t) dt
= 2a
2
⌡
⌠
0
π
(1 − cos 2t)
2
dt = 2a
2
⌡
⌠
0
π
(2 sin
2
t)
2
dt = 8a
2
⌡
⌠
0
π
sin
4
t dt
= 2 × 8a
2
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin
4
t dt
\

.



‡
⌡
⌠
0
2a
f(x) dx = 2
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(2a − x)dx
= 16a
2
3
4
×
1
2
×
π
2
= 3πa
2
sq. units.
7.5.2 Volume of solids of revolution :
Let f be a nonnegative and continuous curve on [a, b] and let R be the
region bounded above by the graph of f, below by the xaxis and on the sides by
the lines x = a and x = b [Fig 6.23 (a)].
Fig. 7.23(a)
Fig. 7.23 (b)
When this region is revolved about the xaxis, it generates a solid having
circular cross sections (Fig. 7.23(b)]. Since the cross section at x has radius f(x),
the crosssectional area is A(x) = π [ ] f(x)
2
= πy
2
The volume of the solid is generated by moving the plane circular disc
[Fig.6.23(b)] along xaxis perpendicular to the disc.
f(x)
a
b
f(x)
a
b
f(x)
x
f(x)
x
116
Therefore volume of the solid is V =
⌡
⌠
a
b
π [ ] f(x)
2
dx =
⌡
⌠
a
b
π y
2
dx
(ii) If the region bounded by the
graph of x = g(y), the yaxis and on
the sides by the lines y = c and y = d
(Fig. 7.24) then the volume of the
solid generated is given by
V =
⌡
⌠
c
d
π [ ] g(y)
2
dx =
⌡
⌠
c
d
π x
2
dy
Fig. 7.24
Example 7.35:
Find the volume of the solid that results when the ellipse
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1 (a > b > 0) is revolved about the minor axis.
Solution :
Volume of the solid is obtained by
revolving the right side of the curve
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1 about the yaxis.
Limits for y is obtained by putting
x = 0 ⇒ y
2
= b
2
⇒ y = ± b
From the given curve x
2
=
a
2
b
2
(b
2
− y
2
)
∴ Volume is given by
Fig. 7.25
V =
⌡
⌠
c
d
π x
2
dy =
⌡
⌠
−b
b
π
a
2
b
2
(b
2
− y
2
) dy = 2π
a
2
b
2
\

.


b
2
y −
y
3
3
b
0
= 2π
a
2
b
2
\

.


b
3
−
b
3
3
=
4π
3
a
2
b cubic units
Example 7.36:
Find the volume of the solid generated when the region enclosed by
y = x, y = 2 and x = 0 is revolved about the yaxis.
g(y)
y
g(y)
y
b
b
y
a
a
b
b
y
a
a
117
Solution : Since the solid is generated by
revolving about the yaxis, rewrite y = x
as x = y
2
.
Taking the limits for y, y = 0 and y = 2
(putting x = 0 in x = y
2
, we get y = 0)
Volume is given by V =
⌡
⌠
c
d
π x
2
dy
Fig. 7.26
=
⌡
⌠
0
2
π y
4
dy =
πy
5
5
2
0
=
32 π
5
cubic units.
EXERCISE 7.4
(1) Find the area of the region bounded by the line x − y = 1 and
(i) xaxis, x = 2 and x = 4 (ii) xaxis, x = − 2 and x = 0
(2) Find the area of the region bounded by the line x − 2y − 12 = 0 and
(i) yaxis, y = 2 and y = 5 (ii) yaxis, y = − 1 and y = − 3
(3) Find the area of the region bounded by the line y = x − 5 and the xaxis
between the ordinates x = 3 and x = 7.
(4) Find the area of the region bounded by the curve y = 3x
2
− x and the
xaxis between x = − 1 and x = 1.
(5) Find the area of the region bounded by x
2
= 36y, yaxis, y = 2 and y = 4.
(6) Find the area included between the parabola y
2
= 4ax and its latus rectum.
(7) Find the area of the region bounded by the ellipse
x
2
9
+
y
2
5
= 1 between the
two latus rectums.
(8) Find the area of the region bounded by the parabola y
2
= 4x and the line
2x − y = 4.
(9) Find the common area enclosed by the parabolas 4y
2
= 9x and 3x
2
= 16y
(10) Find the area of the circle whose radius is a
Find the volume of the solid that results when the region enclosed by the given
curves : (11 to 14)
(11) y = 1 + x
2
, x = 1, x = 2, y = 0 is revolved about the xaxis.
(12) 2ay
2
= x(x − a)
2
is revolved about xaxis, a > 0.
x
y
y =√x
y =2
x
y
y =√x
y =2
118
(13) y = x
3
, x = 0, y = 1 is revolved about the yaxis.
(14)
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1 is revolved about major axis a > b > 0.
(15) Derive the formula for the volume of a right circular cone with radius ‘r’
and height ‘h’.
(16) The area of the region bounded by the curve xy = 1, xaxis,
x = 1. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the area
mentioned about xaxis.
7.6. Length of the curve :
(i) If the function f(x) and its derivative f ′(x) are continuous on [a, b]
then the arc length L of the curve y = f(x) from x = a to x = b is defined
to be L =
⌡
⌠
a
b
1 +
\

.

dy
dx
2
dx
(ii) Similarly for a curve expressed in the form x = g(y), where g is
continuous on [c, d], the arc length L from y = c to y = d is given by
L =
⌡
⌠
c
d
1 +
\

.

dx
dy
2
dy
(iii) When the equation of the curve y = f(x) is represented in parametric
form x = φ(t), y = Ψ(t), α ≤ t ≤ β where φ(t) and Ψ(t) are continuous
function with continuous derivatives and φ′(t) does not vanish in the
given interval then L =
⌡
⌠
α
β
( ) φ′(t)
2
+ ( ) Ψ′(t)
2
dt
7.7 Surface area of a solid :
(i) If the function f(x) and its
derivatives f ′(x) are continuous on
[a, b], then the surface area of the solid
of revolution obtained by the
revolution about xaxis, the area
bounded by the curve y = f(x) the two
ordinates x = a, x = b and xaxis is
S.A. = 2π
⌡
⌠
a
b
y 1 +
\

.

dy
dx
2
dx
Fig. 7.27
f(x)
x
f(x)
x
119
(ii) Similarly for the curve expressed
in the form x = g(y) where g′(y) is
continuous on [c, d], the surface area
of the solid of revolution obtained by
the revolution about yaxis, the area
bounded by the curve x = g(y) the two
abscissa y = c, y = d and y axis is
S.A. = 2π
⌡
⌠
c
d
y 1 +
\

.

dx
dy
2
dy
Fig. 7.28
(iii) When the equation of the curve y = f(x) is represented in parametric
form x = g(t), y = h(t), α ≤ t ≤ β where g(t) and h(t) are continuous
function with continuous derivatives and g′(t) does not vanish in the
interval, then S.A. = 2π
⌡
⌠
t = α
t = β
y ( ) g′(t)
2
+ ( ) h′(t)
2
dt.
Example 7.37: Find the length of the curve 4y
2
= x
3
between x = 0 and x = 1
Solution :
4y
2
= x
3
Differentiating with respect to x
8y
dy
dx
= 3x
2
dy
dx
=
3x
2
8y
1 +
\

.

dy
dx
2
= 1 +
9x
4
64y
2
Fig. 7.29
= 1 +
9x
4
16 × 4y
2
= 1 +
9x
4
16x
3
= 1 +
9x
16
The curve is symmetrical about xaxis.
The required length
L = 2
⌡
⌠
0
1
1 +
\

.

dy
dx
2
dx = 2
⌡
⌠
0
1
\

.

1 +
9x
16
1/2
dx
x
y
x =1
4y
2
=x
3
x
y
x =1
4y
2
=x
3
g(y)
y
g(y)
y
120
= 2 ×
\

.

1 +
9x
16
3/2
9
16
×
3
2
1
0
=
64
27
\

.

1 +
9x
16
3/2
1
0
=
64
27
125
64
− 1 =
61
27
Example 7.38: Find the length of the curve
\

.

x
a
2/3
+
\

.

y
a
2/3
= 1
Solution :
x = a cos
3
t, y = a sin
3
t is the
parametric form of the given astroid,
where 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π
dx
dt
= − 3a cos
2
t sin t ;
dy
dt
= 3a sin
2
t cos t
Fig. 7.30
\

.

dx
dt
2
+
\

.

dy
dt
2
= 9a
2
cos
4
t sin
2
t + 9a
2
sin
4
t cos
2
t = 3a sin t cos t
Since the curve is symmetrical about both axes, the total length of the
curve is 4 times the length in the first quadrant.
But t varies from 0 to
π
2
in the first quadrant.
∴ Length of the entire curve = 4
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
\

.

dx
dt
2
+
\

.

dy
dt
2
dt
= 4
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
3a sin t cos t dt = 6a
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin 2t dt
= 6a .
−
cos 2t
2
π/2
0
= − 3a [cos π − cos 0]
= − 3a [− 1 − 1] = 6a
x
y
x
2/3
+y
2/3
=a
2/3
Astroid
a
a a
a
x
y
x
2/3
+y
2/3
=a
2/3
Astroid
a
a a
a
121
Example 7.39: Show that the surface area of the solid obtained by revolving the
arc of the curve y = sin x from x = 0 to x = π about xaxis is
2π [ ] 2 + log ( ) 1 + 2
Solution : y = sin x
Differentiating with respect to x
dy
dx
= cos x.
∴ 1 +
\

.

dy
dx
2
= 1 + cos
2
x
Surface area =
⌡
⌠
a
b
2πy 1 +
\

.

dy
dx
2
dx
when the area is rotated about the xaxis.
S =
⌡
⌠
0
π
2π sin x 1 + cos
2
x dx
Put cos x = t
− sin x dx = dt
t = cos x
x 0 π
t 1 − 1
=
⌡
⌠
1
− 1
2π 1 + t
2
(− dt) = 4π
⌡
⌠
0
1
1 + t
2
(dt)
= 4π
t
2
1 + t
2
+
1
2
log ( ) t + 1 + t
2
1
0
= 2π [ ] 2 + log ( ) 1 + 2 − 0
= 2π [ ] 2 + log ( ) 1 + 2
Example 7.40: Find the surface area of the solid generated by revolving the
cycloid x = a(t + sin t), y = a(1 + cos t) about its base (xaxis).
Solution : y = 0 ⇒ 1 + cos t = 0 cos t = − 1 ⇒ t = − π, π
x = a (t + sin t) ; y = a (1 + cos t)
dx
dt
= a (1 + cos t)
dy
dt
= − a sin t
\

.

dx
dt
2
+
\

.

dy
dt
2
= a
2
(1 + cos t)
2
+ a
2
sin
2
t = 2a cos
t
2
122
Surface area =
⌡
⌠
− π
π
2πa (1 + cos t) 2a cos
t
2
dt
=
⌡
⌠
− π
π
2π a . 2 cos
2
t
2
. 2 a cos
t
2
dt = 16π a
2
⌡
⌠
0
π
cos
3
t
2
dt
= 16πa
2
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
2cos
3
x dx
Take
t
2
= x
= 32πa
2
I
3
= 32πa
2
×
2
3
=
64
3
πa
2
sq. units.
EXERCISE 7.5
(1) Find the perimeter of the circle with radius a.
(2) Find the length of the curve x = a(t − sin t), y = a(1 − cos t) between t = 0
and π.
(3) Find the surface area of the solid generated by revolving the arc of the
parabola y
2
= 4ax, bounded by its latus rectum about xaxis.
(4) Prove that the curved surface area of a sphere of radius r intercepted
between two parallel planes at a distance a and b from the centre of the
sphere is 2πr (b − a) and hence deduct the surface area of the sphere.
(b > a).
123
8. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
8.1. Introduction :
One of the branches of Mathematics conveyed clearly in the principal
language of science called “Differential equations”, plays an important role in
Science, Engineering and Social Sciences. Let us analyse a few of the examples
cited below.
(1) Suppose that there are two living species which depend for their
survival on a common source of food supply. This fact results in a
competition in consuming the available food. The phenomenon, is
commonly noticed in the plant life having common supply of water,
fertilizer and minerals. However, whenever the competition between
two species begins, the growth rate of one is retarded and we can note
that the rate of retardation is naturally proportional to the size of the
other species present at time t. This situation can be expressed as a
Mathematical model whose solution would help us to determine the
time at which one species would become extinct.
(2) Several diseases are caused by spread of an infection. Suppose that the
susceptible population of a town is p. One person gets the infection.
Because of contact another susceptible person is also infected. This
process continues to cover the entire susceptible population. With some
assumptions to simplify the mathematical considerations this situation
can be framed into a mathematical model and a solution can be
determined which would provide informations regarding the spread of
the epidemic in the town.
(3) If a dead body is brought for a medical examination at a particular time,
the exact time of death can be determined by noting the temperature of
the body at various time intervals, formulating it into a mathematical
problem with available initial conditions and then solving it.
(4) The determination of the amount of a radioactive material that
disintegrates over a period of time is yet another mathematical
formulation which yield the required result.
(5) Several examples exist in which two nations have disputes on various
issues. Each nation builds its own arms to defend the nation from
attack. Naturally a spirit of race in building up arms persists between
conflicting nations. A small grievance quite often creates a warlike
124
situation and adds to increasing the level of arms. These commonly
experienced facts can be presented in a mathematical language and
hence solved. It is a fact that such a model has been tested for some
realistic situations that had prevailed in the First and Second World War
between conflicting nations.
From the above examples it is found that the mathematical formulation to all
situations turn out to be differential equations. Thus the latent significance of
differential equations in studying physical phenomena becomes apparent. This
branch of Mathematics called ‘Differential Equations’ is like a bridge linking
Mathematics and Science with its applications. Hence it is rightly considered as
the language of Sciences.
Galileo once conjectured that the velocity of a body falling from rest is
proportional to the distance fallen. Later he decided that it is proportional to the
time instead. Each of these statements can be formulated as an equation
involving the rate of change of an unknown function and is therefore an
example of what Mathematicians call a Differential Equation. Thus
ds
dt
= kt is a
differential equation which gives velocity of a falling body from a distance s
proportional to the time t.
Definition: An equation involving one dependent variable and its derivatives
with respect to one or more independent variables is called a Differential
Equation.
If y = f(x) is a given function, then its derivative
dy
dx
can be interpreted as the
rate of change of y with respect to x. In any natural process the variables
involved and their rates of change are connected with one another by means of
the basic scientific principles that govern the process. When this expression is
written in mathematical symbols, the result is often a differential equation.
Thus a differential equation is an equation in which differential coefficients
occur. Its importance can further be realised from the fact that every natural
phenomena is governed by differential equations.
Differential equation are of two types.
(i) Ordinary and (ii) Partial.
In this chapter we concentrate only on Ordinary differential equations.
Definition : An ordinary differential equation is a differential equation in
which a single independent variable enters either explicitly or implicitly.
125
For instance (i)
dy
dx
= x + 5 (ii) (y′)
2
+ (y′)
3
+ 3y = x
2
(iii)
d
2
y
dx
2
− 4
dy
dx
+ 3y = 0
are all ordinary differential equations.
8.2 Order and degree of a differential equation :
Definition : The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest
order derivative occurring in it. The degree of the differential equation is the
degree of the highest order derivative which occurs in it, after the differential
equation has been made free from radicals and fractions as far as the derivatives
are concerned.
The degree of a differential equation does not require variables r, s, t … to
be free from radicals and fractions.
Example 8.1: Find the order and degree of the following differential equations:
(i)
d
3
y
dx
3
+
\

.

 d
2
y
dx
2
3
+
\

.

dy
dx
5
+ y = 7 (ii) y = 4
dy
dx
+ 3x
dx
dy
(iii)
d
2
y
dx
2
=
4 +
\

.

dy
dx
2
3
4
(iv) (1 + y′)
2
= y′
2
Solution : (i) The order of the highest derivative in this equation is 3. The
degree of the highest order is 1. ∴ (order, degree) = (3, 1)
(ii) y = 4
dy
dx
+ 3x
dx
dy
⇒ y = 4
\

.

dy
dx
+ 3x
1
\

.

dy
dx
Making the above equation free from fractions involving
dy
dx
we get
y .
dy
dx
= 4
\

.

dy
dx
2
+ 3x
Highest order = 1
Degree of Highest order = 2
(order, degree) = (1, 2)
(iii)
d
2
y
dx
2
=
4 +
\

.

dy
dx
2
3
4
To eliminate the radical in the above equation, raising to the power 4 on
both sides, we get
\

.

 d
2
y
dx
2
4
=
4 +
\

.

dy
dx
2
3
. Clearly (order, degree) = (2, 4).
126
(iv) (1 + y′)
2
= y′
2
⇒ 1 + y′
2
+ 2y′ = y′
2
from which it follows that
2
dy
dx
+ 1 = 0 ∴ (order, degree) = (1, 1).
8.3 Formation of differential equations :
Let f (x, y, c
1
) = 0 be an equation containing x, y and one arbitrary constant
c
1
. If c
1
is eliminated by differentiating f (x, y, c
1
) = 0 with respect to the
independent variable once, we get a relation involving x, y and
dy
dx
, which is
evidently a differential equation of the first order. Similarly, if we have an
equation f(x, y, c
1
, c
2
) = 0 containing two arbitrary constants c
1
and c
2
, then by
differentiating this twice, we get three equations (including f). If the two
arbitrary constants c
1
and c
2
are eliminated from these equations, we get a
differential equation of second order.
In general if we have an equation f(x, y, c
1
, c
2
, …c
n
) = 0 containing n
arbitrary constants c
1
, c
2
… c
n
, then by differentiating n times we get (n + 1)
equations in total. If the n arbitrary constants c
1
, c
2
, … c
n
are eliminated we get
a differential equation of order n.
Note : If there are relations involving these arbitrary constants then the order
of the differential equation may reduce to less than n.
Illustration :
Let us find the differential equation of straight lines y = mx + c where both m
and c are arbitrary constants.
Since m and c are two arbitrary constants differentiating twice we get
dy
dx
= m
d
2
y
dx
2
= 0
Both the constants m and c are
seen to be eliminated. Therefore the
required differential equation is
d
2
y
dx
2
= 0
Fig. 8.1
y
=

x
y
=

2
x
+
4
y
=

2
x
+
8
x
y
y
=

x
y
=

2
x
+
4
y
=

2
x
+
8
x
y
127
Note : In the above illustration we have taken both the constants m and c as
arbitrary. Now the following two cases may arise.
Case (i) : m is arbitrary and c is fixed. Since m is the only arbitrary constant in y
= mx + c ; … (1)
Differentiating once we get
dy
dx
= m … (2)
Eliminating m between (1) and (2)
we get the required differential
equation
x
\

.

dy
dx
− y + c = 0
Fig. 8.2
Case (ii) : c is an arbitrary constant and m is a fixed constant.
Since c is the only arbitrary
constant differentiating once we get
dy
dx
= m. Clearly c is eliminated from
the above equation. Therefore the
required differential equation is
dy
dx
= m.
Fig. 8.3
Example 8.2: Form the differential equation from the following equations.
(i) y = e
2x
(A + Bx) (ii) y = e
x
(A cos 3x + B sin 3x)
(iii) Ax
2
+ By
2
= 1 (iv) y
2
= 4a(x − a)
Solution :
(i) y = e
2x
(A + Bx)
ye
−2x
= A+ Bx … (1)
Since the above equation contains two arbitrary constants, differentiating
twice, we get y′e
−2x
− 2y e
−2x
= B
{y′′e
−2x
− 2y′ e
−2x
} − 2{y′e
−2x
− 2y e
−2x
} = 0
e
−2x
{y′′ − 4y′ + 4y} = 0 [‡ e
−2x
≠ 0]
y′′ − 4y′ + 4y = 0 is the required differential equation.
y =
(1
/3
)x +
c
C
y
=

(
1
/
3
)
x
+
c
y
=

2
x
+
c
x
y
y =
(1
/3
)x +
c
C
y
=

(
1
/
3
)
x
+
c
y
=

2
x
+
c
x
y
x
y
x
y
128
(ii) y = e
x
(A cos 3x + B sin 3x)
ye
−x
= A cos 3x + B sin 3x
We have to differentiate twice to eliminate two arbitrary constants
y′e
−x
− ye
−x
= − 3A sin 3x + 3 B cos 3x
y′′ e
−x
− y′e
−x
− y′e
− x
+ ye
−x
= − 9 (A cos 3x + B sin 3x)
i.e., e
−x
(y′′ − 2y′ + y) = − 9ye
−x
⇒ y′′ − 2y′ + 10y = 0 (‡ e
−x
≠ 0)
(iii) Ax
2
+ By
2
= 1 … (1)
Differentiating, 2Ax + 2Byy′ = 0 i.e., Ax + Byy′ = 0 … (2)
Differentiating again, A + B (yy′′ + y′
2
) = 0 … (3)
Eliminating A and B between (1), (2) and (3) we get
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
x
2
y
2
− 1
x yy′ 0
1 yy′′ + y′
2
0
= 0 ⇒ (yy′′ + y′
2
) x − yy′ = 0
(iv) y
2
= 4a(x − a) … (1)
Differentiating, 2yy′ = 4a … (2)
Eliminating a between (1) and (2) we get
y
2
= 2yy′
\

.

x −
yy′
2
⇒ (yy′)
2
− 2xyy′ + y
2
= 0
EXERCISE 8.1
(1) Find the order and degree of the following differential equations.
(i)
dy
dx
+ y = x
2
(ii) y′ + y
2
= x
(iii) y′′ + 3y′
2
+ y
3
= 0 (iv)
d
2
y
dx
2
+ x = y +
dy
dx
(v)
d
2
y
dx
2
− y +
\

.

 dy
dx
+
d
3
y
dx
3
3
2
= 0 (vi) y′′ = (y − y′
3
)
2
3
(vii) y′ + (y′′)
2
= (x + y′′)
2
(viii) y′ + (y′′)
2
= x(x + y′′)
2
(ix)
\

.

dy
dx
2
+ x =
dx
dy
+ x
2
(x) sinx (dx + dy) = cosx (dx − dy)
129
(2) Form the differential equations by eliminating arbitrary constants given
in brackets against each
(i) y
2
= 4ax {a}
(ii) y = ax
2
+ bx + c {a, b}
(iii) xy = c
2
{c}
(iv)
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1 {a, b}
(v) y = Ae
2x
+ Be
−5x
{A, B}
(vi) y = (A + Bx)e
3x
{A, B}
(vii) y = e
3x
{C cos 2x + D sin 2x) {C, D}
(viii) y = e
mx
{m}
(ix) y = Ae
2x
cos (3x + B) {A, B}
(3) Find the differential equation of the family of straight lines y = mx +
a
m
when (i) m is the parameter ; (ii) a is the parameter ; (iii) a, m both are
parameters
(4) Find the differential equation that will represent the family of all circles
having centres on the xaxis and the radius is unity.
8.4 Differential equations of first order and first degree :
In this section we consider a class of differential equations, the order and
degree of each member of the class is equal to one. For example,
(i) yy′ + x = 0 (ii) y′ + xy = sinx (iii) y′ =
x + y
x − y
(iv) x dy + y dx = 0
Solutions of first order and first degree equations:
We shall consider only certain special types of equations of the first order
and first degree. viz., (i) Variable separable (ii) Homogeneous (iii) Linear.
8.4.1 Variable separable :
Variables of a differential equation are to be rearranged in the form
f
1
(x) g
2
(y) dx + f
2
(x) g
1
(y) dy = 0
i.e., the equation can be written as
f
2
(x)g
1
(y)dy = − f
1
(x) g
2
(y) dx
⇒
g
1
(y)
g
2
(y)
dy = −
f
1
(x)
f
2
(x)
dx
130
The solution is therefore given by
⌡
1
⌠
g
1
(y)
g
2
(y)
dy = −
⌡
1
⌠
f
1
(x)
f
2
(x)
dx + c
Example 8.3: Solve :
dy
dx
= 1 + x + y + xy
Solution : The given equation can be written in the form
dy
dx
= (1 + x) + y(1 + x)
⇒
dy
dx
= (1 + x) (1 + y)
⇒
dy
1 + y
= (1 + x)dx
Integrating, we have
log (1 + y) = x +
x
2
2
+ c, which is the required solution.
Example 8.4: Solve 3e
x
tan y dx + (1 + e
x
) sec
2
y dy = 0
Solution : The given equation can be written in the form
3e
x
1 + e
x
dx +
sec
2
y
tan y
dy = 0
Integrating, we have
3 log (1 + e
x
) + log tan y = log c
⇒ log [tan y (1 + e
x
)
3
] = log c
⇒ (1 + e
x
)
3
tan y = c, which is the required solution.
Note : The arbitrary constant may be chosen like c,
1
c
, log c, e
c
etc depending
upon the problem.
Example 8.5: Solve
dy
dx
+
\

.

 1 − y
2
1 − x
2
1
2
= 0
Solution : The given equation can be written as
dy
dx
= −
\

.

 1 − y
2
1 − x
2
1
2
⇒
dy
1 − y
2
= −
dx
1 − x
2
Integrating, we have sin
−1
y + sin
−1
x = c
⇒ sin
−1
[ ] x 1 − y
2
+ y 1 − x
2
= c
⇒ x 1 − y
2
+ y 1 − x
2
= C is the required solution.
131
Example 8.6: Solve : e
x
1 − y
2
dx +
y
x
dy = 0
Solution : The given equation can be written as
xe
x
dx =
− y
1 − y
2
dy
Integrating, we have
⌡
⌠ xe
x
dx = −
⌡
1
⌠
y
1 − y
2
dy
⇒ xe
x
−
⌡
⌠e
x
dx =
1
2
⌡
⌠
dt
t
where t = 1 − y
2
so that −2y dy = dt
⇒ xe
x
− e
x
=
1
2
\

.


t
1
2
1/2
+ c
⇒ xe
x
− e
x
= t + c
⇒ xe
x
− e
x
− 1 − y
2
= c which is the required solution.
Example 8.7: Solve : (x + y)
2
dy
dx
= a
2
Solution : Put x + y = z. Differentiating with respect to x we get
1 +
dy
dx
=
dz
dx
i.e.,
dy
dx
=
dz
dx
− 1
The given equation becomes z
2
\

.

dz
dx
− 1 = a
2
⇒
dz
dx
− 1 =
a
2
z
2
or
z
2
z
2
+ a
2
dz = dx
Integrating we have,
⌡
1
⌠
z
2
z
2
+ a
2
dz =
⌡
⌠ dx
⌡
1
⌠
z
2
+ a
2
− a
2
z
2
+ a
2
dz = x + c ⇒
⌡
1
⌠
\

.


1 −
a
2
z
2
+ a
2
dz = x + c
⇒ z − a
2
.
1
a
tan
−1
z
a
= x + c
⇒ x + y − a tan
−1
\

.

x + y
a
= x + c (‡ z = x + y)
i.e., y − a tan
−1
\

.

x + y
a
= c, which is the required solution.
132
Example 8.8: Solve : x dy = (y + 4x
5
e
x
4
)dx
Solution :
xdy − y dx = 4x
5
e
x
4
dx
xdy − ydx
x
2
= 4x
3
e
x
4
dx
Integrating we have,
⌡
1
⌠
xdy − ydx
x
2
= ⌡
⌠
4x
3
e
x
4
dx
⇒
⌡
⌠
d
\

.

y
x
=
⌡
⌠ e
t
dt where t = x
4
⇒
y
x
= e
t
+ c
i.e.,
y
x
= e
x
4
+ c which is the required solution.
Example 8.9: Solve: (x
2
−y)dx + (y
2
− x) dy = 0, if it passes through the origin.
Solution :
(x
2
− y)dx + (y
2
− x) dy = 0
x
2
dx + y
2
dy = xdy + ydx
x
2
dx + y
2
dy = d(xy)
Integrating we have,
x
3
3
+
y
3
3
= xy + c
Since it passes through the origin, c = 0
∴ the required solution is
x
3
3
+
y
3
3
= xy or x
3
+ y
3
= 3xy
Example 8.10 : Find the cubic polynomial in x which attains its maximum
value 4 and minimum value 0 at x = − 1 and 1 respectively.
Solution : Let the cubic polynomial be y = f(x). Since it attains a maximum at
x = −1 and a minimum at x = 1.
dy
dx
= 0 at x = − 1 and 1
dy
dx
= k (x + 1) (x − 1) = k(x
2
− 1)
Separating the variables we have dy = k(x
2
− 1) dx
133
⌡
⌠dy = k
⌡
⌠(x
2
− 1) dx
y = k
\

.

 x
3
3
− x + c … (1)
when x = − 1, y = 4 and when x = 1, y = 0
Substituting these in equation (1) we have
2k + 3c = 12 ; − 2k + 3c = 0
On solving we have k = 3 and c = 2. Substituting these values in (1) we get
the required cubic polynomial y = x
3
− 3x + 2.
Example 8.11 : The normal lines to a given curve at each point (x, y) on the
curve pass through the point (2, 0). The curve passes through the point (2, 3).
Formulate the differential equation representing the problem and hence find the
equation of the curve.
Solution :
Slope of the normal at any point P(x, y) = −
dx
dy
Slope of the normal AP =
y − 0
x − 2
∴ −
dx
dy
=
y
x − 2
⇒ ydy = (2 − x)dx
Integrating both sides,
y
2
2
= 2x −
x
2
2
+ c … (1)
Since the curve passes through (2, 3)
9
2
= 4 −
4
2
+ c ⇒ c =
5
2
; put c =
5
2
in (1),
y
2
2
= 2x −
x
2
2
+
5
2
⇒ y
2
= 4x − x
2
+ 5
EXERCISE 8.2
Solve the following :
(1) sec 2x dy − sin5x sec
2
ydx = 0 (2) cos
2
xdy + ye
tanx
dx = 0
(3) (x
2
− yx
2
)dy + (y
2
+ xy
2
)dx = 0 (4) yx
2
dx + e
−x
dy = 0
(5) (x
2
+ 5x + 7) dy + 9 + 8y − y
2
dx = 0 (6)
dy
dx
= sin(x + y)
(7) (x + y)
2
dy
dx
= 1 (8) ydx + xdy = e
−xy
dx if it cuts the yaxis.
134
8.4.2 Homogeneous equations :
Definition :
A differential equation of first order and first degree is said to be
homogeneous if it can be put in the form
dy
dx
= f
\

.

y
x
or
dy
dx
=
f
1
(x. y)
f
2
(x. y)
Working rule for solving homogeneous equation :
By definition the given equation can be put in the form
dy
dx
= f
\

.

y
x
… (1)
To solve (1) put y = νx … (2)
Differentiating (2) with respect to x gives
dy
dx
= ν + x
dν
dx
… (3)
Using (2) and (3) in (1) we have
ν + x
dν
dx
= f(ν) or x
dν
dx
= f(ν) − ν
Seperating the variables x and ν we have
dx
x
=
dν
f(ν) − ν
⇒ log x + c =
⌡
1
⌠
dν
f(ν) − ν
where c is an arbitrary constant. After integration, replace ν by
y
x
.
Example 8.12: Solve :
dy
dx
=
y
x
+ tan
y
x
Solution : Put y = vx
L.H.S. = ν + x
dν
dx
; R.H.S. = v + tan v
∴ ν + x
dν
dx
= ν + tan ν or
dx
x
=
cos ν
sinν
dv
Integrating, we have logx = log sin ν + log c ⇒ x = c sin ν
i.e., x = c sin
\

.

y
x
,
Example 8.13: Solve : ( ) 2 xy − x dy + ydx = 0
Solution : The given equation is
dy
dx
=
− y
2 xy − x
Put y = vx
135
L.H.S. = v + x
dv
dx
; R.H.S. =
− v
2 v − 1
=
v
1 − 2 v
∴ v + x
dv
dx
=
v
1 − 2 v
⇒ x
dv
dx
=
2 v v
1 − 2 v
⇒
\

.


1 − 2 v
v v
dv = 2
dx
x
i.e.,
\

.

v
−3/2
− 2.
1
v
dv = 2
dx
x
⇒ − 2v
−1/2
− 2 log v = 2 log x + 2 log c
− v
−1/2
= log (v x c)
−
x
y
= log(cy) ⇒ cy = e
− x/y
or ye
x/y
= c
Note : This problem can also be done easily by taking x = vy
Example 8.14: Solve : (x
3
+ 3xy
2
)dx + (y
3
+ 3x
2
y)dy = 0
Solution :
dy
dx
= −
x
3
+ 3xy
2
y
3
+ 3x
2
y
Put y = νx
L.H.S. = ν + x
dν
dx
; R.H.S. = −
x
3
+ 3xy
2
y
3
+ 3x
2
y
= −
\

.

 1 + 3ν
2
ν
3
+ 3ν
∴ ν + x
dν
dx
= −
\

.

 1 + 3ν
2
ν
3
+ 3ν
⇒ x
dν
dx
= −
ν
4
+ 6ν
2
+ 1
ν
3
+ 3ν
⇒
4dx
x
= −
4ν
3
+ 12ν
ν
4
+ 6ν
2
+ 1
dν
Integrating, we have
4 log x = − log (ν
4
+ 6ν
2
+ 1) + log c
log[x
4
(ν
4
+ 6ν
2
+ 1)] = log c
i.e., x
4
(ν
4
+ 6ν
2
+ 1) = c or
y
4
+ 6x
2
y
2
+ x
4
= c
Note (i) : This problem can also be done by using variable separable method.
136
Note (ii) : Sometimes it becomes easier in solving problems of the type
dx
dy
=
f
1
(x/y)
f
2
(x/y)
. The following example explains this case.
Example 8.15:
Solve : (1 + e
x/y
)dx + e
x/y
(1 − x/y) dy = 0 given that y = 1, where x = 0
Solution : The given equation can be written as
dx
dy
=
(x / y − 1)e
x/y
1 + e
x/y
… (1)
Put x = νy
L.H.S. = ν + y
dν
dy
; R.H.S. =
(v − 1)e
v
1 + e
v
∴ ν + y
dν
dy
=
(ν − 1)e
ν
1 + e
ν
or y
dν
dy
= −
(e
ν
+ ν)
1 + e
ν
⇒
dy
y
= −
(e
ν
+ 1)
e
ν
+ ν
dν
Integrating we have, log y = − log (e
ν
+ ν) + log c
or y(e
ν
+ ν) = c ⇒ ye
x/y
+ x = c
Now y = 1 when x = 0 ⇒ 1e
0
+ 0 = c ⇒ c = 1
∴ ye
x/y
+ x = 1
Example 8.16: Solve : xdy − ydx = x
2
+ y
2
dx
Solution : From the given equation we have
dy
dx
=
y + x
2
+ y
2
x
… (1)
Put y = νx
L.H.S. = ν + x
dν
dx
; R.H.S. =
v + 1 + v
2
1
∴ ν + x
dν
dx
= ν + 1 + ν
2
or
dx
x
=
dν
1 + ν
2
137
Integrating, we have,log x + logc = log [ ] v + v
2
+ 1
i.e., xc = ν + ν
2
+ 1 ⇒ x
2
c = y + (y
2
+ x
2
)
EXERCISE 8.3
Solve the following :
(1)
dy
dx
+
y
x
=
y
2
x
2
(2)
dy
dx
=
y(x − 2y)
x(x − 3y)
(3) (x
2
+ y
2
) dy = xy dx
(4) x
2
dy
dx
= y
2
+ 2xy given that y = 1, when x = 1.
(5) (x
2
+ y
2
) dx + 3xy dy = 0
(6) Find the equation of the curve passing through (1, 0) and which has slope
1 +
y
x
at (x, y).
8.4.3 Linear Differential Equation :
Definition :
A first order differential equation is said to be linear in y if the power of the
terms
dy
dx
and y are unity.
For example
dy
dx
+ xy = e
x
is linear in y, since the power of
dy
dx
is one and
also the power of y is one. If a term occurs in the form y
dy
dx
or y
2
, then it is not
linear, as the degree of each term is two.
A differential equation of order one satisfying the above condition can
always be put in the form
dy
dx
+ Py = Q, where P and Q are function of x only.
Similarly a first order linear differential equation in x will be of the form
dx
dy
+ Px = Q where P and Q are functions of y only.
The solution of the equation which is linear in y is given as
y
e
∫ Pdx
= ∫Q
e
∫ Pdx
dx + c where
e
∫ Pdx
is known as an integrating factor and it is
denoted by I.F.
138
Similarly if an equation is linear in x then the solution of such an equation
becomes
x
e
∫ Pdy
= ∫Q
e
∫ Pdy
dy + c
( )
where
e
∫ Pdy
is I.F.
We frequently use the following properties of logarithmic and exponential
functions :
(i) e
log A
= A (ii) e
m log A
= A
m
(iii) e
− m log A
=
1
A
m
Example 8.17 : Solve :
dy
dx
+ y cot x = 2 cos x
Solution : The given equation is of the form
dy
dx
+ Py = Q. This is linear in y.
Here P = cotx and Q = 2 cos x
I.F. = e
∫ Pdx
= e
∫ cot x dx
= e
log sin x
= sin x
∴ The required solution is
y (I.F.) =
⌡
⌠(Q (I.F.)) dx + c ⇒ y(sinx) =
⌡
⌠2 cosx sin x dx + c
⇒ y sin x =
⌡
⌠sin 2x dx + c
⇒ y sin x = −
cos 2x
2
+ c
⇒ 2y sin x + cos 2x = c
Example 8.18 : Solve : (1 − x
2
)
dy
dx
+ 2xy = x (1 − x
2
)
Solution: The given equation is
dy
dx
+
\

.


2x
1 − x
2
y =
x
(1 − x
2
)
. This is linear in y
Here ∫ Pdx =
⌡
1
⌠
2x
1 − x
2
dx = − log (1 − x
2
)
I.F. = e
∫ Pdx
=
1
1 − x
2
The required solution is
y .
1
1 − x
2
=
⌡
1
⌠
x
(1 − x
2
)
×
1
1 − x
2
dx. Put 1 − x
2
= t ⇒ −2xdx = dt
∴
y
1 − x
2
=
− 1
2
⌡
⌠
t
−3/2
dt + c
139
⇒
y
1 − x
2
= t
−1/2
+ c
⇒
y
1 − x
2
=
1
1 − x
2
+ c
Example 8.19 : Solve : (1 + y
2
)dx = (tan
−1
y − x)dy
Solution : The given equation can be written as
dx
dy
+
x
1 + y
2
=
tan
−1
y
1 + y
2
.
This is linear in x. Therefore we have
∫Pdy =
⌡
1
⌠
1
1 + y
2
dy = tan
−1
y
I.F. = e
∫ Pdy
= e
tan
−1
y
The required solution is
xe
tan
−1
y
= ⌡
⌠
e
tan
−1
y
\

.

 tan
−1
y
1 + y
2
dy + c
¹
¦
´
¦
¦put tan
−1
y = t
∴
dy
1 + y
2
= dt
⇒ xe
tan
−1
y
=
⌡
⌠ e
t
. t dt + c
⇒ xe
tan
−1
y
= te
t
− e
t
+ c
⇒ xe
tan
−1
y
= e
tan
−1
y
(tan
−1
y − 1) + c
Example 8.20 : Solve : (x + 1)
dy
dx
− y = e
x
(x + 1)
2
Solution : The given equation can be written as
dy
dx
−
y
x + 1
= e
x
(x + 1)
This is linear in y. Here ∫Pdx = −
⌡
⌠
1
x + 1
dx = − log (x + 1)
So I.F. = e
∫ Pdx
= e
−log(x + 1)
=
1
x + 1
∴ The required solution is
y .
1
x + 1
= ∫e
x
(x + 1)
1
x + 1
dx + c
= ∫e
x
dx + c
i.e.,
y
x + 1
= e
x
+ c
140
Example 8.21 : Solve :
dy
dx
+ 2y tanx = sinx
Solution : This is linear in y. Here ∫ Pdx =
⌡
⌠2 tanx dx = 2 log secx
I.F. = e
∫ Pdx
= e
log sec
2
x
= sec
2
x
The required solution is
y sec
2
x = ∫ sec
2
x . sinx dx
= ∫ tanx sec x dx
⇒ y sec
2
x = sec x + c or y = cos x + c cos
2
x
EXERCISE 8.4
Solve the following :
(1)
dy
dx
+ y = x (2)
dy
dx
+
4x
x
2
+ 1
y =
1
(x
2
+ 1)
2
(3)
dx
dy
+
x
1 + y
2
=
tan
−1
y
1 + y
2
(4) (1 + x
2
)
dy
dx
+ 2xy = cosx
(5)
dy
dx
+
y
x
= sin(x
2
) (6)
dy
dx
+ xy = x
(7) dx + xdy = e
−y
sec
2
y dy (8) (y − x)
dy
dx
= a
2
(9) Show that the equation of the curve whose slope at any point is equal to
y + 2x and which passes through the origin is y = 2(e
x
− x − 1)
8.5 Second order linear differential equations with constant
coefficients :
A general second order nonhomogeneous linear differential equation with
constant coefficients is of the form
a
0
y′′ + a
1
y′ + a
2
y = X … (1),
where a
0
, a
1
, a
2
are constants a
0
≠ 0, and X is a function of x. The equation
a
0
y′′ + a
1
y′ + a
2
y = 0, a
0
≠ 0 … (2)
is known as a homogeneous linear second order differential equation with
constant coefficients,
To solve (1), first we solve (2). To do this we proceed as follows :
Consider the function y = e
px
, p is a constant.
Now y′ = pe
px
and y′′ = p
2
e
px
141
Note that the derivatives look similar to the function y = e
px
itself and if
L(y) = a
0
y′′ + a
1
y′ + a
2
y then
L(y) = L(e
px
)
= (a
0
p
2
e
px
+ a
1
pe
px
+ a
2
e
px
)
= (a
0
p
2
+ a
1
p + a
2
)e
px
Hence if L(y) = 0 then it follows that (a
0
p
2
+ a
1
p + a
2
)e
px
= 0.
Since e
px
≠ 0 we get that a
0
p
2
+ a
1
p +a
2
= 0 … (3)
Note that e
px
satisfies the equation L(y) = a
0
y′′ + a
1
y′ + a
2
y = 0 then p must
satisfy a
0
p
2
+ a
1
p + a
2
= 0. Moreover if the various derivatives of a function
look similar in form to the function itself then e
px
will be an ideal candidate to
solve a
0
y′′ + a
1
y′ + a
2
y = 0 . Hereafter we will consider only those set of
differential equations which admits e
px
as one of the solutions. Hence we have
the following :
Theorem : If λ is a root of a
0
p
2
+ a
1
p +a
2
= 0, then e
λx
is a solution of
a
0
y′′ + a
1
y′ + a
2
y = 0
8.5.1 Definition : The equation a
0
p
2
+ a
1
p + a
2
= 0 is called the characteristic
equation of (2).
In general the characteristic equation has two roots say λ
1
and λ
2
. Then the
following three cases do arise.
Case (i) : λ
1
and λ
2
are real and distinct.
In this case, by the above theorem e
λ
1
x
and e
λ
2
x
are solutions of (2), and the
linear combination y = c
1
e
λ
1
x
+ c
2
e
λ
2
x
is also a solution of (2).
For L(y) = a
0
(c
1
e
λ
1
x
+ c
2
e
λ
2
x
)′′+ a
1
(c
1
e
λ
1
x
+ c
2
e
λ
2
x
)′ + a
2
(c
1
e
λ
1
x
+ c
2
e
λ
2
x
)
= c
1
(a
0
λ
1
2
+ a
1
λ
1
+ a
2
)e
λ
1
x
+ c
2
(a
0
λ
2
2
+ a
1
λ
2
+ a
2
)e
λ
2
x
= c
1
. 0 + c
2
. 0 = 0.
and the solution c
1
e
λ
1
x
+ c
2
e
λ
2
x
is known as the complementary function.
Case (ii) : λ
1
and λ
2
are complex λ
1
= a + ib and λ
2
= a − ib
In this case as the two roots λ
1
and λ
2
are complex from theory of equations
e
λ
1
x
= e
(a + ib)x
= e
ax
. e
ibx
= e
ax
(cos bx + i sin bx) and
142
e
λ
2
x
= e
ax
(cos bx − i sin bx)
Hence the solution
y = c
1
e
λ
1
x
+ c
2
e
λ
2
x
= e
ax
[ ]
(c
1
+ c
2
) cos bx + i(c
1
− c
2
) sinbx
= e
ax
[A cos bx + B sin bx] where A = c
1
+ c
2
and B = (c
1
− c
2
)i
and the complementary function is e
ax
[A cos bx + B sin bx].
Case (iii) :The roots are real and equal λ
1
= λ
2
(say)
Clearly e
λ
1
x
is one of the solutions of (2). By using the double root property,
we will obtain xe
λ
1
x
as the other solution of (2). Now the linear combination
c
1
e
λ
1
x
+ c
2
xe
λ
1
x
becomes the solution. i.e., y = (c
1
+ c
2
x)e
λ
1
x
is the solution or
C.F.
The above discussion is summarised as follows :
Given a
0
y′′ + a
1
y′ + a
2
y = 0
Determine its characteristic equation
a
0
p
2
+ a
1
p + a
2
= 0 … (3).
Let λ
1
, λ
2
be the two roots of (3), then the solution of (2) is
y =
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
Ae
λ
1
x
+ Be
λ
2
x
if λ
1
and λ
2
are real and distinct
e
ax
(A cos bx + B sin bx) if λ
1
= a + ib and λ
2
= a − ib
(A + Bx)e
λ
1
x
if λ
1
= λ
2
(real)
A and B are arbitrary constants.
General solution :
The general solution of a linear equation of second order with constant
coefficient consists of two parts namely the complementary function and the
particular integral.
Working rule :
To obtain the complementary function (C.F.) we solve the equation
a
0
d
2
y
dx
2
+ a
1
dy
dx
+ a
2
y = 0 and obtain a solution y = u (say). Then the general
solution is given by y = u + ν where ν is called the particular integral of (1).
The function u, the complementary function is associated with the
homogeneous equation and v, the particular integral is associated with the term
X. If X = 0 then the C.F. becomes the general solution of the equation.
143
Note : In this section we use the differential operators
D ≡
d
dx
and D
2
≡
d
2
dx
2
; Dy =
dy
dx
; D
2
y =
d
2
y
dx
2
8.5.2 Method for finding Particular Integral :
(a) Suppose X is of the form e
αx
, α a constant
D(e
αx
) = αe
αx
; D
2
(e
αx
) = α
2
e
αx
…
D
n
(e
αx
) = α
n
e
αx
, then f(D) e
αx
= f(α) e
αx
… (1)
Note that
1
f(D)
is the inverse operator to f(D).
Operating both sides of (1) by
1
f(D)
we have,
f(D) .
1
f(D)
e
αx
=
1
f(D)
f(α)e
αx
⇒ e
αx
=
1
f(D)
f(α)e
αx
(‡ f(D) .
1
f(D)
= I)
then
1
f(α)
e
αx
=
1
f(D)
e
αx
Thus the P.I. is given by
1
f(D)
e
αx
=
1
f(α)
e
αx
represented symbolically. …(2)
(2) holds when f(α) ≠ 0.
If f(α) = 0 then D = α is a root of the characteristic equation for the
differential equation f(D) = 0 ⇒ D − α is a factor of f(D).
Let f(D) = (D − α) θ(D), where θ(α) ≠ 0 then
1
f(D)
e
αx
=
1
(D − α) θ(D)
.
e
αx
=
1
D − α
.
1
θ(α)
e
αx
=
1
θ(α)
1
D − α
e
αx
… (3)
Put
1
(D − α)
e
αx
= y ⇒ (D − α)y = e
αx
then ye
−
∫ α dx
=
⌡
⌠
e
αx
. e
−
∫ α dx
. dx
i.e., ye
−αx
=
⌡
⌠
e
αx
e
−αx
dx ⇒ y = e
αx
x
144
Substituting in (3) we have
1
f(D)
e
αx
=
1
θ(α)
xe
αx
If further, θ(α) = 0, then D = α is a repeated root for f(D) = 0.
Then
1
f(D)
e
αx
=
x
2
2
e
αx
Example 8.22 : Solve : (D
2
+ 5D + 6)y = 0 or y″ + 5y′ + 6y = 0
Solution : To find the C.F. solve the characteristic equation
p
2
+ 5p + 6 = 0
⇒ (p + 2) (p + 3) = 0 ⇒ p = − 2 and p = − 3
The C.F. is Ae
−2x
+ Be
−3x
.
Hence the general solution is y = Ae
−2x
+ Be
−3x
where A and B are
arbitrary constants.
Example 8.23 : Solve : (D
2
+ 6D + 9)y = 0
Solution : The characteristic equation is
p
2
+ 6p + 9 = 0
i.e., (p + 3)
2
= 0 ⇒ p = − 3, − 3
The C.F. is (Ax + B)e
− 3x
Hence the general solution is y = (Ax + B)e
−3x
where A and B are arbitrary constants.
Example 8.24 : Solve : (D
2
+ D + 1)y = 0
Solution : The characteristic equation is p
2
+ p + 1 = 0
∴ p =
− 1 ± 1 − 4
2
=
− 1
2
± i
3
2
Hence the general solution is y = e
−x/2
A cos
3
2
x + B sin
3
2
x
where A and B are arbitrary constant.
Example 8.25 : Solve : (D
2
− 13D + 12)y = e
−2x
Solution : The characteristic equation is p
2
− 13p + 12 = 0
⇒ (p − 12) (p − 1) = 0 ⇒ p = 12 and 1
The C.F. is Ae
12x
+ Be
x
Particular integral P.I. =
1
D
2
− 13D + 12
e
−2x
145
=
1
(− 2)
2
− 13 (− 2) + 12
e
−2x
=
1
4 + 26 + 12
e
−2x
=
1
42
e
−2x
Hence the general solution is y = CF + PI ⇒ y = Ae
12x
+ Be
x
+
1
42
e
−2x
Example 8.26 : Solve : (D
2
+ 6D + 8)y = e
−2x
Solution : The characteristic equation is p
2
+ 6p + 8 = 0
⇒ (p + 4) (p + 2) = 0 ⇒ p = − 4 and − 2
The C.F. is Ae
− 4x
+ Be
−2x
Particular integral P.I. =
1
D
2
+ 6D + 8
e
−2x
=
1
(D + 4) (D + 2)
e
−2x
Since f(D) = (D + 2) θ(D))
=
1
θ (−2)
xe
−2x
=
1
2
xe
−2x
Hence the general solution is y = Ae
− 4x
+ Be
−2x
+
1
2
xe
−2x
Example 8.27 : Solve : (D
2
− 6D + 9)y = e
3x
Solution : The characteristic equation is p
2
− 6p + 9 = 0
i.e., (p − 3)
2
= 0 ⇒ p = 3, 3
The C.F. is (Ax + B)e
3x
Particular integral P.I. =
1
D
2
− 6D + 9
e
3x
=
1
(D − 3)
2
e
3x
=
x
2
2
e
3x
Hence the general solution is y = (Ax
+ B)e
3x
+
x
2
2
e
3x
Example 8.28 : Solve : (2D
2
+ 5D + 2)y = e
−
1
2
x
Solution : The characteristic equation is 2p
2
+ 5p + 2 = 0
∴ p =
− 5 ± 25 − 16
4
=
− 5 ± 3
4
146
⇒ p = −
1
2
and − 2
The C.F. is Ae
−
1
2
x
+ Be
−2x
Particular integral P.I. =
1
2D
2
+ 5D + 2
e
−
1
2
x
=
1
2
\

.

D +
1
2
(D + 2)
e
−
1
2
x
=
1
θ
\

.

−
1
2
. 2
xe
−
1
2
x
=
1
3
x e
−
1
2
x
Hence the general solution is y = Ae
−
1
2
x
+ Be
−2x
+
1
3
x e
−
1
2
x
Caution : In the above problem we see that while calculating the particular
integral the coefficient of D expressed as factors is made unity.
(b) When X is of the form sin ax or cos ax.
Working rule :
Formula 1: Express f(D) as function of D
2
, say φ(D
2
) and then replace
D
2
by − a
2
. If φ(− a
2
) ≠ 0. Then we use the following result.
P.I. =
1
f(D)
cos ax =
1
φ(D
2
)
cos ax =
1
φ(− a
2
)
cos ax
For example PI =
1
D
2
+ 1
cos 2x =
1
− 2
2
+ 1
cos 2x = −
1
3
cos 2x
Formula 2 : Sometimes we cannot form φ(D
2
). Then we shall try to get
φ(D, D
2
), that is, a function of D and D
2
. In such cases we proceed as follows :
For example : P.I. =
1
D
2
− 2D + 1
cos3x
=
1
− 3
2
− 2D + 1
cos3x
Replace D
2
by − 3
2
=
− 1
2(D + 4)
cos3x
=
− 1
2
D − 4
D
2
− 4
2
cos3x
Multiply and divide by D − 4
147
=
− 1
2
1
− 3
2
− 4
2
(D − 4) cos3x
=
1
50
(D − 4) cos 3x
=
1
50
[D cos 3x − 4 cos 3x] =
1
50
[− 3 sin 3x − 4 cos 3x]
Formula 3 : If φ(− a
2
) = 0 then we proceed as shown in the following example:
Example : P.I. =
1
φ(D
2
)
cosax
=
1
D
2
+ a
2
cosax
=
1
(D + ia) (D − ia)
cosax
= R.P.
1
(D + ia) (D − ia)
e
iax
= R.P.
1
θ(ia)
xe
iax
= Real part of
xe
iax
2ia
as θ (ia) = 2ia
=
− x
2a
[ ] Real part of i [cos ax + i sin ax]
=
− x
2a
(− sin ax) =
x sin ax
2a
Note : If X = sin ax
Formula 1 :
1
φ(− a
2
)
sin ax
Formula 2 : Same as cos ax method
Formula 3 :
1
D
2
+ a
2
sin ax = I.P.
1
(D + ia) (D − ia)
e
iax
=
− x
2a
cos ax
Example 8.29 : Solve : (D
2
− 4)y = sin 2x
Solution : The characteristic equation is p
2
− 4 = 0 ⇒ p = ± 2
C.F. = Ae
2x
+ Be
−2x
;
P.I. =
1
D
2
− 4
(sin 2x) =
1
− 4 − 4
(sin 2x) = −
1
8
sin 2x
Hence the general solution is y = C.F. + P.I. ⇒ y = Ae
2x
+ Be
− 2x
−
1
8
sin 2x
Example 8.30 : Solve : (D
2
+ 4D + 13)y = cos 3x
Solution : The characteristic equation is p
2
+ 4p + 13 = 0
148
p =
− 4 ± 16 − 52
2
=
− 4 ± − 36
2
=
− 4 ± i6
2
= − 2 ± i3
C.F. = e
−2x
(A cos 3x + B sin 3x)
P.I. =
1
D
2
+ 4D + 13
(cos 3x)
=
1
− 3
2
+ 4D + 13
(cos 3x) =
1
4D + 4
(cos 3x)
=
(4D − 4)
(4D + 4) (4D − 4)
(cos 3x) =
4D − 4
16D
2
− 16
(cos 3x)
=
4D − 4
−160
(cos 3x) =
1
40
(3 sin 3x + cos 3x)
The general solution is y = C.F. + P.I.
y = e
−2x
(A cos 3x + B sin 3x) +
1
40
(3 sin 3x + cos 3x)
Example 8.31 : Solve (D
2
+ 9)y = sin 3x
Solution : The characteristic equation is p
2
+ 9 = 0 ⇒ p = ± 3i
C.F. = (A cos 3x + B sin 3x)
P.I. =
1
D
2
+ 9
sin 3x
=
− x
6
cos 3x since
1
D
2
+ a
2
sin ax =
− x
2a
cos ax
Hence the solution is y = C.F. + P.I.
i.e., y = (A cos 3x + B sin 3x) −
x cos 3x
6
(c) When X is of the form x and x
2
Working rule : Take the P.I. as c
0
+ c
1
x if f(x) = x and c
0
+ c
1
x + c
2
x
2
if
f(x) = x
2
. Since P.I. is also a solution of (aD
2
+ bD + c)
y
= f(x), take
y = c
0
+ c
1
x or y = c
0
+ c
1
x + c
2
x
2
according as f(x) = x or x
2
. By substituting
y value and comparing the like terms, one can find c
0
, c
1
and c
2
.
149
Example 8.32 : Solve : (D
2
− 3D + 2)y = x
Solution : The characteristic equation is p
2
− 3p + 2 = 0 ⇒ (p − 1) (p − 2) = 0
p = 1, 2
The C.F. is (Ae
x
+ Be
2x
)
Let P.I. = c
0
+ c
1
x
∴ c
0
+ c
1
x is also a solution.
∴ (D
2
− 3D + 2) (c
0
+ c
1
x) = x
i.e., (− 3c
1
+ 2 c
0
) + 2c
1
x = x
⇒ 2c
1
= 1 ∴ c
1
=
1
2
(− 3c
1
+ 2 c
0
) = 0 ⇒ c
0
=
3
4
∴ P.I. =
x
2
+
3
4
Hence the general solution is y = C.F. + P.I.
y = Ae
x
+ Be
2x
+
x
2
+
3
4
Example 8.33 :
Solve : (D
2
− 4D + 1)y = x
2
Solution : The characteristic equation is p
2
− 4p + 1 = 0
⇒ p =
4 ± 16 − 4
2
=
4 ± 2 3
2
= 2 ± 3
C.F. = Ae
( ) 2 + 3 x
+ Be
( ) 2 − 3 x
Let P.I. = c
0
+ c
1
x + c
2
x
2
But P.I. is also a solution.
∴ (D
2
− 4D + 1) (c
0
+ c
1
x + c
2
x
2
) = x
2
i.e., (2c
2
− 4c
1
+ c
0
) + (− 8c
2
+ c
1
)x + c
2
x
2
= x
2
c
2
= 1
− 8c
2
+ c
1
= 0 ⇒ c
1
= 8
2c
2
− 4c
1
+ c
0
= 0 ⇒ c
0
= 30
P.I. = x
2
+ 8x + 30
150
Hence the general solution is y = C.F. + P.I.
y = Ae
( ) 2 + 3 x
+ Be
( ) 2 − 3 x
+ (x
2
+ 8x + 30)
EXERCISE 8.5
Solve the following differential equations :
(1) (D
2
+ 7D + 12)y = e
2x
(2) (D
2
− 4D + 13)y = e
−3x
(3) (D
2
+ 14D + 49)y = e
−7x
+ 4 (4) (D
2
− 13D + 12)y = e
−2x
+ 5e
x
(5) (D
2
+ 1) y = 0 when x = 0, y = 2 and when x =
π
2
, y = − 2
(6)
d
2
y
dx
2
− 3
dy
dx
+ 2y = 2e
3x
when x = log2, y = 0 and when x = 0, y = 0
(7) (D
2
+ 3D − 4) y = x
2
(8) (D
2
− 2D − 3)y = sinx cosx
(9) D
2
y = − 9 sin 3x (10) (D
2
− 6D + 9) y = x + e
2x
(11) (D
2
− 1)y = cos2x − 2 sin 2x (12) (D
2
+ 5)y = cos
2
x
(13) (D
2
+ 2D + 3)y = sin 2x (14) (3D
2
+ 4D + 1)y = 3e
−x/3
8.6 Applications :
In this section we solve problems on differential equations which have direct
impact on real life situation. Solving of these types of problems involve
(i) Construction of the mathematical model describing the given situation
(ii) Seeking solution for the model formulated in (i) using the methods
discussed earlier.
Illustration :
Let A be any population at time t. The rate of change of population is
directly proportional to initial population i.e.,
dA
dt
α A i.e.,
dA
dt
= kA where k is called the constant of proportionality
(1) If k > 0, we say that A grows exponentially with growth constant k
(growth problem).
(2) If k < 0 we say that A decreases exponentially with decreasing
constant k (decay problem).
In all the practical problems we apply the principle that the rate of change
of population is directly proportional to the initial population
151
i.e.,
dA
dt
α A or
dA
dt
= kA
(Here k may be positive or negative depends on the problem). This linear
equation can be solved in three ways i.e., (i) variable separable (ii) linear (using
I.F.) (iii) by using characteristic equation with single root k. In all the ways we
get the solution as A = ce
kt
where c is the arbitrary constant and k is the constant
of proportionality. In general we have to find out c as well as k from the given
data. Sometimes the value of k may be given directly as in 8.35.
dA
dt
is directly
given in 8.38.
Solution :
dA
dt
= kA
(i)
dA
A
= kdt ⇒ log A = kt + log c
⇒ A = e
kt + log c
⇒ A = ce
kt
(ii)
dA
dt
− kA = 0 is linear in A
I.F. = e
−kt
Ae
−kt
=
⌡
⌠
e
−kt
O dt + c ⇒ Ae
−kt
= c
A = ce
kt
(iii) (D − k)A = 0
Chr. equation is p − k = 0 ⇒ p = k
The C.F. is ce
kt
But there is no P.I.
∴ A = ce
kt
(iv) In the case of Newton’s law of cooling (i.e., the rate of change of
temperature is proportional to the difference in temperatures) we get the
equation as
dT
dt
= k(T − S)
[T− cooling object temperature, S − surrounding temperature]
dT
T − S
= kdt ⇒ log (T − S) = kt + log c ⇒ T − S = ce
kt
⇒ T = S + ce
kt
152
Example 8.34 : In a certain chemical reaction the rate of conversion of a
substance at time t is proportional to the quantity of the substance still
untransformed at that instant. At the end of one hour, 60 grams remain and at
the end of 4 hours 21 grams. How many grams of the substance was there
initially?
Solution :
Let A be the substance at time t
dA
dt
α A ⇒
dA
dt
= kA ⇒ A = ce
kt
When t = 1, A = 60 ⇒ ce
k
= 60 … (1)
When t = 4, A = 21 ⇒ ce
4k
= 21 … (2)
(1) ⇒ c
4
e
4k
= 60
4
… (3)
(3)
(2)
⇒ c
3
=
60
4
21
⇒ c = 85.15 (by using log)
Initially i.e., when t = 0, A = c = 85.15 gms (app.)
Hence initially there was 85.15 gms (approximately) of the substance.
Example 8.35 : A bank pays interest by continuous compounding, that is by
treating the interest rate as the instantaneous rate of change of principal.
Suppose in an account interest accrues at 8% per year compounded
continuously. Calculate the percentage increase in such an account over one
year. [Take e
.08
≈ 1.0833]
Solution : Let A be the principal at time t
dA
dt
α A ⇒
dA
dt
= kA ⇒
dA
dt
= 0.08 A, since k = 0.08
⇒ A(t) = ce
0.08t
Percentage increase in 1 year =
A(1) − A(0)
A(0)
× 100
=
\

.

A(1)
A(0)
− 1 × 100 =
\

.

 c. e
0.08
c
− 1 × 100 = 8.33%
Hence percentage increase is 8.33%
Example 8.36 :
The temperature T of a cooling object drops at a rate proportional to the
difference T − S, where S is constant temperature of surrounding medium. If
initially T = 150°C, find the temperature of the cooling object at any time t.
153
Solution :
Let T be the temperature of the cooling object at any time t
dT
dt
α (T− S) ⇒
dT
dt
= k (T − S) ⇒ T − S = ce
kt
, where k is negative
⇒ T = S + ce
kt
When t = 0, T = 150 ⇒ 150 = S + c ⇒ c = 150 − S
∴ The temperature of the cooling object at any time is
T = S + (150 − S)e
kt
Note : Since k is negative, as t increases T decreases.
It is a decay problem. Instead of k one may take − k where k > 0. Then the
answer is T = S + (150 − S)e
− kt
. Again, as t increases T decreases.
Example 8.37 : For a postmortem report, a doctor requires to know
approximately the time of death of the deceased. He records the first
temperature at 10.00 a.m. to be 93.4°F. After 2 hours he finds the temperature
to be 91.4°F. If the room temperature (which is constant) is 72°F, estimate the
time of death. (Assume normal temperature of a human body to be 98.6°F).
log
e
19.4
21.4
= − 0.0426 × 2.303 and log
e
26.6
21.4
= 0.0945 × 2.303
Solution :
Let T be the temperature of the body at any time t
By Newton’s law of cooling
dT
dt
α (T − 72) since S = 72°F
dT
dt
= k (T − 72) ⇒ T− 72 = ce
kt
or T = 72 + ce
kt
At t = 0, T = 93.4 ⇒ c = 21.4 [ First recorded time 10 a.m. is t = 0]
∴ T = 72 + 21.4e
kt
When t = 120, T = 91.4 ⇒ e
120k
=
19.4
21.4
⇒ k =
1
120
log
e
\

.

19.4
21.4
=
1
120
(− 0.0426 × 2.303)
Let t
1
be the elapsed time after the death.
When t = t
1
; T = 98.6 ⇒ 98.6 = 72 + 21.4 e
kt
1
154
⇒ t
1
=
1
k
log
e
\

.

26.6
21.4
=
− 120 × 0.0945 × 2.303
0.0426 × 2.303
= − 266 min
[For better approximation the hours converted into minutes]
i.e., 4 hours 26 minutes before the first recorded temperature.
The approximate time of death is 10.00 hrs − 4 hours 26 minutes.
∴ Approximate time of death is 5.34 A.M.
Note : Since it is a decay problem, we can even take
dT
dt
= − k(T − 72) where
k > 0. The final answer will be the same.
Example 8.38 : A drug is excreted in a patients urine. The urine is monitored
continuously using a catheter. A patient is administered 10 mg of drug at time
t = 0, which is excreted at a Rate of − 3t
1/2
mg/h.
(i) What is the general equation for the amount of drug in the patient at
time t > 0?
(ii) When will the patient be drug free?
Solution :
(i) Let A be the quantum of drug at any time t
The drug is excreted at a rate of − 3t
1
2
i.e.,
dA
dt
= − 3t
1
2
⇒ A = − 2t
3
2
+ c
When t = 0, A = 10 ⇒ c = 10
At any time t A = 10 − 2t
3
2
(ii) For drug free, A = 0 ⇒ 5 = t
3
2
⇒ t
3
= 25 ⇒ t = 2.9 hours.
Hence the patient will be drug free in 2.9 hours or 2 hours 54 min.
Example 8.39 :
The number of bacteria in a yeast culture grows at a rate which is
proportional to the number present. If the population of a colony of yeast
bacteria triples in 1 hour. Show that the number of bacteria at the end of five
hours will be 3
5
times of the population at initial time.
Solution : Let A be the number of bacteria at any time t
dA
dt
α A ⇒
dA
dt
= kA ⇒ A = ce
kt
155
Initially, i.e., when t = 0, assume that A = A
0
∴ A
0
= ce° = c
∴ A = A
0
e
kt
when t = 1, A = 3A
0
⇒ 3A
0
= A
0
e
k
⇒ e
k
= 3
When t = 5, A = A
0
e
5k
= A
0
(e
k
)
5
= 3
5
. A
0
∴ The number of bacteria at the end of 5 hours will be 3
5
times of the
number of bacteria at initial time
EXERCISE 8.6
(1) Radium disappears at a rate proportional to the amount present. If 5% of
the original amount disappears in 50 years, how much will remain at the
end of 100 years. [Take A
0
as the initial amount].
(2) The sum of Rs. 1000 is compounded continuously, the nominal rate of
interest being four percent per annum. In how many years will the
amount be twice the original principal? (log
e
2 = 0.6931).
(3) A cup of coffee at temperature 100°C is placed in a room whose
temperature is 15°C and it cools to 60°C in 5 minutes. Find its
temperature after a further interval of 5 minutes.
(4) The rate at which the population of a city increases at any time is
proportional to the population at that time. If there were 1,30,000 people
in the city in 1960 and 1,60,000 in 1990 what population may be
anticipated in 2020.
log
e
\

.

16
13
= .2070 ; e
.42
= 1.52
(5) A radioactive substance disintegrates at a rate proportional to its mass.
When its mass is 10 mgm, the rate of disintegration is 0.051 mgm per
day. How long will it take for the mass to be reduced from 10 mgm to
5 mgm. [log
e
2 = 0.6931]
156
9. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
Discrete Mathematics deals with several selected topics in Mathematics
that are essential to the study of many Computer Science areas. Since it is very
difficult to cover all the topics, only two topics, namely “Mathematical Logic”,
and “Groups” have been introduced. These topics will be very much helpful to
the students in certain practical applications related to Computer Science.
9.1. Mathematical Logic : Introduction :
Logic deals with all types of reasonings. These reasonings may be legal
arguments or mathematical proofs or conclusions in a scientific theory. Aristotle
(384 – 322 BC) wrote the first treatise on logic. Gottfried Leibnitz framed the
idea of using symbols in logic and this idea was realised in the nineteenth
century by George Boole and Augustus De’Morgan.
Logic is widely used in many branches of sciences and social sciences. It
is the theoretical basis for many areas of Computer Science such as digital logic
circuit design, automata theory and artificial intelligence.
We express our thoughts through words. Since words have many
associations in every day life, there are chances of ambiguities to appear. In
order to avoid this, we use symbols which have been clearly defined. Symbols
are abstract and neutral. Also they are easy to write and manipulate. This is
because the mathematical logic which we shall study is also called symbolic
logic.
9.1.1 Logical statement or Proposition :
A statement or a proposition is a sentence which is either true or false but
not both.
A sentence which is both true and false simultaneously is not a statement,
rather it is a paradox.
Example 1 :
(a) Consider the following sentences :
(i) Chennai is the capital of Tamilnadu.
(ii) The earth is a planet.
(iii) Rose is a flower.
Each of these sentences is true and so each of them is a statement.
(b) Consider the following sentences :
(iv) Every triangle is an isosceles triangle.
157
(v) Three plus four is eight
(vi) The sun is a planet.
Each of these sentences is false and so each of them is a statement.
Example 2 : Each of the sentences
(vii) Switch on the light.
(viii) Where are you going?
(ix) May God bless you with success.
(x) How beautiful Taj Mahal is!
cannot be assigned true or false and so none of them is a statement. In fact,
(vii) is a command, (viii) is a question (ix) is an optative and (x) is exclamatory.
Truth value of a statement :
The truth or falsity of a statement is called its truth value. If a statement is
true, we say that its truth value is TRUE or T and if it is false, we say that its
truth value is FALSE or F.
All the statements in Example 1(a) have the truth value T, while all the
statements in Example 1 (b) have the truth value F.
Simple statements :
A statement is said to be simple if it cannot be broken into two or more
statements. All the statements in (a) and (b) of Example 1 are simple statements.
Compound statements :
If a statement is the combination of two or more simple statements, then it
is said to be a compound statement.
Example : It is raining and it is cold.
This is a compound statement and it is a combination of two simple
statements “It is raining”, “It is cold”.
Simple statements which on combining form compound statements are
called substatements or component statements of the compound statement.
The fundamental property of a compound statement is that its truth value is
completely determined by the truth values of its substatements together with
the way in which they are combined to form the compound statement.
Basic logical connectives
The words which combine simple statements to form compound statements
are called connectives. We use the connectives ‘and’, ‘or’, etc., to form new
statements by combining two or more statements. But the use of these
connectives in English language is not always precise and unambiguous. Hence
it is necessary to define a set of connectives with definite meanings in the
158
language of logic, called object language. Three basic connectives are
conjunction which corresponds to the English word ‘and’, ‘disjunction’ which
corresponds to the word ‘or’ ‘negation’ which corresponds to the word ‘not’.
We use the symbol “∧” to denote conjunction, “∨” to denote disjunction
and “ ~ ” to denote negation.
Conjunction :
If two simple statements p and q are connected by the word ‘and’, then the
resulting compound statement ‘p and q’ is called the conjunction of p and q and
is written in the symbolic form as ‘p ∧ q’.
Example 1 : Form the conjunction of the following simple statements
p : Ram is intelligent.
q : Ravi is handsome.
p ∧ q : Ram intelligent and Ravi is handsome.
Example 2 : Convert the following statement into symbolic form :
‘Usha and Mala are going to school’.
the given statement can be rewritten as :
‘Usha is going to school’, and
‘Mala is going to school’.
Let p : Usha is going to school.
q : Mala is going to school.
The given statement in symbolic form is p ∧ q.
Rule : (A
1
) The statement p ∧ q has the truth value T whenever both
p and q have the truth value T.
(A
2
) The statement p ∧ q has the truth value F whenever either
p or q or both have the truth value F.
Example : Write the truth value of each of the following statements :
(i) Ooty is in Tamilnadu and 3 + 4 = 8
(ii) Ooty is in Tamilnadu and 3 + 4 = 7
(iii) Ooty is in Kerala and 3 + 4 = 7
(iv) Ooty is in Kerala and 3 + 4 = 8
In (i) the truth value of the statement 3 + 4 = 8 is F. ∴ By (A
2
)
(i) has the truth value F.
159
In (ii) both the substatements have truth value T and hence by (A
1
). (ii)
has truth value T.
The truth values of (iii) and (iv) are F.
Disjunction :
If two simple statements p and q are connected by the word ‘or’, then the
resulting compound statement ‘p or q’ is called the disjunction of p and q and is
written in symbolic form as p ∨ q.
Example : Form the disjunction of the following simple statements :
p : John is playing cricket.
q : There are thirty students in the class room.
p ∨ q : John is playing cricket or there are thirty students in the class
room.
Example : Convert the following statement into symbolic form.
“5 is a positive integer or a square is a rectangle”.
Let p : 5 is a positive integer.
q : A square is a rectangle.
The given statement in symbolic form is p w q.
Rule : (A
3
) The statement p ∨ q has the truth value F whenever both p
and q have the truth value F.
(A
4
) The statement p ∨ q has the truth value T whenever either p
or q or both have the truth value T.
Example :
(i) Chennai is in India or 2 is an integer.
(ii) Chennai is in India or 2 is an irrational number.
(iii) Chennai is in China or 2 is an integer.
(iv) Chennai is in China or 2 is an irrational number.
By (A
4
), we see that the truth values of (i), (ii) and (iv) are T and by (A
3
),
the truth value of (iii) is F.
Negation :
The negation of a statement is generally formed by introducing the word
‘not’ at some proper place in the statement or by prefixing the statement with ‘It
is not the case that’ or ‘It is false that’.
If p denotes a statement, then the negation of p is written as ∼p or p. We
use the symbol ∼p to denote the negation of p.
160
Rule : (A
5
) If the truth value of p is T then the truth value of ∼p is F.
Also, if the truth value of p is F, then the truth value of ∼p
is T.
Example :
p : All men are wise.
∼p : Not all men are wise. (or)
∼p : It is not the case that all men are wise (or)
∼p : It is false that all men are wise.
Note : Negation is called a connective although it does not combine two or
more statements. It only modifies a statement.
EXERCISE 9.1
Find out which of the following sentences are statements and which are not?
Justify your answer.
(1) All natural numbers are integers.
(2) A square has five sides.
(3) The sky is blue.
(4) How are you?
(5) 7 + 2 < 10.
(6) The set of rational numbers is finite.
(7) How beautiful you are!
(8) Wish you all success.
(9) Give me a cup of tea.
(10) 2 is the only even prime.
Write down the truth value (T or F) of the following statements :
(11) All the sides of a rhombus are equal in length.
(12) 1 + 8 is an irrational number.
(13) Milk is white.
(14) The number 30 has four prime factors.
(15) Paris is in France.
(16) Sin x is an even function.
(17) Every square matrix is nonsingular.
(18) Jupiter is a planet.
(19) The product of a complex number and its conjugate is purely imaginary.
(20) Isosceles triangles are equilateral.
161
(21) Form the conjunction and the disjunction of
(i) p : Anand reads newspaper, q : Anand plays cricket.
(ii) p : I like tea. q : I like icecream.
(22) Let p be “Kamala is going to school” and q be “There are twenty students
in the class “. Give a simple verbal sentence which describes each of the
following statements :
(i) p ∨ q (ii) p ∧ q (iii) ∼ p (iv) ∼ q (v) ∼p ∨ q
(23) Translate each of the following compound statements into symbolic
form :
(i) Rose is red and parrot is a bird.
(ii) Suresh reads ‘Indian Express’ or ‘The Hindu’.
(iii) It is false that the mangoes are sweet.
(iv) 3 + 2 = 5 and Ganges is a river.
(v) It is false that sky is not blue.
(24) If p stands for the statement “Sita likes reading” and q for the statement
“Sita likes playing’ what does ∼p ∧ ∼ q stand for?
(25) Write negation of the each of the following statements :
(i) 5 is an irrational number.
(ii) Mani is sincere and hardworking.
(iii) This picture is good or beautiful.
9.1.2 Truth tables :
A table that shows the relation between the truth values of a compound
statement and the truth values of its substatements is called the truth table. A
truth table consists of rows and columns. The initial columns are filled with the
possible truth values of the substatements and the last column is filled with the
truth values of the compound statement on the basis of the truth values of the
substatements written in the initial columns. If the compound statement is
made up of n substatements, then its truth table will contain 2
n
rows.
Example 9.1 : Construct the truth table for ∼p
Solution: The statement ∼p consists of only one simple statement p. Therefore,
its truth table will contain 2
1
(= 2) rows.
Also we know that if p has the truth value T then ∼p has the truth value F
and if p has the truth value F, then ∼p has the truth value T. Thus the truth table
for ∼p is as given below :
Truth table for ∼ p
p ∼p
T F
F T
162
Example 9.2 : Construct the truth table for p ∨ (∼p).
Solution: The compound statement p∨ (∼p) consists of only one single
statement p. Therefore its truth table will contain 2
1
(= 2) rows.
In the first column, enter all possible truth values of p.
In the second column, enter the truth values of ∼p based on the
corresponding truth values of p. Finally, in the last column, enter the truth
values of p ∨ (∼p), using (A
4
).
Truth table for p∨(∼p)
p ∼p p∨(∼p)
T F T
F T T
Example 9.3 : Construct the truth table for p ∧ q.
Solution: The compound statement p ∧ q consists of two simple statements p
and q. Therefore, there must be 2
2
(= 4) rows in the truth table of p ∧ q. Now
enter all possible truth values of statements p and q namely TT, TF, FT and FF
in the first two columns of the truth table.
Using (A
1
) and (A
2
), enter the truth values of p ∧ q in the final column
based on the corresponding truth values of p and q in the first two columns.
Truth table for p ∧ q
p q p ∧ q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F
Note : Similarly, by using (A
3
) and (A
4
) we can construct the truth table for
p ∨ q, as given below :
Truth table for p ∨ q
p q p ∨ q
T T T
T F T
F T T
F F F
163
Example 9.4 : Construct the truth table for the following statements :
(i) ((∼p) ∨ (∼ q)) (ii) ∼ ((∼ p) ∧ q)
(iii) (p ∨ q) ∧ (∼ q) (iv) ∼ ((∼ p) ∧ (∼ q))
Solution:
(i) Truth table for ((∼p) ∨ (∼ q))
p q ∼ p ∼ q ((∼p) ∨ (∼ q))
T T F F F
T F F T T
F T T F T
F F T T T
(ii) Truth table for ∼ ((∼ p) ∧ q)
p q ∼ p (∼ p) ∧ q ∼ ((∼ p) ∧ q)
T T F F T
T F F F T
F T T T F
F F T F T
(iii) Truth table for (p ∨ q) ∧ (∼ q)
p q p ∨ q ∼ q (p ∨ q) ∧ (− q)
T T T F F
T F T T T
F T T F F
F F F T F
(iv) Truth table for ∼ ((∼ p) ∧ (∼ q))
p q ∼ p ∼ q (∼ p) ∧ (∼ q) ∼ ((∼ p) ∧ (∼ q))
T T F F F T
T F F T F T
F T T F F T
F F T T T F
Example 9.5 : Construct the truth table for (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼ r)
Solution: The compound statement (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼ r) consists of three simple
statements p, q and r. Therefore, there must be 2
3
(= 8) rows in the truth table of
(p ∧ q) ∨ (∼r). The truth value of p remains at the same value of T or F for each
of four consecutive assignments of logical values. The truth value of q remains
at T or F for two assignments and that of r remains at T or F for one
assignment.
164
p q r p ∧ q ∼ r (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼r)
T T T T F T
T T F T T T
T F T F F F
T F F F T T
F T T F F F
F T F F T T
F F T F F F
F F F F T T
Example 9.6 : Construct the truth table for (p ∨ q) ∧ r
Solution:
p q r p ∨ q (p ∨ q) ∧ r
T T T T T
T T F T F
T F T T T
T F F T F
F T T T T
F T F T F
F F T F F
F F F F F
EXERCISE 9.2
Construct the truth tables for the following statements :
(1) p ∨ (∼ q) (2) (∼ p) ∧ (∼ q)
(3) ∼ (p ∨ q) (4) (p ∨ q) ∨ (∼ p)
(5) (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼ q) (6) ∼ (p ∨ (∼ q))
(7) (p ∧ q) ∨ [∼ (p ∧ q)] (8) (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼ q)
(9) (p ∨ q) ∨ r (10) (p ∧ q) ∨ r
Logical Equivalence :
Two compound statements A and B are said to be logically equivalent or
simply equivalent, if they have identical last columns in their truth tables.
In this case we write A ≡ B.
Example 9.7 : Show that ∼ (p ∨ q) ≡ (∼ p) ∧ (∼ q)
165
Solution:
Truth table for ∼ (p ∨ q)
p q p ∨ q ∼ (p ∨ q)
T T T F
T F T F
F T T F
F F F T
Truth table for ((∼ p) ∧ (∼ q))
p q ∼p ∼ q ((∼ p) ∧ (∼ q))
T T F F F
T F F T F
F T T F F
F F T T T
The last columns are identical. ∴ ∼ (p ∨ q) ≡ ((∼ p) ∧ (∼ q))
Negation of a negation :
Negation of a negation of a statement is the statement itself. Equivalently
we write ∼ (∼ p) ≡ p
p ∼p ∼ (∼ p)
T F T
F T F
In the truth table, the columns corresponding to p and ∼ (∼ p) are identical.
Hence p and ∼ (∼ p) are logically equivalent.
Example 9.8 : Verify ∼ (∼ p) ≡ p for the statement p : the sky is blue.
Solution:
p : The sky is blue
∼ p : The sky is not blue
∼ (∼ p) : It is not the case that the sky is not blue or
It is false that the sky is not blue or
The sky is blue
Conditional and biconditional statements :
In Mathematics, we frequently come across statements of the form “If p
then q”. Such statements are called conditional statements or implications. They
are denoted by p → q, read as ‘p implies q’. The conditional p → q is false only
if p is true and q is false. Accordingly, if p is false then p → q is true regardless
of the truth value of q.
166
Truth table for p → q
p q p → q
T T T
T F F
F T T
F F T
If p and q are two statements, then the compound statement p → q and
q → p is called a biconditional statement and is denoted by p ↔ q, read as p if
and only if q. p ↔ q has the truth value T whenever p and q have the same truth
values; otherwise it is F.
Truth table for p ↔ q
p q p ↔ q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F T
9.1.3 Tautologies :
A statement is said to be a tautology if the last column of its truth table
contains only T, i.e., it is true for all logical possibilities.
A statement is said to be a contradiction if the last column of its truth table
contains only F, i.e., it is false for all logical possibilities.
Example 9.9 : (i) p ∨ (∼ p) is a tautology. (ii) p ∧ (∼ p) is a contradiction
Solution:
(i) Truth table for p ∨ (∼ p)
p ∼ p p ∨ (∼ p)
T F T
F T T
The last column contains only T. ∴ p ∨ (∼p) is a tautology.
(ii) Truth table for p ∧ (∼ p)
p ∼ p p ∧ (∼ p)
T F F
F T F
The last column contains only F. ∴ p ∧ (∼p) is a contradiction.
167
Example 9.10 : (i) Show that ((∼ p) ∨ (∼ q)) ∨ p is a tautology.
(ii) Show that ((∼ q) ∧ p) ∧ q is a contradiction.
Solution:
(i) Truth table for ((∼ p) ∨ (∼ q)) ∨ p
p q ∼ p ∼ q (∼ p) ∨ (∼ q) ((∼ p) ∨ (∼ q))∨ p
T T F F F T
T F F T T T
F T T F T T
F F T T T T
The last column contains only T. ∴ ((∼ p) ∨ (∼ q)) ∨ p is a tautology.
(ii) Truth table for ((∼ q) ∧ p) ∧ q
p q ∼ q (∼ q) ∧ p ((∼ q) ∧ p) ∧ q
T T F F F
T F T T F
F T F F F
F F T F F
The last column contains only F. ∴ ((∼ q) ∧ p) ∧ q is a contradiction.
Example 9.11 : Use the truth table to determine whether the statement
((∼ p) ∨ q) ∨ (p ∧ (∼ q)) is a tautology.
Solution:
Truth table for ((∼ p) ∨ q) ∨ (p ∧ (∼ q))
p q ∼ p ∼ q (∼ p) ∨ q p ∧ (∼ q) ((∼ p) ∨ q) ∨ (p ∧ (∼ q)
T T F F T F T
T F F T F T T
F T T F T F T
F F T T T F T
The last column contains only T. ∴ The given statement is a tautology.
EXERCISE 9.3
(1) Use the truth table to establish which of the following statements are
tautologies and which are contradictions.
(i) ((∼ p) ∧ q) ∧ p (ii) (p ∨ q) ∨ (∼ (p ∨ q))
(iii) (p ∧ (∼ q)) ∨ ((∼ p) ∨ q) (iv) q ∨ (p ∨ (∼ q))
(v) (p ∧ (∼ p)) ∧ ((∼ q) ∧ p)
168
(2) Show that p → q ≡ (∼ p) ∨ q
(3) Show that p ↔ q ≡ (p → q) ∧ (q → p)
(4) Show that p ↔ q ≡ ((∼ p) ∨ q) ∧ ((∼ q) ∨ p)
(5) Show that ∼(p ∧ q) ≡ ((∼ p) ∨ (∼ q))
(6) Show that p → q and q → p are not equivalent.
(7) Show that (p ∧ q) → (p ∨ q) is a tautology.
9.2 Groups :
9.2.1 Binary Operation :
We know that the addition of any two natural numbers is a natural number,
the product of any two natural numbers is also a natural number. Each of these
operations associates with the two given numbers, a third number, their sum in
the case of addition, and their product in the case of multiplication. In this
section we are going to deal with the notion of a binary operation or a binary
composition on a set which is nothing but a generalisation of the usual addition
and usual multiplication on the number systems.
Definition :
A binary operation * on a nonempty set S is a rule, which associates to
each ordered pair (a, b) of elements a, b in S an element a * b in S. Thus a
binary operation * on S is just a map, * : S × S → S by (a, b) → a * b.
Where we denote by a * b, the image of (a, b) in S under *.
From the definition we see that, if * is a binary operation on S then
a, b ∈ S ⇒ a * b ∈ S.
In this case, we also say that S is closed under *. This property is known as
the “closure axiom” or “closure property”.
List of symbols used in this chapter :
N  The set of all natural numbers.
Z  The set of all integers.
W  The set of all nonnegative integers (whole numbers).
E  The set of all even integers.
O  The set of all odd integers.
Q  The set of all rational numbers.
R  The set of all real numbers.
C  The set of all complex numbers.
Q − {0}  The set of all nonzero rational numbers.
R – {0}  The set of all nonzero real numbers.
C  }0}  The set of all nonzero complex numbers.
∀  for every
∃  there exists
∋  such that
169
Illustrative examples :
The usual addition + is a binary operation on N.
Since a, b ∈ N ⇒ a + b ∈ N. i.e., N is closed under +.
But the usual subtraction is not binary on N. Since 2, 5 ∈ N,
but 2 − 5 = − 3 ∉ N.
∴ N is not closed under subtraction.
At the same time, we see that − is a binary operation on Z. From this we
see that, an operation becoming binary or not binary depends on the set. The
following table gives which number systems are closed under the usual
algebraic operations, namely addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
denoted by +, −, . , ÷ respectively.
Number Systems
Operations
N Z Q R C Q − {0} R − {0} C − {0}
+ binary binary binary binary binary
not
binary
not
binary
not
binary
−
not
binary
binary binary binary binary
not
binary
not
binary
not
binary
. binary binary binary binary binary binary binary binary
÷
not
binary
not
binary
not
binary
not
binary
not
binary
binary binary binary
Apart from the usual algebraic operations, some new operations on the
number systems can also be defined. For example, consider the operation * on
N defined by a * b = a
b
.
It is clear that * is binary on N, ‡ a, b ∈ N ⇒ a * b = a
b
∈ N.
Some more facts about binary operations :
(1) Let the set S be R or any subset of real number system.
Define * as (i) a * b = minimum of {a, b}
(ii) a * b = maximum of {a, b}
(iii) a * b = a
(iv) a * b = b
All the above operations (*) are binary operations on the corresponding
sets.
170
(2) (N, *)
* is defined as a * b = ab + 5. Since ab and 5 are natural numbers,
ab + 5 is also a natural number. ∴ * is a binary operation on N.
On the other hand, the operation * defined by a * b = ab − 5 is not binary
on N because 2 * 1 = (2)(1) − 5 = − 3 ∉ N.
(3) (Z, *), where * is defined by, a * b = a
b
, is not a binary operation on z.
Since take a = 2, b = − 1
a
b
= 2
−1
=
1
2
∉ Z
Note that * is also not a binary operaton on R − {0}
because take a = − 1, b =
1
2
ab = (− 1)
1/2
∉ R − {0}
(4) (R, *)
Define a * b = a + b + ab
Clearly * is a binary operation on R since a + b and ab are real numbers
and their sum is also a real number.
(5) (O, +)
Addition is not a binary operation on the set of odd integers, since addition
of two odd integers is not odd.
(6) (O, .)
Multiplication is a binary operation on the set of odd integers. Since
product of two odd integers is an odd integer.
(7) Matrix addition is a binary operation on the set of m × n matrices. Since
sum of two m × n matrices is again an m × n matrix.
(8) Matrix addition is not a binary operation on the set of n × n singular
matrices as well as on the set of n × n nonsingular matrices. Because, sum
of two nonsingular matrices need not be nonsingular and sum of two
singular matrices need not be singular.
(9) Matrix multiplication is a binary operation on the set of singular matrices
as well as on the set of nonsingular matrices.
(10) Cross product is a binary operation on the set of vectors, but dot product is
not a binary operation on the set of vectors.
Multiplication table for a binary operation
Any binary operation * on a finite set S = {a
1
, a
2
... a
n
} can be described by
means of multiplication table. This table consists of ‘n’ rows and ‘n’ columns.
Place each element of S at the head of one row and one column, usually taking
them in the same order for columns as for rows. The operator * is placed at the
left hand top corner. The n × n = n
2
spaces can be filled by writing a
i
* a
j
in the
space common to the ith row and the jth column of the table.
171
*
a
1
a
2
..................................
a
j
...
a
1
.
.
.
.
a
i
a
i
* a
j
.
.
.
This table is also known as Cayley’s table or composition table. In the
next section we will see that these composition tables are very much helpful in
exhibiting finite groups.
9.2.2 Groups :
Given any nonempty set S, the possibility of combining two of its
elements to get yet another element of S endows S with an algebraic structure. A
nonempty set S together with a binary operation * is called an algebraic
structure. Group is the simplest of all algebraic structures. It is the one
operational algebraic system. The study of groups was started in the nineteenth
century in connection with the solution of equations. The concept of group
arises not only in Mathematics but also in other fields like Physics, Chemistry
and Biology.
Definition :
A nonempty set G, together with an operation * i.e., (G, *) is said to be a
group if it satisfies the following axioms
(1) Closure axiom : a, b ∈ G ⇒ a * b ∈ G
(2) Associative axiom : ∀a, b, c ∈ G, (a * b) * c = a * (b * c)
(3) Identity axiom : There exists an element e ∈ G
such that a * e = e * a = a, ∀a ∈ G.
(4) Inverse axiom : ∀a ∈ G there exists an element a
−1
∈G such
that a
−1
* a = a * a
−1
= e.
e is called the identity element of G and a
−1
is called the inverse of a in G.
Definition (Commutative property) :
A binary operation * on a set S is said to be commutative
if a * b = b * a ∀ a, b ∈ S
172
Definition :
If a group satisfies the commutative property then it is called an abelian
group or a commutative group, otherwise it is called a nonabelian group.
Note (1) :
If the operation * is a binary operation, the closure axiom will be satisfied
automatically.
Note (2) :
We shall often use the same symbol G to denote the group and the
underlying set.
Order of a group :
The order of a group is defined as the number of distinct elements in the
underlying set.
If the number of elements is finite then the group is called a finite group
and if the number of elements is infinite then the group is called an infinite
group. The order of a group G is denoted by o(G).
Definition :
A nonempty set S with an operation * i.e., (S, *) is said to be a
semigroup if it satisfies the following axioms.
(1) Closure axiom : a, b ∈ S ⇒ a * b ∈ S
(2) Associative axiom : (a * b) * c = a * (b * c), ∀ a, b, c ∈ S.
Definition :
A nonempty set M with an operation * i.e., (M, *) is said to be a monoid if
it satisfies the following axioms :
(1) Closure axiom : a, b ∈ M ⇒ a * b ∈ M
(2) Associative axiom : (a * b) * c = a * (b * c) ∀a, b, c ∈ M
(3) Identity axiom : There exists an element e ∈ M
such that a * e = e * a = a, ∀a ∈ M.
(N, +) is a semigroup but it is not a monoid, because the identity element
O ∉ N.
(N, *) where * is defined by a * b = a
b
is not a semigroup, because,
consider (2 * 3) * 4 = 2
3
* 4 = 8
4
= 2
12
and
2 * (3 * 4) = 2 * 3
4
= 2 * 81 = 2
81
∴ (2 * 3) * 4 ≠ 2 * (3 * 4) i.e., associative axiom is not satisfied.
(Z, .) is a monoid. But it is not a group, because, the inverse axiom is not
satisfied. (5 ∈ Z, but
1
5
∉ Z). (Z, +) and (Z, .) are semigroups as well as
monoids. From the definitions, it is clear that every group is a monoid.
173
Example 9.12 : Prove that (Z, +) is an infinite abelian group.
Solution:
(i) Closure axiom : We know that sum of two integers is again an
integer.
(ii) Associative axiom : Addition is always associative in Z
i.e., ∀a, b, c ∈ Z, (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
(iii) Identity axiom : The identity element O ∈ Z and it satisfies
O + a = a + O = a, ∀ a ∈ Z
Identity axiom is true.
(iv) Inverse axiom : For every a ∈ Z, ∃ an element − a ∈ Z such
that − a + a = a + (− a) = 0
∴ Inverse axiom is true. ∴ (Z, +) is a group.
(v) ∀ a, b ∈ Z, a + b = b + a
∴ addition is commutative. ∴ (Z, +) is an abelian group.
(vi) Since Z is an infinite set (Z, +) is infinite abelian group.
Example 9.13 : Show that (R − {0}, .) is an infinite abelian group. Here ‘.’
denotes usual multiplication.
Solution:
(i) Closure axiom : Since product of two nonzero real numbers is
again a nonzero a real number.
i.e., ∀ a, b ∈ R, a . b ∈ R.
(ii) Associative axiom : Multiplication is always associative in R− {0}
i.e., a . (b . c) = (a . b) . c ∀ a, b, c ∈ R − {0}
∴ associative axiom is true.
(iii) Identity axiom : The identity element is 1 ∈ R − {0} under
multiplication and
1 . a = a . 1 = a, ∀ a ∈ R − {0}
∴ Identity axiom is true.
(iv) Inverse axiom : ∀ a ∈ R − {0},
1
a
∈ R − {0} such that
a .
1
a
=
1
a
. a = 1 (identity element). ∴ Inverse
axiom is true. ∴ (R − {0}, .) is a group.
(v) ∀ a, b ∈ R − {0}, a . b = b . a
∴ Commutative property is true. ∴ (R − {0}, .) is an abelian group.
174
(vi) Further R − {0} is an infinite set, (R − {0}, .) is an infinite abelian
group.
Example 9.14 : Show that the cube roots of unity forms a finite abelian group
under multiplication.
Solution: Let G = {1, ω, ω
2
}. The Cayley’s table is
. 1 ω
ω
2
1 1 ω
ω
2
ω ω
ω
2
1
ω
2
ω
2
1 ω
From the table, we see that,
(i) all the entries in the table are members of G.
So, the closure property is true.
(ii) multiplication is always associative.
(iii) the identity element is 1 and it satisfies the
identity axiom.
(iv) The inverse of 1 is 1
The inverse of ω is ω
2
the inverse of ω
2
is ω
and it satisfies the inverse axiom also. ∴ (G, .) is a group.
(v) the commutative property is also true.
∴ (G, .) is an abelian group.
(vi) Since G is a finite set, (G, .) is a finite abelian group.
Example 9.15 : Prove that the set of all 4
th
roots of unity forms an abelian group
under multiplication.
Solution: We know that the fourth roots of unity are 1, i, − 1, − i.
Let G = {1, i, − 1, − i}. The Caylely’s table is
. 1 − 1 i − i
1 1 − 1 i − i
− 1 − 1 1 − i i
i i − i − 1 1
− i − i i 1 − 1
From the table,
(i) the closure axiom is true.
(ii) multiplication is always associative in C and
hence in G.
(iii) the identity element is 1 ∈ G and it satisfies
the identity axiom.
(iv) the inverse of 1 is 1 ; i is − i ; − 1 is − 1 ; and − i is i. Further it satisfies
the inverse axiom. hence (G, .) is a group.
(v) From the table, the commutative property is also true.
∴ (G, .) is an abelian group.
Example 9.16 : Prove that (C, +) is an infinite abelian group.
Solution:
(i) Closure axiom : Sum of two complex numbers is always a complex number.
175
i.e., z
1
, z
2
∈ C ⇒ z
1
+ z
2
∈ C
Closure axiom is true.
(ii) Associative axiom : Addition is always associative in C
i.e., (z
1
+ z
2
) + z
3
= z
1
+ (z
2
+ z
3
) ∀ z
1
, z
2
, z
3
∈ C
∴ Associative axiom is true.
(iii) Identity axiom :
The identity element o = o + io ∈ C and o + z = z + o = z ∀ z ∈ C
∴ Identity axiom is true.
(iv) Inverse axiom : For every z ∈ C there exists a unique − z ∈ C such that
z + (− z) = − z + z = 0. Inverse is true. ∴ (C, +) is a group.
(v) Commutative property :
∀ z
1
, z
2
∈ C , z
1
+ z
2
= z
2
+ z
1
∴ the commutative property is true. Hence (C , +) is an abelian group.
Since C is an infinite set (C, +) is an infinite abelian group.
Example 9.17 : Show that the set of all nonzero complex numbers is an abelian
group under the usual multiplication of complex numbers.
Solution:
(i) Closure axiom : Let G = C − {0} Product of two nonzero complex
numbers is again a nonzero complex number.
∴ Closure axiom is true.
(ii) Associative axiom :
Multiplication is always associative.
∴ Associative property is true.
(iii) Identity axiom :
1 = 1 + io ∈ G, 1 is the identity element and 1.z = z . 1 = z ∀ z ∈ G.
∴ Identity axiom is true.
(iv) Inverse axiom :
Let z = x + iy ∈ G. Here z ≠ 0 ⇒ x and y are not both zero.
∴ x
2
+ y
2
≠ 0
1
z
=
1
x + iy
=
x − iy
(x + iy) (x − iy)
=
x − iy
x
2
+ y
2
=
x
x
2
+ y
2
+ i
\

.


− y
x
2
+ y
2
∈ G
Further z .
1
z
=
1
z
. z = 1 ∴ z has the inverse
1
z
∈ G.
Thus inverse axiom is satisfied. ∴ (G, .) is a group.
176
(v) Commutative property :
z
1
z
2
= (a + ib) (c + id) = (ac − bd) + i (ad + bc)
= (ca − db) + i (da + cb) = z
2
z
1
∴ It satisfies the commutative property.
∴ G is an abelian group under the usual multiplication of complex
numbers.
Note : Here the number 0 is removed, because 0 has no inverse under
multiplication. We can also show that Q − {0}, R − {0} are abelian groups
under multiplication. But Z − {0} is not a group under multiplication.
Q 7 ∈ Z − {0} while its inverse
1
7
∉ Z − {0}
Note : While verifying the axioms, follow the order given in the definition. If one
axiom fails, stop the process at that stage. There is no use in continuing further.
The following table shows which number systems are satisfying the
axioms of a group in the order for a particular operation.
* N E Z Q R C Q − {0} R − {0} C − {0}
+ Semi
group
group group group group group not closed not closed not closed
. monid semigroup monoid monoid monoid monoid group group group
− not
closed
not
associative
not
associative
not
associative
not
associative
not
associative
not closed not closed not closed
÷ not
closed
not closed not closed not closed not closed not closed not
associative
not
associative
not
associative
Example 9.18 : Show that (Z, *) is an infinite abelian group where * is defined
as a * b = a + b + 2.
Solution:
(i) Closure axiom : Since a, b and 2 are integers a + b + 2 is also an integer.
∴ a * b ∈ z ∀ a, b ∈ z
Thus closure axiom is true.
(ii) Associative axiom :
Let a, b, c ∈ G
(a * b) * c = (a + b + 2) * c = (a + b + 2) + c + 2 = a + b + c + 4
a * (b * c) = a * (b + c + 2) = a + (b + c + 2) + 2 = a + b + c + 4
⇒ (a * b) * c = a * (b * c)
Thus associative axiom is true.
177
(iii) Identity axiom :
Let e be the identity element.
By the definition of e, a * e = a
By the definition of *, a * e = a + e + 2
⇒ a + e + 2 = a
⇒ e = − 2
− 2 ∈ Z. Thus identity axiom is true.
(iv) Inverse axiom :
Let a ∈ G and a
−1
be the inverse element of a
By the definition of a
−1
, a * a
−1
= e = − 2
By the definition of *, a * a
−1
= a + a
−1
+ 2
⇒ a + a
−1
+ 2 = − 2
⇒ a
−1
= − a − 4
Clearly − a − 4 ∈ Z. ∴ Inverse axiom is true. ∴ (Z, *) is a group.
(v) Commutative property :
Let a, b ∈ G
a * b = a + b + 2 = b + a + 2 = b * a ∴ * is commutative.
∴ (Z, *) is an abelian group. further, Z is an infinite set. The group is an
infinite abelian group.
Example 9.19 : Show that the set of all 2 × 2 nonsingular matrices forms a
nonabelian infinite group under matrix multiplication, (where the entries
belong to R).
Solution:
Let G be the set of all 2 × 2 nonsingular matrices, where the entries belong
to R.
(i) Closure axiom : Since product of two nonsingular matrices is again
nonsingular and the order is 2 × 2, the closure axiom is satisfied.
i.e., A, B ∈ G ⇒ AB ∈ G.
(ii) Associative axiom : Matrix multiplication is always associative and hence
associative axiom is true. i.e., A (BC) = (AB) C ∀ A, B, C ∈ G.
(iii) Identity axiom : The identity element is I
2
=
1 0
0 1
∈ G and it satisfies
the identity property.
178
(iv) Inverse axiom : the inverse of A ∈ G, exists i.e. A
−1
exists and is of order
2 × 2 and AA
−1
= A
−1
A = I. Thus the inverse axiom is satisfied. Hence the
set of all 2 × 2 nonsingular matrices forms a group under matrix
multiplication. Further, matrix multiplication is noncommutative (in
general) and the set contain infinitely many elements. The group is an
infinite nonabelian group.
Example 9.20 : Show that the set of four matrices
\

.


1 0
0 1
,
\

.


− 1 0
0 1
,
\

.


1 0
0 − 1
,
\

.


− 1 0
0 − 1
form an abelian group, under
multiplication of matrices.
Solution:
Let I =
\

.


1 0
0 1
, A =
\

.


− 1 0
0 1
, B =
\

.


1 0
0 − 1
, C =
\

.


− 1 0
0 − 1
and let
G = {I, A, B, C}
By computing the products of these matrices, taken in pairs, we can form
the multiplication table as given below :
. I A B C
I I A B C
A A I C B
B B C I A
C C B A I
(i) All the entries in the multiplication tables are members of G. So, G is
closed under . ∴ Closure axiom is true.
(ii) Matrix multiplication is always associative
(iii) Since the row headed by I coincides with the top row and the column
headed by I coincides with the extreme left column, I is the identity
element in G.
(iv) I . I = I ⇒ I is the inverse of I
A . A = I ⇒ A is the inverse of A
B . B = I ⇒ B is the inverse of B
C . C = I ⇒ C is the inverse of C
From the table it is clear that . is commutative. ∴ G is an abelian group
under matrix multiplication.
179
Example 9.21 : Show that the set G of all matrices of the form
\

.


x x
x x
, where
x ∈ R − {0}, is a group under matrix multiplication.
Solution:
Let G =
¹¦
´
¦
¦
)¦
`
¦
¹
\

.


x x
x x
/ x ∈ R − {0} we shall show that G is a group under
matrix multiplication.
(i) Closure axiom :
A =
\

.


x x
x x
∈ G, B =
\

.


y y
y y
∈ G
AB=
\

.


2xy 2xy
2xy 2xy
∈ G , ( ‡ x ≠ 0, y ≠ 0 ⇒ 2xy ≠ 0)
i.e., G is closed under matrix multiplication.
(ii) Matrix multiplication is always associative.
(iii) Let E =
\

.


e e
e e
∈ G be such that AE = A for every A ∈ G.
AE = A ⇒
\

.


x x
x x
\

.


e e
e e
=
\

.


x x
x x
⇒
\

.


2xe 2xe
2xe 2xe
=
\

.


x x
x x
⇒ 2xe = x ⇒ e =
1
2
(‡ x ≠ 0)
Thus E =
\

.


1/2 1/2
1/2 1/2
∈ G is such that AE = A, for every A ∈ G
We can similarly show that EA = A for every A ∈ G.
∴ E is the identity element in G and hence identity axiom is true.
(iv) Suppose A
−1
=
\

.


y y
y y
∈ G is such that A
−1
A = E
Then we have
2xy 2xy
2xy 2xy
=
1/2 1/2
1/2 1/2
⇒ 2xy =
1
2
⇒ y =
1
4x
∴ A
−1
=
1/4 x 1/4 x
1/4 x 1/4 x
∈ G is such that A
−1
A = E
Similarly we can show that A A
−1
= E. ∴ A
−1
is the inverse of A.
∴ G is a group under matrix multiplication.
180
Note : The above group is abelian since AB = BA. But in general matrix
multiplication is not commutative.
Example 9.22 : Show that the set G = { } a + b 2 / a. b ∈ Q is an infinite
abelian group with respect to addition.
Solution:
(i) Closure axiom :
Let x, y ∈ G. Then x = a + b 2, y = c + d 2 ; a, b, c, d ∈ Q.
x + y = ( ) a + b 2 + ( ) c + d 2 = (a + c) + (b + d) 2 ∈ G,
since (a + c) and (b + d) are rational numbers.
∴ G is closed with respect to addition.
(ii) Associative axiom : Since the elements of G are all real numbers, addition
is associative.
(iii) Identity axiom :
There exists 0 = 0 + 0 2 ∈ G such that for all x = a + b 2 ∈ G,
x + 0 = ( ) a + b 2 + ( ) 0 + 0 2
= a + b 2 = x
Similarly, we have 0 + x = x. ∴ 0 is the identity element of G and
satisfies the identity axiom.
(iv) Inverse axiom :
For each x = a + b 2 ∈ G, there exists − x = (− a) + (− b) 2 ∈ G
such that x + (− x) = ( ) a + b 2 + ( ) (− a) + (− b) 2
= ( ) a + (− a) + ( ) b + (− b) 2 = 0
Similarly we have (− x) + x = 0
∴ (− a) + (− b) 2 is the inverse of a + b 2 and satisfies the inverse
axiom. ∴ G is a group under addition.
(v) Commutative axiom :
x + y = (a + c) + (b + d) 2 = (c + a) + (d + b) 2
= ( ) c + d 2 + ( ) a + b 2
= y + x, for all x, y ∈ G. ∴ The commutative property is true.
∴ (G, +) is an abelian group. Since G is infinite, we see that (G, +) is an
infinite abelian group.
Example 9.23 : Let G be the set of all rational numbers except 1 and * be
defined on G by a * b = a + b − ab for all a, b ∈ G. Show that (G, *) is an
infinite abelian group.
Solution: Let G = Q − {1}
Let a, b ∈ G. Then a and b are rational numbers and a ≠ 1, b ≠ 1.
181
(i) Closure axiom : Clearly a * b = a + b − ab is a rational number. But to
prove a * b ∈ G, we have to prove that a * b ≠ 1.
On the contrary, assume that a * b = 1 then
a + b − ab = 1
⇒ b − ab = 1 − a
⇒ b(1 − a) = 1 − a
⇒ b = 1 (‡ a ≠ 1, 1− a ≠ 0)
This is impossible, because b ≠ 1. ∴ Our assumption is wrong.
∴ a * b ≠ 1 and hence a * b ∈ G.
∴ Closure axiom is true.
(ii) Associative axiom :
a * (b * c) = a * (b + c − bc)
= a + (b + c − bc) − a (b + c − bc)
= a + b + c − bc − ab − ac + abc
(a * b) * c = (a + b − ab) * c
= (a + b − ab) + c −
(a + b − ab) c
= a + b + c − ab − ac − bc + abc
∴ a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c ∀ a, b, c ∈ G
∴ Associative axiom is true.
(iii) Identity axiom : Let e be the identity element.
By definition of e, a * e = a
By definition of *, a * e = a + e − ae
⇒ a + e − ae = a
⇒ e(1 − a) = 0
⇒ e = 0 since a ≠ 1
e = 0 ∈ G
∴ Identity axiom is satisfied.
(iv) Inverse axiom :
Let a
−1
be the inverse of a ∈ G.
By the definition of inverse, a * a
−1
= e = 0
By the definition of *, a * a
−1
= a + a
−1
− aa
− 1
⇒ a + a
−1
− aa
−1
= 0
⇒ a
−1
(1 − a) = − a
⇒ a
−1
=
a
a − 1
∈ G since a ≠ 1
∴ Inverse axiom is satisfied. ∴ (G, *) is a group.
182
(v) Commutative axiom :
For any a, b ∈ G, a * b = a + b − ab
= b + a − ba
= b * a
∴ * is commutative in G and hence (G, *) is an abelian group. Since G is
infinite, (G, *) is an infinite abelian group.
Example 9.24 : Prove that the set of four functions f
1
, f
2
, f
3
, f
4
on the set of non
zero complex numbers C − {0} defined by
f
1
(z) = z, f
2
(z) = − z, f
3
(z) =
1
z
and f
4
(z) = −
1
z
∀ z ∈ C − {0} forms an
abelian group with respect to the composition of functions.
Solution: Let G = {f
1
, f
2
, f
3
, f
4
}
(f
1
° f
1
) (z) = f
1
(f
1
(z)) = f
1
(z)
∴ f
1
°f
1
= f
1
f
2
° f
1
= f
2
, f
3
°f
1
= f
3
, f
4
°f
1
= f
4
Again (f
2
°f
2
) (z) = f
2
(f
2
(z)) = f
2
(− z) = − (− z) = z = f
1
(z)
∴ f
2
°f
2
= f
1
Similarly f
2
°f
3
= f
4
, f
2
°f
4
= f
3
(f
3
°f
2
) (z) = f
3
(f
2
(z)) = f
3
(− z) = −
1
z
= f
4
(z)
∴ f
3
°f
2
= f
4
Similarly f
3
°f
3
= f
1
, f
3
°f
4
= f
2
(f
4
°f
2
) (z) = f
4
(f
2
(z)) = f
4
(− z) = −
1
−z
=
1
z
= f
3
(z)
∴ f
4
°f
2
= f
3
Similarly f
4
°f
3
= f
2
, f
4
°f
4
= f
1
Using these results we have the composition table as given below :
°
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
4
f
1
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
4
f
2
f
2
f
1
f
4
f
3
f
3
f
3
f
4
f
1
f
2
f
4
f
4
f
3
f
2
f
1
183
From the table
(i) All the entries of the composition table are the elements of G .
∴ Closure axiom is true.
(ii) Composition of functions is in general associative.
(iii) Clearly f
1
is the identity element of G and satisfies the identity axiom.
(iv) From the table :
Inverse of f
1
is f
1
; Inverse of f
2
is f
2
Inverse of f
3
is f
3
; Inverse of f
4
is f
4
Inverse axiom is satisfied. (G, o) is a group.
(v) From the table the commutative property is also true.
∴ (G, o) is an abelian group.
9.2.3 Modulo Operation
We shall now define new types of operations called “Addition modulo n”
and “Multiplication modulo n”, where n is a positive integer. To define these
operations we require the notion of “Division Algorithm”.
Let a, b ∈ Z with b ≠ 0. Then we can divide a by b to get a quotient q and a
nonnegative remainder r which is smaller in size than b.
i.e., a = qb + r, where 0 ≤ r <  b . This is called “Division Algorithm”.
For example, if a = 17, b = 5 then 17 = (3 × 5) + 2
Here q = 3 and r = 2
Addition modulo n (+
n
) :
Let a, b ∈ Z and n be a fixed positive integer. We define addition modulo n
by a +
n
b = r ; 0 ≤ r < n where r is the least nonnegative remainder when
a + b is divided by n.
For example, if a = 25, b = 8 and n = 7 then 25 +
7
8 = 5
(‡ 25 + 8 = 33 = (4 × 7) + 5)
Multiplication modulo n (.
n
)
As given above
a .
n
b = r ; 0 ≤ r < n, where r is the least nonnegative remainder when ab
is divided by n.
For example, 2 .
5
4 = 3
7 .
9
8 = 2
184
Congruence modulo n :
Let a, b ∈ Z and n be a fixed positive integer.
We say that “a is congruent to b modulo n” ⇔ (a − b) is divisible by n
Symbolically,
a ≡ b (mod n) ⇔ (a − b) is divisible by n.
15 ≡ 3 (mod 4) is true because 15 − 3 is divisible by 4.
17 ≡ 4 (mod 3) is not true because 17 − 4 is not divisible by 3.
Congruence classes modulo n :
Let a ∈ Z and n be a fixed positive integer.
Collect all numbers which are congruent to ‘a’ modulo n. This set will be
denoted as [a] and is called the congruence class modulo n or residue class
modulo n.
Thus [a] = {x ∈ Z / x ≡ a (mod n)}
= {x ∈ Z / (x − a) is divisible by n}
= {x ∈ Z / (x − a) is a multiple of n}
= {x ∈ Z / (x − a) = kn}, k ∈ Z
= {x ∈ Z / x = a + kn}, k ∈ Z
consider the congruence classes modulo 5.
[a] = {x ∈ Z / x = a + kn}
[0] = {x ∈ Z / x = 5k, k ∈ Z} = {... − 10, − 5, 0, 5, 10...}
[1] = {x ∈ Z / x = 5k + 1, k ∈ Z} = {... − 9, − 4, 1, 6, 11, ...}
[2] = {x ∈ Z / x = 5k + 2, k ∈ Z} = {... − 8, − 3, 2, 7, 12, ...}
[3] = {x ∈ Z / x = 5k + 3, k ∈ Z} = {... − 7, − 2, 3, 8, 13, ...}
[4] = {x ∈ Z / x = 5k + 4, k ∈ Z} = {... − 6, − 1, 4, 9, 14 ...}
[5] = {x ∈ Z / x = 5k + 5, k ∈ Z} = {... − 5, 0, 5, 10, ...} = [0]
Similarly [6] = [1] ; [7] = [2] ; etc.
Note that, we have only 5 distinct classes whose union gives the entire Z.
Thus the set of congruence classes corresponding to 5 is
{ } [0]. [1]. [2]. [3]. [4] and it will be deonoted by Z
5
.
i.e., Z
5
= { } [0]. [1]. [2]. [3]. [4]
If we take the modulo 6, we have Z
6
= { } [0]. [1] .... [5] .
Thus for any positive integer n, we have Z
n
= { } [0]. [1] ... [n − 1]
Here [n] = [0] and the union of these classes gives Z.
185
Operations on congruence classes :
(1) Addition :
Let [a], [b] ∈ Z
n
[a] +
n
[b] = [a + b] if a + b < n
= [r] if a + b ≥ n
Where r is the least nonnegative remainder when a + b is divided by n.
For example,
In Z
10
, [5] +
10
[7] = [2]
In Z
8
, [3] +
8
[5] = [0]
(ii) Multiplication :
[a] .
n
[b] =
¹
´
¦[ab] if ab < n
[r] if ab ≥ n
where r is the least nonnegative remainder when ab is divided by n
In Z
5
[2] .
5
[2] = [4]
[3] .
5
[4] = 2
In Z
7
, [3] .
7
[3] = [2]
In Z
8
, [5] .
8
[3] = [7]
Example 9.25 : Show that (Z
n
, +
n
) forms group.
Solution: Let Z
n
= { } [0]. [1]. [2]. ... [n − 1] be the set of all congruence
classes modulo n. and let [l], [m], ∈ Z
n
0 ≤ l, m, < n
(i) Closure axiom : By definition
[l] +
n
[m] =
¹
´
¦[l + m] if l + m < n
[r] if l + m ≥ n
where l + m = q . n + r 0 ≤ r < n
In both the cases, [l + m] ∈ Z
n
and [r] ∈ Z
n
∴ Closure axiom is true.
(ii) Addition modulo n is always associative in the set of congruence classes
modulo n.
(iii) The identity element [0] ∈ Z
n
and it satisfies the identity axiom.
(iv) The inverse of [l] ∈ Z
n
is [n − l]
Clearly [n − l] ∈ Z
n
and
186
[l] +
n
[n − l] = [0]
[n − l] +
n
[l] = [0]
∴ The inverse axiom is also true. Hence (Z
n
, +
n
) is a group.
Note : (Z
n
, +
n
) is a finite abelian group of order n.
Example 9.26 : Show that (Z
7
− {[0]}, .
7
) forms a group.
Solution: Let G = [ ] [1]. [2]. ... [6]
The Cayley’s table is
.
7
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]
[1] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]
[2] [2] [4] [6] [1] [3] [5]
[3] [3] [6] [2] [5] [1] [4]
[4] [4] [1] [5] [2] [6] [3]
[5] [5] [3] [1] [6] [4] [2]
[6] [6] [5] [4] [3] [2] [1]
From the table :
(i) all the elements of the composition table are the elements of G.
∴ The closure axiom is true.
(ii) multiplication modulo 7 is always associative.
(iii) the identity element is [1] ∈ G and satisfies the identity axiom.
(iv) the inverse of [1] is [1] ; [2] is [4] ; [3] is [5] ; [4] is [2] ; [5] is [3] and
[6] is [6] and it satisfies the inverse axiom.
∴ the given set forms a group under multiplication modulo 7.
In general, it can be shown that (Z
p
− {(0)}, .
p
) is a group for any prime p.
But the proof is beyond the scope of this book.
Note : Does the set of all nonzero congruence classes modulo n, a positive
integer, form a group under multiplication modulo n, ?
Example 9.27 : Show that the nth roots of unity form an abelian group of finite
order with usual multiplication.
Solution: We know that 1, ω, ω
2
...... ω
n − 1
are the n
th
roots of unity, where
ω = cis
2π
n
. Let G = {1, ω, ω
2
... ω
n − 1
}
(i) Closure axiom : Let ω
l
, ω
m
∈ G, 0 ≤ l, m ≤ (n − 1)
To prove ω
l
ω
m
= ω
l + m
∈ G
187
Case (i) l + m < n
If l + m < n then clearly ω
l + m
∈ G
Case (ii) l + m ≥ n By division algoritham,
l + m = (q . n) + r where 0 ≤ r < n, q is a positive integer.
ω
l + m
= ω
qn + r
= (ω
n
)
q
. ω
r
= (1)
q
ω
r
= ω
r
∈ G ‡ 0 ≤ r < n
Closure property is true.
(ii) Associative axiom : Multiplication is always associative in the set of
complex numbers and hence in G
ω
l
.(ω
p
.ω
m
) = ω
l
. ω
(p + m)
= ω
l + (p + m)
= ω
( l + p) + m
= (ω
l + p
) . ω
m
= (ω
l
. ω
p
) . ω
m
= ∀ ω
l
, ω
m
, ω
p
∈ G
(iii) Identity axiom : The identity element 1 ∈ G and it satisfies
1.ω
l
= ω
l
.1 = ω
l
∀ ω
l
∈ G
(iv) Inverse axiom :
For any ω
l
∈ G, ω
n − l
∈ G and ω
l
. ω
n − l
= ω
n − l
.ω
l
= ω
n
= 1
Thus inverse axiom is true.
∴ (G, .) is a group.
(v) Commutative axiom :
ω
l
. ω
m
= ω
l + m
= ω
m + l
= ω
m
. ω
l
∀ ω
l
, ω
m
∈ G
∴ (G, .) is an abelian group. Since G contains n elements, (G, .) is a finite
abelian group of order n.
9.2.4 Order of an element :
Let G be a group and a ∈ G. The order of ‘a’ is defined as the least
positive integer n such that a
n
= e, e is the identity element. If no such positive
integer exists, then a is said to be of infinite order. The order of a is denoted by
0(a).
Note : Here a
n
= a * a * a ... *a (n times). If * is usual multiplication ‘.’ then
a
n
is a . a .a... (n times) i.e., a
n
.
If * is usual addition then a
n
is a + a + a + ... + a (n times) i.e., na. Thus a
n
is not “a to the power n”, it is a symbol to denote a * a * a ... * a (n times).
Clearly a
n
∈ G, if a ∈ G . (By the repeated application of closure axiom).
Theorem :
For any group G, the identity element is the only element of order 1.
188
Proof : If a (≠ e) is another element of order 1 then by the definition of order of
an element, we have (a)
1
= e ⇒ a = e which is a contradiction. ∴ e is the only
element of order 1.
Example 9.28 : Find the order of each element of the group (G, .)
where G = {1, − 1, i, − i}.
Solution: In the given group, the identity element is 1. ∴ 0(1) = 1.
0(− 1) = 2 [Q we have to multiply − 1 two times (minimum) to get 1 i.e.,
(− 1) (− 1) = 1]
0(i) = 4 [Q we have to multiply i four times to get 1, i.e., (i) (i) (i) (i) = 1]
0(− i) = 4 [Q we have to multiply − i four times to get 1].
Example 9.29 : Find the order of each element in the group G = {1, ω, ω
2
},
consisting of cube roots of unity with usual multiplication.
Solution: We know that the identity element is 1. ∴ 0(1) = 1.
0(ω) = 3. Since ω . ω . ω = ω
3
= 1
0(ω
2
) = 3 since (ω
2
) (ω
2
) (ω
2
) = ω
6
= 1
Example 9.30 : Find the order of each element of the group (Z
4
, +
4
)
Solution: Z
4
= { } [0]. [1]. [2]. [3] is an abelian group under the addition
modulo 4. The identity element is [0] and note that [4] = [8] = [12] = [0]
∴ 0([0]) = 1
0([1]) = 4 [Q we have to add [1] four times to get [4] or [0]]
0 ([2]) = 2 [Q we have to add [2] two times to get [4] or [0]]
0 ([3]) = 4 Q we have to add [3] four times to get [12] or [0]
9.2.5 Properties of Groups :
Theorem :
The identity element of a group is unique.
Proof : Let G be a group. If possible let e
1
and e
2
be identity elements in G.
Treating e
1
as an identity element we have e
1
* e
2
= e
2
… (1)
Treating e
2
as an identity element, we have e
1
* e
2
= e
1
… (2)
From (1) and (2), e
1
= e
2
∴ Identity element of a group is unique.
Theorem :
The inverse of each element of a group is unique.
Proof :
Let G be a group and let a ∈ G.
If possible, let a
1
and a
2
be two inverses of a.
189
Treating a
1
as an inverse of ‘a’ we have a * a
1
= a
1
* a = e.
Treating a
2
as an inverse of ‘a’, we have a * a
2
= a
2
* a = e
Now a
1
= a
1
* e = a
1
* (a * a
2
) = (a
1
* a) * a
2
= e * a
2
= a
2
⇒ Inverse of an element is unique.
Theorem : (Cancellation laws)
Let G be a group. Then for all a, b, c ∈ G,
(i) a * b = a * c ⇒ b = c (Left Cancellation Law)
(ii) b * a = c * a ⇒ b = c (Right Cancellation Law)
Proof : (i) a * b = a * c ⇒ a
−1
* (a * b) = a
−1
* (a * c)
⇒ (a
−1
* a) * b = (a
−1
* a) * c
⇒ e * b = e * c
⇒ b = c
(ii) b * a = c * a ⇒ (b * a) * a
−1
= (c * a) * a
−1
⇒ b * (a * a
−1
) = c * (a * a
−1
)
⇒ b * e = c * e
⇒ b = c
Theorem : In a group G, (a
−1
)
−1
= a for every a ∈ G.
Proof :
We know that a
−1
∈ G and hence (a
−1
)
−1
∈ G. Clearly a * a
−1
= a
−1
* a = e
a
−1
* (a
−1
)
−1
= (a
−1
)
−1
* a
−1
= e
⇒ a * a
−1
= (a
−1
)
−1
* a
−1
⇒ a = (a
−1
)
−1
(by Right Cancellation Law)
Theorem : (Reversal law)
Let G be a group a, b ∈ G. Then (a * b)
− 1
= b
−1
* a
−1
.
Proof : It is enough to prove b
−1
* a
−1
is the inverse of (a * b)
∴ To prove (i) (a * b) * (b
−1
* a
−1
) = e
(ii) (b
−1
* a
−1
) * (a * b) = e
(i) (a * b) * (b
−1
* a
−1
) = a * (b * b
−1
) * a
−1
= a * (e) * a
−1
= a * a
−1
= e
190
(ii) (b
−1
* a
−1
) * (a * b) = b
−1
* (a
−1
* a) * b
= b
−1
* (e) * b
= b
−1
* b = e
∴ b
−1
* a
−1
is the inverse of a * b i.e., (a * b)
−1
= b
−1
* a
−1
EXERCISE 9.4
(1) Let S be a nonempty set and o be a binary operation on S defined by
xoy = x ; x, y ∈ S. Determine whether o is commutative and associative.
(2) Show that the set N of natural members is a semigroup under the
operation x * y = max {x, y}. Is it a monoid?
(3) Show that the set of all positive even integers forms a semigroup under
the usual addition and multiplication. Is it a monoid under each of the
above operations?
(4) Prove that the matrices
\

.


1 0
0 1
,
\

.


0 1
1 0
form a group under matrix
multiplication.
(5) Show that the set G of all positive rationals forms a group under the
composition * defined by a * b =
ab
3
for all a, b ∈ G.
(6) Show that
¹
´
¦
)
`
¹
\

.


1 0
0 1
.
\

.


ω 0
0 ω
2
.
\

.

 ω
2
0
0 ω
.
\

.


0 1
1 0
.
\

.

 0 ω
2
ω 0
.
\

.


0 ω
ω
2
0
where ω
3
= 1, ω ≠ 1 form a group with respect to matrix multiplication.
(7) Show that the set M of complex numbers z with the condition  z  = 1
forms a group with respect to the operation of multiplication of complex
numbers.
(8) Show that the set G of all rational numbers except − 1 forms an abelian
group with respect to the operation * given by a * b = a + b + ab for all a,
b ∈ G.
(9) Show that the set { } [1]. [3]. [4]. [5]. [9] forms an abelian group under
multiplication modulo 11.
(10) Find the order of each element in the group
( )
Z
5
− {[0]}. .
5
(11) Show that the set of all matrices of the form
\

.


a o
o o
, a ∈ R − {0} forms
an abelian group under matrix multiplication.
(12) Show that the set G = {2
n
/ n ∈ Z} is an abelian group under
multiplication.
191
10. PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
10.1 Introduction :
In XI Standard we dealt with random experiments which can be described
by finite sample space. We studied the assignment and computation of
probabilities of events. In the Sciences one often deals with variables as a
‘quantity that may assume any one of a set of values’. In Statistics we deal with
random variables  variables whose observed value is determined by chance.
10.2. Random Variable :
The outcomes of an experiment are represented by a random variable if
these outcomes are numerical or if real numbers can be assigned to them.
For example, in a die rolling experiment, the corresponding random
variable is represented by the set of outcomes {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} ; while in the
coin tossing experiment the outcomes head (H) or tail (T) can be represented as
a random variable by assuming 0 to T and 1 to H. In this sense a random
variable is a real valued function that maps the sample space into the real line.
Let us consider the tossing of two fair coins at a time. The possible results
are {HH, TH, HT, TT}. Let us consider the variable X which is “the number of
heads obtained” while tossing two fair coins. We could assign the value X = 0
to the outcome of getting no heads, X = 1 to the outcome of getting only 1
head and X = 2 to the out come of getting 2 heads.
Therefore X (TT) = 0, X(TH) = 1, X (HT) = 1 and X (HH) = 2.
Therefore X takes the values 0,1,2. Thus we can assign a real number X(s) to
every element s of the sample space S.
Definition : If S is a sample space with a probability measure and X is a real
valued function defined over the elements of S, then X is called a random
variable.
A random variable is also called a chance variable or a stochastic variable.
Types of Random variables :
(1) Discrete Random variable (2) Continuous Random variable
10.2.1 Discrete Random Variable :
Definition : Discrete Random Variable
If a random variable takes only a finite or a countable number of values, it
is called a discrete random variable.
Note : Biased coins may have both sides marked as tails or both sides marked as
heads or may fall on one side only for every toss, whereas a fair or unbiased coin
means, it has equal chances of falling on heads and tails. Similarly biased dice may
have repeated numbers on several sides ; some numbers may be missing. For a fair die
the probability of getting any number from one to six will be 1/6.
192
Example :
1. The number of heads obtained when two coins are tossed is a discrete
random variable as X assumes the values 0, 1 or 2 which form a
countable set.
2. Number of Aces when ten cards are drawn from a well shuffled pack of
52 cards.
The random variable X assumes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 which is again a countable set.
i.e., X (No aces) = 0, X (one ace) = 1, X (two aces) = 2,
X (three aces) = 3, X (four aces) = 4
Probability Mass Function :
The Mathematical definition of discrete probability function p(x) is a
function that satisfies the following properties :
(1) The probability that X can take a specific value x is p(x)
ie., P(X = x) = p(x) = p
x
.
(2) p(x) is non – negative for all real x.
(3) The sum of p(x) over all possible values of X is one. That is
∑
p
i
= 1 where j represents all possible values that X can have and p
i
is the probability at X = x
i
If a
1
, a
2
, . . . a
m
, a, b
1
, b
2
, . . b
n
, b be the values of the discrete random
variable X in ascending order then
(i) P(X ≥ a) = 1 − P(X < a)
(ii) P(X ≤ a) = 1 − P(X > a)
(iii) P(a ≤ X ≤ b) = P(X = a) + P(X = b
1
) + P(X = b
2
) + . . .
. . . + P(X = b
n
) + P(X = b).
Distribution function : (Cumulative Distribution function)
The distribution function of a random variable X is defined as
F(x) = P(X ≤ x) =
∑
x
i
≤ x
p(x
i
) : (− ∞ < x < ∞).
Properities of Distribution function :
1) F(x) is a nondecreasing function of x
2) 0 ≤ F(x) ≤ 1, − ∞ < x < ∞
193
3) F(− ∞) =
Lt
x → − ∞
F(x) = 0
4) F(∞) =
Lt
x → + ∞
F(x) =1
5) P(X = x
n
) = F(x
n
) − F(x
n −1
)
Illustration :
Find the probability mass function and cumulative distribution function for
getting number of heads when three coins are tossed once.
Solution : Let X be the random variable “getting number of Heads”. Sample
space when three coins are tossed is
S = HHH HHT HTH THH HTT THT TTH TTT
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
R
(No.of Heads)
: 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 0
Since X is the random variable getting the number of heads, X takes the
values 0, 1,2 and 3. (X : S → R).
P (getting no head) = P (X = 0) =
1
8
P (getting one head) = P (X = 1) =
3
8
P (getting two heads) = P (X = 2) =
3
8
P (getting three heads) = P (X = 3) =
1
8
∴ probability mass function is given by
P (X= x) =
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
1/8 if x = 0
3/8 if x = 1
3/8 if x = 2
1/8 if x = 3
OR
X 0 1 2 3
P(X = x) 1/8 3/8 3/8 1/8
To find cumulative distribution function.
Fig. 10.1
We have F(x) =
∑
x
i
= − ∞
x
P(X = x
i
)
0 2 3 1
1
/
8
1
x
P(x)
0 2 3 1
1
/
8
1
x
P(x)
194
When X = 0, F(0) = P(X = 0) =
1
8
When X = 1, F(1) =
∑
i = − ∞
1
P(X = x
i
)
= P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) =
1
8
+
3
8
=
4
8
=
1
2
When X = 2, F(2) =
∑
i = − ∞
2
P(X = x
i
)
= P (X = 0) + P(X = 1) + P(X = 2)
=
1
8
+
3
8
+
3
8
=
7
8
When X = 3, F(3) =
∑
i = − ∞
3
P(X = x
i
)
= P (X = 0) + P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) + P(X = 3)
=
1
8
+
3
8
+
3
8
+
1
8
= 1
Cumulative distribution function is
F(x) =
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
0 if − ∞ < x < 0
1/8 if 0 ≤ x < 1
1/2 if 1 ≤ x < 2
7/8 if 2 ≤ x < 3
1 if 3 ≤ x < ∞
Fig. 10.2
Example 10.1 :
Find the probability mass function, and the cumulative distribution
function for getting ‘3’s when two dice are thrown.
Solution :
Two dice are thrown. Let X be the random variable of getting number of
‘3’s. Therefore X can take the values 0, 1, 2.
0
O
1/8
O
1/2
O
7/8
O
1
O
1
O
2
O
3 x
F(x)
0
O
1/8
O
1/2
O
7/8
O
1
O
1
O
2
O
3 x
F(x)
195
P(no ‘3’) = P(X = 0) =
25
36
P(one ‘3’) = P(X = 1) =
10
36
P(two ‘3’s) = P(X = 2) =
1
36
Sample Space
(1,1) (1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (1,6)
(2,1) (2,2) (2,3) (2,4) (2,5) (2,6)
(3,1) (3,2) (3.3) (3,4) (3,5) (3,6)
(4,1) (4,2) (4,3) (4,4) (4,5) (4,6)
(5,1) (5,2) (5,3) (5,4) (5,5) (5,6)
(6,1) (6,2) (6,3) (6,4) (6,5) (6,6)
probability mass function is given by
x 0 1 2
P(X = x) 25/36 10/36 1/36
Cumulative distribution function :
We have F(x) =
∑
x
i
= − ∞
x
P(X = x
i
)
F(0) = P(X = 0) =
25
36
F(1) = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) =
25
36
+
10
36
=
35
36
F(2) = P(X = 0 ) + P(X = 1) + P(X =2) =
25
36
+
10
36
+
1
36
=
36
36
= 1
x 0 1 2
F(x) 25/36 35/36 1
Example 10.2 A random variable X has the following probability mass function
x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
P(X = x) k 3k 5k 7k 9k 11k 13k
(1) Find k.
(2) Evaluate P(X < 4), P(X ≥ 5) and P(3< X ≤ 6)
(3) What is the smallest value of x for which P (X ≤ x) >
1
2
.
Solution :
(1) Since P(X = x) is a probability mass function ∑
x = 0
6
P(X = x) = 1
ie.,P(X=0) + P(X = 1) +P(X = 2) +P(X = 3) +P(X = 4) +P(X = 5)+P(X = 6) = 1.
⇒ k + 3k + 5k + 7k + 9k + 11k + 13k = 1 ⇒ 49 k = 1 ⇒ k =
1
49
196
(2) P(X < 4) = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1 ) + P(X = 2) + P(X = 3)
=
1
49
+
3
49
+
5
49
+
7
49
=
16
49
P(X ≥ 5) = P(X = 5) + P(X = 6) =
11
49
+
13
49
=
24
49
P(3 < X ≤ 6) = P(X = 4) + P(X = 5) + P(X = 6) =
9
49
+
11
49
+
13
49
=
33
49
(3) The minimum value of x may be determined by trial and error method.
P(X ≤ 0) =
1
49
<
1
2
; P(X ≤ 1) =
4
49
<
1
2
P(X ≤ 2) =
9
49
<
1
2
; P(X ≤ 3) =
16
49
<
1
2
P(X ≤ 4) =
25
49
>
1
2
∴ The smallest value of x for which P(X ≤ x) >
1
2
is 4.
Example 10.3 :An urn contains 4 white and 3 red balls. Find the probability
distribution of number of red balls in three draws one by one from the urn.
(i) with replacement (ii) without replacement
Solution : (i) with replacement
Let X be the random variable of drawing number of red balls in three draws.
∴ X can take the values 0,1,2,3.
P(Red ball) =
3
7
= P(R)
P(Not Red ball) =
4
7
= P(W)
Therefore P(X = 0) = P(www) =
4
7
×
4
7
×
4
7
=
64
343
P(X = 1) = P(Rww) + P(wRw) + P(wwR)
=
\

.

3
7
×
4
7
×
4
7
+
\

.

4
7
×
3
7
×
4
7
+
\

.

4
7
×
4
7
×
3
7
= 3 ×
48
343
=
144
343
P(X = 2) = P(RRw) + P(RwR) + P(wRR)
=
\

.

3
7
×
3
7
×
4
7
+
\

.

3
7
×
4
7
×
3
7
+
\

.

4
7
×
3
7
×
3
7
= 3 ×
3
7
×
3
7
×
4
7
= 3 ×
36
343
=
108
343
197
P(X = 3) = P(RRR) =
3
7
×
3
7
×
3
7
=
27
343
The required probability distribution is
X 0 1 2 3
P(X = x) 64/343 144/343 108/343 27/343
Clearly all p
i
’s are ≥ 0 and ∑p
i
= 1.
2) Without replacement : It is also treated a simultaneous case.
Method 1 :
Using combination
Method 2 :
Using Conditional Probability
(i) P(no red ball)
P(X = 0) =
4
c
3
× 3
c
0
7
c
3
=
4 × 1
35
=
4
35
(i) P(www) =
4
7
×
3
6
×
2
5
=
4
35
(ii) P(1 red ball)
P(X = 1) =
4
c
2
× 3
c
1
7
c
3
=
6 × 3
35
=
18
35
(ii) P(Rww) + P(wRw) + P(wwR)
=
\

.

3
7
×
4
6
×
3
5
+
\

.

4
7
×
3
6
×
3
5
+
\

.

4
7
×
3
6
×
3
5
= 3 ×
36
210
=
36
70
=
18
35
(iii) P(2 red ball)
P(X = 2) =
4
c
1
× 3
c
2
7
c
3
=
4 × 3
35
=
12
35
(iii) P(RRw) + P(RwR) + P(wRR)
=
\

.

3
7
×
2
6
×
4
5
+
\

.

3
7
×
4
6
×
2
5
+
\

.

4
7
×
3
6
×
2
5
= 3 ×
24
210
=
12
35
(iv) P(3 red ball)
P(X = 3) =
4
c
0
× 3
c
3
7
c
3
=
1 × 1
35
=
1
35
(iv) P(RRR) =
3
7
×
2
6
×
1
5
=
1
35
198
X 0 1 2 3
P(X = x)
4
35
18
35
12
35
1
35
Clearly all p
i
’s are ≥ 0 and ∑p
i
= 1
10.2.2 Continuous Random Variable :
Definition : A Random Variable X is said to be continuous if it can take all
possible values between certain given limits. i.e., X is said to be continuous if
its values cannot be put in 1 − 1 correspondence with N, the set of Natural
numbers.
Examples for Continuous Random Variable
The life length in hours of a certain light bulb.
Let X denote the ph value of a chemical compound which is randomly
selected. Then X is a continuous random variable because any ph value,
between 0 and 14 is possible.
If in the study of ecology of a lake, we make depth measurements at
randomly chosen locations then X = the depth at such location is a
continuous random variable. The limit will be between the maximum
and minimum depth in the region sampled.
Probability Density Function (p.d.f.) :
The mathematical definition of a continuous probability function f(x) is a
function that satisfies the following properties.
(i) The probability that X is between two points a and b is
P(a ≤ x ≤ b) =
⌡
⌠
a
b
f(x) dx
(ii) It is nonnegative for all real X.
(iii) The integral of the probability function is 1 i.e.,
⌡
⌠
− ∞
∞
f(x) dx = 1
Continuous probability functions are referred to as p.d.f.
Since continuous probability function are defined for uncountable number of
points over an interval, the probability at a single point is always zero.
i.e., P(X = a) =
⌡
⌠
a
a
f(x) dx = 0.
199
The probabilities are measured over intervals and not at single points. That
is, the area under the curve between two distinct points defines the probability
for that interval.
∴ P(a ≤ x ≤ b) = P(a ≤ X < b) = P(a < x ≤ b) = P(a < x < b)
Discrete Probability function are referred to as probability mass function and
continuous probability function are referred to as probability density function.
The term probability function covers both discrete and continuous distribution.
Cumulative Distribution Function :
If X is a continuous random variable, the function given by
F(x) = P(X ≤ x) =
⌡
⌠
− ∞
x
f(t)dt for − ∞ < x < ∞ where f(t) is the value of the
probability density function of X at t is called the distribution function or
cumulative distribution of X.
Properties of Distribution function :
(i) F(x) is a nondecreasing function of x
(ii) 0 ≤ F(x) ≤ 1, − ∞ < x < ∞.
(iii) F(− ∞) =
lt
x → − ∞
⌡
⌠
− ∞
x
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
− ∞
− ∞
f(x) dx = 0
(iv) F(∞) =
lt
x → ∞
⌡
⌠
− ∞
x
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
f(x) dx = 1
(v) For any real constant a and b and a ≤ b, P(a ≤ x ≤ b) = F(b) − F(a)
(vi) f(x) =
d
dx
F(x)
i.e., F′(x) = f(x)
Example 10.4 : A continuous random variable X follows the probability law,
f(x) =
¹
´
¦
k x (1 − x )
10
. 0 < x < 1
0 elsewhere
Find k
Solution : Since f(x) is a p.d.f
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
f(x) dx = 1
200
i.e.,
⌡
⌠
0
1
kx(1 −x)
10
dx = 1
i.e.,
⌡
⌠
0
1
k(1 − x) [ ] 1 − (1 − x)
10
dx = 1
i.e., k
⌡
⌠
0
1
(1 − x)x
10
dx = 1
By properties of definite
integral
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(a − x)dx
i.e., k
⌡
⌠
0
1
(x
10
− x
11
)dx = 1 ⇒ k
x
11
11
−
x
12
12
1
0
= 1 ⇒ k
1
11
−
1
12
= 1 ⇒ k = 132
Example 10.5 : A continuous random variable X has p.d.f. f(x) = 3x
2
,
0 ≤ x ≤ 1, Find a and b such that.
(i) P(X ≤ a) = P(X > a) and (ii) P(X > b) = 0.05
Solution :
(i) Since the total probability is 1, [Given that P(X ≤ a) = P (X > a]
P(X ≤ a) + P(X > a) = 1
i.e., P(X ≤ a) + P(X ≤ a) = 1
⇒ P(X ≤ a) =
1
2
⇒
⌡
⌠
0
a
f(x) dx =
1
2
⇒
⌡
⌠
0
a
3x
2
dx =
1
2
i.e.,
3x
3
3
a
0
=
1
2
⇒ a
3
=
1
2
i.e., a =
\

.

1
2
1
3
(ii) P(X > b) = 0.05
∴
⌡
⌠
b
1
f(x) dx = 0.05 ∴
⌡
⌠
b
1
3x
2
dx = 0.05
3x
3
3
1
b
= 0.05 ⇒ 1 − b
3
= 0.05
b
3
= 1 − 0.05 = 0.95 =
95
100
⇒ b =
\

.

19
20
1
3
201
Example 10.6 : If the probability density function of a random variable is given
by f(x) =
¹
´
¦
k (1 − x
2
). 0 < x < 1
0 elsewhere
find (i) k (ii) the distribution function of the random variable.
Solution: (i) Since f(x) is a p.d.f.
⌡
⌠
− ∞
∞
f(x) dx = 1
⌡
⌠
0
1
k(1 − x
2
) dx = 1 ⇒ k
x −
x
3
3
1
0
= 1 ⇒ k
1 −
1
3
= 1
⇒
\

.

2
3
k = 1 or k =
3
2
(ii) The distribution function F(x) =
⌡
⌠
−∞
x
f(t) dt
(a) When x ∈ (− ∞, 0]
F(x) =
⌡
⌠
− ∞
x
f(t) dt = 0
(b) When x ∈ (0, 1)
F(x) =
⌡
⌠
− ∞
x
f(t) dt
=
⌡
⌠
− ∞
0
f(t) dt +
⌡
⌠
0
x
f(t) dt = 0 +
⌡
⌠
0
x
3
2
(1 − t
2
) dt =
3
2
\

.


x −
x
3
3
(c) When x ∈ [1, ∞)
F(x) =
⌡
⌠
− ∞
x
f(t) dt =
⌡
⌠
− ∞
0
f(t) dt +
⌡
⌠
0
1
f(t) dt +
⌡
⌠
1
x
f(t) dt = 0 +
⌡
⌠
0
1
3
2
(1 − t
2
) dt + 0
=
3
2
t −
t
3
3
1
0
= 1 ∴F(x) =
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
0
3/2 (x − x
3
/3)
1
− ∞ < x ≤ 0
0 < x < 1
1 ≤ x < ∞
202
Example 10.7 : If F(x) =
1
π
\

.

π
2
+ tan
−1
x − ∞ < x < ∞ is a distribution
function of a continuous variable X, find P(0 ≤ x ≤ 1)
Solution: F(x) =
1
π
\

.

π
2
+ tan
−1
x
P(0 ≤ x ≤ 1) = F(1) − F(0)
=
1
π
\

.

π
2
+ tan
−1
1 −
1
π
\

.

π
2
+ tan
−1
0
=
1
π
π
2
+
π
4
−
1
π
\

.

π
2
+ 0 =
1
π
π
2
+
π
4
−
π
2
=
1
4
Example 10.8 : If f(x) =
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
A
x
. 1 < x < e
3
0. elsewhere
is a probability density function of
a continuous random variable X, find p(x > e)
Solution: Since f(x) is a p.d.f.
⌡
⌠
− ∞
∞
f(x) dx = 1
⌡
⌠
1
e
3
A
x
dx = 1 ⇒ A[log x]
e
3
1
= 1
⇒ A[log e
3
− log 1] = 1 ⇒ A[3] = 1 ⇒ A = 1/3
Therefore f(x)=
¹
´
¦
1
3x
.
1 < x < e
3
0 elsewhere
P(x > e) =
1
3
⌡
⌠
e
e
3
1
x
dx =
1
3
[ ] log x
e
3
e
=
1
3
[log e
3
− log e] =
1
3
[3 − 1] =
2
3
Example 10.9 :For the probability density function
f(x)=
¹¦
´
¦
¦
2e
−2x
. x > 0
0 . x ≤ 0
, find F(2)
Solution : F(2) = P(X ≤ 2) =
⌡
⌠
− ∞
2
f(x) dx
203
=
⌡
⌠
0
2
2 e
−2x
dx = 2 .
e
−2x
−2
2
0
= − [e
−4
− 1] = 1 − e
−4
=
e
4
− 1
e
4
Example 10.10 : The total life time (in year) of 5 year old dog of a certain
breed is a Random Variable whose distribution function is given by
F(x) =
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
0 . for x ≤ 5
1 −
25
x
2
. for x > 5
Find the probability that such a five year old dog
will live (i) beyond 10 years (ii) less than 8 years (iii) anywhere between
12 to 15 years.
Solution : (i) P(dog living beyond 10 years)
P(X > 10) = 1 − P(X ≤ 10)
= 1 −
\

.


1 −
25
x
2
when x = 10
= 1 −
\

.

1 −
25
100
= 1 −
3
4
=
1
4
(ii) P(dog living less than 8 years )
P(X < 8) = F(8) [since P(X < 8) = P(X ≤ 8) for a continuous distribution]
=
\

.


1 −
25
8
2
=
\

.

1 −
25
64
=
39
64
(iii) P(dog living any where between 12 and 15 years ) = P(12 < x < 15)
= F(15) − F(12) =
\

.


1 −
25
15
2
−
\

.


1 −
25
12
2
=
1
16
EXERCISE 10.1
(1) Find the probability distribution of the number of sixes in throwing three
dice once.
(2) Two cards are drawn successively without replacement from a well
shuffled pack of 52 cards. Find the probability distribution of the number
of queens.
(3) Two bad oranges are accidentally mixed with ten good ones. Three
oranges are drawn at random without replacement from this lot. Obtain
the probability distribution for the number of bad oranges.
(4) A discrete random variable X has the following probability distributions.
X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
P(x) a 3a 5 a 7 a 9 a 11 a 13 a 15 a 17 a
(i) Find the value of a (ii) Find P(x < 3) (iii) Find P(3 < x < 7)
204
(5) Verify that the following are probability density functions.
(a) f(x) =
¹
´
¦
2x
9
.
0 ≤ x ≤ 3
0 elsewhere
(b) f(x) =
1
π
1
(1 + x
2
)
, −∞ < x < ∞
(6) For the p.d.f f(x) =
¹¦
´
¦
¦
cx (1 − x)
3
.
0 < x < 1
0 elsewhere
find (i) the constant c (ii) P
\

.

x <
1
2
(7) The probability density function of a random variable x is
f(x) =
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
kx
α − 1
e
−β x
α
. x. α. β > 0
0 . elsewhere
. Find (i) k (ii) P(X > 10)
(8) For the distribution function given by F(x) =
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
0 x < 0
x
2
0 ≤ x ≤ 1
1 x > 1
find the density function. Also evaluate
(i) P(0.5 < X < 0.75) (ii) P(X ≤ 0.5) (iii) P(X > 0.75)
(9) A continuous random variable x has the p.d.f defined by
f(x) =
¹¦
´
¦
¦
ce
−ax
.
0 < x < ∞
0 elsewhere
. Find the value of c if a > 0.
(10) A random variable X has a probability density function
f(x) =
¹
´
¦
k . 0 < x < 2π
0 elsewhere
Find (i) k (ii) P
\

.

0 < X <
π
2
(iii) P
\

.

π
2
< X <
3π
2
10.3 Mathematical Expectation :
Expectation of a discrete random variable :
Definition : If X denotes a discrete random variable which can assume the
values x
1
, x
2
, . . . . . . x
n
with respective probabilities p
1
, p
2
, . . . p
n
then the
mathematical expectation of X, denoted by E(X) is defined by
E(X) = p
1
x
1
+ p
2
x
2
+ . . . . . + p
n
x
n
=
∑
i=1
n
p
i
x
i
where
∑
i=1
n
p
i
= 1
205
Thus E(X) is the weighted arithmetic mean of the values x
i
with the
weights p(x
i
) ∴ X
÷
= E(X)
Hence the mathematical Expectation E(X) of a random variable is simply
the arithmetic mean.
Result : If ϕ(X) is a function of the random variable X,
then E[ϕ (X)] = ∑ P(X = x) ϕ (x).
Properties :
Result (1) : E(c) = c where c is a constant
Proof : E(X) = ∑ p
i
x
i
∴ E(c) = ∑ p
i
c = c ∑ p
i
= c as ∑ p
i
= 1
∴ E(c) = c
Result (2) : E(cX) = c E(X)
Proof : E(cX) = ∑ (cx
i
)p
i
= (c x
1
) p
1 +
(c x
2
) p
2
+ . . . (c x
n
) p
n
= c( p
1
x
1
+ p
2
x
2
+. . . . p
n
x
n
)
= c E(X)
Result (3) : E(aX + b) = a E(X) + b.
Proof : E(aX + b) = ∑ (a
x
i
+ b) p
i
= (a x
1
+ b) p
1
+ (a x
2
+ b)p
2
+ (a x
n
+ b) p
n
= a( p
1
x
1
+ p
2
x
2
+. . . . p
n
x
n
) + b∑ p
i
= a E(X) + b. Similarly E(aX − b) = aE(X)− b
Moments : Expected values of a function of a random variable X is used for
calculating the moments. We will discuss about two types of moments.
(i) Moments about the origin
(ii) Moments about the mean which are called central moments.
Moments about the origin :
If X is a discrete random variable for each positive integer r (r = 1, ...) the
r
th
moment
u
r
′ = E(X
r
) = ∑ p
i
x
i
r
First moment : u
1
′ = E(X) = ∑ p
i
x
i
This is called the mean of the random variable X.
Second moment : u
2
′ = E(X
2
) = ∑ p
i
x
i
2
206
Moments about the Mean : (Central Moments)
For each positive integer n, (n = 1, 2, ...) the n
th
central moment of the
discrete random variable X is
u
n
= E(X − X
÷
)
n
= ∑(x
i
−x
−
)
n
p
i
First moment about the Mean u
1
= E(X − X
÷
)
1
= ∑(x
i
−x
−
)
1
p
i
u
1
= ∑ x
i
p
i
− x
−
∑ p
i
= ∑ x
i
p
i
− x
−
(1) as ∑ p
i
= 1
= E(X) − E(X) = 0
The algebraic sum of the deviations about the arithmetic mean is always
zero
2
nd
moment about the Mean u
2
= E(X − X
÷
)
2
= E(X
2
+ X
÷2
− 2 X X
÷
) = E(X
2
) + X
÷2
−2 X
÷
E(X) (‡ X
÷
is a constant)
= E(X
2
) + [E(X)]
2
− 2E(X) E(X)
u
2
= E(X
2
) −[E(X)]
2
= u
2
′ −
( )
u
1
′
2
Second moment about the Mean is called the variance of the random
variable X
u
2
= Var (X) = E(X − X
÷
)
2
= E(X
2
) − [E(X)]
2
Result (4) : Var (X ± c) = Var X where c is a constant.
Proof : w.k.t. Var (X) = E(X − X
÷
)
2
Var (X + c) = E[(X + c) − E (X + c)]
2
= E[X + c − E(X) − c]
2
= E[X − X
÷
]
2
= Var X
Similarly Var (X − c) = Var (X)
∴ Variance is independent of change of origin.
Result (5) : Var (aX) = a
2
Var (X)
Proof : Var (aX) = E[aX − E(aX)]
2
= E[aX − aE(X)]
2
= E[a {X − E(X)}]
2
= a
2
E[X − E(X)]
2
= a
2
Var X
Change of scale affects the variance
207
Result (6) : Var (c) = 0 where c is a constant.
Proof : Var (c) = E[c − E(c)]
2
= E[c − c]
2
= E(0) = 0
Example 10.11 : Two unbiased dice are thrown together at random. Find the
expected value of the total number of points shown up.
Solution : Let X be the random variable which represents the sum of the
numbers shown in the two dice. If both show one then the sum total is 2. If both
show six then the sum is 12.
The random variable X can take values from 2 to 12.
(1, 1)
(1, 2) (2, 1)
(1, 3) (2, 2) (3, 1)
(1, 4) (2, 3) (3, 2) (4, 1)
(1, 5) (2, 4) (3, 3) (4, 2) (5, 1)
(1, 6) (2, 5) (3, 4) (4, 3) (5, 2) (6, 1)
(2, 6) (3, 5) (4, 4) (5, 3) (6, 2)
(3, 6) (4, 5) (5, 4) (6, 3)
(4, 6) (5, 5) (6, 4)
(5, 6) (6, 5)
(6, 6)
∴ The probability distribution is given by.
X 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
P(X = x)
1
36
2
36
3
36
4
36
5
36
6
36
5
36
4
36
3
36
2
36
1
36
E(X) = ∑ p
i
x
i
= ∑ x
i
p
i
=
\

.

2 ×
1
36
+
\

.

3 ×
2
26
+
\

.

4 ×
3
36
+ . . . .+
\

.

12 ×
1
36
=
252
36
= 7
Example 10.12 : The probability of success of an event is p and that of failure
is q. Find the expected number of trials to get a first success.
Solution: Let X be the random variable denoting ‘Number of trials to get a first
success’. The success can occur in the 1
st
trial. ∴ The probability of success in
the 1
st
trial is p. The success in the 2
nd
trial means failure in the 1
st
trial.
∴ Probability is qp.
Success in the 3
rd
trial means failure in the first two trials. ∴ Probability of
success in the 3
rd
trial is q
2
p. As it goes on, the success may occur in the nth
trial which mean the first (n −1) trials are failures. ∴ probability = q
n−1
p.
208
∴ The probability distribution is as follows
X 1 2 3 ... n ...
P(x) p qp
q
2
p
...
q
n−1
p...
∴ E(X) = ∑ p
i
x
i
= 1 . p + 2qp + 3q
2
p + . . . + nq
n−1
p . .
= p[1 + 2q + 3q
2
+ . . .+ nq
n−1
+ ... ]
= p[1 − q]
−2
= p(p)
−2
=
p
p
2
=
1
p
Example 10.13 : An urn contains 4 white and 3 Red balls. Find the probability
distribution of the number of red balls in three draws when a ball is drawn at
random with replacement. Also find its mean and variance.
Solution : The required probability distribution is [Refer Example 10.3]
X 0 1 2 3
P(X = x)
64
343
144
343
108
343
27
343
Mean E(X) = ∑ p
i
x
i
= 0
\

.

64
343
+ 1
\

.

144
343
+ 2
\

.

108
343
+ 3
\

.

27
343
=
9
7
Variance = E(X
2
) − [E(X)]
2
E(X
2
) = ∑ p
i
x
i
2
= 0
\

.

64
343
+ 1
2
\

.

144
343
+ 2
2
\

.

108
343
+ 3
2
\

.

27
343
=
117
49
Variance=
117
49
−
\

.

9
7
2
=
36
49
Example 10.14 :A game is played with a single fair die, A player wins Rs. 20 if
a 2 turns up, Rs. 40 if a 4 turns up, loses Rs. 30 if a 6 turns up. While he neither
wins nor loses if any other face turns up. Find the expected sum of money he
can win.
Solution : Let X be the random variable denoting the amount he can win. The
possible values of X are 20,40, − 30 and 0.
P[X = 20] = P(getting 2) =
1
6
P[X = 40] = P(getting 4) =
1
6
P[X = − 30] = P(getting 6) =
1
6
209
The remaining probability is
1
2
X 20 40 −30 0
P(x) 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/2
Mean E (X) = ∑ p
i
x
i
= 20
\

.

1
6
+ 40
\

.

1
6
+ (−30)
\

.

1
6
+ 0
\

.

1
2
= 5
Expected sum of money he can win = Rs. 5
Expectation of a continuous Random Variable :
Definition : Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density
function f(x). Then the mathematical expectation of X is defined as
E(X) =
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
xf(x) dx
Note : If ϕ is function such that ϕ(X) is a random variable and E [ϕ (X)] exists
then
E[ϕ (X)] =
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
ϕ (x) f(x) dx
E(X
2
) =
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
x
2
f(x) dx
Variance of X = E(X
2
) − [E(X)]
2
Results : (1) E(c) = c where c is a constant
E(c) =
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
c f(x) dx = c
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
f(x) dx = c as
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
f(x) dx = 1
(2) E(aX ± b) = a E(X) ± b
E(aX ± b) =
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
(ax ± b) f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
ax f(x) dx ±
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
b f(x) dx
= a
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
x f(x) dx ± b
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
f(x) dx = a E(X) ± b
210
Example 10.15 : In a continuous distribution the p.d.f of X is
f(x)=
¹
´
¦
3
4
x (2 − x)
0
.
0< x < 2
otherwise
.
Find the mean and the variance of the distribution.
Solution : E(X) =
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
x f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
0
2
x.
3
4
x(2 − x) dx
=
3
4
⌡
⌠
0
2
x
2
(2 − x) dx =
3
4
⌡
⌠
0
2
(2x
2
− x
3
) dx
=
3
4
2
x
3
3
−
x
4
4
2
0
=
3
4
2
3
(8) −
16
4
= 1
∴ Mean = 1
E(X
2
) =
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
x
2
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
0
2
x
2
3
4
x(2 − x) dx
=
3
4
⌡
⌠
0
2
(2 x
3
− x
4
) dx =
3
4
2
x
4
4
−
x
5
5
2
0
=
3
4
16
2
−
32
5
=
6
5
Variance = E(X
2
) − [E(X)]
2
=
6
5
− 1 =
1
5
Example 10.16 : Find the mean and variance of the distribution
f(x) =
¹¦
´
¦
¦
3e
−3x
.0 < x < ∞
0 .elsewhere
Solution :
E(X) =
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
x f(x) dx
=
⌡
⌠
0
∞
x (3e
−3x
) dx = 3
⌡
⌠
0
∞
x e
−3x
dx = 3.
1
3
2
=
1
3
⌡
⌠
0
∞
x
n
e
− αx
dx =
n
α
n + 1
When n is a positive
integer
E(X
2
) =
⌡
⌠
0
∞
x
2
(3e
−3x
) dx = 3
⌡
⌠
0
∞
x
2
e
−3x
dx = 3 .
2
3
3
=
2
9
211
Var(X) = E[X
2
] − E[X]
2
=
2
9
−
\

.

1
3
2
=
1
9
∴Mean =
1
3
; Variance =
1
9
EXERCISE 10.2
(1) A die is tossed twice. A success is getting an odd number on a toss. Find
the mean and the variance of the probability distribution of the number of
successes.
(2) Find the expected value of the number on a die when thrown.
(3) In an entrance examination a student has to answer all the 120 questions.
Each question has four options and only one option is correct. A student
gets 1 mark for a correct answer and loses half mark for a wrong answer.
What is the expectation of the mark scored by a student if he chooses the
answer to each question at random?
(4) Two cards are drawn with replacement from a well shuffled deck of 52
cards. Find the mean and variance for the number of aces.
(5) In a gambling game a man wins Rs.10 if he gets all heads or all tails and
loses Rs.5 if he gets 1 or 2 heads when 3 coins are tossed once. Find his
expectation of gain.
(6) The probability distribution of a random variable X is given below :
X 0 1 2 3
P(X = x) 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.1
If Y = X
2
+ 2X find the mean and variance of Y.
(7) Find the Mean and Variance for the following probability density
functions
(i) f(x) =
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
1
24
.−12 ≤ x ≤ 12
0 .otherwise
(ii) f(x) =
¹¦
´
¦
¦
αe
−α x
. if x > 0
0 .otherwise
(iii) f(x) =
¹¦
´
¦
¦
xe
−x
. if x > 0
0 .otherwise
212
10.4 Theoretical Distributions :
The values of random variables may be distributed according to some
definite probability law which can be expressed mathematically and the
corresponding probability distribution is called theoretical distribution.
Theoretical distributions are based on expectations on the basis of previous
experience.
In this section we shall study (1) Binomial distribution (2) Poisson
distribution (3) Normal distribution which figure most prominently in
statistical theory and in application. The first two distributions are discrete
probability distributions and the third is a continuous probability distribution.
Discrete Distributions :
Binomial Distribution :
This was discovered by a Swiss Mathematician James Bernoulli (1654−1705)
Bernoulli’s Trials :
Consider a random experiment that has only two possible outcomes. For
example when a coin is tossed we can take the falling of head as success and
falling of tail as failure. Assume that these outcomes have probabilities
p and q respectively such that p + q =1. If the experiment is repeated ‘n’ times
independently with two possible outcomes they are called Bernoulli’s trials. A
Binomial distribution can be used under the following condition.
(i) any trial, result in a success or a failure
(ii) There are a finite number of trials which are independent.
(iii) The probability of success is the same in each trial.
Probability function of Binomial Distribution :
Let n be a given positive integer and p be a given real number such that
0 ≤ p ≤ 1. Also let q = 1 − p. Consider the finite probability distribution
described by the following table.
x
i
0 1 2 . . . n
P(x
i
)
q
n
nc
1
pq
n−1
nc
2
p
2
q
n−2
. . .
p
n
The table shown above is called the Binomial distribution. The 2
nd
row of
the table are the successive terms in the binomial expansion of (q + p)
n
.
Binomial probability function B(n,p,x) gives the probability of exactly
x successes in ‘n’ Bernoullian trials, p being the probability of success in a trial.
The constants n and p are called the parameters of the distribution.
213
Definition of Binomial Distribution :
A random variable X is said to follow Binomial distribution if its
probability mass function is given by
P(X = x) = p(x) =
¹
´
¦
n
C
x
p
x
q
n −x
. x = 0. 1. . . .n
0 otherwise
Constants of Binomial Distribution :
Mean = np
Variance = npq
Standard deviation = variance = npq
X ∼ B(n, p) denotes that the random variable X follows Binomial distribution
with parameters n and p.
Note : In a Binomial distribution mean is always greater than the variance.
Example 10.17 : Let X be a binomially distributed variable with mean 2 and
standard deviation
2
3
. Find the corresponding probability function.
Solution : np = 2 ; npq =
2
3
∴ npq = 4/3
∴ q =
npq
np
=
4/3
2
=
4
6
=
2
3
∴ p = 1 − q = 1 −
2
3
=
1
3
np = 2 ∴ n
\

.

1
3
= 2 ⇒ n = 6
∴ The probability function for the distribution is
P[X = x] = 6
C
x
\

.

1
3
x
\

.

2
3
6 − x
, x = 0, 1, 2, … 6
Example 10.18 : A pair of dice is thrown 10 times. If getting a doublet is
considered a success find the probability of (i) 4 success (ii) No success.
Solution : n = 10 . A doublet can be obtained when a pair of dice thrown is
{(1,1), (2,2) (3,3), (4,4), (5,5) (6,6)} ie., 6 ways.
Probability of success is getting a doublet
∴ p =
6
36
=
1
6
; q = 1 − p = 1 −
1
6
=
5
6
214
Let X be the number of success.
We have P[X = x] = n
C
x
p
x
q
n−x
(a) P(4 successes) = P[X = 4] = 10
C
4
\

.

1
6
4
\

.

5
6
6
=
210 × 5
6
6
10
=
35
216
\

.

5
6
6
(b) P (no success) = P(X = 0)
= 10
C
0
\

.

5
6
10
=
\

.

5
6
10
Example 10.19 : In a Binomial distribution if n = 5and P(X = 3) = 2P(X = 2)
find p
Solution : P(X = x) = n
C
x
p
x
q
n−x
P(X = 3) = 5
C
3
p
3
q
2
and P(X = 2) = 5
C
2
p
2
q
3
∴ 5
C
3
p
3
q
2
= 2
( )
5
C
2
p
2
q
3
∴ p = 2q
p = 2 (1 − p) ⇒ 3p = 2 ; p =
2
3
Example 10.20 : If the sum of mean and variance of a Binomial Distribution is
4.8 for 5 trials find the distribution.
Solution : np + npq = 4.8 ⇒ np(1 + q) = 4.8
5 p [1 + (1 − p) = 4.8
p
2
− 2p + 0.96 = 0 ⇒ p = 1.2 , 0.8
∴ p = 0.8 ; q = 0.2 [‡p cannot be greater than 1]
∴ The Binomial distribution is P[X = x] = 5
C
x
(0.8)
x
(0.2)
5−x
, x = 0 to 5
Example 10.21 : The difference between the mean and the variance of a
Binomial distribution is 1 and the difference between their squares is 11.Find n.
Solution : Let the mean be (m + 1) and the variance be m from the given
data.[Since mean > variance in a binomial distribution]
(m +1)
2
− m
2
= 11 ⇒ m = 5
∴ mean = m + 1 = 6
⇒ np = 6 ; npq = 5 ∴ q =
5
6
, p =
1
6
⇒ n = 36.
215
EXERCISE 10.3
(1) The mean of a binomial distribution is 6 and its standard deviation is 3. Is
this statement true or false? Comment.
(2) A die is thrown 120 times and getting 1 or 5 is considered a success. Find
the mean and variance of the number of successes.
(3) If on an average 1 ship out of 10 do not arrive safely to ports. Find the
mean and the standard deviation of ships returning safely out of a total of
500 ships
(4) Four coins are tossed simultaneously. What is the probability of getting
(a) exactly 2 heads (b) at least two heads (c) at most two heads.
(5) The overall percentage of passes in a certain examination is 80. If 6
candidates appear in the examination what is the probability that atleast 5
pass the examination.
(6) In a hurdle race a player has to cross 10 hurdles. The probability that he
will clear each hurdle is
5
6
. What is the probability that he will knock
down less than 2 hurdles.
10.4.2 Poisson Distribution :
It is named after the French Mathematician Simeon Denis Poisson
(1781 − 1840) who discovered it. Poisson distribution is also a discrete
distribution.
Poisson distribution is a limiting case of Binomial distribution under the
following conditions.
(i) n the number of trials is indefinitely large ie., n → ∞.
(ii) p the constant probability of success in each trial is very small
ie., p → 0.
(iii) np = λ is finite where λ is a positive real number. When an event
occurs rarely, the distribution of such an event may be assumed to
follow a Poisson distribution.
Definition : A random variable X is said to have a Poisson distribution if the
probability mass function of X is P(X = x) =
e
−λ
λ
x
x
, x = 0,1,2, …for some λ > 0
The mean of the Poisson Distribution is λ, and the variance is also λ.
The parameter of the Poisson distribution is λ.
216
Examples of Poisson Distribution :
(1) The number of alpha particles emitted by a radio active source in a
given time interval.
(2) The number of telephone calls received at a telephone exchange in a
given time interval.
(3) The number of defective articles in a packet of 100, produced by a good
industry.
(4) The number of printing errors at each page of a book by a good
publication.
(5) The number of road accidents reported in a city at a particular junction
at a particular time.
Example 10.22 : Prove that the total probability is one.
Solution : ∑
x=0
∞
p(x) = ∑
x=0
∞
e
−λ
λ
x
x
=
e
−λ
λ
0
0
+
e
−λ
λ
1
1
+
e
−λ
λ
2
2
+ . . .
= e
−λ
[1 + λ +
λ
2
2
+ . . . ] = e
−λ
.
e
λ
= e
0
= 1
Example 10.23 : If a publisher of nontechnical books takes a great pain to
ensure that his books are free of typological errors, so that the probability of any
given page containing atleast one such error is 0.005 and errors are independent
from page to page (i) what is the probability that one of its 400 page novels
will contain exactly one page with error. (ii) atmost three pages with errors.
[e
−2
= 0.1353 ; e
−0.2
. = 0.819].
Solution : n = 400 , p = 0.005
∴ np = 2 = λ
(i) P(one page with error) = P(X = 1)
=
e
−λ
λ
1
1
=
e
−2
2
1
1
= 0.1363 × 2 = 0.2726
(ii)P(atmost 3 pages with error) = P(X ≤ 3)
= ∑
x = 0
3
e
−λ
λ
x
x
= ∑
0
3
e
−2
(2)
x
x
= e
2
1 +
2
1
+
2
2
2
+
2
3
3
= e
−2
\

.

19
3
= 0.8569
217
Example 10.24 : Suppose that the probability of suffering a side effect from a
certain vaccine is 0.005. If 1000 persons are inoculated, find approximately the
probability that (i) atmost 1 person suffer. (ii) 4, 5 or 6 persons suffer.
[e
−5
= 0.0067]
Solution : Let the probability of suffering from side effect be p
n = 1000 , p = 0.005 , λ = np = 5.
(i) P(atmost 1 person suffer) = p(X ≤ 1)
= p(X = 0) + p(X = 1)
=
e
−λ
λ
0
0
+
e
−λ
λ
1
1
= e
−λ
[1 + λ]
= e
−5
(1 + 5) = 6 × e
−5
= 6 × 0.0067 = 0.0402
(ii) P(4, 5 or 6 persons suffer) = p(X = 4) + p(X = 5) + p(X = 6)
=
e
−λ
λ
4
4
+
e
−λ
λ
5
5
+
e
−λ
λ
6
6
=
e
−λ
λ
4
4
1 +
λ
5
+
λ
2
30
=
e
−5
5
4
24
1 +
5
5
+
25
30
=
e
−5
5
4
24
17
6
=
10625
144
× 0.0067
= 0.4944
Example 10.25 : In a Poisson distribution if P(X = 2) = P(X = 3) find P(X =5)
[given e
−3
= 0.050].
Solution : Given P(X = 2) = P(X = 3)
∴
e
−λ
λ
2
2
=
e
−λ
λ
3
3
⇒ 3λ
2
= λ
3
⇒ λ
2
(3 − λ) = 0 As λ ≠ 0. λ = 3
P(X = 5) =
e
−λ
λ
5
5
=
e
−3
(3)
5
5
=
0.050 × 243
120
= 0.101
218
Example 10.26 : If the number of incoming buses per minute at a bus terminus
is a random variable having a Poisson distribution with λ=0.9, find the
probability that there will be
(i) Exactly 9 incoming buses during a period of 5 minutes
(ii) Fewer than 10 incoming buses during a period of 8 minutes.
(iii) Atleast 14 incoming buses during a period of 11 minutes.
Solution :
(i)
)
`
¹
λ for number of incoming
buses per minute
= 0.9
)
`
¹
∴ λ for number of incoming
buses per 5 minutes
= 0.9 × 5 = 4.5
)
`
¹ P exactly 9 incoming buses
during 5 minutes
=
e
−λ
λ
9
9
i.e., P(X = 9) =
e
−4.5
× (4.5)
9
9
(ii)
)
`
¹ fewer than 10 incoming buses
during a period of 8 minutes
= P(X <10)
Here λ = 0.9 × 8 = 7.2
∴ Required probability = ∑
x=0
9
e
−7.2
× (7.2)
x
x
(iii)
)
`
¹ P atleast 14 incoming buses
during a period of 11 minutes
= P(X ≥ 14) = 1 − P(X < 14)
Here λ = 11 × 0.9 = 9.9
∴ Required probability = 1 − ∑
x=0
13
e
−9.9
× (9.9)
x
x
(The answer can be left at this stage).
EXERCISE 10.4
(1) Let X have a Poisson distribution with mean 4. Find (i) P(X ≤ 3)
(ii) P(2 ≤ X < 5) [e
−4
= 0.0183].
(2) If the probability of a defective fuse from a manufacturing unit is 2% in a
box of 200 fuses find the probability that
(i) exactly 4 fuses are defective (ii) more than 3 fuses are defective
[e
−4
= 0.0183].
219
(3) 20% of the bolts produced in a factory are found to be defective. Find the
probability that in a sample of 10 bolts chosen at random exactly 2 will
be defective using (i) Binomial distribution (ii) Poisson distribution. [e
−2
= 0.1353].
(4) Alpha particles are emitted by a radio active source at an average rate of
5 in a 20 minutes interval. Using Poisson distribution find the probability
that there will be (i) 2 emission (ii) at least 2 emission in a particular 20
minutes interval. [e
−5
= 0.0067].
(5) The number of accidents in a year involving taxi drivers in a city follows
a Poisson distribution with mean equal to 3. Out of 1000 taxi drivers find
approximately the number of drivers with (i) no accident in a year
(ii) more than 3 accidents in a year [e
−3
= 0.0498].
10.4.3 Normal Distribution :
The Binomial and the Poisson distribution described above are the most
useful theoretical distribution for discrete variables i.e., they relate to the
occurrence of distinct events. In order to have mathematical distribution
suitable for dealing with quantities whose magnitude is continuously varying, a
continuous distribution is needed. The normal distribution is also called the
normal probability distribution, happens to be the most useful theoretical
distribution for continuous variables. Many statistical data concerning business
and economic problems are displayed in the form of normal distribution. In fact
normal distribution is the ‘corner stone’ of Modern statistics.
Like the Poisson distribution, the normal distribution may also be regarded
as a limiting case of binomial distribution. Indeed when n is large and neither
p nor q is close to zero the Binomial distribution is approximated by the normal
distribution inspite of the fact that the former is a discrete distribution, where as
the later is a continuous distribution. Examples include measurement errors in
scientific experiments, anthropometric measurements of fossils, reaction times
in psychological experiment, measurements of intelligence and aptitude, scores
on various tests and numerous economic measures and indication.
Definition : A continuous random variable X is said to follow a normal
distribution with parameter u and σ (or u and σ
2
) if the probability function is
f(x) =
1
σ 2π
e
−
1
2
\

.

x − u
σ
2
; −∞ < x < ∞, − ∞ < u < ∞, and σ > 0.
220
X ∼ N(u, σ) denotes that the random variable X follows normal distribution
with mean u and standard deviation σ.
Note : Even we can write the normal distribution as X∼ N(u, σ
2
) symbolically.
In this case the parameters are mean and variance.
The normal distribution is also called Gaussian Distribution. The normal
distribution was first discovered by DeMoivre (1667 − 1754) in 1733 as a
limiting case of Binomial distribution. It was also known to Laplace not later
than 1744 but through a historical error it has been credited to Gauss who first
made reference to it in 1809.
Constants of Normal distribution :
Mean = u
Variance = σ
2
Standard deviation = σ
The graph of the normal curve is
shown above.
Fig. 10.3
Properties of Normal Distribution :
(1) The normal curve is bell shaped
(2) It is symmetrical about the line X = u ie., about the mean line.
(3) Mean = Median = Mode = u
(4) The height of the normal curve is maximum at X = u and
1
σ 2π
is the
maximum height (probability).
(5) It has only one mode at X = u. ∴ The normal curve is unimodal
(6) The normal curve is asymptotic to the base line.
(7) The points of inflection are at X = u ± σ
(8) Since the curve is symmetrical about X = u, the skewness is zero.
(9) Area property :
P(u −σ < X < u + σ) = 0.6826
P(u −2σ < X < u + 2σ) = 0.9544
P(u −3σ < X < u + 3σ) = 0.9973
(10) A normal distribution is a close approximation to the binomial
distribution when n, the number of trials is very large and p the
probability of success is close to 1/2 i.e., neither p nor q is so small.
(11) It is also a limiting form of Poisson distribution i.e., as λ → ∞ Poisson
distribution tends to normal distribution.
x =u
z =0
∞ ∞
x =u
z =0
∞ ∞
221
Standard Normal Distribution :
A random variable X is called a standard normal variate if its mean is zero
and its standard deviation is unity.
A normal distribution with mean u and standard deviation σ can be
converted into a standard normal distribution by performing change of scale and
origin.
The formula that enables us to change from the x scale to the z – scale and
vice versa is Z =
X − u
σ
The probability density function of the standard normal variate Z is given by
ϕ(z) =
1
2π
e
−
1
2
z
2
; −∞ < z < ∞
The distribution does not contain any parameter. The standard normal
distribution is denoted by N(0,1).
The total area under the normal probability curve is unity.
i.e.,
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
−∞
∞
ϕ (z)dz = 1 ⇒
⌡
⌠
−∞
0
ϕ (z)dz =
⌡
⌠
0
∞
ϕ (z)dz = 0.5
Area Property of Normal Distribution :
The Probability that a random variable X lies in the interval
(u − σ, u + σ) is given by
P(u −σ < X < u + σ) =
⌡
⌠
u −σ
u +σ
f(x) dx
substituting X = u − σ and X = u + σ in Z =
X − u
σ
P(−1< Z< 1)=
⌡
⌠
−1
1
ϕ (z)dz
= 2
⌡
⌠
0
1
ϕ (z)dz (by symmetry)
Fig. 10.4
= 2 × 0.3413, (from the area table)
= 0.6826
1 1
∞ ∞
0 1 1
∞ ∞
0
222
Also P(u −2σ < X < u + 2σ)
=
⌡
⌠
u −2σ
u +2σ
f(x) dx
P(−2 < Z < 2) =
⌡
⌠
−2
2
ϕ (z)dz
Fig. 10.5
= 2
⌡
⌠
0
2
ϕ (z)dz , (by symmetry)
= 2 × 0.4772 = 0.9544
Similarly P(u −3σ < X < u + 3σ)
=
⌡
⌠
u −3σ
u +3σ
f(x) dx =
⌡
⌠
−3
3
ϕ (z)dz
= 2 × 0.49865 = 0.9973
Fig. 10.6
Therefore the probability that a normal variate X lies outside the range
u ± 3σ is given by
P(  X − u  > 3σ) = P(  Z  >3) = 1 − p(−3 < Z < 3) = 1 − 0.9973 = 0.0027
Note : Since the areas under the normal probability curve have been tabulated
interms of the standard normal variate Z, for any problem first convert X to Z.
The entries in the table gives the areas under the normal curve between the
mean (z = 0) and the given value of z as shown below :
Therefore entries corresponding to
negative values are unnecessary because
the normal curve is symmetrical. For
example
P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 1.2) = P(−1.2 ≤ Z ≤ 0)
Fig. 10.7
Example 10.27 : Let Z be a standard normal variate. Calculate the following
probabilities.
(i) P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 1.2) (ii) P(−1.2 ≤ Z ≤ 0)
(iii) Area to the right of Z = 1.3 (iv) Area to the left of Z = 1.5
(v) P(−1.2 ≤ Z ≤ 2.5) (vi) P(−1.2 ≤ Z ≤ − 0.5) (vii) P(1.5 ≤ Z ≤ 2.5)
z 0
∞ ∞
z 0
∞ ∞
2 2
∞ ∞
0
2 2
∞ ∞
0
3 3
∞ ∞
0
3 3
∞ ∞
3 3
∞ ∞
0
223
Solution :
(i) P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 1.2)
P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 1.2) = area between
Z = 0 and Z = 1.2
= 0.3849
Fig. 10.8
(ii) P(−1.2 ≤ Z ≤ 0)
P(−1.2 ≤ Z ≤ 0) = P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 1.2)
by symmetry
= 0.3849
Fig. 10.9
(iii) Area to the right of Z = 1.3
P(Z > 1.3) = area between Z = 0 to Z = ∞
− area between Z = 0 to Z = 1.3
= P(0 < Z < ∞) − P(0 ≤ Z <1.3)
= 0.5 − 0.4032 = 0.0968
Fig. 10.10
(iv) Area of the left of Z = 1.5
= P(Z < 1.5)
= P(−∞ < Z< 0) + P(0 ≤ Z < 1.5)
= 0.5 + 0.4332
= 0.9332
Fig. 10.11
(v) P(−1.2 ≤ Z < 2.5)
= P(− 1.2 < Z < 0) + P(0 < Z < 2.5)
= P(0 ≤ Z < 1.2) + P(0≤ Z ≤ 2.5)
[by symmetry]
= 0.3849 + 0.4938
= 0.8787
Fig. 10.12
(vi) P(−1.2 ≤ Z ≤ −0.5)
= P(−1.2 < Z < 0) − P(−0.5 < Z < 0)
= P(0 < Z < 1.2) − P(0 < Z < 0.5)
[due to symmetry]
= 0.3849 − 0.1915 = 0.1934
Fig. 10.13
z =1.2 z =0
∞ ∞
z =1.2 z =0
∞ ∞
z =1.2 z =0
∞ ∞
z =1.2 z =0
∞ ∞
z =1.3 z =0
∞ ∞
z =1.3 z =0
∞ ∞
z =1.5 z =0
∞ ∞
z =1.5 z =0
∞ ∞
2.5 z =0 1.2
∞ ∞
2.5 z =0 1.2
∞ ∞
z =.5
z =0
z =1.2
∞ ∞
z =.5
z =0
z =1.2
∞ ∞
224
(vii) P(1.5 ≤ Z ≤ 2.5)
Required area
= P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 2.5) − P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 1.5) = 0.4938 − 0.4332 = 0.0606
Example 10.28 : Let Z be a standard normal variate. Find the value of c in the
following problems.
(i) P(Z < c) = 0.05 (ii) P(−c < Z < c) = 0.94
(iii) P(Z > c) = 0.05 (iv) P(c < Z < 0) = 0.31
Solution :
(i) P(Z < c) = 0.05 i.e., P(− ∞ < Z < c) = 0.05
As area is < 0.5, c lies to the left of Z = 0.
From the area table Z value for the area
0.45 is 1.65. ∴c = − 1.65
Fig. 10.14
(ii) P(−c < Z < c) = 0.94
As Z = −c and Z = +c lie at equal distance from Z = 0,
∴ We have P(0 < Z < c) =
0.94
2
= 0.47.
Z value for the area 0.47 from the table
is 1.88 ∴ c = 1.88 and − c = − 1.88
Fig. 10.15
(iii) P(Z > c) = 0.05 ⇒ P(c < Z < ∞) = 0.05
From the data it is clear that c lies to the right of Z = 0
The area to the right of Z = 0 is 0.5
P(0 < Z < ∞) − P(0 < Z < c) = 0.05
0.5 − P(0 < Z < c) = 0.05
∴ 0.5 − 0.05 = P(0 < Z < c)
0.45 = P(0 < Z < c)
Fig. 10.16
From the area table Z value for the area 0.45 is 1.65 ∴ c = 1.65
(iv) P(c < Z < 0) = 0.31
As c is less than zero, it lies to the left of Z = 0. From the area table the Z
value for the area 0.31 is 0.88. As it in to the left of Z = 0, c = − 0.88
Example 10.29 : If X is normally distributed with mean 6 and standard
deviation 5 find. (i) P(0 ≤ X ≤ 8) (ii) P(  X − 6  < 10)
0 c
. 45
∞ ∞
0 c
. 45
∞ ∞
z =c z =0 z =c
. 47 . 47
. 94
∞ ∞
z =c z =0
. 45
0.05
∞ ∞
z =c z =0
. 45
0.05
∞ ∞
225
Solution : Given u = 6, σ = 5
(i) P(0 ≤ X ≤ 8)
We know that Z =
X − u
σ
When X = 0, Z =
0 − 6
5
=
−6
5
= − 1.2
When X = 8, Z =
8 − 6
5
=
2
5
= 0.4
Fig. 10.17
∴ P(0 ≤ X ≤ 8) = P(−1.2 < Z < 0.4)
= P(0< Z <1.2) + P(0 < Z < .4) (due to symmetry)
= 0.3849 + 0.1554
= 0.5403
(ii) P(  X − 6 < 10) = P(−10 < (X − 6) < 10) ⇒ P(−4 < X < 16)
When X = −4, Z =
−4 − 6
5
=
−10
5
= − 2
When X = 16, Z =
16 − 6
5
=
10
5
= 2
P(− 4 < X < 16) = P(−2 < Z < 2)
Fig. 10.18
= 2 P(0 < Z < 2) (due to symmetry)
= 2 (0.4772) = 0.9544
Example 10.30 : The mean score of 1000 students for an examination is 34 and
S.D is 16. (i) How many candidates can be expected to obtain marks between
30 and 60 assuming the normality of the distribution and (ii) determine the limit
of the marks of the central 70% of the candidates.
Solution : u = 34, σ = 16, N = 1000
(i) P(30 < X < 60) ; Z =
X − u
σ
∴ X = 30, Z
1
=
30 − u
σ
=
30 − 34
16
=
−4
16
= −0.25
Z
1
= −0.25
Z
2
=
60 − 34
16
=
26
16
= 1.625
Z
2
≈ 1.63 (app.)
Fig. 10.19
P(−0.25 < Z < 1.63) =P(0 < Z< 0.25) + P(0 < Z < 1.63) (due to symmetry)
z =0 z =1.2 z =.4
∞ ∞
z =0 z =1.2 z =.4
∞ ∞
z =2 z =0 z =2
∞ ∞
z =2 z =0 z =2
∞ ∞
x =60
z
2
x =34 x =30
z
1
∞ ∞
x =60
z
2
x =34 x =30
z
1
∞ ∞
226
= 0.0987 + 0.4484 = 0.5471
)
`
¹ No of students scoring
between 30 and 60
= 0.5471 × 1000 = 547.
(ii) limit of central 70% of Candidates :
)
`
¹ Value of Z
1
from the area table
for the area 0.35
= − 1.04
[ as Z
1
lies to left of Z = 0]
Similarly Z
2
= 1.04
Fig. 10.20
Z
1
=
X − 34
16
= 1.04
X
1
= 16 × 1.04 + 34
= 16.64 + 34
X
1
= 50.64
Z
2
=
X − 34
16
= − 1.04
X
2
− 34 = − 1.04 × 16 + 34
X
2
= − 16.64 + 34
X
2
= 17.36
∴ 70% of the candidate score between 17.36 and 50.64.
Example 10.31 : Obtain k, u and σ
2
of the normal distribution whose
probability distribution function is given by
f(x) = k e
−2x
2
+ 4x
−∞ < X < ∞
Solution : Consider
−2x
2
+ 4x = −2 (x
2
− 2x) = −2 [(x −1)
2
− 1] = −2 (x − 1)
2
+ 2
∴ e
−2x
2
+ 4x
= e
2
. e
−2(x −1)
2
= e
2
. e
−
1
2
(x −1)
2
1/4
= e
2
. e
−
1
2
\

.

x −1
1/2
2
Comparing it with f(x) we get
k e
−2x
2
+ 4x
=
1
σ 2π
e
−
1
2
\

.

x −u
σ
2
⇒ k e
2
e
−
1
2
\

.

x −1
1
/2
2
=
1
σ 2π
e
−
1
2
\

.

x −u
σ
2
we get σ =
1
2
= u = 1 and k =
1
1
2
2π
. e
−2
=
2e
−2
2π
, σ
2
=
1
4
z
2
z =0 z
1
. 35 . 35
∞ ∞
z
2
z =0 z
1
. 35 . 35
∞ ∞
227
Example 10.32 : The air pressure in a randomly selected tyre put on a certain
model new car is normally distributed with mean value 31 psi and standard
deviation 0.2 psi.
(i) What is the probability that the pressure for a randomly selected tyre
(a) between 30.5 and 31.5 psi (b) between 30 and 32 psi
(ii) What is the probability that the pressure for a randomly selected tyre
exceeds 30.5 psi ?
Solution : Given u = 31 and σ = 0.2
(i) (a) P(30.5 < X < 31.5) ; Z =
X − u
σ
When X = 30.5, Z =
30.5 − 31
0.2
=
−0.5
0.2
= −2.5
When X = 31.5, Z =
31.5 − 31
0.2
=
0.5
0.2
= 2.5
Fig. 10.21
∴ Required probability
P(30.5 < X < 31.5) = P( −2.5 < Z < 2.5)
= 2 P(0< Z < 2.5)
[since due to symmetry]
= 2(0.4938) = 0.9876
(b) P(30 < X < 32)
When X = 30, Z =
30 − 31
0.2
=
−1
0.2
= − 5
When X = 32, Z =
32 − 31
0.2
=
1
0.2
= 5
Fig. 10.22
P(30 < X < 32) = P(−5 < Z < 5) = area under the whole curve = 1 (app.)
(ii) When X = 30.5 , Z =
30.5 − 31
0.2
=
−0.5
0.2
= −2.5
P(X > 30.5) = P(Z > − 2.5)
= 0.5 + p(0 < Z < 2.5)
= 0.5 + 0.4938 = 0.9938
Fig. 10.23
x =31.5 u =31 x =30.5
∞ ∞
x =31.5 u =31 x =30.5
∞ ∞
u =31
∞ ∞
u =31
∞ ∞
z =2.5
∞ ∞
z =2.5
∞ ∞
228
EXERCISE 10.5
(1) If X is a normal variate with mean 80 and standard deviation 10,
compute the following probabilities by standardizing.
(i) P(X ≤ 100) (ii) P(X ≤ 80)
(iii) P(65 ≤ X ≤ 100) (iv) P(70 < X)
(v) P(85 ≤ X ≤ 95)
(2) If Z is a standard normal variate, find the value of c for the following
(i) P(0 < Z < c) = 0.25 (ii) P(−c < Z < c) = 0.40
(iii) P(Z > c) = 0.85
(3) Suppose that the amount of cosmic radiation to which a person is
exposed when flying by jet across the United States is a random
variable having a normal distribution with a mean of 4.35 m rem and a
standard deviation of 0.59 m rem. What is the probability that a person
will be exposed to more than 5.20 m rem of cosmic radiation of such a
flight.
(4) The life of army shoes is normally distributed with mean 8 months and
standard deviation 2 months. If 5000 pairs are issued, how many pairs
would be expected to need replacement within 12 months.
(5) The mean weight of 500 male students in a certain college in 151
pounds and the standard deviation is 15 pounds. Assuming the weights
are normally distributed, find how many students weigh (i) between
120 and 155 pounds (ii) more than 185 pounds.
(6) If the height of 300 students are normally distributed with mean 64.5
inches and standard deviation 3.3 inches, find the height below which
99% of the student lie.
(7) Marks in an aptitude test given to 800 students of a school was found to
be normally distributed. 10% of the students scored below 40 marks and
10% of the students scored above 90 marks. Find the number of
students scored between 40 and 90.
(8) Find c, u and σ
2
of the normal distribution whose probability function
is given by f(x) = c e
−x
2
+ 3x
, − ∞ < X < ∞.
229
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Choose the correct or most suitable answer :
(1) The gradient of the curve y = − 2x
3
+ 3x + 5 at x = 2 is
(1) − 20 (2) 27 (3) −16 (4) − 21
(2) The rate of change of area A of a circle of radius r is
(1) 2 π r (2) 2 π r
dr
dt
(3) π r
2
dr
dt
(4) π
dr
dt
(3) The velocity v of a particle moving along a straight line when at a
distance x from the origin is given by a + bv
2
= x
2
where a and b are
constants. Then the acceleration is
(1)
b
x
(2)
a
x
(3)
x
b
(4)
x
a
(4) A spherical snowball is melting in such a way that its volume is
decreasing at a rate of 1 cm
3
/ min. The rate at which the diameter is
decreasing when the diameter is 10 cms is
(1)
−1
50π
cm / min (2)
1
50π
cm / min
(3)
−11
75π
cm / min (4)
−2
75π
cm / min.
(5) The slope of the tangent to the curve y = 3x
2
+ 3sin x at x = 0 is
(1) 3 (2) 2 (3) 1 (4) − 1
(6) The slope of the normal to the curve y = 3x
2
at the point whose
x coordinate is 2 is
(1)
1
13
(2)
1
14
(3)
−1
12
(4)
1
12
(7) The point on the curve y = 2x
2
– 6x – 4 at which the tangent is parallel
to the x – axis is
(1)
\

.

5
2
.
– 17
2
(2)
\

.

−5
2
.
– 17
2
(3)
\

.

−5
2
.
17
2
(4)
\

.

3
2
.
– 17
2
(8) The equation of the tangent to the curve y =
x
3
5
at the point (−1,
−1
/
5
)
is
(1) 5y + 3x = 2 (2) 5y − 3x = 2 (3) 3x − 5y = 2 (4) 3x + 3y = 2
230
(9) The equation of the normal to the curve θ =
1
t
at the point (−3, −
1
/
3
) is
(1) 3 θ = 27 t – 80 (2) 5 θ = 27t – 80
(3) 3 θ = 27 t + 80 (4) θ =
1
t
(10) The angle between the curves
x
2
25
+
y
2
9
= 1 and
x
2
8
−
y
2
8
= 1 is
(1)
π
4
(2)
π
3
(3)
π
6
(4)
π
2
(11) The angle between the curve y = e
mx
and y = e
–mx
for m >1 is
(1) tan
−1
\

.


2m
m
2
1
(2) tan
−1
\

.


2m
1− m
2
(3) tan
−1
\

.


−2m
1+ m
2
(4) tan
−1
\

.


2m
m
2
+1
(12) The parametric equations of the curve x
2/3
+ y
2/3
= a
2/3
are
(1) x = a sin
3
θ ; y = a cos
3
θ (2) x = a cos
3
θ ; y = a sin
3
θ
(3) x = a
3
sin θ ; y = a
3
cos θ (4) x = a
3
cos θ ; y = a
3
sin θ
(13) If the normal to the curve x
2/3
+ y
2/3
= a
2/3
makes an angle θ with the
x – axis then the slope of the normal is
(1) – cot θ (2) tan θ (3) – tan θ (4) cot θ
(14) If the length of the diagonal of a square is increasing at the rate of
0.1 cm / sec. What is the rate of increase of its area when the side
is
15
2
cm?
(1) 1.5 cm
2
/sec (2) 3 cm
2
/sec (3) 3 2 cm
2
/sec (4) 0.15 cm
2
/sec
(15) What is the surface area of a sphere when the volume is increasing at
the same rate as its radius?
(1) 1 (2)
1
2π
(3) 4π (4)
4π
3
(16) For what values of x is the rate of increase of x
3
− 2x
2
+ 3x + 8 is twice
the rate of increase of x
(1)
\

.

−
1
3
. − 3 (2)
\

.

1
3
. 3 (3)
\

.

−
1
3
. 3 (4)
\

.

1
3
. 1
(17) The radius of a cylinder is increasing at the rate of 2cm / sec and its
altitude is decreasing at the rate of 3cm / sec. The rate of change of
volume when the radius is 3cm and the altitude is 5cm is
(1) 23π (2) 33π (3) 43π (4) 53π
231
(18) If y = 6x − x
3
and x increases at the rate of 5 units per second, the rate of
change of slope when x = 3 is
(1) − 90 units / sec (2) 90 units / sec
(3) 180 units / sec (4) − 180 units / sec
(19) If the volume of an expanding cube is increasing at the rate of
4cm
3
/ sec then the rate of change of surface area when the volume of
the cube is 8 cubic cm is
(1) 8cm
2
/sec (2) 16cm
2
/ sec (3) 2 cm
2
/ sec (4) 4 cm
2
/ sec
(20) The gradient of the tangent to the curve y = 8 + 4x − 2x
2
at the point
where the curve cuts the yaxis is
(1) 8 (2) 4 (3) 0 (4) − 4
(21) The Angle between the parabolas y
2
= x and x
2
= y at the origin is
(1) 2 tan
−1
\

.

3
4
(2) tan
− 1
\

.

4
3
(3)
π
2
(4)
π
4
(22) For the curve x = e
t
cos t ; y = e
t
sin t the tangent line is parallel to the
xaxis when t is equal to
(1) −
π
4
(2)
π
4
(3) 0 (4)
π
2
(23) If a normal makes an angle θ with positive xaxis then the slope of the
curve at the point where the normal is drawn is
(1) − cot θ (2) tan θ (3) − tan θ (4) cot θ
(24) The value of ‘a’ so that the curves y = 3e
x
and y =
a
3
e
−x
intersect
orthogonally is
(1) − 1 (2) 1 (3)
1
3
(4) 3
(25) If s = t
3
− 4t
2
+ 7, the velocity when the acceleration is zero is
(1)
32
3
m/sec (2)
− 16
3
m/sec (3)
16
3
m/sec (4)
− 32
3
m/sec
(26) If the velocity of a particle moving along a straight line is directly
proportional to the square of its distance from a fixed point on the line.
Then its acceleration is proportional to
(1) s (2) s
2
(3) s
3
(4) s
4
(27) The Rolle’s constant for the function y = x
2
on [− 2, 2] is
(1)
2 3
3
(2) 0 (3) 2 (4) − 2
232
(28) The ‘c’ of Lagranges Mean Value Theorem for the function
f(x) = x
2
+ 2x − 1 ; a = 0, b = 1 is
(1) − 1 (2) 1 (3) 0 (4)
1
2
(29) The value of c in Rolle’s Theorem for the function f(x) = cos
x
2
on
[π, 3π] is
(1) 0 2) 2π (3)
π
2
(4)
3π
2
(30) The value of ‘c’ of Lagranges Mean Value Theorem for f(x) = x when
a = 1 and b = 4 is
(1)
9
4
(2)
3
2
(3)
1
2
(4)
1
4
(31) lim
x → ∞
x
2
e
x
is =
(1) 2 (2) 0 (3) ∞ (4) 1
(32)
lim
x→ 0
a
x
− b
x
c
x
− d
x
(1) ∞ (2) 0 (3) log
ab
cd
(4)
log ( ) a/b
log ( ) c/d
(33) If f(a) = 2; f ′(a) = 1 ; g(a) = − 1 ; g ′(a) = 2 then the value of
lim
x → a
g(x) f(a) − g(a) f(x)
x − a
is
(1) 5 (2) − 5 (3) 3 (4) − 3
(34) Which of the following function is increasing in (0, ∞)
(1) e
x
(2)
1
x
(3) − x
2
(4) x
−2
(35) The function f(x) = x
2
− 5x + 4 is increasing in
(1) (− ∞, 1) (2) (1, 4) (3) (4, ∞) (4) everywhere
(36) The function f(x) = x
2
is decreasing in
(1) (− ∞, ∞) (2) (− ∞, 0) (3) (0, ∞) (4) (− 2, ∞)
233
(37) The function y = tan x − x is
(1) an increasing function in
\

.

0 .
π
2
(2) a decreasing function in
\

.

0 .
π
2
(3) increasing in
\

.

0 .
π
4
and decreasing in
\

.

π
4
.
π
2
(4) decreasing in
\

.

0 .
π
4
and increasing in
\

.

π
4
.
π
2
(38) In a given semi circle of diameter 4 cm a rectangle is to be inscribed.
The maximum area of the rectangle is
(1) 2 (2) 4 (3) 8 (4) 16
(39) The least possible perimeter of a rectangle of area 100m
2
is
(1) 10 (2) 20 (3) 40 (4) 60
(40) If f(x) = x
2
− 4x + 5 on [0, 3] then the absolute maximum value is
(1) 2 (2) 3 (3) 4 (4) 5
(41) The curve y = − e
−x
is
(1) concave upward for x > 0 (2) concave downward for x > 0
(2) everywhere concave upward (4) everywhere concave downward
(42) Which of the following curves is concave down?
(1) y = − x
2
(2) y = x
2
(3) y = e
x
(4) y = x
2
+ 2x − 3
(43) The point of inflexion of the curve y = x
4
is at
(1) x = 0 (2) x = 3 (3) x = 12 (4) nowhere
(44) The curve y = ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d has a point of inflexion at x = 1 then
(1) a + b = 0 (2) a + 3b = 0 (3) 3a +b = 0 (4) 3a + b = 1
(45) If u = x
y
then
∂u
∂x
is equal to
(1) yx
y − 1
(2) u log x (3) u log y (4) xy
x − 1
(46) If u = sin
−1
\

.

 x
4
+ y
4
x
2
+ y
2
and f = sin u then f is a homogeneous function of
degree
(1) 0 (2) 1 (3) 2 (4) 4
(47) If u =
1
x
2
+ y
2
, then x
∂u
∂x
+ y
∂u
∂y
is equal to
(1)
1
2
u (2) u (3)
3
2
u (4) − u
234
(48) The curve y
2
(x − 2) = x
2
(1 + x) has
(1) an asymptote parallel to xaxis (2) an asymptote parallel to yaxis
(3) asymptotes parallel to both axes (4) no asymptotes
(49) If x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ, then
∂r
∂x
is equal to
(1) sec θ (2) sin θ (3) cos θ (4) cosec θ
(50) Identify the true statements in the following :
(i) If a curve is symmetrical about the origin, then it is symmetrical
about both axes.
(ii) If a curve is symmetrical about both the axes, then it is
symmetrical about the origin.
(iii) A curve f(x, y) = 0 is symmetrical about the line y = x
if f(x, y) = f(y, x).
(iv) For the curve f(x, y) = 0, if f(x, y) = f(− y, − x), then it is
symmetrical about the origin.
(1) (ii), (iii) (2) (i), (iv) (3) (i), (iii) (4) (ii), (iv)
(51) If u = log
\

.

 x
2
+ y
2
xy
then x
∂u
∂x
+ y
∂u
∂y
is
(1) 0 (2) u (3) 2u (4) u
−1
(52) The percentage error in the 11th root of the number 28 is approximately
_____ times the percentage error in 28.
(1)
1
28
(2)
1
11
(3) 11 (4) 28
(53) The curve a
2
y
2
= x
2
(a
2
− x
2
) has
(1) only one loop between x = 0 and x = a
(2) two loops between x = 0 and x = a
(3) two loops between x = − a and x = a
(4) no loop
(54) An asymptote to the curve y
2
(a + 2x) = x
2
(3a − x) is
(1) x = 3a (2) x = − a/2 (3) x = a/2 (4) x = 0
(55) In which region the curve y
2
(a + x) = x
2
(3a − x) does not lie?
(1) x > 0 (2) 0 < x < 3a (3) x ≤ − a and x > 3a (4) − a < x < 3a
(56) If u = y sin x, then
∂
2
u
∂x ∂y
is equal to
(1) cos x (2) cos y (3) sin x 4) 0
235
(57) If u = f
\

.

y
x
then x
∂u
∂x
+ y
∂u
∂y
is equal to
(1) 0 (2) 1 (3) 2u (4) u
(58) The curve 9y
2
= x
2
(4 − x
2
) is symmetrical about
(1) yaxis (2) xaxis (3) y = x (4) both the axes
(59) The curve ay
2
= x
2
(3a − x) cuts the yaxis at
(1) x = − 3a, x = 0 (2) x = 0, x = 3a (3) x = 0, x = a (4) x = 0
(60) The value of
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
cos
5/3
x
cos
5/3
x + sin
5/3
x
dx is
(1)
π
2
(2)
π
4
(3) 0 (4) π
(61) The value of
⌡
⌠
0
π/2
sin x − cos x
1 + sin x cos x
dx is
(1)
π
2
(2) 0 (3)
π
4
(4) π
(62) The value of
⌡
⌠
0
1
x (1 − x)
4
dx is
(1)
1
12
(2)
1
30
(3)
1
24
(4)
1
20
(63) The value of
⌡
⌠
− π/2
π/2
\

.

sin x
2 + cosx
dx is
(1) 0 (2) 2 (3) log 2 (4) log 4
(64) The value of
⌡
⌠
0
π
sin
4
x dx is
(1) 3π/16 (2) 3/16 (3) 0 (4) 3π/8
(65) The value of
⌡
⌠
0
π/4
cos
3
2x dx is
(1)
2
3
(2)
1
3
(3) 0 (4)
2π
3
236
(66) The value of
⌡
⌠
0
π
sin
2
x cos
3
x dx is
(1) π (2) π/2 (3) π/4 (4) 0
(67) The area bounded by the line y = x, the xaxis, the ordinates x = 1, x = 2
is
(1)
3
2
(2)
5
2
(3)
1
2
(4)
7
2
(68) The area of the region bounded by the graph of y = sin x and y = cos x
between x = 0 and x =
π
4
is
(1) 2 + 1 (2) 2 − 1 (3) 2 2 − 2 (4) 2 2 + 2
(69) The area between the ellipse
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1 and its auxillary circle is
(1) πb(a − b) (2) 2πa (a − b) (3) πa (a − b) (4) 2πb (a − b)
(70) The area bounded by the parabola y
2
= x and its latus rectum is
(1)
4
3
(2)
1
6
(3)
2
3
(4)
8
3
(71) The volume of the solid obtained by revolving
x
2
9
+
y
2
16
= 1 about the
minor axis is
(1) 48π (2) 64π (3) 32π (4) 128 π
(72) The volume, when the curve y = 3 + x
2
from x = 0 to x = 4 is rotated
about xaxis is
(1) 100 π (2)
100
9
π (3)
100
3
π (4)
100
3
(73) The volume generated when the region bounded by y = x, y = 1, x = 0 is
rotated about yaxis is
(1)
π
4
(2)
π
2
(3)
π
3
(4)
2π
3
(74) Volume of solid obtained by revolving the area of the ellipse
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1 about major and minor axes are in the ratio
(1) b
2
: a
2
(2) a
2
: b
2
(3) a : b (4) b : a
(75) The volume generated by rotating the triangle with vertices at
(0, 0), (3, 0) and (3, 3) about xaxis is
(1) 18π (2) 2π (3) 36π (4) 9π
237
(76) The length of the arc of the curve x
2/3
+ y
2/3
= 4 is
(1) 48 (2) 24
(3) 12 (4) 96
(77) The surface area of the solid of revolution of the region bounded by
y = 2x, x = 0 and x = 2 about xaxis is
(1) 8 5 π (2) 2 5 π (3) 5π (4) 4 5π
(78) The curved surface area of a sphere of radius 5, intercepted between
two parallel planes of distance 2 and 4 from the centre is
(1) 20π (2) 40π (3) 10π (4) 30π
(79) The integrating factor of
dy
dx
+ 2
y
x
= e
4x
is
(1) log x (2) x
2
(3) e
x
(4) x
(80) If cos x is an integrating factor of the differential equation
dy
dx
+ Py = Q
then P =
(1) − cot x (2) cot x (3) tan x (4) − tan x
(81) The integrating factor of dx + xdy = e
−y
sec
2
y dy is
(1) e
x
(2) e
−x
(3) e
y
(4) e
−y
(82) Integrating factor of
dy
dx
+
1
x log x
.y
=
2
x
2
is
(1) e
x
(2) logx (3)
1
x
(4) e
−x
(83) Solution of
dx
dy
+ mx = 0, where m < 0 is
(1) x = ce
my
(2) x = ce
−my
(3) x = my + c (4) x = c
(84) y = cx − c
2
is the general solution of the differential equation
(1) (y′)
2
− xy′ + y = 0 (2) y′′ = 0
(3) y′ = c (4) (y′)
2
+ xy′ + y = 0
(85) The differential equation
\

.

dx
dy
2
+ 5y
1/3
= x is
(1) of order 2 and degree 1
(2) of order 1 and degree 2
(3) of order 1 and degree 6
(4) of order 1 and degree 3
(86) The differential equation of all nonvertical lines in a plane is
(1)
dy
dx
= 0 (2)
d
2
y
dx
2
= 0 (3)
dy
dx
= m (4)
d
2
y
dx
2
= m
238
(87) The differential equation of all circles with centre at the origin is
(1) x dy + y dx = 0 (2) x dy − y dx = 0
(3) x dx + y dy = 0 (4) x dx − y dy = 0
(88) The integrating factor of the differential equation
dy
dx
+ py = Q is
(1)
⌡
⌠ pdx (2)
⌡
⌠ Q dx (3) e
⌡
⌠
Q dx
(4) e
∫pdx
(89) The complementary function of (D
2
+ 1)y = e
2x
is
(1) (Ax + B)e
x
(2) A cos x + B sin x (3) (Ax + B)e
2x
(4) (Ax + B)e
−x
(90) A particular integral of (D
2
− 4D + 4)y = e
2x
is
(1)
x
2
2
e
2x
(2) xe
2x
(3) xe
−2x
(4)
x
2
e
−2x
(91) The differential equation of the family of lines y = mx is
(1)
dy
dx
= m (2) ydx − xdy = 0
(3)
d
2
y
dx
2
= 0 (4) ydx + x dy = 0
(92) The degree of the differential equation 1 +
\

.

dy
dx
1/3
=
d
2
y
dx
2
(1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 6
(93) The degree of the differential equation c =
1 +
\

.

dy
dx
3
2/3
d
3
y
dx
3
where c is a
constant is
(1) 1 (2) 3 (3) − 2 (4) 2
(94) The amount present in a radio active element disintegrates at a rate
proportional to its amount. The differential equation corresponding to
the above statement is (k is negative)
(1)
dp
dt
=
k
p
(2)
dp
dt
= kt (3)
dp
dt
= kp (4)
dp
dt
= − kt
(95) The differential equation satisfied by all the straight lines in xy plane is
(1)
dy
dx
= a constant (2)
d
2
y
dx
2
= 0 (3) y +
dy
dx
= 0 (4)
d
2
y
dx
2
+ y = 0
239
(96) If y = ke
λx
then its differential equation is
(1)
dy
dx
= λy (2)
dy
dx
= ky (3)
dy
dx
+ ky = 0 (4)
dy
dx
= e
λx
(97) The differential equation obtained by eliminating a and b from
y = ae
3x
+ be
− 3x
is
(1)
d
2
y
dx
2
+ ay = 0 (2)
d
2
y
dx
2
− 9y = 0 (3)
d
2
y
dx
2
− 9
dy
dx
= 0 (4)
d
2
y
dx
2
+ 9x = 0
(98) The differential equation formed by eliminating A and B from the
relation y = e
x
(A cos x + B sin x) is
(1) y
2
+ y
1
= 0 (2) y
2
− y
1
= 0
(3) y
2
− 2y
1
+ 2 y = 0 (4) y
2
− 2y
1
− 2 y = 0
(99) If
dy
dx
=
x − y
x + y
then
(1) 2xy + y
2
+ x
2
= c (2) x
2
+ y
2
− x + y = c
(3) x
2
+ y
2
− 2xy = c (4) x
2
− y
2
− 2xy = c
(100) If f ′(x) = x and f(1) = 2 then f(x) is
(1) −
2
3
( ) x x + 2 (2)
3
2
( ) x x + 2
(3)
2
3
( ) x x + 2 (4)
2
3
x ( ) x + 2
(101) On putting y = vx, the homogeneous differential equation
x
2
dy + y(x + y)dx = 0 becomes
(1) xdv + (2v + v
2
)dx = 0 (2) vdx + (2x + x
2
)dv = 0
(3) v
2
dx − (x + x
2
)dv = 0 (4) vdv + (2x + x
2
)dx = 0
(102) The integrating factor of the differential equation
dy
dx
− y tan x = cos x is
(1) sec x (2) cos x (3) e
tanx
(4) cot x
(103) The P.I. of (3D
2
+ D − 14)y = 13e
2x
is
(1) 26x e
2x
(2) 13x e
2x
(3) x e
2x
(4) x
2
/2 e
2x
(104) The particular integral of the differential equation f(D)y = e
ax
where
f(D) = (D − a) g(D), g(a) ≠ 0 is
(1) me
ax
(2)
e
ax
g(a)
(3) g(a)e
ax
(4)
xe
ax
g(a)
240
(105) Which of the following are statements?
(i) May God bless you. (ii) Rose is a flower
(iii) Milk is white. (iv) 1 is a prime number
(1) (i), (ii), (iii) (2) (i), (ii), (iv) (3) (i), (iii), (iv) (4) (ii), (iii), (iv)
(106) If a compound statement is made up of three simple statements, then the
number of rows in the truth table is
(1) 8 (2) 6 (3) 4 (4) 2
(107) If p is T and q is F, then which of the following have the truth value T ?
(i) p ∨ q (ii) ∼ p ∨ q (iii) p ∨ ∼ q (iv) p ∧ ∼ q
(1) (i), (ii), (iii) (2) (i), (ii), (iv)
(3) (i), (iii), (iv) (4) (ii), (iii), (iv)
(108) The number of rows in the truth table of ∼ [ ] p ∧ (∼ q) is
(1) 2 (2) 4 (3) 6 (4) 8
(109) The conditional statement p → q is equivalent to
(1) p ∨ q (2) p ∨ ∼ q (3) ∼ p ∨ q (4) p ∧ q
(110) Which of the following is a tautology?
(1) p ∨ q (2) p ∧ q (3) p ∨ ∼ p (4) p ∧ ∼ p
(111) Which of the following is a contradiction?
(1) p ∨ q (2) p ∧ q (3) p ∨ ∼ p (4) p ∧ ∼ p
(112) p ↔ q is equivalent to
(1) p → q (2) q → p (3) (p → q) ∨ (q → p) (4) (p → q) ∧ (q → p)
(113) Which of the following is not a binary operation on R
(1) a * b = ab (2) a * b = a − b
(3) a * b = ab (4) a * b = a
2
+ b
2
(114) A monoid becomes a group if it also satisfies the
(1) closure axiom (2) associative axiom
(3) identity axiom (4) inverse axiom
(115) Which of the following is not a group?
(1) (Z
n
, +
n
) (2) (Z, +) (3) (Z, .) (4) (R, +)
(116) In the set of integers with operation * defined by a * b = a + b − ab, the
value of 3 * (4 * 5) is
(1) 25 (2) 15 (3) 10 (4) 5
(117) The order of [7] in (Z
9
, +
9
) is
(1) 9 (2) 6 (3) 3 (4) 1
(118) In the multiplicative group of cube root of unity, the order of w
2
is
(1) 4 (2) 3 (3) 2 (4) 1
241
(119) The value of [3] +
11
( )
[5] +
11
[6] is
(1) [0] (2) [1] (3) [2] (4) [3]
(120) In the set of real numbers R, an operation * is defined by
a * b = a
2
+ b
2
. Then the value of (3 * 4) * 5 is
(1) 5 (2) 5 2 (3) 25 (4) 50
(121) Which of the following is correct?
(1) An element of a group can have more than one inverse.
(2) If every element of a group is its own inverse, then the group is
abelian.
(3) The set of all 2 × 2 real matrices forms a group under matrix
multiplication.
(4) (a * b)
−1
= a
−1
* b
−1
for all a, b ∈ G
(122) The order of − i in the multiplicative group of 4
th
roots of unity is
(1) 4 (ii) 3 (3) 2 (4) 1
(123) In the multiplicative group of nth roots of unity, the inverse of ω
k
is
(k < n)
(1) ω
1/k
(2) ω
−1
(3) ω
n − k
(4) ω
n/k
(124) In the set of integers under the operation * defined by a * b = a + b − 1,
the identity element is
(1) 0 (2) 1 (3) a (4) b
(125) If f(x) =
¹¦
´
¦
¦
k x
2
. 0 < x < 3
0 .elsewhere
is a probability density function then the
value of k is
(1)
1
3
(2)
1
6
(3)
1
9
(4)
1
12
(126) If f(x) =
A
π
1
16 + x
2
, − ∞ < x < ∞
is a p.d.f of a continuous random variable X, then the value of A is
(1) 16 (2) 8 (3) 4 (4) 1
242
(127) A random variable X has the following probability distribution
X 0 1 2 3 4 5
P(X = x) 1/4 2a 3a 4a 5a 1/4
Then P(1 ≤ x ≤ 4) is
(1)
10
21
(2)
2
7
(3)
1
14
(4)
1
2
(128) A random variable X has the following probability mass function as
follows :
X −2 3 1
P(X = x)
λ
6
λ
4
λ
12
Then the value of λ is
(1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4
(129) X is a discrete random variable which takes the values 0, 1, 2 and
P(X = 0) =
144
169
, P(X = 1) =
1
169
then the value of P(X = 2) is
(1)
145
169
(2)
24
169
(3)
2
169
(4)
143
169
(130) A random variable X has the following p.d.f
X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
P(X = x) 0 k 2k 2k 3k
k
2
2k
2
7k
2
+ k
The value of k is
(1)
1
8
(2)
1
10
(3) 0 (4) − 1 or
1
10
(131) Given E(X + c) = 8 and E(X − c) = 12 then the value of c is
(1) −2 (2) 4 (3) −4 (4) 2
(132) X is a random variable taking the values 3, 4 and 12 with probabilities
1
3
,
1
4
and
5
12
. Then E(X) is
(1) 5 (2) 7 (3) 6 (4) 3
(133) Variance of the random variable X is 4. Its mean is 2. Then E(X
2
) is
(1) 2 (2) 4 (3) 6 (4) 8
243
(134) u
2
= 20, u
2
′ = 276 for a discrete random variable X. Then the mean of
the random variable X is
(1) 16 (2) 5 (3) 2 (4) 1
(135) Var (4X + 3) is
(1) 7 (2) 16 Var (X) (3) 19 (4) 0
(136) In 5 throws of a die, getting 1 or 2 is a success. The mean number of
successes is
(1)
5
3
(2)
3
5
(3)
5
9
(4)
9
5
(137) The mean of a binomial distribution is 5 and its standard deviation is 2.
Then the value of n and p are
(1)
\

.

4
5
.25 (2)
\

.

25.
4
5
(3)
\

.

1
5
.25 (4)
\

.

25.
1
5
(138) If the mean and standard deviation of a binomial distribution are 12 and 2
respectively. Then the value of its parameter p is
(1)
1
2
(2)
1
3
(3)
2
3
(4)
1
4
(139) In 16 throws of a die getting an even number is considered a success.
Then the variance of the successes is
(1) 4 (2) 6 (3) 2 (4) 256
(140) A box contains 6 red and 4 white balls. If 3 balls are drawn at random,
the probability of getting 2 white balls without replacement, is
(1)
1
20
(2)
18
125
(3)
4
25
(4)
3
10
(141) If 2 cards are drawn from a well shuffled pack of 52 cards, the probability
that they are of the same colours without replacement, is
(1)
1
2
(2)
26
51
(3)
25
51
(4)
25
102
(142) If in a Poisson distribution P(X = 0) = k then the variance is
(1) log
1
k
(2) log k (3) e
λ
(4)
1
k
(143) If a random variable X follows Poisson distribution such that E(X
2
) = 30
then the variance of the distribution is
(1) 6 (2) 5 (3) 30 (4) 25
244
(144) The distribution function F(X) of a random variable X is
(1) a decreasing function
(2) a nondecreasing function
(3) a constant function
(4) increasing first and then decreasing
(145) For a Poisson distribution with parameter λ = 0.25 the value of the
2
nd
moment about the origin is
(1) 0.25 (2) 0.3125 (3) 0.0625 (4) 0.025
(146) In a Poisson distribution if P(X = 2) = P(X = 3) then the value of its
parameter λ is
(1) 6 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 0
(147) If f(x) is a p.d.f of a normal distribution with mean u then
⌡
⌠
− ∞
∞
f(x) dx is
(1) 1 (2) 0.5 (3) 0 (4) 0.25
(148) The random variable X follows normal distribution
f(x) = ce
−1/2 (x − 100)
2
25 Then the value of c is
(1) 2π (2)
1
2π
(3) 5 2π (4)
1
5 2π
(149) If f(x) is a p.d.f. of a normal variate X and X ∼ N(u, σ
2
) then
⌡
⌠
− ∞
u
f(x) dx
is
(1) undefined (2) 1 (3) .5 (4) − .5
(150) The marks secured by 400 students in a Mathematics test were normally
distributed with mean 65. If 120 students got more marks above 85, the
number of students securing marks between 45 and 65 is
(1) 120 (2) 20 (3) 80 (4) 160
245
ANSWERS
EXERCISE 5.1
(1) (i) 100 m / sec (ii) t = 4 (iii) 200m (iv) − 100 m / sec
(2) − 12, 0 (3) (i) 72 km / hr (ii) 60 m
(4) 1.5936°c / sec (5) decreasing at the rate of 1.6 cm / min
(6)
195
29
km / hr (7) 0.3 m
2
/ sec (8)
π
63
m / min (9)
6
5π
ft / min
EXERCISE 5.2
(1) (i) 8x + y + 9 = 0
x − 8y + 58 = 0
(ii) 2x − y − π/2 = 0
x + 2y − 3π/2 = 0
(iii) y = 2
x = π/6
(iv) y − ( ) 2 + 1 = ( ) 2 + 2
\

.

x −
π
4
y − ( ) 2 + 1 =
− 1
2 + 2
\

.

x −
π
4
(2)
\

.

2
2
3
.
2
3
and
\

.

− 2
2
3
. −
2
3
(3) (2, 3) and (− 2, − 3) (4) (i) (1, 0) and (1, 4) (ii) (3, 2) and (−1, 2)
(5) 2x + 3y ± 26 = 0 (6) x + 9y ± 20 = 0
(9) θ = tan
−1
¦
¦
¦
¦
log a − log b
1 + log a log b
EXERCISE 5.3
(1) (i) True , c =
π
2
(ii) Fails , f(0) ≠ f (1)
(iii) Fails , At x = 1 the function is not differentiable (iv) True , c = ±
3
2
(2) (0, 1)
EXERCISE 5.4
(1) (i) True , c =
3
2
(ii) True , c = 2
(iii) True , c =
− 1 + 61
6
(iv) Fails , Function is not differentiable at x = 0 (v) True , c =
7
3
(2) 16
246
EXERCISE 5.5
(1) 1 +
2x
1
+
(2x)
2
2
+
(2x)
3
3
+ … (2) 1 − x
2
+
x
4
3
+ …
(3) 1 − x + x
2
+ … (4) x +
x
3
3
+
2x
5
15
+ …
EXERCISE 5.6
(1) − π (2) 2 (3) 1 (4) n2
n − 1
(5) 2
(6) − 2 (7) 0 (8) 2 (9) 0 (10) e
(11) 1 (12) 1 (13) 1
EXERCISE 5.7
(3) (i) increasing (ii) st. increasing (iii) st. decreasing
(iv) st. increasing (v) increasing
(5) (i) increasing in (− ∞, − 1/2 ] and decreasing in [−1/2 , ∞)
(ii) increasing in (− ∞, − 1] ∪ [1, ∞) and decreasing in [− 1, 1]
(iii) strictly increasing on R
(iv) decreasing in
0.
π
3
∪
5π
3
. 2π increasing in
π
3
.
5π
3
(v) increasing in [0, π]
(vi) increasing in
π
4
.
π
2
and decreasing in
0.
π
4
EXERCISE 5.9
Critical numbers Stationary points
(1) (i) x =
1
3
\

.

1
3
.
1
3
(ii) x = ± 1 (1, − 1) and (− 1, 3)
(iii) x = 0, 4,
8
7
(4, 0) and
\

.

8
7
.
\

.

8
7
4/5
\

.

20
7
2
(iv) x = 0, − 2 (0, 1) and
\

.

− 2. −
1
3
(v) θ = 0,
π
4
,
π
2
,
3π
4
, π (0, 0)
\

.

π
4
.1
\

.

π
2
. 0
\

.

3π
4
. 1 (π, 0)
(vi) θ = π (π, π)
247
Absolute maximum Absolute minimum
(2) (i) 5 1
(ii) 2 − 7
(iii) 66 − 15
(iv) 3 5
(v)
2
3
1
2
(vi) 2 1
(vii) π + 2 −
π
6
− 3
Local maximum Local minimum
(3) (i)
2
3 3
− 2
3 3
(ii) 12
− 19
27
(iii) 0 − 9
(iv) Nil − 1
(v) 1 Nil
(vi) No maximum and no minimum
EXERCISE 5.10
(1) 50, 50 (2) 10, 10 (5) ( ) 2 r. 2 r (6) 20 5
EXERCISE 5.11
Concave upward Convex upward Points of inflection
(1) (− ∞, 1) (1, ∞) (1, 0)
(2) R − Nil
(3)
\

.

−
5
6
. ∞
\

.

− ∞. −
5
6
−
5
6
,
305
54
(4) (− ∞, −1) ∪ (1, ∞) (− 1, 1) (1, − 5), (− 1, − 5)
(5)
\

.

π
2
. π
\

.

0.
π
2
\

.

π
2
. 0
(6) (− 2, 1) (− ∞, − 2) ∪ (1, ∞) (1, 9), (− 2, 48)
248
EXERCISE 6.1
(1) (i) dy = 5x
4
dx (ii) dy =
1
4
x
− 3/4
dx (iii) dy =
x (2x
2
+ 1)
x
4
+ x
2
+ 1
dx
(iv) dy =
7
(2x + 3)
2
dx (v) dy = 2 cos 2x dx
(vi) dy = (x sec
2
x + tan x) dx
(2) (i) dy = − 2x dx ; dy = − 5 (ii) dy = (4x
3
− 6x + 1) dx ; dy = 2.1
(iii) dy = 6x (x
2
+ 5)
2
dx ; dy = 10.8 (iv) dy = −
1
2 1 − x
dx ; dy = − 0.01
(v) dy = − sin x dx ; dy = − 0.025
(3) (i) 6.008 (app.) (ii) 0.099 (app.) (iii) 2.0116 (app.) (iv) 58.24 (app.)
(4) (i) 270 cubic cm (ii) 36 cm
2
(5) (i) 0.96 π cm
2
(ii) 0.001667
EXERCISE 6.2
No. Existence Symmetry Asymptote Loops
2 − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 Both axes and
hence origin
No asymptotes 2 loops
between − 1
and 1
3 − 2 < x ≤ 6 xaxis x = − 2 1 loop between
0 and 6
4 x ≤ 1 xaxis No asymptotes 1 loop between
0 and 1
5 x = b and x ≥ a x  axis No asymptotes No loops
EXERCISE 6.3
(1) (i)
∂u
∂x
= 2x + 3y ;
∂u
∂y
= 3x + 2y
∂
2
u
∂x
2
= 2 ;
∂
2
u
∂y
2
= 2
(ii)
∂u
∂x
=
x
3
+ 2y
3
x
3
y
2
;
∂u
∂y
= −
(y
3
+ 2x
3
)
x
2
y
3
∂
2
u
∂x
2
=
− 6y
x
4
;
∂
2
u
∂y
2
=
6x
y
4
249
(iii)
∂u
∂x
= 3 cos 3x cos 4y ;
∂u
∂y
= − 4 sin 3x sin 4y
∂
2
u
∂x
2
= − 9 sin 3x cos 4y ;
∂
2
u
∂y
2
= − 16 sin 3x cos 4y
(iv)
∂u
∂x
=
y
x
2
+ y
2
;
∂u
∂y
= −
x
x
2
+ y
2
∂
2
u
∂x
2
=
− 2xy
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
;
∂
2
u
∂y
2
=
2xy
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
(3) (i) 5t
4
e
t
5
(ii)
2 (e
2t
− e
−2t
)
(e
2t
+ e
−2t
)
(iii) − sin t
(iv) 2cos
2
t
(4) (i)
∂w
∂r
=
2
r
;
∂w
∂θ
= 0 (ii)
∂w
∂u
= 4u(u
2
+ v
2
) ;
∂w
∂v
= 4v(u
2
+ v
2
)
(iii)
∂w
∂u
=
2u
1 − (u
2
− v
2
)
2
;
∂w
∂v
=
− 2v
1 − (u
2
− v
2
)
2
EXERCISE 7.1
(1)
π
4
(2)
2
3
(3)
5
2
+
9
4
sin
−1
\

.

2
3
(4)
1
4
(5)
π
6
(6)
1
3
tan
−1
1
3
(7) log
\

.

16
15
(8)
1
64
π
4
(9)
2
3
(10) e − 2 (11)
1
10
(e
3π/2
− 3) (12)
1
2
[1 − e
−π/2
]
EXERCISE 7.2
(1) 0 (2) 0 (3)
1
4
(4)
4
3
(5)
2
3
(6) 0 (7) 0 (8)
3
2
(9)
1
132
(10)
π
12
EXERCISE 7.3
(2) (i) −
1
4
sin
3
x cos x −
3
8
sin x cos x +
3
8
x
(ii)
1
5
cos
4
x sin x +
4
15
cos
2
x sin x +
8
15
sin x
250
(3) (i)
5π
32
(ii)
128
315
(4) (i)
35π
512
(ii)
16
105
(5) (i)
− 3
4
e
−2
+
1
4
(ii) 2
7
. 6
EXERCISE 7.4
(1) (i) 4 (ii) 4 (2) (i) 57 (ii) 16 (3) 4
(4)
55
27
(5) 8 ( ) 4 − 2 (6)
8a
2
3
(7)
4 5
3
5 +
9
2
sin
−1
2
3
(8) 9 (9) 4
(10) πa
2
(11)
178π
15
(12)
πa
3
24
(13)
3
5
π (14)
4π ab
2
3
(15)
1
3
πr
2
h (16) π
EXERCISE 7.5
(1) 2πa (2) 4a (3)
8πa
2
3
( ) 2 2 − 1
EXERCISE 8.1
order degree order degree
(1) (i) 1 1 (vi) 2 3
(ii) 1 1 (vii) 2 1
(iii) 2 1 (viii) 2 2
(iv) 2 2 (ix) 1 3
(v) 3 3 (x) 1 1
(2) (i) y = 2xy′ (ii) x
2
y′′ − 2xy′ + 2y − 2c = 0
(iii) xy′ + y = 0 (iv) x [ ] (y′)
2
+ yy′′ − yy′ = 0
(v) y′′ + 3y′ − 10y = 0 (vi) y′′ = 6y′ − 9y
(vii) y′′ = 6y′ − 13y (viii) y = e
(y
′
/y)x
(ix) y′′ − 4y′ + 13y = 0
(3) (i) yy′ = (y′)
2
x + a (ii) y′ = m (iii) y′′ = 0 (4) y
2
[ ] (y′)
2
+ 1 = 1
EXERCISE 8.2
(1) y +
sin 2y
2
+
cos 7x
7
+
cos 3x
3
= c (2) log y + e
tan x
= c
(3) x = cy e
( )
x + y
xy
(4) e
x
(x
2
− 2x + 2) + log y = c
(5) sin
−1
\

.

y − 4
5
+
2
3
tan
−1
\

.

2x + 5
3
= c (6) tan (x + y) − sec (x + y) = x + c
251
(7) y − tan
−1
(x + y) = c (8) e
xy
= x + 1
EXERCISE 8.3
(1) (y − 2x) = cx
2
y (2) y
3
= cx
2
e
−x/y
(3) y = ce
x
2
/ 2y
2
(4) 2y = x(x + y) (5) x
2
(x
2
+ 4y
2
)
3
= c (6) y = x log x
EXERCISE 8.4
(1) e
x
(y − x + 1) = c (2) y(x
2
+ 1)
2
− x = c
(3) xe
tan
−1
y
= e
tan
−1
y
(tan
−1
y − 1) + c (4) y(1 + x
2
) = sinx + c
(5) 2xy + cosx
2
= c (6) y = 1 + ce
− x
2
/2
(7) xe
y
= tan y + c (8) x = y − a
2
+ ce
− y/a
2
EXERCISE 8.5
(1) y = Ae
−4x
+ Be
−3x
+
e
30
2x
(2) y = e
2x
[A cos 3x + B sin 3x] +
e
− 3x
34
(3) y = (Ax + B)e
− 7x
+
x
2
2
e
−7x
+
4
49
(4) y = Ae
12x
+ Be
x
+
e
−2x
42
−
5
11
xe
x
(5) y = 2[cos x − sin x] (6) y = e
x
[2 − 3e
x
+ e
2x
]
(7) y = Ae
x
+ Be
−4x
−
1
4
x
2
+
3x
2
+
13
8
(8) y = Ae
3x
+ Be
− x
+
1
130
[4 cos 2x − 7 sin 2x]
(9) y = (A + Bx) + sin 3x (10) y = (A + Bx) e
3x
+
\

.

x
9
+
2
27
+ e
2x
(11) y = Ae
x
+ Be
− x
−
1
5
cos 2x +
2
5
sin 2x
(12) y = [ ] C cos 5 x + D sin 5 x +
1
10
+
1
2
cos 2x
(13) y = e
−x
[ ] C cos 2 x + D sin 2 x −
1
17
[4 cos 2x + sin 2x]
(14) y = Ae
−x
+ Be
−x/3
+
3
2
xe
−x/3
EXERCISE 8.6
(1) A = 0.9025 A
0
(2) 17 years (app.) (3) 38.82° C
(4) 197600 (5) 136 days
252
EXERCISE 9.1
Statements : (1), (2), (3), (5), (6), (10) ; others are not statements.
(11) T (12) T (13) T (14) F (15) T
(16) F (17) F (18) T (19) F (20) F
(21) (i) Anand reads newspaper and plays cricket
Anand reads newspaper or plays cricket.
(ii) I like tea and icecream
I like tea or icecream
(22) (i) p ∨ q: Kamala is going to school or there are twenty students in the
class.
(ii) p ∧ q : Kamala is going to school and there are twenty students in the
class.
(iii) Kamala is not going to school.
(iv) It is false that there are twenty students in the class.
(v) Kamala is not going to school or there are twenty students in the
class.
(23) (i) p ∧ q (ii) p ∨ q (iii) ∼ p (iv) p ∧ q (v) ∼ p
(24) Sita likes neither reading nor playing.
(25) (i) 5 is not an irrational number.
(ii) Mani is not sincere or not hardworking.
(iii) This picture is nither good nor beautiful.
EXERCISE 9.2
(1) Truth table for pv (∼ q)
p q ∼ q p ∨ (∼ q)
T T F T
T F T T
F T F F
F F T T
(2) Truth table for (∼p) ∧ (∼ q)
p q ∼ p ∼ q (∼p) ∧ (∼ q)
T T F F F
T F F T F
F T T F F
F F T T T
253
(3) Truth table for ∼ (p ∨ q)
p q p ∨ q ∼ (p ∨ q)
T T T F
T F T F
F T T F
F F F T
(4) Truth table for (p ∨ q) ∨ (∼ p)
p q p ∨ q ∼ p (p ∨ q) ∨ (∼p)
T T T F T
T F T F T
F T T T T
F F F T T
(5) Truth table for (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼ q)
p q p ∧ q ∼ q (p ∧ q)∨(∼ q)
T T T F T
T F F T T
F T F F F
F F F T T
(6) Truth table for ∼ (p ∨ (∼ q))
p q ∼ q p∨ (∼ q) ∼ (p ∨ (∼ q))
T T F T F
T F T T F
F T F F T
F F T T F
(7) Truth table for (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼ (p ∧ q))
p q p ∧ q ∼ (p∧q) (p∧q)∨(∼(p∧q))
T T T F T
T F F T T
F T F T T
F F F T T
(8) Truth table for (p ∧ q) ∧ (∼ q)
p q p ∧ q ∼ q (p∧q) ∧ (∼q)
T T T F F
T F F T F
F T F F F
F F F T F
254
(9) Truth table for (p ∨ q) ∨ r
p q r p ∨ q (p ∨ q) ∨ r
T T T T T
T T F T T
T F T T T
T F F T T
F T T T T
F T F T T
F F T F T
F F F F F
(10) Truth table for (p ∧ q) ∨ r
p q r p ∧ q (p ∧ q) ∨ r
T T T T T
T T F T T
T F T F T
T F F F F
F T T F T
F T F F F
F F T F T
F F F F F
EXERCISE 9.3
(1) (i) ((∼p) ∧ q) ∧ p contradiction
(ii) (p ∨ q) ∨ (∼ (p ∨ q)) Tautology
(iii) (p ∧ (∼ q)) ∨ ((∼ p) ∨ q) Tautology
(iv) q ∨ (p ∨ (∼ q)) Tautology
(v) (p ∧ (∼ p)) ∧ ((∼ q) ∧ p)) Contradiction
255
EXERCISE 9.4
(1) Noncommutative but associative (2) Yes, Identity element is 1
(10) 0([1]) = 1, 0 ([2]) = 4, 0([3]) = 4, 0([4]) = 2
EXERCISE 10.1
(1) X 0 1 2 3
p (X = x) 125
216
75
216
15
216
1
216
(2) X 0 1 2
p (X = x) 188
221
32
221
1
221
(3) X 0 1 2
p (X = x) 12
22
9
22
1
22
(4) (i)
1
81
(ii)
1
9
(iii)
11
27
(6) (i) 20 (ii)
13
16
(7) (i) α β (ii) e
− β(10
α
)
(8) f(x) =
¹
´
¦2x
0
0 ≤ x ≤ 1
elsewhere
(i) 0.3125 (ii) 0.25 (iii) 0.4375
(9) c = a (10) (i)
1
2π
(ii)
1
4
(iii)
1
2
EXERCISE 10.2
(1) Mean = 1, Variance =
1
2
(2) E(X) = 3.5
(3) E(X) = − 15 (4) Mean =
2
13
, Variance =
24
169
(5) E(X) = − 1.25
(6) Mean = 6.4 , Variance = 16.24
256
(7) (i) Mean = 0, Variance = 48
(ii) Mean =
1
α
, Variance =
1
α
2
(iii) Mean = 2, Variance = 2
EXERCISE 10.3
(1) Not possible as probability of an event can lie between 0 and 1 only.
(2) Mean = 40 ; Variance =
80
3
(3) Mean = 450, standard deviation = 3 5
(4) (i)
3
8
(ii)
11
16
(iii)
11
16
(5)
2048
5
5
(6)
5
9
6
10
(15)
EXERCISE 10.4
(1) (i) 0.4331 (ii) 0.5368 (2) (i) 0.1952 (ii) 0.5669
(3) (i) 45 ×
4
8
5
10
(ii) 0.2706 (4) (i) 0.0838 (ii) 0.9598
(5) (i) approximately 50 drivers (ii) approximately 353 drivers
EXERCISE 10.5
(1) (i) 0.9772 (ii) 0.5 (iii) 0.9104
(iv) 0.8413 (v) 0.2417
(2) (i) 0.67 (ii) − 0.52 and 0.52 (iii) − 1.04
(3) 0.0749 (4) 4886 pairs
(5) (i) 291 persons (app.) (ii) 6 persons (app.)
(6) 72.19 inches (7) 640 students (8) c =
e
−9/4
π
, u =
3
2
, σ
2
=
1
2
257
KEY TO OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.No Key Q.No Key Q.No Key Q.No Key Q.No Key
1 4 31 2 61 2 91 2 121 2
2 2 32 4 62 2 92 4 122 1
3 3 33 1 63 1 93 2 123 3
4 2 34 1 64 4 94 3 124 2
5 1 35 3 65 2 95 2 125 3
6 3 36 2 66 4 96 1 126 3
7 4 37 1 67 1 97 2 127 4
8 2 38 2 68 2 98 3 128 2
9 3 39 3 69 3 99 4 129 2
10 4 40 4 70 2 100 3 130 2
11 1 41 4 71 2 101 1 131 1
12 2 42 1 72 3 102 2 132 2
13 2 43 4 73 3 103 3 133 4
14 1 44 3 74 4 104 4 134 1
15 1 45 1 75 4 105 4 135 2
16 4 46 3 76 1 106 1 136 1
17 2 47 4 77 1 107 3 137 4
18 1 48 2 78 1 108 2 138 3
19 1 49 3 79 2 109 3 139 1
20 2 50 1 80 4 110 3 140 4
21 3 51 1 81 3 111 4 141 3
22 1 52 2 82 2 112 4 142 1
23 1 53 3 83 2 113 3 143 2
24 2 54 2 84 1 114 4 144 2
25 2 55 3 85 2 115 3 145 2
26 3 56 1 86 2 116 1 146 3
27 2 57 1 87 3 117 1 147 1
28 4 58 4 88 4 118 2 148 4
29 2 59 4 89 2 119 4 149 3
30 1 60 2 90 1 120 2 150 3
258
259
REFERENCE BOOKS
(1) Calculus and Analytical Geometry (International student edition)
George B.Thomas and Ross L. Finney (ninth edition) AddisonWesley.
(2) Calculus and Analytical Geometry
Philip Gillett
D.C. Health and Company
(3) Calculus with Analytic Geometry (third edition)
Johnson & Kiokmeister
(4) Calculus with Maple Labs
Wieslaw Krawcewiez and Bindhya Chal Rai,
Narosa Pub. House
(5) Differential and Integral Calculus :
Schaum’s Outline Series
Frank Ayres Jr., Elliott Mendelson
(6) Analytic Geometry with Calculus
Robert C. Yates, University of South Florida
Printice – Hall Inc.
(7) Calculus for Scientists and Engineers. An analytical approach
K.D. Joshi
(8) Calculus and Analytic Geometry (Fourth edition)
George B. Thomas Jr., Addison Wesley Pub. Co.
(9) Calculus : An Historical Approach
W.M. Priestly (Springer)
260
(10) Inside Calculus
George RExner (Springer)
(11) Calculus with Analytic Geometry (Second edition, International edition)
George F. Simmons, The Mcgraw Hill
(12) Mathematical Hand Book Higher Mathematics
M. Vygodsky, MIR Publishers
(13) The Calculus with Analytic Geometry
Louis Leithold, University of Southern California
Harper & Row Publishers
(14) College Mathematics (second edition), Schaum’s Outline Series
Frank Ayres Jr., Phillip A. Schmidt
(15) Differential Equation
Raisinghania
(16) Methods of Real Analysis
Richard R. Goldberg
Oxford & IBH Publishing Company Pvt. Ltd.
(17) Differential and Integral Calculus I
Piskunov, MIR Publishers
(18) Simplified Course in Integral Calculus
Raisinghania, H.C. Saxena, H.K. Dass
(19) Advanced Engineering Mathematics
H.K. Dass, University of Hull, England
261
(20) Calculus with Analytic Geometry (second edition)
Howard Anton, Drexel University
(21) Simplified Course in Statistics
H.C. Saxena, H.K. Dass, Raisinghania
(22) Mathematical Statistics
J.N. Kapur, H.C. Saxena
(23) Probability and Statistics (fifth edition)
Jay L. Devore, Thomas Duxbury
(24) Discrete Mathematical Structures with Applications to Computer Science
J.P. Tremblay & R. Manohar
(25) Topics in Algebra
I.N. Herstein
(26) Matrices – Schaum’s Outline Series
Frank Ayres
(27) Matrices − A.R. Vasishtha
(28) A Text Book of Modern Algebra
R. Balakrishnan, N. Ramabhadran
Vikash Publishing House
(29) Complex Variables : Schaum’s Outline Series
M.R. Spiegel
(30) Vector Analysis
M.R. Spiegel
MATHEMATICS
HIGHER SECONDARY – SECOND YEAR
VOLUME – II
REVISED BASED ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE TEXT BOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE
Untouchability is a sin Untouchability is a crime Untouchability is inhuman
TAMILNADU TEXTBOOK CORPORATION
COLLEGE ROAD, CHENNAI  600 006
PREFACE
This book is designed in the light of the new guidelines and syllabi – 2003 for the Higher Secondary Mathematics, prescribed for the Second Year, by the Government of Tamil Nadu. The 21 century is an era of Globalisation, and technology occupies the prime position. In this context, writing a text book on Mathematics assumes special significance because of its importance and relevance to Science and Technology. As such this book is written in tune with the existing international standard and in order to achieve this, the team has exhaustively examined internationally accepted text books which are at present followed in the reputed institutions of academic excellence and hence can be relevant to secondary level students in and around the country. This text book is presented in two volumes to facilitate the students for easy approach. Volume I consists of Applications of Matrices and
st
Determinants, Vector Algebra, Complex numbers and Analytical Geometry which is dealt with a novel approach. Solving a system of linear equations and the concept of skew lines are new ventures. Volume II includes Differential Calculus – Applications, Integral Calculus and its Applications, Differential Equations, Discrete Mathematics (a new venture) and Probability Distributions. The chapters dealt with provide a clear understanding, emphasizes an investigative and exploratory approach to teaching and the students to explore and understand for themselves the basic concepts introduced. Wherever necessary theory is presented precisely in a style tailored to act as a tool for teachers and students. Applications play a central role and are woven into the development of the subject matter. Practical problems are investigated to act as a catalyst to motivate, to maintain interest and as a basis for developing definitions and procedures.
The solved problems have been very carefully selected to bridge the gap between the exposition in the chapter and the regular exercise set. By doing these exercises and checking the complete solutions provided, students will be able to test or check their comprehension of the material. Fully in accordance with the current goals in teaching and learning
Mathematics, every section in the text book includes worked out and exercise (assignment) problems that encourage geometrical visualisation, investigation, critical thinking, assimilation, writing and verbalization. We are fully convinced that the exercises give a chance for the students to strengthen various concepts introduced and the theory explained enabling them to think creatively, analyse effectively so that they can face any situation with conviction and courage. In this respect the exercise problems are meant only to students and we hope that this will be an effective tool to develop their talents for greater achievements. Such an effort need to be appreciated by the parents and the wellwishers for the larger interest of the students. Learned suggestions and constructive criticisms for effective refinement of the book will be appreciated.
K.SRINIVASAN Chairperson Writing Team.
SYLLABUS
(1) APPLICATIONS OF MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS : Adjoint, Inverse – Properties, Computation of inverses, solution of system of linear equations by matrix inversion method. Rank of a Matrix − Elementary transformation on a matrix, consistency of a system of linear equations, Cramer’s rule,
Nonhomogeneous equations, homogeneous linear system, rank method.
(20 periods)
(2) VECTOR ALGEBRA : Scalar Product – Angle between two vectors, properties of scalar product, applications of dot products. Vector Product − Right handed and left handed systems, properties of vector product, applications of cross product. Product of three vectors − Scalar triple product, properties of scalar triple product, vector triple product, vector product of four vectors, scalar product of four vectors. Lines − Equation of a straight line passing through a given point and parallel to a given vector, passing through two given points (derivations are not required). angle between two lines. Skew lines − Shortest distance between two lines, condition for two lines to intersect, point of intersection, collinearity of three points. Planes − Equation of a plane (derivations are not required), passing through a given point and perpendicular to a vector, given the distance from the origin and unit normal, passing through a given point and parallel to two given vectors, passing through two given points and parallel to a given vector, passing through three given noncollinear points, passing through the line of intersection of two given planes, the distance between a point and a plane, the plane which contains two given lines, angle between two given planes, angle between a line and a plane. Sphere − Equation of the sphere (derivations are not required) whose centre and radius are given, equation of a sphere when the extremities of the diameter are given. (28 periods)
Ellipse − Standard equation of the ellipse (derivation and 2 2 2 2 tracing the ellipse are not required). Tangents and Normals − Cartesian form and Parametric form. Other form of the hyperbola. some practical problems. maxima. Mean value theorem − Rolle’s Theorem − Lagrange Mean Value Thorem − Taylor’s and Maclaurin’s series. (28 periods) . general form of the standard equation. solutions of polynomial equations. classification with respect to the general equation of a conic. classification of conics with respect to eccentricity. (a > b). points of inflexion. conjugate. product. Rectangular hyperbola – standard equation of a rectangular hyperbola. equation of chord of contact of tangents from a point (x1. x /a − 2 2 y /b =1. De Moivre’s theorem and its applications. (30 periods) (5) DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS – APPLICATIONS I : Derivative as a rate measure − rate of change − velocity − acceleration − related rates − Derivative as a measure of slope − tangent. some practical problems. other standard parabolas.(3) COMPLEX NUMBERS : Complex number system. geometrical representation. l’ Hôpital’s Rule. minima. the process of shifting the origin. (20 periods) (4) ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY : Definition of a Conic − General equation of a conic. stationary points − increasing. chords. Modulus − properties. Roots of a complex number − nth roots. cube roots. decreasing. Other standard form of the ellipse. x /a + y /b = 1. difference. fourth roots. Asymptotes. principal value. y1). sum. Hyperbola − 2 2 standard equation (derivation and tracing the hyperbola are not required). general forms. Maxima and Minima. Conjugate − properties. polar form. ordered pair representation. quotient. concavity convexity. normal and angle between curves. parametric form of conics. Parabola − Standard equation of a parabola (derivation and tracing the parabola are not required). meaning. vector interpretation.
curve tracing. Probability density function. linear equations. order and degree. (10 periods) (7) INTEGRAL CALCULUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS : Properties of definite n n integrals. Continuous Distribution − Normal distribution (16 periods) Total : 210 Periods . cos mx. x. (9B) GROUPS : Binary Operations − Semi groups − monoids. Tautologies. Poisson. order of a group. partial derivatives − Euler’s theorem. solving differential equations (1 st order) − variable separable homogeneous. Second order linear equations with constant comx 2 efficients f(x) = e . sin mx. connectives. Discrete Distributions − Binomial. Area. relative. reduction formulae for sin x and cos x (only results). percentage errors. variance. mathematical expectation. truth tables. groups (Problems and simple properties only). length.(6) DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS – APPLICATIONS II : Errors and approximations − absolute. (18 periods) (9A) DISCRETE MATHEMATICS : Mathematical Logic − Logical statements. x . distribution function. (18 periods) (10) PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS : Random Variable. volume and surface area (22 periods) (8) DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS : Formation of differential equations. order of an element.
4 Introduction Simple Definite Integrals Properties of Definite Integrals Reduction formulae .10 5. Differential Calculus Applications . Differential Calculus Applications − I 5.7 5.2 7.CONTENTS Page No.9 5.3 7.4 5.1 5. Integral Calculus and its applications 7.2 5.II 6.6 5.8 5.11 Introduction Derivative as a rate measure Related rates Tangents and Normals Angle between two curves Mean Value Theorem and their applications Evaluating Indeterminate forms Monotonic functions Maximum and Minimum values and their applications Practical problems involving Maximum and Minimum values Concavity and points of Inflection 1 1 1 5 10 15 19 29 35 43 53 60 69 69 74 79 87 87 87 89 98 6.1 7.3 5.1 6. 5.3 Differentials : Errors and Approximations Curve Tracing Partial Differentiation 7.5 5.2 6.
6 Applications 150 156 156 168 191 191 191 204 212 229 245 258 259 9.2 8.4 Introduction Random Variable Mathematical Expectation Theoretical Distributions Objective type questions Answers Standard Normal Distribution Table Reference Books .3 10.1 8. Probability Distributions 10.2 10. Discrete Mathematics 9. Differential Equations 8.7.7 Area and Volume Length of a Curve Surface area of a solid 103 118 118 123 123 125 126 129 140 8.5 7.1 9.3 8.5 Introduction Order and Degree of a Differential Equation Formation of Differential Equations Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree Second Order linear Differential Equations with constant coefficients 8.1 10.6 7.4 8.2 Mathematical Logic : Introduction Groups 10.
0000008) (100) dθ = 0. Determine the rate of change of length in mm/°C when the temperature is (i) 100°C and (ii) 400°C.00005θ + 0. Thus for example.1 Introduction : In higher secondary first year we discussed the theoretical aspects of differential calculus.0000008θ .2 Derivative as a rate measure : If a quantity y depends on and varies with a quantity x then the rate of dy change of y with respect to x is dx .I 5.00005 + (0. At this level we shall consider problems concerned with the applications to (i) plane geometry. dl = 0.13 mm/°C 1 .0000004θ2.0000004θ2. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS APPLICATIONS . Geometrical and kinematical significances for first and second order derivatives were also interpreted.00013 m/°C = 0.00005θ + 0. (iii) optimisation problems and approximation problems. a rate of di dθ change of current ‘i’ is dt and a rate of change of temperature ‘θ’ is dt and so on.00005 + 0.5. 5.1 : The length l metres of a certain metal rod at temperature θ°C is given by l = 1 + 0. (ii) theory of real functions. A rate of change with respect to time is usually called as ‘the rate of change’. Example 5. assimilated the process of various techniques involved and created many tools of differentiation. Thus for example. Now let us learn some practical aspects of differential calculus. dl . the rate of change of pressure p with respect to height dp h is dh . the ‘with respect to time’ being assumed. dθ (i) when θ = 100°C dl = 0. Solution : The rate of change of length means dθ Since length l = 1 + 0.
Voltage V = 8 × 10−4 Velocity and Acceleration : y A car describes a distance x metres in time t seconds along a straight road. 5.5. then v = t m/s i.6 = 8 × 104 V.37 mm/°C Example 5.6 = 0.e. If.6 candelas per volt then dV = + 0.1 y Distance B ∆x A ∆t Time x Fig. Determine the voltage at which the light is increasing at a rate of 0. Therefore we must have + 0. It may be as shown in Fig.2 The average velocity over a small time ∆t and distance ∆x is given by the gradient of the chord AB i. 0.e.(ii) when θ = 400°C dl = 0. 5.. If the velocity v is x constant.. ∆t Distance x t Time x Fig.6 candelas per volt. Since I = 4 × 10−4V2 dI −4 dV = 8 × 10 V.2 2 .1 is constant.075 × 104 = 750 Volts.00037 m/°C = 0. dI When the light is increasing at 0. the average velocity over time ∆t ∆x is . the velocity of the car is not constant then the distance / time graph will not be a straight line.00005 + (0.6. from which.2 : The luminous intensity I candelas of a lamp at varying voltage V is given by : I = 4 × 10−4V2. dI Solution : The rate of change of light with respect to voltage is given by dV .5. the slope (gradient) of the distance/time graph shown in Fig.0000008) (400) dθ = 0. however.
d2 x dv (iii) Acceleration a = dt = f ′′(t) or 2 .As ∆t → 0. then a = . Hence the velocity of the car at any instant is given by gradient of the distance / time graph. The acceleration ‘a’ of the car is y defined as the rate of change of D velocity. the velocity is zero.3.5. The above discussion can be summarised as follows. If an expression for the distance x is known in terms of time. dv dx Acceleration a = dt . 5. dx (ii) velocity v = f ′(t) or dt . then the acceleration is obtained by differentiating the expression. (iv) If the motion is horizontal.3 dv the acceleration is given by a = dt Hence the acceleration of the car at any instant is given by the gradient of the velocity / time graph. which is the gradient of the dt velocity / time graph. where v = dt d2x d dx Hence a = dt dt = 2 dt The acceleration is given by the second differential coefficient of distance x with respect to time t. which is the gradient of the distance / time graph. v = 0 when the particle comes to rest. Fig. at the maximum height. the chord AB becomes a tangent. Note : (i) Initial velocity means velocity at t = 0 (ii) Initial acceleration means acceleration at t = 0. A velocity / time graph is shown in Fig. If ∆v is the change ∆y in v and ∆t is the corresponding ∆v C change in time. As ∆t ∆t x Time ∆t → 0 the chord CD becomes a tangent such that at the point C. If an expression for velocity is known in terms of time t. (iii) If the motion is upward. such that at point A the dx velocity is given by v = dt . If a body moves a distance x meters in time t seconds then (i) distance x = f(t). then the velocity is obtained by differentiating the expression. Velocity 3 .
5)2 − 4(1. Determine the velocity and acceleration when (i) t = 0 and (ii) t = 1.8 m/sec2 dt2 When time t = 2 seconds velocity v = (9.8) t2 = 4. Determine the velocity and acceleration of the supplies after it has fallen for 2 seconds. dθ angular velocity ω = dt = 18t – 6t2 rad/s 4 .5) + 4 = 18.3 : The distance x metres described by a car in time t seconds is given by: x = 3t3 − 2 t2 + 4t − 1.Example 5.5) − 4 = 23 m/sec2 Example 5.8 m/sec2 which is the acceleration due to acceleration a = gravity.9 t2 m Solution : dx velocity v = dt = 9. Example 5. 1 1 distance x = 2 gt2 = 2 (9.4 : Supplies are dropped from an helicopter and distance fallen in 1 time t seconds is given by x = 2 gt2 where g = 9.5 sec velocity v = 9(1.5 s Solution : distance x = 3t3 − 2 t2 + 4t −1 dx velocity v = dt = 9t2 − 4 t + 4 m/s acceleration a = (i) d2 x = 18t − 4 m/s2 dt2 When time t = 0 velocity v = 9(0)2 − 4(0) + 4 = 4 m/s and acceleration a = 18(0) − 4 = −4 m/s2 (ii) when time t = 1.8 m/sec2.5 : The angular displacement θ radians of a fly wheel varies with time t seconds and follows the equation θ = 9t2 − 2t3.8)(2) = 19.8t m/sec d2 x = 9.6 m/sec and acceleration a = 9. Determine (i) the angular velocity and acceleration of the fly wheel when time t = 1 second and (ii) the time when the angular acceleration is zero.25 m/sec and acceleration a = 18(1. Solution : (i) angular displacement θ = 9t2 − 2t3 radians.
5 s Example 5.9(1) = 4. For each position x. 3 ⇒ t = − 1 is not admissible and hence t = 3 The time taken for downward motion is 3 − 1 = 2 secs (ii) When t = 1.8 t s =0 v = 0 ⇒ t = 1 sec ∴ The time taken for upward motion is 1 sec.9t2 ⇒ t = − 1. The procedure is to find an equation that relates the two quantities and then use the chain rule to differentiate both sides with respect to time. The ground position is x = − 14. 5 .9 m The maximum height reached by the stone = pole height + 4.8 t − 4.e. put x = − 14. since Fig. angular acceleration = 6 rad/ s2 (ii) Angular acceleration is zero ⇒ 18 – 12t = 0.6 m 5.6 : A boy.7 m throws a stone vertically upwards. the position x = 9.When time t = 1 second.7 = 9.9t2 (i) Find the time taken for upward and downward motions. We suggest the following problem solving principles that may be followed as a strategy to solve problems considered in this section. 5. Its equation of motion in meters and seconds is x = 9. i. who is standing on a pole of height 14.8 − 9.9 = 19.8 t − 4. − 14..7 in the given equation.8 t − 4.4 the top of the pole is taken as x = 0. s =147 Ground there corresponds a time ‘t’. dx v = dt = 9.8(1) − 4. from which t = 1. (ii) Also find the maximum height reached by the stone from the ground. ω = 18(1) − 6(1)2 = 12 rad/s angular acceleration = d 2θ 2 2 = 18 − 12t rad/s dt when t = 1.7. Solution : (i) x = 9. Ht.9 t2 At the maximum height v = 0 Max. It moves in a vertical line slightly away from the pole and falls on the ground. To get the total time.3 Related Rates : In the related rates problem the idea is to compute the rate of change of one quantity in terms of the rate of change of another quantity.
If necessary. (3) Introduce notation. In this problem. 6 . (6) Use the chain rule to differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to t. Solution : We start by identifying two things. The key thing to remember is that the rates of change are derivatives. How fast is the radius of the balloon increasing when the diameter is 50 cm. In order to express these quantities mathematically we introduce some suggestive notation. Illustration : Air is being pumped into a spherical balloon so that its volume increases at a rate of 100 cm3/s. (4) Express the given information and the required rate in terms of derivatives. (7) Substitute the given information into the resulting equation and solve for the unknown rate. Assign symbols to all quantities that are functions of time. (5) Write an equation that relates the various quantities of the problem. use the geometry of the situation to eliminate one of the variables by substitution. We can therefore restate the given and the unknown as follows : dV dr Given : dt = 100 cm3/s and unknown : dt when r = 25 cm. (i) The given information : The rate of increase of the volume of air is 100 cm3/s. Let V be the volume of the balloon and let r be its radius. The rate of dV increase of the volume with respect to time is the derivative dt and the rate of dr increase of the radius is dt . and (ii) The unknown : The rate of increase of the radius when the diameter is 50 cm. (2) Draw a diagram if possible. dV dr In order to connect dt and dt we first relate V and r by the formula for 4 the volume of a sphere V = 3 πr3.(1) Read the problem carefully. the volume and the radius are both functions of time t.
.5 to find dt when x = 6 m. Note that x and y are both dx/dt =1 x functions of time‘t’. the relationship between x and y is given by the Pythagoras theorem : x2 + y2 = 100 Differentiating each side with respect to t. Now we solve for the unknown quantity dt = 4πr2 dt dV If we put r = 25 and dt = 100 in this equation.7 : A ladder 10 m long rests against a vertical wall. 5. dy x dx dt = − y dt Wall dy/dt =? 7 . We are given x Ground dx that dt = 1 m/sec and we are asked dy Fig. If the bottom of the ladder slides away from the wall at a rate of 1 m/sec how fast is the top of the ladder sliding down the wall when the bottom of the ladder is 6 m from the wall ? Solution : We first draw a diagram y and lable it as in Fig. To differentiate the right side. we need to use chain rule as V is a function of r and r is a function of t. 5. we have dx dy 2x dt + 2y dt = 0 and solving this equation for the derived rate we obtain. i. dt = 3 3πr2 dt = 4πr2 dt 1 dV dr .e. 1 × 100 1 dr we obtain dt = 2 = 25π 4π(25) 1 cm/s.In order to use the given information.. dV dV dr dr dr 4 i.5 Let x metres be the distance from the bottom of the ladder to the wall and y metres be the vertical 10 y distance from the top of the ladder to the ground. the radius of the balloon is increasing at the rate of 25π Example 5. dt = dr . we differentiate both sides of this equation with respect to t. In this question.e. using chain rule.
8 . The equation that relate x.. the cars are approaching each other at a rate of 78 km/hr. Example 5.9 : A water tank has the shape of an inverted circular cone with base radius 2 metres and height 4 metres.5 [0. Fig.6 dx dy We are given that dt = − 50 km/hr and dt = − 60 km/hr.3 and y = 0. We are asked dz to find dt . y and z is given by the Pythagoras theorem z2 = x2 + y2 Differentiating each side with respect to t. we get dt = − 8 (1) = 4 m/sec. let x be the distance from car A to C.3 kilometers and car B is 0.8 : A car A is travelling from west at 50 km/hr.e.3 (− 50) + 0. we get z = 0.4 km. i. Both are headed for the intersection of the two roads.6 where C is the intersection of the two roads. 3 The ladder is moving downward at the rate of 4 m/sec.When x = 6.5 km and we get dz 1 dt = 0. y and z are measured in kilometers. find the rate at which the water level is rising when the water is 3m deep. dx dy dz 1 dy dx dz we have 2z dt = 2x dt + 2y dt ⇒ dt = z x dt + y dt When x = 0. Note that x and y are decreasing and hence the negative sign. 5. At what rate are the cars approaching each other when car A is 0. and car B is travelling towards north at 60 km/hr. y = 8 and so substituting these dy 6 3 dx values and dt = 1.4 kilometers from the intersection? Solution : x A C We draw Fig. the Pythagoras theorem gives. Example 5. 5.4 (−60)] = −78 km/hr. y z let y be the distance from car B to C and let z be the distance between the cars A and B B where x. If water is being pumped into the tank at a rate of 2m3/min. At a given time t.
E. and we are asked to find dt when h is 3m. where Fig. 5. (2) A particle of unit mass moves so that displacement after t secs is given by x = 3 cos (2t – 4). Now we can differentiate each side with respect to t and we have π 2 dh dh 4 dV dV dt = 4 h dt ⇒ dt = πh2 dt dV Substituting h = 3m and dt = 2m3/min.7 to write h = 4 h 1 π h 2 ⇒ r = 2 and the expression for V becomes V = 3 π 2 h = 12 h3. 5.2 t2. (ii) the time when the height of the missile is a maximum (iii) the maximum height reached and (iv) the velocity with which the missile strikes the ground. 2 (3) The distance x metres traveled by a vehicle in time t seconds after the brakes are applied is given by : x = 20 t − 5/3t2.7 t is measured in minutes. But it is very useful to express V as function of h alone. Determine (i) the speed of the vehicle (in km/hr) at the instant the brakes are applied and (ii) the distance the car travelled before it stops. dt = 2 . Let V. Find (i) the initial velocity of the missile.1 (1) A missile fired from ground level rises x metres vertically upwards in 25 t seconds and x = 100t . r 4m and h be respectively the volume of h the water. Find the acceleration and kinetic energy at the end of 2 K.Solution : 2m We first sketch the cone rm and label it as in Fig. dV dh We are given that dt = 2m3/min. r 2 In order to eliminate r we use similar triangles in Fig. = 1 mv2. 2= 9π m/min π(3) EXERCISE 5. m is mass secs. 5.7. 1 The quantities V and h are related by the equation V = 3 πr2h. 9 . 4 8 dh we get. the radius of the cone and the height at time t.
(5) The altitude of a triangle is increasing at a rate of 1 cm/min while the area of the triangle is increasing at a rate of 2 cm2/min.m. At what rate is the base of the triangle changing when the altitude is 10 cm and the area is 100 cm2. On this curve take a point P(x1.8 10 . ship A is 100 km west of ship B.2 = 3.y1). For this. (8) Two sides of a triangle have length 12 m and 15 m. The angle between them is increasing at a rate of 2° /min.4 Tangents and Normals (Derivative as a measure of slope) In this section the applications of derivatives to plane geometry is discussed.06 rad/sec.00 p.3201) k = − 0. How fast is the height of the pile increasing when the pile is 10 ft high ? 5. let us consider a curve whose equation is y = f(x). Assuming that the tangent at this point is not parallel to the coordinate axes. where the excess of temperature at zero time is θ0°C and at time t seconds is θ°C. 5. we can write the equation of the tangent line at P. Find the rate at which the area of the triangle is increasing when the angle between the sides of fixed length is π/3.03. given that θ0 = 16° C and [e1. (6) At noon. Determine the rate of change of temperature after 40 s.(4) Newton’s law of cooling is given by θ = θ0° e−kt. Ship A is sailing east at 35 km/hr and ship B is sailing north at 25 km/hr.y1) No rm al α Time x Fig. (7) Two sides of a triangle are 4m and 5m in length and the angle between them is increasing at a rate of 0. How fast is the length of third side increasing when the angle between the sides of fixed length is 60°? (9) Gravel is being dumped from a conveyor belt at a rate of 30 ft3/min and its coarsened such that it forms a pile in the shape of a cone whose base diameter and height are always equal. How fast is the distance between the ships changing at 4. O y y =f (x) P (x1.
Example 5. From the definition of a normal it is clear that the slope of the normal m′ 1 and that of the tangent m are connected by the equation m′ = – m . the curve has a horizontal tangent with equation lim y = y1 at P(x1. Solution : We have y = x3 . one often has to consider the normal which is defined as follows : Definition : The normal to a curve at a given point is a straight line passing through the given point. At the point (1. If m=0. slope y′= 3x2.y1).1).y1) is of the form y – y1 = m(x – x1).y ) dx 1 1 Hence the equation of a normal to a curve y = f(x) at a point P(x1.e. x = 1 and m = 3(1)2 = 3. f ′(x1) The equation of the normal at (x1.y1) is 1 of the form y – y1= – ( x – x1).1).y1) is (i) x = x1 if the tangent is horizontal (ii) y = y1 if the tangent is vertical and –1 (iii) y – y1 = m (x – x1) otherwise.. In addition to the tangent to a curve at a given point. If f(x) is continuous at x = x1. but x → x f ′(x) = ∞ ⇒ the 1 curve has a vertical tangent with equation x = x1. Therefore equation of the tangent is y − y1 = m(x − x1) y – 1 = 3(x – 1) or y = 3x – 2 1 The equation of the normal is y − y1 = − m (x − x1) 1 4 –1 y – 1 = 3 (x – 1) or y = – 3 x + 3 11 . perpendicular to the tangent at this point. 1 −1 = dy i.y1) and so the equation of the tangent is of the form y – y1= f ′(x1) (x – x1). For the tangent line we know the slope dy m = f ′(x1) = dx at (x1.10: Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve y = x3 at the point (1.The equation of a straight line with slope (gradient) m passing through (x1. m′ = – f ′(x1) (x .
e. y = a (1 + cos θ). θ dx = a (1 + cosθ) = 2a cos2 2 Solution : We have dθ dy θ θ = – a sin θ = – 2a sin 2 cos 2 dθ dy dθ dy θ Then dx = dx = – tan 2 dθ 12 . y = x – 3 –1 Equation of the normal is y – y1 = m (x – x1) –1 i. Differentiating w. dy Solution : We have y = x2 – x – 2 .12 : Find the equation of the tangent at the point (a.11 : Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve y = x2 – x – 2 at the point (1.e. m = dx = 2x – 1.e.–2).. Hence the required equation of the tangent is –b y –b = a (x – a) i.. slope. dy y +x dx = 0 –y –b dy dy or dx = x and m = dx (a.b) to the curve xy = c2.13 : Find the equations of the tangent and normal at θ = 2 to the curve x = a (θ + sin θ).Example 5.r. y – (–2) = 1 (x – 1) or y = – x – 1 Example 5. Solution : The equation of the curve is xy = c2.to x we get.e. At the point (1.. y – (–2) = x – 1 i. ay – ab = – bx + ab x y bx + ay = 2ab or a + b = 2 π Example 5.− 2). m = 1 Hence the equation of the tangent is y – y1 = m(x – x1) i. b)= a ..
x + y = 2 a π + 2a or x + y – 2 a π – 2a = 0 Equation of the normal at this point is π y – a = (1) x − a 2 + 1 1 or x – y – 2 a π = 0 Example 5. where x1 = 2 and y1 > 0 ∴ (16 × 4) + 9 y12 = 144 or 9 y12 = 144 – 64 = 80 80 80 3 . But y1 > 0 ∴ y1 = 3 80 ∴ The point of tangency is (x1. Solution : We have 16x2 + 9y2 = 144 (x1.y1) where x1 = 2 and y1 > 0. 80 = dy 3 dx 2 .π dy ∴ Slope m = dx θ = π/ = – tan 4 = –1 2 π π Also for θ = 2 . the point on the curve is a 2 + a. 16 =– 9 × 80 3 2 8 =– 80 3 5 3 13 .to x we get dx = – 18 y = – 9 y ∴ The slope at 80 y12 = 9 2 .r.14 : Find the equations of tangent and normal to the curve 16x2 + 9y2 = 144 at (x1.y1) = 2 . a.y1) lies on this curve.. π Hence the equation of the tangent at θ = 2 is π y – a = (–1) x − a 2 + 1 1 1 i.e. 3 ∴ y1 = ± We have 16x2 + 9y2 = 144 dy 32 x 16 x Differentiating w.
2 2 b a b = − a x − or bx + ay − ab 2 = 0 The equation of the tangent is y − 2 2 a a b = b x – The equation of the normal is y – 2 2 or (ax – by) 2 – (a2 – b2) = 0.y1) be the tangential point 10 10 Now 2yy′ = 20 ∴ y′ = y ie. Solution : We have y2 = 20x . 2 dx dy = – a sin θ.8 80 ∴ The equation of the tangent is y – 3 = – (x – 2) 3 5 On simplification we get 8x + 3 5 y = 36 Similarly the equation of the normal can be found as 9 5 x – 24 y + 14 5 = 0 Example 5.y1) = a cos 4 . (x1. y2 = 20 x which forms an angle 45° with the x – axis. y = b sin θ at the point θ = 4 . y1) m = y 1 But the tangent makes an angle 45° with the x – axis. ∴ slope of the tangent m=tan 45° = 1 10 From (1) and (2) y = 1 ⇒ y1 = 10 1 But (x1. 5. = b cos θ.16 : Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola. at (x1. and the slope is m = a . π b π π a Solution : At θ = 4 .9 b –b a Thus the point of tangency is . Let (x1. b sin 4 = 2 .15 : Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the ellipse π x = a cosθ. y dθ dθ dy T dθ dy –b P = dx = a cotθ ‘θ’ =π/4 dx x dθ O N –b π –b ⇒ m = = a cot 4 = a Fig..y1) lies on y2 = 20x ⇒ y12 = 20 x1 … (1) … (2) 14 . Example 5.
If ψ1 and ψ2 are the angles made by the tangents PT1 and PT2 to C1 and C2 at P.e. 5.e. If ψ1 is obtuse and ψ2 is acute..y1) . then ψ = ψ1−ψ2.. with the positive direction of the x – axis. Let them intersect at P (x1. 10) is y – 10 = 1(x – 5) or y = x + 5. (x1.100 = 20 x1 or x1 = 5 i. then m1 = tan ψ 1 and m2 = tan ψ2 are the slopes of PT1 and PT2 respectively.10 We observe that if their slopes are equal namely m1 = m2 then the two curves touch each other. We caution that if they cut at right angles then m1 m2 need not be –1. Note : This problem is suitable for equation of any tangent to a parabola a i. Let ψ be the angle between PT1 and PT2.10) and hence the equation of the tangent at (5. y = mx + m 5.y1) = (5. Note that in this case ψ1 is acute and ψ2 is obtuse and ψ = ψ2 − ψ1.5 Angle between two curves : The angle between the curves C1 and C2 at a point of intersection P is defined to be the angle between the tangent lines to C1 and C2 at P (if these tangent lines exist) Let us represent the two curves C1 and C2 by the Cartesian equation y = f(x) and y = g(x) respectively. If the product m1 m2 = – 1 then these curves are said to cut at right angles or orthogonally. 15 . Then ψ = ψ2 – ψ1 and tan ψ = tan (ψ2 – ψ1) tan ψ2 – tan ψ1 = 1 + tan ψ1 tan ψ2 m2 – m1 = 1+m m 1 2 where 0 ≤ ψ < π O y y =f (x) C1 P ψ1 y =g (x) C2 T1 180 –ψ T2 2 ψ2 Time x Fig.
Solution : To get the point of intersection of the curves solve the equation we get x2 = (x− 2)2 This gives x = 1.1) = – 2. If ψ is the angle between them.11 dy dy y = (x – 2)2 ⇒ dx = 2(x – 2) ⇒ m2 = dx (1.1) = 2 y 2 1 (0. When x = 1. This gives dy m2 = dx a a1x1 – ax1 – a1x1 = –1.Combining together the angle between tangents can be given as ψ1∼ψ2 or tan ψ1∼ tanψ2 m1 − m2 tan ψ = tan(ψ1∼ψ2) = = 1 + m m 1 + tan ψ1 tan ψ2 1 2 Example 5. – a1x1 = b y (x . x12 = ab – a b . y12 = ab – a b (By Cramer’s rule) 1 1 1 1 – ax1 dy For ax2 + by2 = 1. a1x12 + b1y12 = 1 b1 – b a – a1 then. m1 = dx (x . by b y = –1 or 1 1 1 bb1y12 16 .y ) = by1 and for a1x2 + b1y2 = 1.0) Tan1(4/3) (1. a1x2 + b1y2= 1 to intersect orthogonally. then –2–2 –4 –1 4 tan ψ = 1 – 4 = − 3 ⇒ ψ = tan 3 Example 5. Solution : If (x1. y = 1 ∴ The point of intersection is (1. 1) dy Now y = x2 ⇒ dx = 2x dy ⇒ m1 = dx (1. 5. then ax12 + by12 = 1 .y ) 1 1 1 1 For orthogonal intersection.y1) is the point of intersection.18 : Find the condition for the curves ax2 + by2 = 1. we have m1m2 = –1.1) 2 x y =(x2)2 y =x2 1 1 2 Fig.17 : Find the angle between the curves y = x2 and y = (x – 2)2 at the point of intersection.
a) sin2θ dy ∴ dx = – cos2θ O θ=0 x (a. 1 1 1 1 Example 5. dθ θ = π/2 dy = 4a sin3θ cos θ and dθ (0. a sin4θ.. Solution : Take any point ‘θ’ as (a cos4θ. Solution : Let (x1.y1) be the point of intersection of the given curves ∴ x12 – y12 = a2 and x1 y1 = c2 x2 – y2 = a2 dy dy x ⇒ 2x – 2y dx = 0 ⇒ dx = y x1 x1 dy = y ie.20 : Prove that the sum of the intercepts on the coordinate axes of π any tangent to the curve x = a cos4θ. Example 5. 5..y ) x1 x1 1 1 – c2 x1 – c2 – c2 ∴ m1m2 = y 2 = x y = 2 = –1 1 1 c 1 x 1 ⇒ the curves cut orthogonally.12 17 .y ) 1 1 1 1 xy = c2 c2 ⇒ y = x dy ⇒ dx = – c2 x2 – c2 – c2 dy = 2 i. m1 = y ∴ m1 = dx (x .0) Fig. m2 = 2 ∴ m2 = dx (x . b1 – b a – a1 aa1x12 + bb1y12 = 0 ⇒ aa1 ab – a b + bb1 ab – a b = 0 1 1 1 1 b1 – b a – a1 ⇒ aa1 (b1 – b) + bb1 (a – a1) = 0 ⇒ bb + aa = 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 or b – b + a – a = 0 or a – a = b – b which is the required condition.19 : Show that x2 – y2 = a2 and xy = c2 cut orthogonally. 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2 is equal to a. ) dx y Now = – 4a cos3θ sin θ . y = a sin4θ.e.
(9) At what angle θ do the curves y = ax and y = bx intersect (a ≠ b) ? (10) Show that the equation of the normal to the curve x = a cos3 θ .. sum of the intercepts = a cos2 θ + a sin2 θ = a EXERCISE 5.e. y = a sin3θ at ‘θ’ is x cos θ – y sin θ = a cos 2θ. which are parallel to the straight line 2x + 3y = 6.2 (1) Find the equation of the tangent and normal to the curves (i) y = x2 – 4x – 5 at x = – 2 π (ii) y = x – sin x cos x. Prove that the slope at Q is four times the slope at P.e. (11) If the curve y2 = x and xy = k are orthogonal then prove that 8k2 = 1. (3) Find at what points on the circle x2 + y2 = 13. (6) Find the equations of normal to y = x3 – 3x that is parallel to 2x + 18y – 9 = 0.i. (5) Find the equations of those tangents to the circle x2 + y2 = 52. 18 . (7) Let P be a point on the curve y = x3 and suppose that the tangent line at P intersects the curve again at Q. the tangent is parallel to the line 2x + 3y = 7 (4) At what points on the curve x2 + y2 – 2x – 4y + 1 = 0 the tangent is parallel to (i) x – axis (ii) y – axis.. (8) Prove that the curve 2x2 + 4y2 = 1 and 6x2 – 12y2= 1 cut each other at right angles. slope of the tangent at ‘θ’ is = – sin2θ cos2θ − sin2θ 4 2 (x − a cos θ) cos θ Equation of the tangent at ‘θ’ is (y − a sin4θ) = or x sin2 θ + y cos2 θ = a sin2 θ cos2 θ x y ⇒ =1 2 + a cos θ a sin2θ i. at x = 2 1 + sinx π (iv) y = cos x at x = 4 π (iii) y = 2 sin2 3x at x = 6 (2) Find the points on curve x2– y2=2 at which the slope of the tangent is 2.
b) such that f ′(c) = 0 Some observations : Rolle’s theorem is applied to the position function s = f(t) of a moving object. 5.b) then the conditions of hypothesis need not hold.1 Rolle’s Theorem : Let f be a real valued function that satisfies the following three conditions : (i) f is defined and continuous on the closed interval [a. b] (ii) f is differentiable on the open interval (a. 2≤ x ≤ 3 19 . where c is a constant on [a.21 : Using Rolle’s theorem find the value(s) of c. If the object is in the same place at two different instants t = a and t = b then f(a) = f(b) satisfying hypothesis of Rolle’s theorem.e. a ≤ x ≤ b. Rolle’s theorem holds trivially for the function f(x) = c. then Rolle’s Theorem says that there is atleast one root c between a and b for f ′(x) = 0. The converse of Rolle’s Theorem is not true ie. Therefore the theorem says that there is some instant of time t = c between a and b where f ′(c) = 0 i.b]. b) (iii) f (a) = f (b) Then there exists atleast one point c ∈ (a. Note that this is also true for an object thrown vertically upward (neglecting air resistance).6.6 Mean value theorems and their applications : In this section our main objective is to prove that between any two points of a smooth curve there is a point at which the tangent is parallel to the chord joining two points. 1 (iii) f(x) = 2x3 − 5x2 − 4x + 3.5. a ≠ b. Example 5. −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 (ii) f(x) = (x − a) (b − x).. To do this we need the following theorem due to Michael Rolle.. Rolle’s Theorem applied to theory of equations : If a and b are two roots of a polynomial equation f(x) = 0. (i) f(x) = 1 − x2 . Rolle’s theorem implies that a smooth curve cannot intersect a horizontal line twice without having a horizontal tangent in between. if a function f satisfies f ′(c) = 0 for c ∈ (a. the velocity is 0 at t = c.
−1 ≤ x ≤ 1 (iv) f(x) = sin2 x. 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 1 1 f is continuous on 2 . 3 ∴x = 2 is the suitable ‘c’ of Rolle’s theorem Remark : Rolle’s theorem cannot be applied if any one of the conditions does not hold.Solution : (i) The function is continuous in [−1. a ≤ x ≤ b.b] and f ′(x) exists at every point of (a. f(1) = f (−1) = 0 all the three conditions are satisfied. f ′(x) = 6x2 − 10x − 4 1 f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ 3x2 − 5x− 2 = 0 ⇒ (3x + 1) (x −2) = 0 ⇒ x = − 3 or x = 2. a ≠ b. (Note that for x = 0. Example 5.b). 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 20 . 3and differentiable in 2 . 0 ≤ x ≤ π (vi) f(x) = x (x − 1) (x − 2). (ii) f(x) = (x − a) (b − x). 0 ≤ x ≤ π (v) f(x) = ex sin x. 0 ≤ x ≤ π (iii) f(x) =  x .1] and differentiable in (−1. f(a) = f(b) = 0 All the conditions are satisfied. 3 f(½) = 0 = f(3). All the conditions are satisfied.1).22 : Verify Rolle’s theorem for the following : (i) f(x) = x3 − 3x + 3 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 (ii) f(x) = tan x. f (x) is continuous on [a. denominator = 1 ≠ 0) Thus the suitable point for which Rolle’s theorem holds is c = 0. 1 1 x = − 3 does not lie in 2. ∴ f ′(x) = (b − x) − (x − a) a+b f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ − 2x = − b − a ⇒ x = 2 a+b The suitable point ‘c’ of Rolle’s theorem is c = 2 1 (iii) f(x) = 2x3 − 5x2 − 4x + 3. 1 − 2x −x = f ′(x) = 2 2 1 −x 1 − x2 f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ x = 0.
3π.π] as tan x tends to + ∞ at x = 2. π.1) f(0) = 3 and f(1) = 1 ∴ f (a) ≠ f (b) ∴ Rolle’s theorem.1] but not differentiable in (−1.1] and differentiable in (0.π] and differentiable in (0.1) since f ′(0) does not exist.π). 0 ≤ x ≤ π f is continuous in [0. 2 . π. f(0) = f (π) = 0 (ie. . f(0) = e0 sin 0 = 0 f(π) = eπ sin π = 0 ∴ f satisfies hypothesis of Rolle’s theorem Thus there exists c∈ (0.. . 2π. 0 ≤ x ≤ π ex and sin x are continuous for all x. does not hold.1) satisfying f ′(c) = 0. ⇒ c = 0.. (iv) f(x) = sin2 x. f ′(x) = 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x π 3π f ′(c) = 0 ⇒ sin 2c = 0 ⇒ 2c = 0. ∴ Rolles theorem is not applicable. 2. Also note that f ′(x) = 3x2 − 3 = 0 ⇒ x2 = 1 ⇒ x = ±1 There exists no point c ∈ (0. (v) f(x) = ex sin x. π) satisfying f ′(c) = 0 ⇒ ec(sin c + cos c) = 0 ⇒ ec = 0 or sin c + cos c = 0 21 . ∴ Rolles theorem is not applicable.π). the suitable c of Rolle’s theorem is c = 2. (ii) f(x) = tan x.. π π since c = 2 ∈ (0. f ′(x) = ex sin x + ex cos x = ex (sin x + cos x) exist in 0 < x < π ⇒ f ′(x) is differentiable in (0.π). (iii) f(x) =  x . 0 ≤ x ≤ π π f ′(x) is not continuous in [0...) f satisfies hypothesis of Rolle’s theorem. therefore the product ex sin x is continuous in 0 ≤ x ≤ π.Solution : (i) f(x) = x3 − 3x + 3 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 f is continuous on [0. since f (a) = f (b) is not satisfied. −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 f is continuous in [−1.
.2] and differentiable in (0. . (iii) f(x) =  x − 1.2) 3 Note : There could exist more than one such ‘c’ appearing in the statement of Rolle’s theorem. is the required c in (0. 0≤ x ≤1 0≤x≤2 3 3 (iv) f(x) = 4x3 − 9x. π. y = −1 + cos π = −2. 5. − 2 ≤ x ≤ 2 22 .23 : Apply Rolle’s theorem to find points on curve y = − 1 + cos x.2π] and 2π π x differentiable in (0. where the tangent is parallel to xaxis in [0. (vi) f(x) = x (x − 1) (x − 2). 2 Now f ′(x) = − sin x = 0 ⇒ sin x = 0 (π.13 x = π. 2π. 0 ≤ x ≤ 2. Solution : y f(x) is continuous in [0. satisfying hypothesis of Rolle’s theorem Now f ′(x) = (x − 1) (x − 2) + x (x −2) + x (x −1) = 0 1 ⇒ 3x2 − 6x + 2 = 0 ⇒ x = 1 ± 3 1 The required c in Rolle’s theorem is 1 ± ∈ (0. sin c 3π ⇒ sin c = − cos c ⇒ cos c =−1 ⇒ tan c = − 1 = tan 4 3π ⇒ c = 4 is the required point. At x = π.ec = 0 ⇒ c = − ∞ which is not meaningful here. Example 5. 0≤x≤π (ii) f(x) = x2. f is continuous in [0.−2) is such that at this point the tangent to the curve is parallel to xaxis.2π) (0. . EXERCISE 5. 2π].0) f(0) = 0 = f(2π) satisfying hypothesis 1 of Rolle’s theorem. ⇒ the point (π.2π).3 (1) Verify Rolle’s theorem for the following functions : (i) f(x) = sin x.2) f(0) = 0 = f(2).2) x = 0. Fig.
14 23 . Interpretation of law of the mean when applied to an equation of motion s = f(t) : The quantity ∆s = f(b) − f(a) is the change in s corresponding to ∆t = b – a and R.S. f(c)) f(b) − f(a) of the is the same as the slope b−a and chord joining the points A (a.H.b) such that f(b) − f(a) f ′(c) = …(1) b−a Some Observations : Note that if f(a) = f(b) then the law of the mean reduces to the Rolle’s theorem. b−a ∆t The equation then tells us that there is an instant ‘c’ between a and b at which the instantaneous velocity f ′(c) is equal to the average velocity.0) A x Fig. 5.b) Then there exists at least one point c ∈ (a. −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 where the tangent is parallel to x − axis.b) then there is atleast one number c in (a. The slope f ′(c)of the curve at C (c.6.b) where the tangent to the curve is parallel to the chord through A and B.b] (ii) f(x) is differentiable on the open interval (a.2 Mean Value Theorem (Law of the mean due to Lagrange) : Many results in this section depend on one central fact called law of the mean or mean value theorem due to Joseph – Louis Lagrange. if a car has traveled 180 kms in 2 hours then the speedometer must have read 90 kms/hr at least once. of (1) is ∆s f(b) − f(a) = = average velocity from t = a to t = b. Theorem :Let f(x) be a real valued function that satisfies the following conditions : (i) f(x) is continuous on the closed interval [a.b] and differentiable on (a.(2) Using Rolle’s theorem find the points on the curve y = x2+1. f(b)). For example. 5. Geometrically means that if the function f is continuous on [a. y C 2 B ( x) y =f 1 (0. f(a)) B (b.
(say). Estimate the amount of metal removed.2] Solution : f is a polynomial.. 0 < θ < 1 and this is used in calculating approximate values of functions. law of the mean becomes f(x + ∆x) = f(x) + ∆x f ′(x + θ∆x) for some θ such that 0 < θ < 1.. c2 = 3 ⇒ c = ± 3 2 2 The required ‘c’ in the law of mean are and − as both lie in [−2.e. b−a But then c = a + θ (b − a) ∴ the law of the mean can be put in the form f(b) − f(a) = (b − a) f ′(c) = (b − a) f ′[a + θ (b − a)]. 3 3 f ′(c) = Example 5.2]. f (−2) = (−2)3 = −8 f ′(x) = 3x2 ⇒ f ′(c) = 3c2 By law of the mean there exists an element c ∈ (− 2.e.12 mm. (2) Letting b − a = h.Remarks (1) : Since the value of c satisfies the condition a < c < b. 2]. Solution : The volume of cylindrical hole of radius x mm and depth 12 mm is given by 24 . 0 < θ < 1. 2) such that f(b) − f(a) 8 − (−8) =4 ⇒ 3c2 = 4 b−a 4 2 i. f(2) = 23 = 8 .24 : Verify Lagrange’s law of the mean for f(x) = x3 on [−2. b−a i. it follows c−a that (c − a) < (b − a) or (< 1) = θ. hence continuous and differentiable on [− 2. h = ∆x. 0 < θ < 1 (3) If we let a = x. c−a = θ ⇒ c − a = θ (b − a).25 : A cylindrical hole 4 mm in diameter and 12 mm deep in a metal block is rebored to increase the diameter to 4. the above result can be written as f(a + h) = f(a) + hf ′(a + θh). Example 5.
27 : It took 14 sec for a thermometer to rise from −19°C to 100°C when it was taken from a freezer and placed in boiling water.2]. Solution : Let T be the temperature reading shown in the thermometer at any time t.06 × 24 π × 2.e.06 (24 πc). 5.06 f ′(c) = 0. There exist atleast one ‘c’∈(0. We can apply Lagrange’s Law of the mean on the interval [0.01 also will give other estimates.01 f(2. Since the temperature rise is continuous and since there is a continuous change in the temperature the function is differentiable too..06 other than 2.89 π cubic mm.06) − f(2) : 4mm By law of mean. the largest possible value of f(2) is 7. f(2.06) − f(2) = 0. 2 < c < 2.06 Take c = 2. we have 2f ′(c) ≤ 10 f(2) = −3 + 2 f ′(c) ≤ −3 + 10 = 7 i. Multiplying both sides of the inequality by 2. 2) such that f(2) − f(0) = f ′(c) ( 2 − 0) f(2) = f(0) + 2 f ′(c) = −3 + 2 f ′(c) Given that f ′(x) ≤ 5 for all x. To estimate f(2.5°C/sec. Example 5. how large can f(2) possibly be? Solution : Since by hypothesis f is differentiable.01 = 2. Then T is a function of time t. 14) such that T(t2) − T(t1) = T ′(t0) t2 − t1 Here T ′(t0) is the rate of rise of temperature at C. ∴ By law of the mean there exists a ‘t0’ in (0. Show that somewhere along the way the mercury was rising at exactly 8.26 : Suppose that f(0) = − 3 and f ′(x) ≤ 5 for all values of x. 25 12mm .V = f(x) = 12 πx2 ⇒ f ′(c) = 24πc. Fig. In particular we know that f ′(c) ≤ 5. f is continuous everywhere.06) − f(2) = 0. Example 5.15 Note : Any suitable c between 2 and 2.
00 and 2.b) such that f ′′(a) f ′(a) f (n−1)( a) f (n)(c) (b−a)n−1+ n! (b−a)n. for.b] (3) Note that g(b) ≠ g(a). say x = c.10 the acceleration is exactly 120 miles /hr2.+ (n −1)! 26 .2] Generalised Law of the Mean : If f(x) and g(x) are continuous real valued functions on [a.. Extended Law of the mean : If f(x) and its first (n − 1) derivatives are continuous on [a. in (a.00 p. [−2.2] (v) f(x) = x3 − 5x2 − 3x .Here t2 − t1 = 14. g′(x) = 0 for some x in (a. Show that sometime between 2.3] (iii) f(x) = 2x3 + x2 − x − 1.b] and if f(n)(x) exists in (a.b). between a and b such that = g(b) − g(a) g′(c) Remarks : (1) This theorem is also known as Cauchy’s generalised law of the mean.2] (iv) f(x) = x2/3.b) then there exist f ′(c) f(b) − f(a) atleast one value of x. x = c say. then there exist atleast one value of x.. at 2. then by Rolle’s theorem.b) contradicting hypothesis of the generalized law of the mean. [1. [0. T(t2) = 100 .5C/sec T ′(t0) = 14 EXERCISE 5. 1 (ii) f(x) = x .(1) f(b)=f(a)+ 1! (b−a)+ 2! (b−a)2+.. (2) Lagrange’s law of the mean is a particular case of Cauchy law of the mean for the case g(x) = x for all x ∈ [a.4 (1) Verify Lagrange’s law of mean for the following functions : (i) f(x) = 1 − x2. [0. T(t1) = − 19 100 + 19 119 = 14 = 8.. [1.b) with g ′(x) ≠ 0 everywhere on (a..3] (2) If f(1) = 10 and f ′(x) ≥ 2 for 1 ≤ x ≤ 4 how small can f(4) possibly be? (3) At 2.10 pm it reads 50 miles / hr.m a car’s speedometer reads 30 miles/hr.b] and f and g are differentiable on (a. suppose g(b) = g(a).
f ′ 2 = cos 2 = 0 π f ′′(x) = − sin x .Remarks : (1) If in the extended law of the mean b − a = h then b = a + h and (1) becomes f ′′(a) f ′(a) f (n−1)( a) n − 1 f (n)(c) n h + n! h .. .. (2) When b is replaced by the variable x then (1) becomes f ′(a) f (n−1)( a) f (n)(c) (x − a)n − 1 + n! (x − a)n f(x) = f(a) + 1! (x − a) +.. n → ∞) in Maclaurin’s theorem.(2) f(a + h) = f(a) + 1! h + 2! h2 + . f ′′′ 2 = 0 27 . a + h) and this is known as Taylor’s theorem. x) (3) If n becomes sufficiently large (i. + n! hn + .. . . provided f is differentiable any number of times. f ′′(0) f ′(0) f (n−1)(0) n − 1 f (n) (c) n x + n! x ___(4) f(x) = f(0) + 1! x + 2! x2 +. (n −1)! for some c ∈ (a.. provided f is differentiable any number of times.. . .x) and is known as Maclaurin’s theorem. This series of expansion of f(a + h) about the point a is usually known as Taylor’s Series. (5) If n is sufficiently large (i. (n −1)! for some c ∈ (a. as n → ∞) in Taylors theorem...(3) f(a + h) = f(a) + 1! h + 2! h2 + .e.e.. (1) becomes. This series expansion of f(x) about the point 0 is usually known as Maclaurin’s Series.. then it f ′′(0) f ′(0) becomes f(x) = f(0) + 1! x + 2! x2 + .. π Illustration : The Taylor’s series expansion of f(x) = sin x about x = 2 is obtained by the following way. f ′′ 2 = −1 π f ′′′(x) = − cos x . (4) If in the extended law of the mean a is replaced by 0 and b is replaced with the variable x. π π f(x) = sin x . then (2) becomes f ′′(a) f ′(a) f (n)(a) .+ (n−1)! for some c ∈ (0.... f 2 = sin 2 = 1 π π f ′(x) = cos x .
+ …. (1 + x)2 +1. 28 ... −1 f ′′(x) = .... . f(0) = e0 = 1 f ′′(0) = 1 3) arc tan x or tan−1x . f ′′′′(x) = (1 + x)4 f(0) = loge1 = 0 f ′(0) = 1 f ′′(0) = −1 f ′′′(0) = 2! f ′′′′(0) = − (3!) x 4 2) loge(1 + x) . −1 < x ≤ 1. 2 (−1) π π = 1 + 0 x −2 + 2! x − 2 + . f ′(0) = 1 1 3! 1 2! f(x) = loge(1 + x) = 0 + 1! x − 2! x2 + 3! x3 − 4! x4 − .3 . x2 x3 x4 x − 2 + 3 − 4 + .28 : Obtain the Maclaurin’s Series for 1) ex Solution : (1) f(x) = ex f ′(x) = ex f ′′(x) = e ! 1... Example 5.. 1 1 π 2 π sin x = 1 − 2! x −2 + 4! x − 2 − .2... (1 + x)3 −1.π ∴ f(x) = sin x = f 2 + π f ′ 2 π 1! x −2 + π f″ 2 2 x − π 2! 2 + .x 1 1 f(x) = ex = 1 + 1! + 2! x2 + 3! x3 … x2 x3 x = 1 + 1! + 2! + 3! + ... holds for all x (2) f(x) = loge(1 + x) : 1 f ′(x) = 1 + x ..2 f ′′′(x) = .
(3)
f(x) = tan−1x f ′(x) =
; f(0) = 0
1 = 1 −x2 + x4 – x6…. ; f ′(0) = 1 = 1! 1 + x2
f ′′(x) = − 2x + 4x3 – 6x5 …. ; f ′′(0) = 0 f ′′′(x) = − 2 + 12x2 – 30x4 …. ; f ′′′(0) = −2 = −(2!) f iv(x) = 24x − 120x3 …. ; f iv(0) = 0 f v(x) = 24 − 360x2 …. ; f v(0) = 24 = 4! 0 2 0 4! 1 tan−1 x = 0 + 1! x + 2! x2 − 3! x3 + 4! x4 + 5! x5 + … 1 1 = x − 3 x3 + 5 x5 − … holds in  x  ≤ 1. EXERCISE 5.5 Obtain the Maclaurin’s Series expansion for : 1 π π (2) cos2x (4) tan x, − 2 < x < 2 (3) 1 + x (1) e2x
5.7 Evaluating Indeterminate forms :
Suppose f(x) and g(x) are defined on some interval [a,b], satisfying Cauchy’s generalized law of the mean and vanish at a point x = a of this interval f(x) such that f(a) = 0 and g(a) = 0, then the ratio g(x) is not defined for x = a 0 and gives a meaningless expression 0 but has a very definite meaning for values of x ≠ a. Evaluating the limit x → a of this ratio is known as evaluating 0 indeterminate forms of the type 0. 3x −2 If f(x) = 3x − 2 and g(x) = 9x + 7, then 9x + 7 is an indeterminate form ∞ of the type as the numerator and denominator becomes ∞ in the limiting ∞ case, x tends to ∞.
29
We also have other limits
lim lim ex lim lim (x − ex), x→ 0 xx, x1/x , x→ ∞ x x→ ∞ x→ ∞
1 /(x−1) lim which lead to other indeterminate forms of the types and x→ 1 x 0 . ∞, ∞ − ∞, 00, ∞0 and 1∞ respectively. These symbols must not be taken literally. They are only convenient labels for distinguishing types of behaviour at certain limits. To deal with such indeterminate forms we need a tool that facilitates the evaluation. This tool was devised by John Bernoulli for calculating the limit of a fraction whose numerator and denominator approach zero. This tool today is known as l’Hôpital’s rule after Guillaume Francois Antoinede l’Hôpital. l’Hôpital’s rule : Let f and g be continuous real valued functions defined on the closed interval [a,b], f, g be differentiable on (a,b) and g′(c) ≠ 0.
Then if lim f(x) = 0, lim g(x) = 0 and if lim
x→ c x→ c
f ′(c) = L it follows that g′(c) x→ c
x→ c
f(x) lim g(x) = L.
Remarks : (1) Using l’Hôpital’s method, evaluation of the limits of indeterminate forms works faster than conventional methods. For instance, consider sin x lim x . This limit we know is 1, which we obtained through x→ 0 geometrical constructions, a laborious method. sin x cos x But lim x = lim 1 = cos 0 = 1 x→ 0 x→ 0 (2) Note that l’Hôpital’s rule can be applied only to differentiable functions for which the limits are in the indeterminate form. For, x+1 1 x+1 1 lim lim x + 3 is 3 while if l’Hôpital’s rule is applied x→ 0 x + 3 = 1 = 1. x→ 0 Here f(x) = x + 1 g(x) = x + 3 are both differentiable but not in the indeterminate form (3) The conclusion of l’Hôpital’s rule is unchanged if lim f(x) = 0 and
x→ a
lim g(x) = 0 and replaced by lim f(x) = ± ∞ and lim f(x) = ± ∞.
x→ a x→ a x→ a
30
(4) All other indeterminate forms mentioned above can also be reduced to ∞ 0 0 or ∞ by a suitable transformation. We need the following result in some problems Composite Function Theorem : Result : If lim g(x) = b and f is continuous at b,
x→ a
then lim f(g(x) = f lim g(x)
x→ a
x→a
x Example 5.29 : Evaluate : lim tan x x→ 0 x 0 Solution : lim tan x is of the type 0 . x→ 0 x 1 1 ∴ lim tan x = lim 2 =1=1 x→ 0 x→ 0 sec x 1 sin x if exists Example 5.30 : Find lim −11 x → + ∞ tan x 1 Solution : Let y = x As x → ∞, y → 0 1 sin x sin y 0 lim 1 = lim tan−1y = 0 −1 y→0 x → + ∞ tan x 1 cos y = lim 1 = 1 = 1 y→0 2 1 + y log(sin x) Example 5.31 : lim 2 π (π − 2x)
x→ /2
0 Solution : It is of the form 0 log(sin x) lim lim 2 = π (π − 2x) π 1 sin x cos x 2(π − 2x) × (−2)
x→ /2
x→ /2
31
= lim
π x→ /2
cotx 0 = − 4(π − 2x) 0 − cosec2x −1 = −4×−2 8
= lim
π x→ /2
Note that here l’Hôpital’s rule, applied twice yields the result. x2 Example 5.32 : Evaluate : lim ex x→∞ x2 ∞ Solution : lim x is the type ∞ e x→∞ x2 2x 2 2 lim x = lim x = lim x = ∞ =0 e e e x→∞ x→∞ x→∞ 1 Example 5.33 : Evaluate : lim cosec x − x x→ 0 1 Solution : lim cosec x − x is of the type ∞ − ∞. x→ 0 1 1 x − sin x 0 1 lim cosec x − lim lim x = x→ 0 sin x − x = x→ 0 x sinx = 0 x→ 0 1 − cos x 0 sinx lim sin x + x cos x = 0 type = x→ 0 cos x + cos x − x sin x x→ 0 0 =2 = 0 lim Example 5.34 : Evaluate : lim (cot x)
x→ 0 sin x
Solution : lim (cot x)
x→ 0
sin x
is of the type ∞0.
sin x
Let y = (cot x) ⇒ log y = sin x log (cot x) lim (log y) = lim sin x log (cot x)
x→ 0 x→ 0
= lim
log (cot x) ∞ cosec x is of the type ∞ x→ 0
32
Applying l’Hôpital’s rule, 1 2 cotx (− cosec x) log (cot x) lim lim cosec x = x→ 0 −cosec x cot x x→ 0 sin x 1 0 = lim cos x × cos x = 1 = 0 x→ 0 i.e., lim log y = 0
x→ 0
By Composite Function Theorem, we have 0 = lim log y = log lim y ⇒ lim y = e0 = 1
x→ 0
x→ 0
x→ 0
Caution : When the existence of lim f(x) is not known, log lim f(x) is
x→ a x→ a
meaningless. Example 5.35 : Evaluate lim x
x→ 0 + sinx
Solution :
lim x
x→ 0 +
sinx
is of the form 00.
sinx
Let y = x
⇒ log y = sin x log x.
Note that x approaches 0 from the right so that log x is meaningful log x i.e., log y = cosec x log x −∞ lim log y = lim cosec x which is of the type ∞ . x→ 0 + x→ 0 + Applying l’Hôpital’s rule, 1 x log x lim lim cosec x = x→ 0 +−cosec x cot x x→ 0 + − sin2x 0 = lim x cos x of the type 0 x→ 0 +
33
36 : The current at time t in a coil with resistance R.6 Evaluate the limit for the following if exists.) = lim R→0 Et Et = L ⇒ lim i = L is the suitable formula. inductance L and subjected −Rt E to a constant electromotive force E is given by i = R 1− e L . R→0 EXERCISE 5. sin πx tan x − x (1) lim (2) lim 2 −x x→ 2 x→ 0 x − sinx (3) lim sin −1x x x→ 0 lim x→∞ (5) 2 sin x 1/x logex x x n − 2n x→ 2 x − 2 1 1 − 2 tan−1 x x2 (6) lim 1 x→∞ x (4) lim cotx lim cot 2x x→0 1 x−1 (10) lim x x→1 (8) (7) lim x→ ∞ (9) lim x2 logex. Obtain a suitable formula to be used when R is very small. lim logy = 0 x→ 0 + 2 sin x cos x = 0 x sin x − cos x x→ 0 + By Composite Function Theorem. Solution : E 1− e L i = lim R→0 R R→0 lim t E× L e L 1 −Rt −Rt 0 (is of the type 0..= lim ie. x→0+ 34 . we have 0 = lim log y = log lim y ⇒ lim y = e0 = 1 x→ 0 + x→ 0 + x→ 0 + Example 5.
The graph shown in Gradient (slope) Fig. and c d O a x1 x2 b increasing again on [c. Definition : A function f is called increasing on an interval I if f(x1) ≤ f(x2) whenever x1 < x2 in I. In the first case the function f preserves the order. A The function f is said to be ψ increasing on the interval [a. We Fig. physical and practical problems in sections 5.c].. It is called decreasing on I if f(x1) ≥ f(x2) whenever x1 < x2 in I.4 In this section.(11) π − x→ /2 lim cos x (tanx) 1 lim (12) x→0+ xx (13) x → 0 (cos x) lim /x 5.16 use this as the defining property of an increasing function. increasing functions are also known as order preserving functions. 5. 5.16 raises from A to B. Thanks to the order preserving property.8 Monotonic Functions : Increasing. 35 . and raises again from C to D. C falls from B to C.e.. (ii) Every identity function is an increasing function. A function that is completely increasing or completely decreasing on I is called monotonic on I.b]. In sketching the graph of a y y =f(x) Positive function it is very useful to B Negative Gradient know where it raises and where Gradient (slope) Positive (slope) D it falls. i. x1 < x2 ⇒ f(x1) ≥ f(x2). we shall study some applications to the theory of real functions.2.3 and 5.d]. Illustrations : (i) Every constant function is an increasing function. Similarly. the decreasing functions are also known as order reversing functions. Decreasing Functions Differential calculus has varied applications. We have already seen some applications to geometrical. φ x decreasing on [b. x1 < x2 ⇒ f(x1) ≤ f(x2) and in the later case the function f reverses the order i.e. 5.
π. then it is decreasing. how do we decide whether a given function is monotonic or not ? Theorem 1 gives us a criterion to do just that. Thus. It may happen that a function is neither increasing nor decreasing. For instance. but π f(x) = sin x is increasing on 0. (ii) f is decreasing if and only if f ′(x) ≤ 0 for all x in I. if we consider the interval [0. the function sin x is neither π π increasing nor decreasing. Do you agree that each constant function is both increasing and decreasing? Caution : It is incorrect to say that if a function is not increasing.(iii) The function f(x) = sin x is not an increasing function on R. by looking at the graph of the function one can say whether the function is increasing or decreasing or neither. Hence f(x + h) − f(x) ≤ 0 So either f(x + h) – f(x) and h are both nonnegative or they are both non – positive. Let f : I → R be differentiable. 2 . then x + h > x and since f is h increasing. Since f is differentiable f ′(x) exists and lim f(x + h) – f(x) is given by f ′(x) = h→0 . There are other functions that are even worse. But most of the functions that we consider are not so bad. Then (i) f is increasing if and only if f ′(x) ≥ 0 for all x in I. The graph of an increasing function does not fall as we go from left to right while the graph of a decreasing function does not rise as we go from left to right. f(x + h) ≥ f(x). (iv) The function f(x) = 4 – 2x is decreasing π (v) The function f(x) = sin x is decreasing in the interval 2.π]. If h > 0. It is increasing on 0. then x + h < x and f (x + h) ≤ f(x). They are not monotonic on any subinterval also. If h < 0. Usually. Hence f(x + h) – f(x) ≥ 0. π Note that f is increasing is equivalent to (− f) is decreasing. 2 and decreasing on 2. f(x + h) – f(x) is nonnegative for all nonzero values of h and Therefore h f(x + h) – f(x) must also be nonnegative. Proof : (i) Let f be increasing and x ∈ I. But if we are not given the graph. Theorem 1 : Let I be an open interval. f ′(x) ≥ 0 lim h h→0 36 .
We shall prove that f(x1) ≤ f(x2). Definition : f : I → R is said to be strictly increasing if x1 < x2 implies that f(x1) < f(x2).16). a constant function is not strictly increasing. the tangent of this angle is not negative. the tangent of this angle is not positive f ′(x) = tan ψ ≤ 0. It can also be deduced by applying result (i) to the function (– f). Hence f is increasing (ii) can be proved in a similar way. Also x2 – x1> 0 ( ∴ x1 < x2) Since.c] then the angle of inclination of the tangents form an obtuse angle (or. Therefore f ′(x) = tan ϕ ≥ 0. for all x in I.18). If the function f(x) decreases on the interval [b. where as the function f(x) = x is strictly increasing (Fig. at some points.b] a function f(x) increases. 5. We can similarly say that a function defined on I is strictly decreasing if x1 < x2 implies f(x1) > f(x2) For example.19). Geometrical interpretation : The above theorem expresses the following geometric fact. 5. Let x1 < x2 in I. let f ′(x) ≥ 0. The greatest integer function f(x)= x too.5. The following definition gives the precise meaning of the term strictly increasing function. f(x2) – f(x1) = f ′(c) . then the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at each point on this interval forms an acute angle ϕ with the xaxis or (at certain points) is horizontal (See Fig.19 37 . If on an interval I = [a. we have x – x 2 1 Thus f(x2) – f(x1) ≥ 0 or f(x1) ≤ f(x2). is increasing (Fig. 5.18 Fig. nor is it strictly decreasing (Fig. for x1 < c < x2 By the Law of mean. f ′(c) ≥ 0.17 Fig. 5.Conversely.17). the tangent is horizontal) . 5. y 3 1 f(x) =1 0 2 1 1 2 3 x y y f( x) = x O x Fig. 5. but not strictly increasing. x – x 2 1 f(x2) – f(x1) ≥ 0. From the class of increasing functions we can separate out functions which are strictly increasing.
37 : Prove that the function f (x) = sin x + cos2x is not monotonic on π the interval 0. then f is strictly increasing”. You may have noticed that there is a difference between the statement of Theorem 1 and Theorem 2. Suppose x1 < x2. Illustration : Define f : R→ R by f(x) = x3.monotonicity of a function. Corollary : f is strictly monotonic on the interval I. Can we have if and only if in Theorem 2 also ? The answer is no as shown in the following example. if f ′ is of the same sign through out I.Theorem 2 : (i) Let f ′ be positive on I. Let f(x) = sin x + cos 2x Solution : Then f ′(x) = cos x – 2sin 2x Now f ′(0) = cos 0 – 2 sin 0 = 1 – 0 = 1 > 0 π π π and f ′4 = cos 4 – 2 sin 2 4 1 = –2×1<0 2 38 . Hence f(x) = x3 is strictly increasing. Then f is strictly increasing on I. “f is increasing if and only if f ′ is non – negative” “ If f ′ > 0. Then f is strictly decreasing on I. The proof of the theorem is easy and is left as an exercise. 4 . it is enough to prove that f ′ has different signs at different points. But its derivate f ′(x) = 3x2 and f ′(0) = 0. Note: If a function changes its signs at different points of a region (interval) then the function is not monotonic in that region. f(x1) < f(x2). So to prove the non. Hence its derivate f ′ is not strictly positive. Example 5. Then x2 – x1 > 0 and x12 + x22 > 0 This implies x23 – x13 = (x2 – x1) (x22 + x12 + x1 x2) 1 = (x2 – x1) 2 [(x12 + x22)+ (x1 + x2)2] > 0 ⇒ x13 < x23 Thus whenever x1 < x2. (ii) Let f ′ be negative on I.
2. ∞) . (− 2. x ∈ 2 .1] Solution : f (x) = x2 − x + 1 f ′(x) = 2x − 1 1 1 1 f ′(x) ≥ 0 for x ≥ 2 i.e. The values − 2 and 5/3 divide the real line (the domain of f(x)) into intervals (−∞. Example 5. 1 1 1 1 Also f ′(x) ≤ 0 for x ≤ 2 ⇒ x ∈ 0.39 : Prove that the function f(x) = x2 − x + 1 is neither increasing nor decreasing in [0. x ∈ [0. 5/3)and (5/3. Example 5.1] the function f(x) is neither increasing nor decreasing. 4 Example 5. −∞ 2 0 5/3 ∞ Fig.40 : Discuss monotonicity of the function f(x) = sin x. Also f ′(x) is decreasing on 0. 5. 1 ∴ f(x) is increasing on 2 . Solution : f ′(x) = 6x2 + 2x – 20 = 2(3x2 + x − 10) = 2 (x + 2) ( 3x −5) Now f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ x = − 2. ∞) Note (i) : If the critical numbers are not included in the intervals. −2).38 : Find the intervals in which f(x) = 2x3 + x2 −20x is increasing and decreasing. and x = 5/3.20 Interval − ∞ < x < –2 − 2 < x < 5/3 5/3 < x < ∞ x +2 – + + 3x – 5 – − + f ′(x) + − + Interval of inc / dec Increasing on (– ∞. 5/3] increasing on [5/3. –2] decreasing on [− 2.π π Thus f ′ is of different signs at 0 and 4 Therefore f is not monotonic on 0. 2π] 39 . 2 Therefore in the entire interval [0.. then the intervals of increasing (decreasing) becomes strictly increasing (strictly decreasing) Note : (ii) The intervals of inc / dec can be obtained by taking and checking a sample point in the subinterval.
Solution : x −2 y = x + 1 . 2π 2 2 2 2 π 3π Also. ∞) The points where the tangent to the graph of the function are parallel to the x − axis are given by f ′(x)= 0.2π] Now π 3π f ′(x) ≥0 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and 2 ≤ x ≤ 2π. 2 in [0. 3) (3. (2. 3. 3 Now f(2) = 29 and f(3) = 28. 3] + + + 3<x<∞ increasing on [3. Therefore the points 2 and 3 divide the real line into (− ∞. Also determine the points where the tangents to the graph of the function are parallel to the x axis. 2] decreasing on [2. x ≠ −1 dy (x + 1) 1 − (x −2) 1 3 = > 0 for all x ≠ − 1. Therefore f(x) = sin x is increasing on 0.. f ′(x) ≤ 0 for 2 ≤ x ≤ 2 . 2). ie. Solution : f ′(x) = 6x2 − 30x + 36 = 6(x − 2) (x − 3) f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ x = 2.41 : Determine for which values of x. Therefore f(x) = sin x is decreasing on π . 28) 40 ..Solution : π 3π f (x) = sin x and f ′(x) = cos x = 0 for x = 2 . sin x is increasing on 0. x ≠ −1 is strictly increasing or strictly decreasing. 29) and (3. the function f(x) = 2x3 − 15x2 + 36x + 1 is increasing and for which it is decreasing. 2π i. when x = 2. ∞). π and 3π. π ∪ 3π .42 : Determine for which values of x.e. Interval −∞<x<2 2<x<3 x −2 – + x–3 – − f ′(x) + − Intervals of inc / dec increasing on (– ∞. Example 5. the function y = x + 1 . Therefore the required points are (2. 2 dx = (x + 1) (x +1)2 ∴ y is strictly increasing on R − {−1}. 3π 2 2 x −2 Example 5.
Solution : f(x) = tan−1(sin x + cos x).43 : Show that f(x) = tan−1 (sin x + cos x). [0. 4 EXERCISE 5. −1] (4) Prove that the following functions are not monotonic in the intervals given. (2) Prove that log x is strictly increasing function on (0. 1 cos x − sin x f ′(x) = 2 (cos x − sin x) = 2 + sin 2x > 0 1 + (sin x + cos x) π since cos x−sin x > 0 in the interval 0. (i) 2x2 + x − 5 on [−1.Example 5. 2 (iii) e−x on [0. 2π] f(x) = sin4 x + cos4 x in [0. 4 (iv) x(x − 1) (x + 1) on [−2.π] (ii) x (x − 1) (x + 1) on [0. x > 0 is a strictly increasing function π in the interval 0.0] (iii) x sin x on [0. 2 (5) Find the intervals on which f is increasing or decreasing. (i) f(x) = 20 − x − x2 (iii) f(x) = x3 + x + 1 (v) f(x) = x + cos x in [0. π/2] 41 .2] (ii) 2x2 + 3x on − 2 . 4 . 4 and 2 + sin 2x > 0) π ∴ f(x) is strictly increasing function of x in the interval 0 .7 (1) Prove that ex is strictly increasing function on R.1] π (v) x sin x on 0.2] π (iv) tan x + cot x on 0. ∞) (3) Which of the following functions are increasing or decreasing on the interval given ? 1 1 (i) x2 – 1 on [0. π] (ii) (iv) (vi) f(x) = x3 − 3x + 1 f(x) = x −2sin x.
so f ′(x) > 0. (1 + x)n > (1 + nx) π Example 5. (ex − x − 1) > (e0 − 0 − 1) . f(x) > f(0) i. x∈0. (1 + x)n − (1 + nx) > (1 + 0) − (1 + 0) i.. f is strictly increasing function. ∞).46 : Prove that sin x < x < tan x. ∴ for x > 0. 2 … (1) 0 y =sin x π/2 x Fig.e.e.45 : Prove that the inequality (1 + x)n > 1+nx is true whenever x > 0 and n > 1. f(x) > f(0) ⇒ x − sin x > 0 ⇒ x > sin x Let g(x) = tan x − x π g′(x) = sec2x − 1 = tan2x > 0 in 0.21 ∴ g is strictly increasing For x > 0. Therefore f is strictly increasing on [0. For x > 0.Inequalities : Example 5.44 : Prove that ex > 1 + x for all x > 0. 5. (1 + x)n − (1 + nx) > 0 i. Solution : Let f(x) = ex − x − 1 ⇒ f ′(x) = ex − 1 > 0 for x > 0 i.. For x > 0 ⇒ f(x) > f(0) i.e. we have (1 + x)n−1 > 1.e. f(x) > f(0) ⇒ tan x − x > 0 ⇒ tan x > x … (2) From (1) and (2) sin x < x < tan x 42 .. Solution : Consider the difference f(x) = (1 + x)n − (1 + nx) Then f ′(x) = n(1 + x)n−1 − n = n[(1 + x)n−1 − 1] Since x > 0 and n − 1 > 0. ex > x + 1 Example 5.. 2 y =tan x y x =π/2 y= x Solution : Let f(x) = x − sin x π f ′(x) = 1 − cos x > 0 for 0 < x < 2 ∴ f is strictly increasing..e.
the gradient is zero and as x increases. In many cases these problems can be reduced to finding the maximum or minimum values of a function. x > 0 (i) cos x > 1 − 2 .8 (1) Prove the following inequalities : x3 x2 (ii) sin x > x − 6 . 5.EXERCISE 5. Many practical problems require us to minimize a cost or maximize an area or somehow find the best possible outcome of a situation. Such a point is called a maximum point and appears as the ‘crest of a wave’. 5.23 43 (slope) y R x . in which we are required to find the optimal (best) way of doing something. 5. At point P.9 Maximum and Minimum values and their applications : “For since the fabric of the Universe is most perfect and the work of a most wise creator.22 Let us first explain exactly what we mean by maximum and minimum values. y Maximum Point Maximum Point Point of Inflexion O x Minimum Point Fig. nothing at all takes place in the Universe in which some rule of maximum or minimum does not appear” Leonard Euler Some of the most important applications of differential calculus are optimization problems. (slope ) P ve Negati nt Gradie lope) (s Positiv e Q O Positiv e Grad ient Gradie nt Fig.22 the gradient (rate of change) of the curve changes from positive between O and P to negative between P and Q and positive again between Q and R. the gradient (slope) of the curve changes from positive just before P to negative just after. x > 0 (iii) tan−1 x < x for all x > 0 (iv) log (1 + x) < x for all x > 0. In fig 5.
5. where D is the domain of f. Note that (d.24 if we consider only values of x near b. In Fig.At point Q. f(d)) is the highest point on the graph and (a. In general we have the following definition. The maximum and minimum values of f are called extreme values of f. for instance. Similarly. Such a point is given the special name of a point of inflection as shown in Fig 5. Similarly f has an absolute minimum at c if f(c) ≤ f(x) for all x in D and the number f(c) is called the minimum value of f on D. 44 . y f (d) f (a) aO b c d e x Fig.d). Likewise f(c) is called a local minimum value of f because f(c) ≤ f(x) for x near c. f has a local minimum at c if there is an open interval I containing c such that f(c) ≤ f(x) for all x in I. Illustrations : (1) The function f(x)=cos x takes on its (local and absolute) maximum value of 1 infinitely many times since cos 2nπ = 1 for any integer and −1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 for all x.24 It is possible to have a turning point. f(a)) is the lowest point.23. in the interval (b. the gradient on either side of which is the same. The number f(c) is called maximum value of f on D. 5. the gradient is also zero and as x increases the gradient of the curve changes from negative just before Q to positive just after. Definition : A function f has an absolute maximum at c if f(c) ≥ f(x) for all x in D.5. The function f also has a local minimum at e. Definition : A function f has a local maximum (or relative maximum) at c if there is an open interval I containing c such that f(c) ≥ f(x) for all x in I.c) then f(b) is the largest of those values of f(x) and is called a local maximum value of f. Such a point is called a minimum point and appears as ‘the bottom of a valley’. turning points.: Fig. Like wise cos (2n + 1)π = −1 is its (local and absolute) minimum value.24 shows the graph of a function f with absolute maximum at d and absolute minimum at a. n is any integer. Points such as P and Q are given the general name. if we restrict our attention to the interval (a.
This corresponds to the fact that the origin is the lowest on the parabola y = x2 See Fig. value =0. 5. −1 ≤ x ≤ 4.8) 3 x (4. we see that this function has neither an absolute maximum value nor an absolute minimum value.27) 1 2 (2.27.26. there is no highest point on the parabola and so this function has no maximum value. y y = x2 x O Min. The following theorem gives conditions under which a function is guaranteed to possess extreme values. whereas the absolute maximum is f(−1)=37. In fact it has no local extreme values either. No Max. 5.(2) If f(x) = x2.27 45 . while others do not. We can see that f(1) = 5 is a local maximum. then f(x) ≥ f(0) because x2 ≥ 0 for all x.26 (4) Consider the function f(x) = 3x − 16x + 18x .5. 4 3 2 (1.25 However.32) Fig. Fig.25 y 8 6 y =x3 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 2 4 x (3) If f(x) = x3 then from the graph of f(x) shown in Fig 5. The graph is shown in Fig. 5. Therefore f(0) = 0 is the absolute (and local) minimum value of f. We have seen that some functions have extreme values. No Minimum No Maximum Fig. 5.37) y 40 30 20 10 (1. Also f(0) = 0 is a local minimum and f(3)= −27 is both local and absolute minimum.5) 1 0 10 20 30 (3.
Notice that the range of f is the interval [0. 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 is continuous on the closed interval [0. 5. The function takes on value close to 1 but never attains the value 1.4).2) but has neither a maximum nor a minimum value. 0≤x<1 0 . 5. x→ 1 + f(x) = 0 y 4 f (x) =x2. f(x) = x2 y 1 0 1 x Fig.2) then we get one of the situations shown in Fig.2] but has no maximum value.2]. The range of f is the interval (0.1).31. 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 The function is defined on the closed interval [0.b] The next two examples show that a function need not possess extreme values if either of the hypotheses (continuity or closed interval) is omitted from the extreme value theorem. This is because the interval (0.2) is not closed.28 This is because the hypotheses of f to be continuous fails. 0 2 x Fig.The Extreme value theorem : If f is continuous on a closed interval [a.32 In particular the function f(x) = x2. 5.29 If we alter the function by including either end point of the interval (0.30. 5. Lim x→ 1 − Lim Lim f(x) = x→ 1 − (x2) = 1 . The values 0 and 4 are never taken on by f. 46 . So the extreme value theorem says that the function has an absolute maximum and an absolute minimum. for. (5) Consider the function . Fig. 0 < x < 2 is continuous on the interval (0. Fig. 5. Note that x = 1 is a point of discontinuity.b] then f attains an absolute maximum value f(c) and an absolute minimum value f(d) at some number c and d in [a. 0< 2 x< No Maximum No Minimum (6) The function f(x) =x2.
30 Fig. y Fig.y 4 f1 (x) =x2. 5. Fig. x is rational (This function is known as characteristic function on the set of irrational numbers) This function is nowhere differentiable and everywhere discontinuous. The extreme value theorem says that a continuous function on a closed interval has a maximum value and minimum value.33 shows the graph of a (c. We know that the derivative x is the slope of the tangent line. 5.32 Inspite of the above examples we point out that there are functions which are neither continuous nor differentiable but still attains minimum and maximum values. f (d)) minimum points the tangent line is horizontal and therefore has slope zero. The following theorem shows that this is always true for differentiable functions. but it does not tell us how to find their extreme values. It appears that at the maximum and (d. But the maximum value is 1 and the minimum value is 0. 5. 5. consider 1 . f (c)) function f with a local maximum at c and a local minimum at d. 0< x≤2 Maximum f1 (2) =4 No Minimum y 4 f2 (x) =x2. 0≤x≤2 Maximum f3 (2) =4 Minimum f3 (0) =0 O 2 x 0 2 x 0 2 x Fig. 0≤x< 2 No Maximum Minimum f2 (0) =0 y 4 f3 (x) =x2. so it c O d Fig. For instance. 5.33 appear that f ′(c) = 0 and f ′(d) = 0. The following examples caution us that we cannot locate extreme values simply by setting f ′(x) = 0 and solving for x.31 47 . Fermat’s Theorem : If f has a local extremum (maximum or minimum) at c and if f ′(c) exists then f ′(c) = 0. x is irrational f(x) = 0 .
Further more. 5. (8) The function f(x) = 3x − 1. Since f(1) = 2 is not a local maximum. y 8 6 4 2 2 0 2 2 4 6 8 4 x y =x3 Fig. 5. (observe that x3 > 0 for x > 0 and x3 < 0 for x < 0).36 Fermats’ theorem does suggest that we should atleast start looking for extreme values of f at the numbers c where f ′(c) = 0 or f ′(c) does not exist. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 has its maximum value when x = 1 but f ′(1) = 3 ≠ 0. Note that the number 1 is not contained in an open interval in the domain of f. 0) the curve crosses its horizontal tangent there. y =.34 (1. Instead of having a maximum or minimum at (0. This does not contradict Fermat’s Theorem. Then f ′(x) = 3x2.x y =x O y 2 1 1 0 y = x x Fig. 48 . so f ′(0) = 0.0). But f has no maximum or minimum at 0 as you can see from its graph. but that value cannot be found by setting f ′(x) = 0 because f ′(x) does not exist. The fact that f ′(0) = 0 simply means that the curve y = x3 has a horizontal tangent at (0. Definition : A critical number of a function f is a number c in the domain of f such that either f ′(c) = 0 or f ′(c) does not exist.y (7) The function f(x) =  x  has its (local and absolute) minimum value at 0.35 Remark : The above examples demonstrate that even when f ′(c) = 0 there need not be a maximum or minimum at c. (9) If f(x) = x3.1) Fig. there may be an extreme value even when f ′(c) ≠ 0 or when f ′(c) does not exist.2) y =3x – 1 0≤x≤1 1 2 x 1 (0. 5.
x = 2. 5. of f in (a. the smallest of these values is the absolute minimum value. if x = 2 . Note that if f has a local extremum at c. the only critical numbers of f are x = 0. for which f ′(c)= 0.e. but not vice versa. Value of f at these critical numbers are f(0) = 1 and f(2) = −3.Stationary points are critical numbers c in the domain of f. − 2 . − 2 ≤ x ≤ 4 Solution : Note that f is continuous on .47 : Find the critical numbers of x 5 (4 − x) 3 Solution : 3 8 / / f(x) = 4 x 5 − x 5 f ′(x) = 12 −2/5 8 3/ x − 5 x 5 5 4 −2/ = 5 x 5 (3 − 2x) 3 Therefore f ′(x) = 0 if 3 − 2x = 0 i. (2) Find the values of f(a) and f(b) (3) The largest of the values from steps 1 and 2 is the absolute maximum value. 1 Both of these critical numbers lie in the interval − 2 .b] : (1) Find the values of f at the critical numbers. f ′(x) does not exist when 3 x = 0. / Example 5. f(x) = x3 − 3x2 + 1 . 4 . Thus the critical numbers are 0 and 2 . Example 5.. 49 .b). 4 f(x) = x3 − 3x2 + 1 f ′(x) = 3x2 − 6x = 3x (x − 2) 1/2 0 1 2 3 1 1 [ ] 4 Fig.37 Since f ′(x) exists for all x. then c is a critical number of f. To find the absolute maximum and absolute minimum values of a continuous function f on a closed interval [a.48 : Find the absolute maximum and minimum values of the function.
0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. Solution : f(x) =x − 2 sin x.28 π π Comparing these four numbers. 50 .968039 The values of f at the end points are f(0) = 0 and f(2π) = 2 π ≈ 6. Let us now see how the second derivatives of functions help determining the turning nature (of graphs of functions) and in optimization problems. The second derivative test : Suppose f is continuous on an open interval that contains c. 2π] f ′(x) = 1 − 2 cos x 1 5π π f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ cos x = 2 ⇒ x = 3 or 3 The value of f at these critical points are π π π π f 3 = 3 − 2 sin 3 = 3 − 3 5π 5π 5π f 3 = 3 − 2 sin 3 5π = 3 + 3 ≈ 6. whereas the absolute minimum occurs at a critical number. In this example both absolute minimum and absolute maximum occurs at the critical numbers. (a) If f ′(c) = 0 and f ′′(c) > 0. then f has a local maximum at c. is continuous in [0. Note that in this example the absolute maximum occurs at an end point. we see that the absolute maximum value is f(4) = 17 and the absolute minimum value is f(2) = − 3. the absolute minimum is f 3 = 3 − 3 and 5π 5π the absolute maximum is f 3 = 3 + 3 .The values of f at the end points of the interval are 1 1 1 3 1 2 f −2 = −2 +1=8 −3 −2 ( ) ( ) ( ) and f(4) = 43 − 3 × 42 + 1 = 17 Comparing these four numbers. then f has a local minimum at c. (b) If f ′(c) = 0 and f ′′(c) < 0.48(a): Find the absolute maximum and absolute minimum values of f(x) =x − 2sin x. Example 5.
51 . dy (i) Given y = f(x) determine dx (i. the first derivative test tells us that f does not have a local extremum at 0. dx2 If the result is : (a) positive − the point is a minimum one (b) negative − the point is a maximum one (iv) Find (c) zero − the point cannot be an extremum (minimum or maximum) OR (v) Determine the sign of the gradient (slope f ′(x) of the curve just before and just after the stationary points. To determine the nature of the stationary points.Example 5. If the sign change for the gradient of the curve is (a) positive to negative − this point is a maximum one (b) negative to positive − this point is a minimum one Example 5.49 : Discuss the curve y = x4 − 4x3 with respect to local extrema. −27) is a minimum point.e. f ′(x)) dy (ii) Let dx = 0 and solve for the critical numbers x. Solution : f(x) = x4 − 4x3 f ′(x) = 4x3 − 12x2 . But since f ′(x) < 0 for x < 0 and also for 0 < x < 3. Since f ′′(0) = 0 the second derivative test gives no information about the critical number 0.. (iii) Substitute the values of x into the original function y = f(x) to find the corresponding ycoordinate values. f ′′(x) = 12x2 − 24x To find the critical numbers we set f ′(x) = 0 and obtain x = 0 and x = 3. This establish the coordinates of the stationary points. d2y and substitute into it the values of x found in (ii). f ′′(0) = 0. We summarise the above discussion as follows : Procedure for finding and distinguishing stationary points. Since f ′(3) = 0 and f ′′(3) > 0.50 : Locate the extreme point on the curve y = 3x2 − 6x and determine its nature by examining the sign of the gradient on either side. To use the second derivative test we evaluate the sign of f ′′ at these critical numbers. f ′′(3) = 36 > 0. f(3) = − 27 is a local minimum value and the point (3.
f ′(x) = 0 gives 4x3 − 9x2 + 6x − 1 = 0 1 (x − 1)2 (4x − 1) = 0 ⇒ x = 1. 52 . 4 1 1 − 27 When x = 1. f 4 = 256 1 − 27 Hence the coordinates of the stationary points are (1. 1 1 9 1 − 27 When x = 4 .9) − 6 = − 0.Solution : Following the above procedure dy (i) Since y = 3x2 − 6x. 256 f ′′(x) = 12x − 18x + 6 = 6(2x − 3x + 1) = 6(x − 1) (2x − 1) 2 2 When x = 1.6 < 0. dx = 6x − 6 dy (ii) At a stationary point. Example 5. y = 3(1)2 − 6(1) = − 3. Since the gradient (slope of the curve) changes its sign from negative to positive (1. then dx = 6(0. say 0. f ′′ 4 = 4 > 0. dy If x is slightly less than 1.6 > 0. 256 is a minimum point. f ′′(1) = 0. dx = 0. Thus the second derivative test gives no information about the extremum nature of f at x = 1. − 3). dy If x is slightly greater than 1.1 then dx = 6(1. Hence the coordinates of the stationary point is (1. hence x = 1 (iii) When x = 1. Caution : No function will attain local maximum / minimum at the end points of its domain. − 3) is a minimum point. 1.1) − 6 = 0. f(1) = 0 and when x = 4.51 : Find the local minimum and maximum values of f(x) = x4 − 3x3 + 3x2 − x Solution : f(x) = x4 − 3x3 + 3x2 − x f ′(x) = 4x3 − 9x2 + 6x − 1 At a turning point. hence 4 .9. say 1. 0) and 4 .
π] (vi) f(θ) = θ + sin θ in [0.10 Practical problems involving maximum and minimum values : The methods we have learnt in this section for finding extreme values have practical applications in many areas of life. π] (iii) x4 − 6x2 (vi) t + cos t (3) Find the local maximum and minimum values of the following : (ii) 2x3 + 5x2 − 4x (v) sin2 θ .5] [−1. (iv) f(x) = (v) 9 − x2 . π] 5. (vii) f(x) = (i) x3 − x (iv) (x2 − 1)3 x − 2 cos x. times and costs. (i) f(x) = 2x − 3x2 (iii) f(x) = x4/5 (x − 4)2 (v) f(θ) = sin2 2θ in [0. the greatest challenge is often to convert the word problem into maximum – minimum problem by setting up the function that is to be maximised or minimised. x f(x) = x + 1. [0. 2π] (2) Find the absolute maximum and absolute minimum values of f on the given interval : (i) (ii) f(x) = x2 − 2x + 2. [0.EXERCISE 5. π 3 [−π.1] [−3.2] [1. 53 .3] [−4.2] (ii) f(x) (iv) f(x) = x3 − 3x + 1 = x+1 x +x+1 2 (iii) f(x) = x3 − 12x + 1. volumes and profits and minimising distances. We also solve such problems as maximising areas. A business person wants to minimise costs and maximise profits. 0.9 (1) Find the critical numbers and stationary points of each of the following functions. f(x) = 1 − 2x − x2. (vi) f(x) = sin x + cos x. In solving such practical problems.
say. z) for the other unknown quantities and lable the diagram with these symbols. Let x and y be the width and length of the rectangle (in feet).As a problem solving technique we suggest the following principles. (3) Introduce notation : Assign a symbol to the quantity to be maximised or minimised. say Q. (1) Understand the problem : The first step is to read the problem carefully until it is clearly understood. Remarks : (1) If the domain is a closed interval then we apply the absolute max/min property to maximize / minimize the given function (see 5. (2) If the domain is an open interval then we apply either first derivative test (5.52. (4) Express Q in terms of some other symbols from step 3. (6) Use the methods discussed to find the absolute maximum or minimum value of f.58).53) or second test for finding local max / min.c …. Then use these equations to eliminate all but one of these variables in the expression for Q.38 54 .Thus Q will be given as a function of one variable x. 5. Example 5. Q = f(x).52 : A farmer has 2400 feet of fencing and want to fence of a rectangular field that borders a straight river. 5.x. (3) All these cases ultimately lead us to the absolute max / min only. Then we express A in terms of x and y as A = xy Fig. What are the dimensions of the field that has the largest area ? y Solution : We wish to maximize the area A x x of the rectangle. He needs no fence along the river. Also select symbols (a.b. Write the domain of this function. Similarly instead of second derivative test one can also apply first derivative test. (5) If Q has been expressed as a function of more than one variable in step 4. Instead of first derivative one can also apply second derivative test if the second test exist. y. Ask yourself what is the unknown? What are the given quantities? What are the given conditions? (2) Draw diagram : In most problems it is useful to draw a diagram and identify the given and required quantities on the diagram. use the given information to find relationship (in the form of equation) among these variables.
Therefore 2x + y = 2400 Hence y = 2400 − 2x and the area is A= x (2400 – 2x) = 2400 x − 2x2 Note that x ≥ 0 and x ≤ 1200 (otherwise A < 0).4) and (x. 5.000.y) y2 (x. In this case x > 0 and y > 0.y) be the point on the parabola y2 = 2x.We want to express A as a function of just one variable.4) y Solution : Let (x.y) lies on y = 2x ⇒ x = 2 . Note : This problem also be done by using second derivative test (local). 2 4 (1. so we eliminate y by expressing it in terms of x. A(600) = 7. y2 so d2= f(y) = ( 2 − 1)2 + (y − 4)2 0 1 2 x Fig. A′(x) = 2400 − 4x. so to find the critical numbers we solve the equation 2400 − 4x = 0 which gives x = 600. thus the maximum value is A (600) = 720. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1200. The maximum of A must occur either at this critical number or at an end point of the interval. Since A(0) = 0.39 (Note that the minimum of d occurs at the same point as the minimum of d2) y2 Now f ′(y) = 2 2 − 1 (y) + 2 (y − 4) = y3 − 8 = 0 at a critical point. y3 − 8 = 0 ⇒ y = 2 (since y2 + 2y + 4 = 0 is not possible) 55 . y = 2400 − 1200 = 1200 Hence the rectangular field should be 600 ft wide and 1200 ft long.y) is d = (x −1)2 + (y − 4)2 .20. The distance between the points (1. When x = 600.000 and A(1200) = 0. So the function that we wish to maximize is A (x) = 2400 x − 2x2. Example 5.4) y2 = 2x (x.53 : Find a point on the parabola y2 = 2x that is closest to the point (1. To do this we use the given information that the total length of the fencing is 2400 ft.
for absolute extrema. The corresponding value of x is x = 2 = 2. so by the first derivate test.4) is (2.55 : The top and bottom margins of a poster are each 6 cms and the side margins are each 4 cms. Note : The dimensions of the largest rectangle that can be inscribed in a r semicircle are 2r . Thus the point on y2 = 2x closest to (1. The maximum value of π π π sin 2θ = 1 ⇒ 2θ = 2 or θ = 4 . If the area of the printed material on the poster is fixed at 384 cms2. find the dimension of the poster with the smallest area. we understand that the method of calculus gives the solution faster than the algebraic method.40 = r2 2 sin θ cos θ = r2 sin 2θ Now A(θ) is maximum when sin 2θ is maximum.Observe that f ′(y) < 0 when y < 2 and f ′(y) > 0 when y > 2. for θ = 4 ⇒ θ = 4 gives the π maximum point and the maximum point is 4 .2). 2 π π A ′(θ) = 2r2 cos 2θ = 0 ⇒ 2θ = 2 . then the area xy = 384 56 . 5. the absolute minimum occurs when y2 y = 2. Solution : x2 +y2 =r2 Let θ be the angle made by OP P(r cos θ. Solution : Let x and y be the length and breadth of printed area. r sin θ) with the positive direction of x–axis. r Then the area of the rectangle A is θ x A(θ) = (2 r cosθ) (r sinθ) Fig. Example 5. θ = 4 Aliter : π π A ′′(θ) = −4r2 sin 2 θ < 0. r2 From the above problem.54 : Find the area of the largest rectangle that can be inscribed in a semi circle of radius r. (Note that A′ (θ) = 0 when θ = 4 ) π π Therefore the critical number is 4. The area A4 = r2. Note : This problem also be done by using second derivative test Example 5.
If h is the height of the cone. Solution : Given that a is the radius of the sphere and let x be the base radius of a the cone.Dimensions of the poster area are (x + 8) and (y + 12) respectively. the area is minimum ∴ y = 24 ∴ x + 8 = 24. A′′ > 0 ∴ when x = 16.56 : Show that the volume of the largest right circular cone that can 8 be inscribed in a sphere of radius a is 27 (volume of the sphere). 5. y + 12 = 36 Hence the dimensions are 24cm and 36 cm. c then its volume is α y 1 2 V = 3 πx h O x 1 …(1) = 3 π x2 (a + y) Fig.42 where OC = y so that height h = a + y. From the diagram x2 + y2 = a2 Using (2) in (1) we have 1 V = 3 π (a2 − y2) (a + y) (2) 57 .41 1 A″ = 16 × 384 × 3 x A′ = 0 ⇒ x = ± 16 But x > 0 ∴ x = 16 when x = 16. Poster area A = (x + 8) (y + 12) = xy +12x + 8y + 96 = 12x + 8y + 480 384 = 12x + 8 x + 480 1 A′ = 12 − 8 × 384 × 2 x x +8 6 cms 4 x y 6 cms 4 y +12 Fig. Example 5. 5.
50 per square cm.c.For the volume to be maximum : 1 V ′=0 ⇒ 3 π [a2 − 2ay − 3y2] = 0 ⇒ 3y = +a or y = −a a ⇒ y = 3 and y = − a is not possible a 2 Now V″ = − π 3 (a + 3y) < 0 at y = 3 a ∴ the volume is maximum when y = 3 and the maximum volume is 8a2 1 8 4 8 1 π × 9 (a + 3 a) = 27 (3 πa3) = 27 (volume of the sphere) 3 Example 5. + ∞). Let C be the cost of the material Area of the bottom = x2 Area of the top = x2 Combined area of the top and bottom = 2x2 Area of the four sides = 4xy Cost of the material for the top and bottom = 3(2x2) Cost of the material for the sides = (1. find the dimensions of the box. If the cost of the materials is to be the least. 12000 C ′ (x) = 12x − x2 C ′ (x) = 0 ⇒ 12x3 − 12000 = 0 ⇒ 12(x3 − 103) = 0 ⇒ x = 10 or x2 + 10x + 100 = 0 58 . and the material for the sides is to cost Rs. 3 per square cm.57 : A closed (cuboid) box with a square base is to have a volume of 2000 c..5) (4xy) = 6xy Total cost C = 6x2 + 6xy 2 …(1) Volume of the box V = (area) (depth) = x y=2000 …(2) 12000 Eliminating y from (1) & (2) we get C(x) = 6x2 + x …(3) where x > 0. x ∈ (0. y respectively denote the length of the side of the square base and depth of the box. Solution : Let x. ie. 1.+ ∞) and C(x) is continuous on (0. The material for the top and bottom of the box is to cost Rs.
2 6 x +9 4x = 3 7x2 = 81 x2 + 9 16x2 = 9 (x2 + 9) 59 . as quickly as possible. or he could row to some point S between Q and R and then run to Q. S Then the rowing time Rt = x2 + 9 6 and the running time rt = (8 −x) 8 8x Q Fig. C ″(10) = 12 + 1000 = 36 > 0 3 x ∴ C is minimum at (10. 5. he rows to R and if x = 8 he rows directly to Q. We know that time = rate . He could row his boat directly across the river to point R and then run to Q. 3 km wide.58 : A man is at a point P on a bank of a straight river. or he could row directly to Q.43 Therefore the total time T = Rt + rt = (8 −x) x2 + 9 + 8 . and wants to reach point Q.x2 + 10x + 100 = 0 is not possible ∴ The critical numbers is x = 10. 8 km downstream on the opposite bank. 24000 24000 Now C ″(x) = 12 + . 1800) ∴ the base length is 10cm and 2000 depth is y = 100 = 20 cm. Example 5. Then the √( x2 + x running distance is 8 − x and the distance 9) distance 2 PS = x + 9 . 0 ≤ x ≤ 8. x 1 T ′(x) = 0 ⇒ T ′(x) = − 8 = 0 for critical points. 6 Notice that if x = 0.C(10)) = (10. If he can row at 6 km/h and run at 8 km/h where should he land to reach Q as soon as possible ? Solution : 3km P R Let x be the distance from R to S.
11 Concavity (convexity) and points of inflection : Figure 5. Find two positive numbers whose product is 100 and whose sum is minimum. F = x + 100x. In (b) the curve lies below the tangents and g is called concave downward (convex upward) on [a. F.9 9 since x = − is not admissible. In (a) the curve lies above the tangents and f is called concave upward (convex downward) on [a.33. Show that of all the rectangles with a given area the one with smallest perimeter is a square. 5. 5. of a moving vehicle is given by.44 (c). 7 ⇒ x= T(0) = 1. 5 Resistance to motion. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 9 km (≈ 3. (d) tangents to these curves have been drawn at several points. Find the dimensions of the rectangle of largest area that can be inscribed in a circle of radius r. 7 7 9 The only critical number is x = . b].10 Find two numbers whose sum is 100 and whose product is a maximum. Both graphs join point A to point B but they look different because they bend in different directions.44 (a). the man 7 Since the smallest of these values of T occurs when x = should land the boat at a point point. b] 60 . b].5. Determine the minimum value of resistance. Show that of all the rectangles with a given perimeter the one with the greatest area is a square. (b) shows the graphs of two increasing functions on [a.42 7 9 .4 km) down stream from his starting 7 EXERCISE 5. T 9 7 73 = 1 + 8 ≈ 1. We calculate T at the end point of the 7 9 domain 0 and 8 and at x = . and T(8) = 6 ≈ 1. How can we distinguish between these two types of behaviour? In fig.
44 (b) B A 0 x 0 A x Fig.5. (ii) If f′′(x) < 0 for all x in I. 61 . The test for concavity (convexity) : Suppose f is twice differentiable on an interval I. This reasoning can be reversed and suggests that the following theorem is true. (i) If f ′′(x) > 0 for all x in I. so f ′(x) decreases and therefore f ′′(x) is negative. the slope of the tangent increases. going from left to right.y B f A y B g A 0 y a b x 0 y a b x Fig. This means that the derivative f ′(x) is an increasing function and therefore its derivative f ′′(x) is positive. it is called concave downward (convex upward) on I. 5. 5. 5.44 (a) B Fig.44(c) Definition : Fig.5. If the graph of f lies below all of its tangents on I.44 (d) the slope of the tangent decreases from left to right. then it is called concave upward (convex downward) on I.44(c). then the graph of f is concave downward (convex upward) on I. Looking at Fig. Let us see how the second derivative helps to determine the intervals of concavity (convexity).44 (d) If the graph of f lies above all of its tangents on an interval I. Likewise in Fig. then the graph of f is concave upward (convex downward) on I. you can see that. 5.
f ′′(a) and f ′′(b) must differ in sign.45 Remark : We caution the reader that points of inflections need not be critical points and critical points need not be points of inflections. is A x A x B x B x O O O O Fig. b) of x0 such that f ′′(x) > 0 for every x in (a. it is necessary that f ′′(x0) = 0. above it. if it exists. because on one side the curve lies under the tangent and on the other side. f ′′(a) andyf ′′(b) differ in sign. then x0 is a point of inflection and for points of inflections x0. f(x0)) is a point of inflection of the graph of f if there exists a neighbourhood (a. If f ′′(x) does not change its sign even if f ′′(x0) = 0 then x0 cannot be a point of inflection. b) of x0. That is the point that separates the convex part of a continuous curve from the concave part is called the point of inflection of the curve. Theorem : Let a curve be defined by an equation y = f(x). f ′′(x0) = 0 and in the immediate neighbourhood (a. y y That y in the neighbourhood of x0. However x = x0 is a critical point such that f ′(x) does not change its sign as f(x) passes through x0. x0) and f ′′(x) < 0 for every x in (x0. It is obvious that at the point of inflection the tangent line. If f ′′(x0) = 0 or f ′′(x0) does not exist and if the derivative f ′′(x) changes sign when passing through x = x0. then the point of the curve with abcissa x = x0 is the point of inflection. 62 . b) or vice versa. 5. cuts the curve. Thus the conjoint of the above discussion is that for points of inflections x0. Equivalently the point (x0.Definition : A point P on a curve is called a point of inflection if the curve changes from concave upward (convex downward) to concave downward (convex upward) or from concave downward (convex upward) to concave upward (convex downward) at P. The following theorem says under what situation a critical point of f′ becomes a point of inflection.
y′′ = ex > 0 for x Hence the curve is everywhere convex downward. 63 .60 : Determine the domain of convexity of the function y = ex. 0. 0) is a point of inflection with xaxis as the horizontal tangent at (0.. 0 0) is a point of inflection. y Again y′′(0) = 0. Thus the first derivative test confirms that (0. etc. Thus y′ does not change its sign as f(x) passes through x = 0. Note that (0.If x = x0 is a root of odd order − simple.1) > 0 i. Example 5. y′ = 3x2 and y ′′ = 6x.59 : Determine the domain of concavity y = 2 − x2. Solution : Concave downward Fig. Clearly y′ (x) > 0 for x < 0 and x > 0. then x = x0 yields a maximum or minimum. In upward Convex this case the second derivative downward (concavity) test also confirms that (0.1) > 0.e. 5.46 (convexity) of the curve y = 2 − x2 y′ = − 2x and y′′ = − 2 < 0 for x ∈ R Here the curve is everywhere concave downwards (convex upwards).1) > 0 and y′(0. Here y′(0) = 0 and y′′(0) = 0 and x = 0 happens to be a critical point of both y and y′.1) of 0. Here y′′ changes its Concave sign as y(x) passes through x = 0. triple. x = x0 yield a point of inflection with a horizontal tangent. Note also that y′(x) = 3x2 and x = 0 is a double root of y′(x) = 0. 0) Example 5. y′′(− 0. y′ does not change its sign. That is y′ (− 0. of the function f ′(x) = 0. 0) is a point of inflection. Solution : y = ex . x Convex 3 0) separates the convex part of y = x upward from the concave part. The root order test also confirms that (0. in the neighbourhood (− 0.1) < 0 y =x3 and y′′(0.1. These concepts are made clear in the following illustrative example y = x3. If x = x0 is a root of even order.
0) and (0. 5. (0. 0). we divide the real line into three intervals. and where it is concave downward. Since the curve changes from concave downward to concave upward when x = 0. (2. ∞). the point (0. Note : The curve is concave upward in (− ∞. Solution : y=x 4 y 16 12 y =x4 y′′ = 12x2 = 0 for x = 0 and y′′ > 0 for x < 0 and x > 0 8 Therefore the curve is concave 4 upward and y′′ does not change sign 0 as y(x) passes through x = 0. Also find the inflection points.63 : Discuss the curve y = x4 − 4x3 with respect to concavity and points of inflection. Solution : f(x) = x4 − 4x3 ⇒ f ′(x) = 4x3 − 12x2 f ′′(x) = 12x2 − 24x = 12x (x − 2) Since f ′′(x) = 0 when x = 0 or 2. (0.61 : Test the curve y = x4 for points of inflection.49 (− ∞. 1) is a point of inflection. 64 . x Example 5. 5. 2).62 : Determine where the curve y = x3 − 3x + 1 is cancave upward. 5. The test for concavity then tells us that the curve is concave downward on (− ∞. ∞ 0 2 ∞ Fig. Note that f ′′(0) = 0 Example 5. Thus the 2 1 1 2 curve does not admit any point of Fig.e.Example 5. Solution : f(x) = x3 − 3x + 1 f ′(x) = 3x − 3 = 3(x − 1) 2 2 ∞ x =0 ∞ Fig..47 inflection.48 Now f ′′(x) = 6x Thus f ′′(x) > 0 when x > 0 and f ′′(x) < 0 when x < 0. ∞) and complete the following chart. ∞). 0) and concave upward on (0. f(0)) i.
Also from the signs of the second derivatives. there is a point of inflection 2 2 on the curve.. 0) (0.e. its coordinates are − When x < 1 − . y′′ = 2e−x (2x2 − 1) (The first and second derivatives exist everywhere). f(2)) i. (2..50 1 1 when x < − we have y′′ > 0 and when x > − we have y′′ < 0 2 2 The second derivative changes sign from positive to negative when passing 1 1 through the point x = − . e 2. Hence. Thus 2 2 1 there is also a point of inflection on the curve for x = . for x = − . or x = 2 2 2 ∞ 1/√2 0 1/√2 ∞ Fig. 0) is an inflection point since the curve changes from concave upward to concave downward there. Note : The intervals of concavity can be obtained by taking and checking a sample point in the subinterval. the existence of the second point of inflection follows 2 directly from the symmetry of the curve about the yaxis). − 16) is an inflection point since the curve changes from concave downward to concave upward there.64 : Find the points of inflection and determine the intervals of convexity and concavity of the Gaussion curve y = e−x 2 2 2 Solution : y′ = − 2xe−x . (Incidentally. ∞) f ′′(x) = 12x (x − 2) + − + concavity upward downward upward The point (0. (0. it follows that 65 . Also (2. f(0)) i. Example 5. its coordinates are 2 1 1 − . e 2 2 1 1 1 we have y′′ < 0 and when x > we have y′′ > 0 . 2) (2.Inerval (− ∞.e. Find the values of x for which y′′ = 0 2e−x (2x2 − 1) = 0 1 1 x=− . 5.
0) is a point of inflection.1) = 6(− 0. 2) is a point of inflection.9π) < 0 and y′′(1. 2 Example 5..66 : Test for points of inflection of the curve y = sinx.1 π) > 0 since sin (1. 2 1 1 <x< the curve is convex upward . of the function y = x3 − 3x + 2 dy 2 dx = 3x − 3 = 3(x + 1) (x − 1) d2y = 6x = 0 ⇒ x = 0 dx2 Now d2y (− 0. 0. y (0)) i.1) dx2 of 0. In the neighbourhood (− 0..1) < 0 and dx2 d2y (0.1) > 0. y′′ (− 0. ±1. f(π)) = (π.1) = 6(0. ± 2. x ∈ (0. Now y′′ (.1) are of opposite signs. 66 .1π) is negative The second derivative test confirms that (π. 2π)..for − ∞ < x < − for − for 1 the curve is concave upward .1π) = − sin (1. . 2 2 1 < x < ∞ the curve is concave upward.e. since x ∈(0. 2π) Solution : y′ = cosx y′′ = − sinx = 0 ⇒ x = nπ.9π) = − sin (.65 : Determine y = x3 − 3x + 2 Solution : the points of inflection if any. (0. Therefore (0. n = 0. Example 5. Note : Note that x = 0 is not a critical point since y′ (0) = − 3 ≠ 0.1. x = π corresponding to n = 1.1) and y′′(0.
n = 0. 0).11 Find the intervals of concavity and the points of inflection of the following functions : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) f(x) = (x − 1)1/3 f(x) = x2 − x f(x) = 2x3 + 5x2 − 4x f(x) = x4 − 6x2 f(θ) = sin 2θ in (0. ± 1. In fact y = sin x admits countable number of points of inflections in the range (− ∞. EXERCISE 5. … and in none of the cases. each of which is given by (nπ. ±2.Note : Note that x = π is not a stationary point since y′(π) = cos π = − 1 ≠ 0. π) y = 12x2 − 2x3 − x4 67 . y′(nπ) = (− 1)n vanishes. This shows that points of inflections need not be stationary points. ∞).
But is a point of inflection. Second derivative test This gives us the following diagram of possible cases. Signs of derivative f ′′(x) at the critical point of f(x) or f ′(x) x = x0 f ′(x0) 0 0 x < x0 + − + − 0 or ≠ 0 0 or ≠ 0 0 or ≠ 0 0 or ≠ 0 f ′′(x0) − + f ′′(x0) 0 0 0 0 Critical point of f Critical point of f x > x0 − + + − Maximum point Minimum point Point of Inflection Point of inflection Unknown Unknown Character of the point 68 .Testing a differentiable function for maximum and minimum with a first derivative This gives us the following diagram of possible cases. Neither maximum nor minimum (function decreases) But is a point of inflection. Signs of derivative f ′(x) when passing through Character of critical point critical point x0 x = x0 x > x0 x < x0 + − + f ′ (x0) = 0 or is discontinuous f ′ (x0) = 0 or is discontinuous f ′(x0) = 0 or is discontinuous − f ′(x0) = 0 or is discontinuous − − + + Maximum point Minimum point Neither maximum nor minimum (function increases).
6. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS APPLICATIONSII
6.1 Differentials : Errors and Approximation
dy dx to denote the derivative of y with respect to x but we have regarded it as a single entity and not as a ratio. In this section we give the quantities dy and dx separate meanings in such a way that their ratio is equal to the derivative. We also see that these quantities, called differentials, are useful in finding the approximate values of functions. We have used the Liebnitz notation Definition 1 : Let y = f(x) be a differentiable function. Then the quantities dx and dy are called differentials. The differential dx is an independent variable that is dx can be given any real number as the value. The differential dy is then defined in terms of dx by the relation dy = f ′(x) dx (dx ≈ ∆x) Note : (1) The differentials dx and dy are both variables, but dx is an independent variable, where as dy is a dependent variable – it depends on the values of x and dx. If dx is given a specific value and x is taken to be some specific number in the domain of f, then the numerical value of dy is determined. (2) If dx ≠ 0 we can divide both sides of dy = f ′(x) dx by dx to obtain dy dy dx = f ′(x). Thus dx now is the ratio of differentials. Example 6.1 : If y = x3 + 2x2 (i)find dy (ii) find the value of dy when x = 2 and dx = 0.1 Solution : (i) If f(x) = x3 + 2x2, then f ′(x) = 3x2 + 4x, so dy = (3x2 + 4x) dx (ii) Substituting x = 2 and dx = 0.1, we get dy = (3 × 22 + 4 × 2)0.1 = 2.
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6.1.1 Geometric meaning of differentials :
Let P(x,f(x)) and Q(x + ∆x, f(x +∆x)) be points on the graph of f and set dx = ∆x. The corresponding change in y is ∆y = f(x + ∆x) − f(x) The slope of the tangent line PR is the derivate f ′(x). Thus the directed distance from S to R is f ′(x) dx = dy.
y y =f (x) P
R Q S ∆y
dy
dx = ∆x 0 x x + ∆x x
Fig. 6.1 Therefore dy represents the amount that the tangent line rises or falls whereas ∆y represents the amount that the curve y = f(x) rises or falls when x changes by an amount dx. dy ∆y ∆y dy lim Since dx = ∆x → 0 , we have ≈ ….(1) when ∆x is small. ∆x ∆x dx Geometrially, this says that the slope of the secant line PQ is very close to the slope of the tangent line at P when ∆x is small. If we take dx = ∆x, then (1) becomes ∆y ≈ dy ….(2) which says that if ∆x is small, then the actual change in y is approximately equal to the differential dy. Again this is geometrically evident in the case illustrated by Fig. 6.1. The actual change in y is referred as absolute error. The actual error in y is ∆y ≈ dy. ∆y Actual change in y The quantity y = Actual value of y is called relative error and the ∆y quantity y × 100 is called percentage error. The approximation given by (2) can be used in computing approximate values of functions. Suppose that f(a) is a known number and an approximate value is calculated for f(a + ∆x) where dx is small, since f(a + ∆x) = f(a) + ∆y, (2) gives, f(a + ∆x) ≈ f(a) + dy….(3) Example 6.2 : Compute the values of ∆y and dy if y = f(x) = x3 + x2 − 2x + 1 where x changes (i) from 2 to 2.05 and (ii) from 2 to 2.01 Solution : (i) We have f(2) = 23 + 22 − 2(2) + 1 = 9 f(2.05) = (2.05)3 + (2.05)2 − 2(2.05) + 1 = 9.717625. and ∆y = f(2.05) − f(2) = 0.717625. In general dy = f ′(x) dx = (3x2 + 2x − 2)dx When x = 2, dx = ∆x = 0.05 and dy = [(3(2)2+2(2)−2] 0.05 = 0.7
70
(ii)
f(2.01) = (2.01)3 − (2.01)2 − 2(2.01) + 1 = 9.140701 ∴ ∆y = f(2.01) − f(2) = 0.140701
When dx = ∆x = 0.01, dy = [3(2)2 + 2(2) − 2]0.01 = 0.14 Remark : The approximation ∆y ≈ dy becomes better as ∆x becomes smaller in Example 6.2. Also dy was easier than to compute ∆y. For more complicated functions it may be impossible to compute ∆y exactly. In such cases the approximation by differentials is especially useful. Example 6.3 : Use differentials to find an approximate value for Solution : Let y = f(x) = 3 1 x = x. Then dy = 3 x.
−2 1 3 −2 3
3
65.
dx
Since f(64) = 4. We take x = 64 and dx = ∆x = 1 1 1 1 This gives dy = 3 (64) 3 (1) = 3(16) = 48 ∴ 3 1 65 = f(64 + 1) ≈ f(64) + dy = 4 + 48 ≈ 4.021
3 Note : The actual value of 65 is 4.0207257... Thus the approximation by differentials is accurate to three decimal places even when ∆x = 1. Example 6.4 : The radius of a sphere was measured and found to be 21 cm with a possible error in measurement of atmost 0.05 cm. What is the maximum error in using this value of the radius to compute the volume of the sphere ? Solution : If the radius of the sphere is r, then its volume is V = 3 π r3. If the error in the measured value of r is denoted by dr = ∆r, then, the corresponding error in the calculated value of V is ∆V. which can be approximated by the differential dV = 4πr2 dr. When r = 21 and dr=0.05, this becomes dV = 4π(21)2 0.05 ≈ 277. The maximum error in the calculated volume is about 277 cm3. Note : Although the possible error in the above example may appear to be rather large, a better picture of the error is given by the relative error, which is computed by dividing the error by the total volume. ∆V dV 277 V ≈ V ≈ 38,808 ≈ 0.00714
4
71
Thus a relative error of r = 21 ≈ 0.0024 in the radius produces a relative error of about 0.007 in the volume. The errors could also be expressed as percentage errors of 0.24% in the radius and 0.7% in the volume. Example 6.5 : The time of swing T of a pendulum is given by T = k l where k is a constant. Determine the percentage error in the time of swing if the length of the pendulum l changes from 32.1 cm to32.0 cm.
1
dr
0.05
Solution :
If T = k l
= k l2
1
1 − dT k Then dl = k 2 × l 2 = 2 l and dl = 32.0 − 32.1 = −0.1 cm Error in T = Approximate change in T. dT k (−0.1) ∆T ≈ dT = dl dl = 2 l k (−0.1) ∆T × 100 % = 2 l Percentage error = T × 100 % k l −0.1 −0.1 = 2l × 100 % = 2(32.1) × 100% = − 0.156% Hence the percentage error in the time of swing is a decrease of 0.156%. Aliter : T = k l 1 Taking log on both sides, log T = log k + 2 log l 1 1 1 Taking differential on both sides, T dT = 0 + 2 l × dl ∆T 1 1 1 i.e, T ≈ T dT = 0 + 2 l × dl ∆T 1 dl T × 100 = 2 × l × 100 1 (−0.1) = 2 × 32.1 × 100 = − 0.156% ie., the percentage error in the time of swing is a decrease of 0.156.
Caution : Differentiation is carried out with the common understanding that the function involved admit logarithmic differentiation.
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Example 6.6 : A circular template has a radius of 10 cm (± 0.02). Determine the possible error in calculating the area of the templates. Find also the percentage error. dA Solution : Area of circular template A = πr2, hence dr = 2πr, Approximate change in area ∆A ≈ (2πr)dr. When r = 10 cm and dr = 0.02 ∆A = (2π 10) (0.02) ≈ 0.4π cm2 i.e, the possible error in calculating the template area is approximately 1.257 cm2 0.4π Percentage error ≈ × 100 = 0.4% π(10)2 Example 6.7 : Show that the percentage error in the nth root of a number is 1 approximately n times the percentage error in the number . Solution : Let x be the number. Let y = f(x) = (x) 1 Then log y = n log x 1 1 1 Taking differential on both sides, we have y dy = n × x dx 1 1 1 ∆y i.e., y ≈ y dy = n . x dx ∆y 1 dx ∴ y × 100 ≈ n x × 100 1 = n times the percentage error in the number. Example 6.8 : Find the approximate change in the volume V of a cube of side x meters caused by increasing the side by 1% Solution : The volume of the cube of side x is, V = x3 ; dV = 3x2 dx When dx = 0.01x, dV = 3x2 × (0.01x) = 0.03 x3 m3. EXERCISE 6.1 (1) Find the differential of the functions (i) y = x5 x−2 (iv) y = 2x + 3 (ii) y = 4 x (iii) y = x4 + x2 + 1
1 n
(v) y = sin 2x
(vi) y = x tan x
73
y = (x2 + 5)3. (i) Use differentials to estimate the maximum error in the calculated area of the disc.02 π y = cos x. Extent. dx = 2 y = x4 − 3x3+ x −1.2 Curve Tracing : The study of calculus and its applications is best understood when it is studied through the geometrical representation of the functions involved. x = 0. x = 1.1 cm.02 (iv) (1.97)6 (4) The edge of a cube was found to be 30 cm with a possible error in measurement of 0. (ii) Compute the relative error ? 6. dx = 0. x = 5. But we can sketch the graph of the function and know its nature by certain specific properties and some special points. dx = 0. Intercepts and origin : (i) Domain of a function y = f(x) is determined by the values of x for which the function is defined.1 3 (iii) y = 1.1.05 y = 1 − x . In order to investigate the nature of a function (graph) it is not possible to locate each and every point of the graph. x = 6 dx = 0.02 + 4 (3) Use differentials to find an approximate value for the given number (i) 36. 74 .1 1. x = 2.05 1 (ii) 10. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 1 y = 1 − x2 . To do this we adopt the following strategies.02 cm. dx = 0. Use differentials to estimate the maximum possible error in computing (i) the volume of the cube and (ii) the surface area of cube. (1) Domain. (5) The radius of a circular disc is given as 24 cm with a maximum error in measurement of 0.(2) Find the differential dy and evaluate dy for the given values of x and dx.
0). Clearly x = 0 yields the y intercept as + 1 and y = 0 yields the x intercepts as −1. (iii) x = 0 yields the y − intercept and y = 0 yields the x – intercept (iv) If (0.9 : Trace the curve y = x3 + 1 Solution : (1) Domain. (iv) the line y = x if its equation is unchanged when x and y are replaced by y and x. (4) Monotonicity : Determine the intervals of x for which the curve is decreasing or increasing using the first derivates test. 75 . (5) Special points (Nature of bending) : Determine the intervals of concavity and inflection points using the first and second derivatives test. c finite [x → k. It is obvious that the curve does not pass through (0. ∞). Extent. Illustrative Example : Example 6. (v) the line y = − x if its equation is unchanged when x and y are replaced by − y and − x. intercepts and origin : The function is defined for all real values of x and hence the domain is the entire interval (−∞. (2) Symmetry : Find out whether the curve is symmetrical about any line with the help of the following rules : The curve is symmetrical about (i) the xaxis if its equation is unaltered when y is replaced by − y (ii) the yaxis if its equation is unaltered when x is replaced by − x. k finite] whenever x → ± ∞ [y → ± ∞] then the line y = c [x = k] is an asymptote parallel to x − axis [y – axis].(ii) Horizontal (vertical) extent of the curve is determined by the intervals of x (y) for which the curve exists. (iii) the origin if it is unaltered when x is replaced by − x and y is replaced by − y simultaneously. Horizontal extent is −∞ < x < ∞ and vertical extent is − ∞ < y < ∞. (3) Asymptotes (parallel to the coordinate axes only) : If y → c.0) satisfies the given equation then the curve will pass through the origin.
2 Example 6. y → ± ∞. (5) Special points : The curve is concave downward in (−∞. y = 0 and when y = 0. we have. (3) Asymptotes : As x → + ∞. 0) and concave upward in (0. ∴ the curve does not admit asymptotes. Solution : (1) Domain. (4) Monotonicity : For the branch y = 2 x3/2 of the curve is increasing since dy 3/2 dx > 0 for x > 0 and the branch y = − 2x of the curve is decreasing dy since dx < 0 for x > 0 76 .(2) Symmetry Test : The symmetry test shows that the curve does not possess any of the symmetry properties. y is well defined. (3) Asymptotes : As x → c (for c finite) y does not tend to ± ∞ and vice versa. x = 0 Clearly the curve passes through origin. extent. (4) Monotonicity : The first derivative test shows that the curve is increasing throughout (−∞.1) as the inflection point 6 4 2 y 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 2 4 x y =x3 +1 Fig. Therefore the curve doest not admit any asymptote.10 : Trace the cure y2 = 2x3. Intercept and Origin : When x ≥ 0. (2) Symmetry : By symmetry test. the curve is symmetric about x – axis only. and vice versa. The curve exists in first and fourth quadrant only The intercepts with the axes are given by : x = 0. As x → ∞. 6. ∞) since y′′ = 6x < 0 for x < 0 y′′ = 6x > 0 for x > 0 and y′′ = 0 for x = 0 yields (0.∞) since y′ ≥ 0 for all x. y → ± ∞.
11 : Discuss the curve y2 ( 1 + x) = x2 (1 − x) for (i) existence (ii) symmetry (iii) asymptotes (iv) loops Solution : (i) Existence : The function is not well defined when x >1 and x ≤ −1 and the curve lies between −1 < x ≤ 1.0) is a point through which the curve passes twice and hence a loop is formed between x = 0 and x = 1. 0) admits a pair of tangents which coincide.0) x Fig. y This curve is called a semi – cubical parabola. x2 ≤ a2 i.3 Example 6.e.0) (1.4 Example 6.0) is not a point of inflection.12 : Discuss the curve a2 y2 = x2 (a2 − x2). (0. resulting in a special point. a > 0 for (i) existence (ii) symmetry (iii) asymptotes (iv) loops Solution : (i) Existence : The curve is well defined for (a2 − x2) ≥ 0 i.e.0) x Fig.. (ii) Symmetry : The curve is symmetrical about the x − axis only. called cusp. y x =1 (0. x ≤ a and x ≥ − a 77 . (iii) Asymptotes : x = −1 is a vertical asymptote to the curve parallel to y − axis..(5) Special points : (0. Note : (0.0) (1. 6. (iv) Loops : (0. 6.
The curve is defined for x ≥ 1.. and hence about the origin. (iv) Loops : For −a < x < 0 and 0 < x < a. (iv) Loops : Clearly a loop is formed between (1. for (i) existence (ii) symmetry (iii) asymptotes (iv) loops Solution : (i) Existence : The curve is not defined for x − 1 < 0. y 2 1 0 1 2 3 x 2 Fig. y a (0.6 EXERCISE 6.2 (1) Trace the curve y = x3 Discuss the following curves for (i) existence (ii) symmetry (iii) asymptotes (iv) loops (3) y2 (2 + x) = x2 (6 − x) (2) y2 = x2 (1 − x2) (5) y2 = (x − a) (x − b)2 . ie.(ii) Symmetry : The curve is symmetrical about xaxis. 6.13 : Discuss the curve y = (x − 1) (x − 2)2.0) a x Fig. is negative ⇒ y2 < 0 which is impossible. 6. a > b.S. (4) y2 = x2 (1 − x) 78 . the R. (iii) Asymptotes : It has no asymptote. a. 0) and (2. 0). y – axis. (ii) Symmetry : The curve is symmetrical about xaxis. whenever x < 1.H. (iii) Asymptote : The curve does not admit asymptotes. b > 0. y2 > 0 ⇒ y is positive and negative ∴ a loop is formed between x = 0 and x = a and another loop is formed between x = −a and x = 0.5 Example 6.
In all the above cases either economy or yield or character or area or volume depends on more than one variable (factor). breadth and height. We may consider functions of two or three independent variables only. These small changes can take place in all the variables (independent) simultaneously or in some of them while others are not subjected to any change.y). But we shall restrict ourselves to the discussion of the change in one variable fixing the rest. 6. area (A) and volume (V) also depend on the dimensions like length.3 Partial Differentiation : A nation’s economy (E) depends on many factors. x Note that ‘A’ depends on two A independent variables x and y. We can also discuss the continuity problems and the limit process for functions depending on more than one variable similar to that of their counterpart in single variable differential calculus. Note that change in both x and y will also cause change in area A. 79 . y + ∆y instead of y..7 Suppose a small change is made in y ie. In this case the area is (x +∆x) (y + ∆y) = area of aeih.6. environment etc. soil. Then A = xy = f(x. then the new area A′ = x(y + ∆y). Similarly the character (C) of a child is formed by its parent’s characters.. g h For clarity. manure etc.. it becomes necessary to know what changes will be caused in the respective dependent variable E or Y or C or A or V. keeping the remaining independent variables fixed leads to what is known as partial differentiation. If any small change is effected in any of the variables (factors). if we interchange roles of x and y in the above we get new area abgh = A′′ = (x + ∆x)y. In plane geometry. Similarly. let us consider the ∆x area (A) of a rectangle of length x f c d and breadth y. a b e y A = xy = area of abcd ∆y Fig. The study of these changes in the dependent variable while a corresponding change is made in one or more of the independent variables. Note that x is fixed still there is change in the area A. An yield (Y) of a crop also depends on various factors such as rain.
A function is said to be differentiable at a point (at all points on a domain) if its partial derivatives exist at that point (at all points of a domain). y0)) h provided the limit exists. Remark : Throughout we shall consider only continuous functions of two or three variables possessing continuous first order partial derivatives. y0) − f(x0. y) We define partial derivative of u with respect to x at the point (x0. partial derivatives of u = f(x.y0) x=x ∂x (x .y0) be any point in the domain of definition of f(x.y) with respect to y at the point (x0.y). defined by.y0) = h→0 . ∂u d = dx f(x. y ) 0 0 0 lim f(x0 + h. ∂2f ∂ ∂f 2 = ∂y ∂y and ∂y ∂ ∂f ∂ ∂f ∂2f ∂2f = ∂y = ∂y ∂x = ∂y ∂x denoted respectively ∂x ∂y ∂x as fxx or uxx. (denoted by fx or ux at (x0. i. Let u = f(x.e.y0) is d ∂u = dy f(x0. y0)) h provided the limit exists.y0) as the ordinary derivative of f(x.y) y=y ∂y (x ..y0) = h→0 (denoted by fy or uy at (x0.y) twice we obtain its second order derivatives.y0) with respect to x at the point x = x0. y ) 0 0 0 lim f(x0. Second Order Partial Derivatives : When we differentiate a function u = f(x. The process of finding partial derivatives is called partial differentiation. fyy or uyy and fxy = fyx or uxy = uyx Note that since the function and its partial derivaties are continuous the order of differentiation is immaterial (A result due to Euler) 80 . ∂ ∂f ∂2f 2 = ∂x ∂x ∂x . y0 + h) − f(x0. Similarly.Partial Derivatives : Let (x0.
6. z are differentiable functions of t.y) dependent variable ∂u / ∂x x dx / dt ∂u / ∂y y dy / dt t independent variable dy / dt Fig.v).v) ∂w / ∂u u ∂u / ∂x x ∂w / ∂v v ∂v / ∂x ∂w / ∂u u ∂u / ∂y y . z) is differentiable u dependent variable and x. u = g(x. ∂w ∂w ∂u ∂w ∂v = + ∂y ∂u ∂y ∂v ∂y w = f (u. y.Chain rule (function of a function rule) of two variables : If u = f(x. v = h (x.9 Chain rule for partial derivatives : If w = f(u.y) then ∂w ∂w ∂u ∂w ∂v = + ∂x ∂u ∂x ∂v ∂x w = f (u.10 81 . . then u is a differentiable function of t and du ∂f dx ∂f dy dt = ∂x dt + ∂y dt Tree diagram to remember the chain rule : (2 variables) u = f (x. 6. then u is a differentiable ∂u / ∂z ∂u / ∂x function of t and y du ∂f dx ∂f dy ∂f dz x z dt = ∂x dt + ∂y dt + ∂z dt ∂u / ∂y Tree diagram to remember the chain rule : (3 – variables) dx / dt dz / dt t independent variable Fig.v) ∂w / ∂v v ∂v / ∂y Fig.8 Chain rule (function of a function rule) of three variables : If u = f(x.y) is differentiable and x and y are differentiable functions of t.y.y). 6.
then x ∂y ∂x Remark : Euler’s theorem can be extended to several variables. ty) = tn f(x. f(x. 2.14 : Determine : ∂2u ∂u ∂u ∂2u ∂2u ∂2u . Thus. and ∂y∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y if u(x.y) is homogeneous of degree n if f(tx.S. Example 6.H. = 12xy + 6x ∂x ∂y ∂y∂x Note that derivatives.y) = x4 + y3 + 3x2 y2 + 3x2y ∂u ∂u = 4x3 + 6xy2 + 6xy . = ∑ sin 2x 2 tan z ∂u = tan x + tan y + tan z ∂z 2 (tan x + tan y + tan z) ∂u = tan x + tan y + tan z = 2 = R. 2. = 3y2 + 6x2y + 3x2 Solution : ∂y ∂x ∂2u ∂2u = 12x2 + 6y2 + 6y . prove that ∑ sin 2x Solution : sin 2x sec2x ∂u = tanx + tany + tanz ∂x ∂u = 2 ∂x ∂2 u ∂2u = due to continuity of u and its first order partial ∂x ∂y ∂y∂x 2 sin x cos x . sin 2y ∂y sin 2z L. sec2x 2 tan x ∂u = tan x + tan y + tan z = tan x + tan y + tan z ∂x 2 tan y ∂u = tan x + tan y + tan z similarly.Homogeneous functions : A function of several variables is said to be homogeneous of degree n if multiplying each variables by t (where t > 0) has the same effect as multiplying the original function by tn.H.y) is a homogeneous function of degree n. Example 6.y) Euler’s Theorem : ∂f ∂f +y = nf If f(x.15 : If u = log (tan x + tan y + tan z). . 2 = 6y + 6x2 ∂x2 ∂y ∂2 u ∂2u = 12 xy + 6x .S ∂x 82 .
∂v ∂u 1 ∂u −x ∂u =y . = e .1} = (y − z) [(z − x) − (x − y)] Similarly Uy = (z − x) [(x − y) − (y − z)] Uz = (x − y) [(y − z) − (z − x)] Ux + Uy + Uz = (y − z) [(z − x) − (z − x)] + (x − y) [− (y − z) + (y − z)] + (z − x) [(x − y) − (x − y)] =0 Example 6.Example 6. and = + ∂u ∂x ∂v ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂y ∂v ∂y ∂x ∂w ∂w = 2uev . ∂w 2uev y x = y + u2ev x = xy 2 (2 + y) ∂x y 83 .17 : Suppose that z = ye Solution : x2 dz where x = 2t and y = 1 − t then find dt ∂z dx ∂z dy dz dt = ∂x dt + ∂y dt ∂z dy ∂z x2 x2 dx = ye 2x . dt = −1 ∂y ∂x dz x2 x2 = y 2x e (2) + e (−1) dt x2 x2 4t2 4t2 = 4 xy e − e = e [(8t (1 − t) − 1)] = e (8t − 8t2 −1) (Since x = 2t and y = 1 − t) x ∂w ∂w and Example 6.16 : If U =(x − y) (y − z) (z − x) then show that Ux + Uy + Uz = 0 Solution : Ux = (y − z) {(x − y) (− 1) + (z − x). = u2ev . = 2 ∂x ∂y y y ∂v =x . find ∂x ∂y Solution : We know ∂w ∂u ∂w ∂v ∂w ∂w ∂u ∂w ∂v ∂w = + . dt = 2 .18 : If w = u2 ev where u = y and v = y log x. ∂x ∴ ∂v ∂y = log x.
x Verification : = −x (x2 +y2) −y 3 /2 (x2 +y2) 3 /2 Similarly. (x 2 3 2 /2 = −1 x2 + y2 = − f. dt = − sin t ∂x dy ∂w = 2 . ty) = 1 t x +t y ∂f ∂f +y = −f ∂x ∂y 1 fx = − 2 2x 3 /2 2 2 2 2 1 x + y2 2 1 = t f(x.∴ ∂w −x = 2uev 2 + u2ev log x ∂y y x x2 = 3 xy [ylog x − 2]. y) ∴ f is a homogenous function of degree −1 and by Euler’s theorem.y) = t−1 f(x. fy = (x2 +y2) xfx + yfy = − x2 + y2 +y Hence Euler’s theorem is verified. z = t. dt = cos t ∂y dz ∂w = 2 z . y = sin t . dt = 1 ∂z dw ∴ dt = 1 ( − sin t) + 2 cos t + 2z = − sin t + 2 cos t + 2 t Example 6. ) 84 .20 : Verify Euler’s theorem for f(x. Find dt dw ∂w dx ∂w dy ∂w dz Solution : We know dt = + + ∂x dt ∂y dt ∂z dt ∂w dx = 1 .19 : If w = x + 2y + z2 and x = cos t .y) = Solution : f(tx. (since u = y and v = y log x) y dw Example 6.
. (sin u) + y (sin u) = 2 sin u ∂y ∂x ∂u 1 ∂u x . 85 . Uy is homogeneous function in x and y of degree n − 1.22 : Using Euler’s theorem. x .S. define f = sin u = x+ y ∂f 1 ∂f ∴ By Euler’s theorem.21 : If u is a homogenous function of x and y of degree n.e.. xUyx + y Uyy = (n −1) Uy i. cos u = 2 sin u ∂y ∂x ∂u 1 ∂u x + y = 2 tan u ∂y ∂x EXERCISE 6..e. x + y = 2 f ∂y ∂x 1 ∂ ∂ i. prove that x u = sin−1 x−y x + y Solution: R. prove that ∂2u ∂u ∂2u + y 2 = (n − 1) ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y Solution : Since U is a homogeneous function in x and y of degree n. Applying Euler’s theorem for Uy we have. cos u + y . is not homogeneous and hence 1 x−y ⇒ f is homogeneous of degree 2 . x x(Uy)x + y (Uy)y = (n −1) Uy i. x ∂2u ∂2u ∂u + y 2 = (n − 1) ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂u 1 ∂u + y = tan u if ∂y 2 ∂x Example 6.e.H.Example 6.3 (1) Verify ∂2u ∂2u = for the following functions : ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x x y (ii) u = 2 − 2 (i) u = x2 + 3xy + y2 y x (iii) u = sin 3x cos 4y x (iv) u = tan−1 y .
prove that ∂2u ∂u ∂2u x 2 +y = (n − 1) ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x (iv) If V = zeax + by and z is a homogenous function of degree n in x and ∂V ∂V y prove that x +y = (ax + by + n)V. y = sin t. y = u − v. show that x +y = 0. show that x y ∂u ∂u +y =u ∂x ∂y x y ∂u ∂u x (ii) If u = e sin y + e cos x . ∂x ∂y 86 . ∂x ∂y x− y ∂u ∂u x +y = 3u. y = sin t.(2) (i) If u = x y x2 + y2 . ∂v ∂u (5) Using Euler’s theorem prove the following : (i) If u = tan−1 x3 + y3 ∂u ∂u prove that x +y = sin 2u. ∂x ∂y dw (3) Using chain rule find dt for each of the following : (i) w = e xy where x = t2. (ii) u = xy2 sin y . y = e− t x where x = cos t. y = r sin θ ∂θ ∂r ∂w ∂w and if w = x2 + y2 where x = u2 − v2. y = 2uv ∂v ∂u ∂w ∂w and if w = sin−1 xy where x = u + v. (iii) w = (x2 + y2) (iv) w = xy + z where x = cos t. y = t3 (ii) w = log (x2 + y2) where x = et. z = t (4) (i) Find (ii) Find (iii) Find ∂w ∂w and if w = log (x2 + y2) where x = r cos θ. show that x ∂x ∂y (iii) If u is a homogeneous function of x and y of degree n.
This method which was discovered by Newton and Leibnitz utilises ‘the profound relationship’ that exists between integration and differentiation. (i) To solve simple problems using second fundamental theorem of calculus.2. then b ⌠ f(x)dx = F(b) − F(a) where F is any antiderivative of f. (v) Length of the curve and the surface area of a solid of revolution about an axis.1 : Evaluate ⌠ ⌡ 1 + cos2x 0 87 . Simple definite integrals : First fundamental theorem of calculus : x Theorem 7. Sometimes this method involves cumbersome computations. (iii) Reduction formulae (iv) Area under the curve and volume of solid of revolution about an axis. Second fundamental theorem of calculus : Theorem 7. ⌡ a π/2 sin x dx Example 7. direct evaluation of definite integrals as the limit of integral sum involves great difficulties. 7. Even when the integrands are very simple.7.1 : If f(x) is a continuous function and F(x) = ⌠ f(t)dt.1. (ii) Properties of definite integral. In this chapter we have the following five sections dealing with the concept and applications of definite integrals. INTEGRAL CALCULUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS 7. then we ⌡ a have the equation F′(x) = f(x). There is a formula called Second Fundamental Theorem on Calculus that yields a practical and convenient method for computing definite integrals in case where the antiderivative of the integrand is known.2 : If f(x) is a continuous function with domain a ≤ x ≤ b. we have studied the direct evaluation of definite integrals as the limit of integral sums. Introduction : In class XI.
Solution: π/2 sin x dx Let I = ⌠ ⌡ 1 + cos2x 0 x Let t = cos x dt = − sin x dx (or) sin x dx = − dt t 0 − dt π π 0 ∴I = ⌠ = − [tan−1 t] 1 = − 0 − 4 = 4 ⌡ 1 + t2 1 t = cos x 0 π/2 1 0 1 Example 7.3 : Evaluate ⌠ ⌡ 0 a2 − x2 dx a2 x a2 − x2 + 2 sin−1 a a 0 a Solution: ⌠ ⌡ 0 x a2 − x2 dx = 2 a2 a = 0 + 2 sin−1 a − (0 + 0) a2 π πa2 a2 = 2 sin−1(1) = 2 2 = 4 88 .2 : Evaluate ⌠ x ex dx ⌡ 0 Solution: Using the method of integration by parts Here ⌠ udv = uv − ⌠v du ⌡ ⌡ x ⌠ x e dx = ⌡ u=x du = dx dv = ex dx v = ex 1 0 1 (xex)0 1 − ⌠ ex dx ⌡ 0 = e− 1 (ex)0 = e − (e − 1) =1 a Example 7.
4 : Evaluate ⌠ e2x cos x dx ⌡ 0 Solution: eax We know ∫eax cos bx dx = 2 (a cos bx + b sin bx) a + b 2 π/2 π/2 e2x ∴ ⌠ e2x cos x dx = 2 (2 cos x + sin x) ⌡ 2 + 12 0 0 eπ e0 = 5 (0 + 1) − 5 (2 + 0) eπ 2 1 = 5 − 5 = 5 (eπ − 2) EXERCISE 7.π/2 Example 7.3 Properties of Definite Integrals : b b Property (1) : ⌠ f(x)dx = ⌠ f(y) dy ⌡ ⌡ a a Proof : Let F be any antiderivative of f b ∴ ⌠ f(x) dx = [F(b) − F(a)] … (i) ⌡ a 89 .1 Evaluate the following problems using second fundamental theorem : π/2 π/2 1 (2) ⌠ cos3x dx (3) ⌠ 9 − 4x2 dx (1) ⌠ sin2x dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 0 π/4 (4) ⌠ 2 sin2x sin 2x dx dx (7) ⌠ 2 ⌡ x + 5x + 6 1 1 (10) ⌠ x2 ex dx 0 2 0 1 (5) ⌠ dx ⌡ ⌡ (8) ⌠ 4 − x2 0 1 (sin−1x)3 1 − x2 dx 0 π/2 sin x dx (6) ⌠ ⌡ 9 + cos2x 0 π/2 (9) ⌠ sin 2x cos x dx ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 π/2 (11) ⌠ e3x cos x dx ⌡ 0 0 π/2 (12) ⌠ e−x sin x dx ⌡ 0 7.
b a Property (2) : ⌠ f(x)dx = − ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ ⌡ a b Proof : Let F be any antiderivative of f b ∴ ⌠ f(x) dx = [F(b) − F(a)] ⌡ a a b b … (i) ⌠ f(x) dx = [F(a) − F(b)] = − [F(b) − F(a)] ⌡ From (i) and (ii) a f(x) dx = − ⌠ f(x) dx ⌠ ⌡ ⌡ a b … (ii) That is. then the value of integral changes its sign only. b b Property (3) : ⌠ f(x)dx = ⌠ f(a + b − x) dx ⌡ a ⌡ a Proof : Let u = a + b − x ∴ du = − dx u=a+b−x x a b a or dx = − du u b b a b b ∴⌠ f(a + b − x)dx = − ⌠ f(u) du = ⌠ f(u) du = ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ a ⌡ b ⌡ a ⌡ a 90 . integration is independent of change of variables provided the limits of integration remain the same. if the limits of definite integral are interchanged.⌠ f(y) dy = [F(b) − F(a)] ⌡ a b From (i) and (ii) a b a b … (ii) ⌠ f(x) dx = ⌠ f(y) dy ⌡ ⌡ That is.
H. b and c..S. 2a a a Property (6) : ⌠ f(x)dx = ⌠ f(x) dx + ⌠ f(2a − x) dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 0 2a a 2a Proof : Consider ⌠ f(x)dx = ⌠ f(x) dx + ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ 0 ⌡ 0 ⌡ a … (1) u = 2a − x x a 2a u a o Put x = 2a − u in the second integral on the R.a a Property (4) : ⌠ f(x)dx = ⌠ f(a − x) dx ⌡ 0 ⌡ Proof : 0 Let u = a − x u=a−x x o a ∴ du = − dx u a o or dx = − du a a a o ∴⌠ f(a − x)dx = − ⌠ f(u) du = ⌠ f(u) du = ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ a 0 0 0 Property (5) (Without proof) : If f(x) is integrable on a closed interval containing the three numbers a. b and c. and dx = − du 2a o ⌠ f(x)dx = − ⌠ f(2a − u) du ⌡ a ⌡ a = ⌠ f(2a − u) du ⌡ 0 a = ⌠ f(2a − x) dx a ⌡ 0 b b ‡ ⌠ f(x) dx = ⌠ f(y) dy ⌡ ⌡ a a 91 . then b c b ⌠ f(x) dx = ⌠ f(x) dx + ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ c a a regardless of the order of a.
Then dx = − dt x t 92 . a a Property (8) : (i) ⌠ f(x)dx = 2⌠ f(x) dx.2a a a Hence (1) becomes ⌠ f(x) dx = ⌠ f(x) dx + ⌠ f(2a − x) dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 0 2a a Property (7) : if f(2a − x) = f(x) ⌠ f(x)dx = 2 ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ 0 ⌡ 0 =0 if f(2a − x) = − f(x) Proof : We know that by property 2a a a … (1) ⌠ f(x)dx = ⌠ f(x) dx + ⌠ f(2a − x) dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 0 If f(2a − x) = f(x) then (1) becomes 2a a a a ⌠ f(x)dx = ⌠ f(x) dx + ⌠ f(x) dx = 2 ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 0 0 If f(2a − x) = − f(x) then (1) becomes a a 2a ⌠ f(x)dx = ⌠ f(x) dx − ⌠ f(x) dx = 0 ⌡ 0 ⌡ 0 ⌡ 0 Hence proved. ⌡ ⌡ 0 if f is an even function.S.H. −a a a 0 Proof : Consider ⌠ f(x)dx = ⌠ f(x) dx + ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 0 … (1) x=−t 0 −a a 0 −a −a Let x = − t in the first integral of the R. −a a (ii) ⌠ f(x) dx = 0 ⌡ if f is an odd function.
⌡ Solution: 0 a − π/4 Let f(x) = x3 sin2x = x3 (sin x)2 ∴ f(− x) = (− x)3 (sin (− x))2 = (− x)3 (− sin x)2 = − x3 sin2x = − f(x) 93 . then (2) becomes a a a ⌠ f(x) dx = ⌠ f(x) dx + ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ … (2) ⌡ ⌡ 0 ⌡ 0 −a a = 2 ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ 0 Case (iii) : If ‘f’ is an odd function then (2) becomes a a a f(x) dx = ⌠ (− f(x) dx + ⌠ f(x) dx ⌠ ⌡ ⌡ 0 ⌡ −a a = − ⌠ f(x) dx + ⌠ f(x) dx = 0 ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 Hence proved.∴ (1) becomes a o f(x) dx = ⌠ f(− t) (− dt) + ⌠ f(x) dx ⌠ ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ a 0 −a a 0 = − ⌠ f(− t) dt + ⌠ f(x) dx a ⌡ a ⌡ 0 a a = ⌠ f(− t) dt + ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 a a a ∴ ⌠ f(x) dx = ⌠ f(− x) dx + ⌠ f(x) dx 0 0 −a Case (ii) : If ‘f’ is an even function. π/4 Example 7.5 : Evaluate ⌠ x3 sin2x dx.
π/4 3 2 ⌠ x sin x dx. = 0 (by property) ∴ − π/4 Example 7. 1 3−x ∴ ⌠ log 3 + x dx = 0 ⌡ −1 Example 7.f(− x) = − f(x) ∴ f(x) is an odd function.7 : π/2 Evaluate : ⌠ x sin x dx Solution: − π/2 Solution: Let f(x) = x sin x f(− x) = (− x) sin (− x) = x sin x (‡ sin (− x) = − sin x) ∴ f(x) is an even function.6 : 1 3−x Evaluate ⌠ log 3 + x dx ⌡ −1 3−x Let f(x) = log 3 + x 3 + x = log (3 + x) − log (3 − x) ∴ f(− x) = log 3 −x = − [log (3 − x) − log (3 + x)] 3−x = − log 3 + x = − f(x) Thus f(− x) = − f(x) ∴ f(x) is an odd function. π/2 π/2 ⌠ x sin x dx = 2 ⌠ x sin x dx − π/2 ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 0 = 2 {x (− cos x)} π/2 π/2 − ⌠ (− cos x) dx ⌡ 0 0 94 .
9 : Evaluate ⌠ f(sin x) + f(cos x) dx ⌡ 0 π/2 f(sin x) Solution: Let I = ⌠ f(sin x) + f(cos x) dx ⌡ 0 π f sin 2 − x π/2 = ⌠ dx ⌡ π π f sin − x + f cos 2 − x 0 2 π/2 f (cos x) ∴ I = ⌠ f(cos x) + f (sin x) dx ⌡ 0 π/2 f(sin x) + f(cos x) π/2 π (1) + (2) gives 2 I = ⌠ f(cos x) + f(sin x) dx = ⌠ dx = [x]π/2 = 2 0 ⌡ ⌡ o o π ∴ I=4 … (1) … (2) 95 .Using the method of integration by parts π/2 π/2 = 2 0 + ⌠ cos x dx = 2 [sin x] ⌡ 0 0 = 2 [1 − 0] = 2 π/2 Example 7.8 : Evaluate ⌠ sin2x dx ⌡ − π/2 Solution: Let f(x) = sin2x = (sin x)2 f(− x) = (sin (− x))2 = (− sin x)2 = sin2x = f(x) Hence f(x) is an even function. π/2 π/2 1 π/2 ∴ ⌠ sin2x dx = 2 ⌠ sin2x dx = 2 × 2 ⌠ (1 − cos 2x) dx ⌡ ⌡ 0 ⌡ 0 − π/2 sin 2x = x − 2 π/2 0 π =2 π/2 f(sin x) Example 7.
11 : Evaluate ⌠ log (tan x)dx ⌡ 0 π/2 Solution: Let I = ⌠ log (tan x)dx ⌡ … (1) π = ⌠ log tan 2 − x dx ⌡ 0 π/2 I = ⌠ log (cot x) dx 0 π/2 ⌡ … (2) (1) + (2) gives 2I = ⌠ [log (tan x) + log (cot x)] dx ⌡ 0 0 π/2 96 .10 : Evaluate ⌠ x(1 − x)n dx ⌡ 0 Solution: 1 Let I = ⌠ x(1 − x)n dx ⌡ 0 1 n = ⌠ (1 − x) [1 − (1 − x)] dx ⌡ 0 1 a a ‡ ⌠ f(x) dx = ⌠ f(a − x) dx ⌡ ⌡ 0 o 1 = ⌠ (1 − x) xn dx = ⌠ (xn − xn + 1) dx ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 xn + 1 xn + 2 1 n + 2 − (n + 1) 1 = n + 1 − n + 2 = n + 1 − n + 2 = (n + 1) (n + 2) 0 n ⌠ x(1 − x) dx = (n + 1) (n + 2) ⌡ 1 1 0 1 π/2 Example 7.1 Example 7.
(cot x)] dx = ⌠ (log 1) dx = 0 ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 (‡ log 1 = 0) ∴ I=0 π/3 dx Example 7.π/2 π/2 = ⌠ [log (tan x) .12 : Evaluate ⌠ ⌡ 1 + cot x π/6 Solution: π/3 dx Let I = ⌠ 1 + cot x ⌡ π/6 π/3 I= ⌠ ⌡ π/6 π 3 =⌠ ⌡ π 6 sin x dx sin x + cos x π π sin 3 + 6 − x dx … (1) π π sin 3 + 6 − x + π π cos 3 + 6 − x b b ‡ ⌠ f(x) dx = ⌠ f(a + b − x) dx ⌡ ⌡ a a π 3 =⌠ ⌡ π 6 π sin 2 − x π sin 2 − x + cos x dx cos x + sin x π cos 2 − x dx π/3 I= ⌠ ⌡ π/6 π/3 2I = ⌠ ⌡ π/6 … (2) (1) + (2) gives sin x + cos x dx cos x + sin x 97 .
n − 3 . n − 5 .... π n n − 2 n − 4 2 2 when n is even 98 ..2 Evaluate the following problems using properties of integration. 2 . n − 3 .4 Reduction formulae : A formula which expresses (or reduces) the integral of the nth indexed function interms of that of (n − 1)th indexed (or lower indexed) function is called a reduction formula. 1 . π/2 1 π/4 (1) ⌠ sin x cos4 x dx (2) ⌠ x3 cos3x dx (3) ⌠ sin3x cos x dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ −1 π/2 (4) 3 ⌠ cos x dx ⌡ (5) ⌠ sin2x cosx dx ⌡ − π/2 3 (8) ⌠ x dx x+ 3−x −π/4 π/2 (6) ⌠ x sin2x dx ⌡ − π/4 1 (9) ⌠ x (1 − x)10 dx 0 π/4 − π/2 1 1 (7) ⌠ log x − 1 dx ⌡ ⌡ 0 ⌡ 0 dx (10) ⌠ ⌡ 1 + tan x π/6 0 π/3 7.π/3 π/3 π π π =3 − 6 = 6 2I = ⌠ dx = [x] ⌡ π/6 π/6 π ∴ I = 12 EXERCISE 7. 1 when n is odd n n−2 n−4 3 n − 1 . ⌠ cosnx dx (n is a positive integer) : ⌡ 1 n−1 Result 1 : If In = ∫ sinnx dx then In = − n sinn−1x cos x + n In − 2 1 n−1 Result 2 : If In = ⌠ cosnx dx then In = n cosn−1x sin x + n In − 2 ⌡ Result 3 : π/2 n π/2 n ⌠ sin x dx = ⌠ cos x dx = ⌡ 0 ⌡ 0 n − 1 . Reduction formulae for ∫ sinnx dx. n − 5 .
then we have ⌡ 1 n−1 In = − n sinn − 1x cos x + n In − 2 ∴ ⌠sin6x dx = I6 ⌡ 1 5 (when n=6 in I) = − 6 sin5x cos x + 6 I4 1 5 1 3 = − 6 sin5x cos x + 6 − 4 sin3x cosx + 4 I2 (when n=4 in I) 1 5 5 5 3 ⌠ 6 (when n=2 in I) ⌡sin x dx = − 6 sin x cos x − 24 sin x cos x + 8 I2 1 5 5 1 1 = − 6 sin5x cos x − 24 sin3x cos x + 8 − 2 sin x cosx + 2 I0 5 1 5 5 5 ⌠sin6x dx = − 6 sin x cos x − 24 sin3x cos x − 16 sin x cos x + 16 I0 ⌡ … (I) 99 .13 : Evaluate : ⌡sin5x dx Solution : If In = ⌠sinnx dx. refer Solution Book.14 : Evaluate : ⌠sin6x dx ⌡ Solution : If In = ⌠sinnx dx. ⌠ Example 7.Note : For the proofs of these above three results. then we have ⌡ n−1 1 In = − n sinn−1x cos x + n In−2 … (I) ⌠ ∴ ⌡sin5x dx = I5 4 1 (when n=5 in I) = − 5 sin4x cos x + 5 I3 4 1 2 1 = − 5 sin4x cos x + 5 − 3 sin2x cosx + 3 I1 (when n=3 in I) 1 4 8 ⌠sin5x dx = − 5 sin4x cos x − 15 sin2x cosx + 15 I1 … (II) ⌡ I1 = ⌠sin1x dx = − cos x + c ⌡ 1 4 8 ∴ ⌠sin5x dx = − 5 sin4x cos x − 15 sin2x cos x − 15 cos x + c ⌡ Example 7.
π (ii) ⌠ cos x dx = n n − 2 n − 4 2 2 when ‘n’ is even ⌡ 0 π/2 7 5 3 1 π 35π ∴ ⌠ cos8x dx = 8 .I0 = ⌠sin0x dx = ⌡dx = x ⌠ ⌡ 5 1 5 5 ⌠ ∴ ⌡sin6x dx = − 6 sin5x cos x − 24 sin3x cos x − 16 sin x cos x + 16 x Example 7.15 : Evaluate : π/2 (i) ⌠ sin7x dx ⌡ 0 π/2 (ii) ⌠ cos8x dx ⌡ 0 2π x (iii) ⌠ sin9 4 dx ⌡ 0 π/6 (iv) ⌠ cos73x dx ⌡ 0 Solution : (i)We have π/2 n n − 1 . 4 .. 9 7 5 3 = 315 ⌡ ⌡ π/2 0 100 . 6 . n − 3 . 2 . n − 3 . 1 . 4 . 2 ⌠ sin x dx = n n − 2 3 when ‘n’ is odd ⌡ 0 π/2 7 6 ... 4 . 6 . 2 .. 512 ⌠ sin 4 dx = 4 ⌠ sin t dt = 4. 2 16 ⌠ sin x dx = 7 5 3 = 35 ⌡ 0 π/2 n n − 1 . n − 5 . 2 = 256 ⌡ 0 2π 9 x (iii) ⌠ sin 4 dx ⌡ 0 t=x/4 x x 0 2π Put 4 = t t 0 ∴ dx = 4dt π/2 2π 0 9x 9 8 .
4 . 2 . ⌠ cos t dt = 3 7 5 3 = 105 ⌡ 0 π/2 Example 7..(iv) π/6 7 ⌠ cos 3x dx ⌡ 0 t = 3x Put 3x = t 3dx = dt dx = 1/3 dt π/6 7 1 ⌠ cos 3x dx = 3 ⌡ 0 x t 0 0 π/6 π/2 π/2 7 16 1 6 .... u′′.16 : Evaluate : ⌠ sin4x cos2x dx ⌡ 0 Solution : π/2 4 π/2 4 2 2 ⌠ sin x cos x dx= ⌠ sin x (1 − sin x) dx ⌡ 0 ⌡ 0 π/2 π/2 π/2 = ⌠ (sin4x − sin6x) dx = ⌠ sin4x dx− ⌠ sin6x dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 0 3 1 π 5 3 1 π π = 4 . 2 . are successive derivatives of u and v1. where u′. Bernoulli’s formula is advantageously applied when u = xn (n is a positive integer).. 2 = 32 Two important results : The following two results are very useful in the evaluation of certain types of integrals. then ∫udv = uv − u′v1 + u′′v2 − u′′′v3 + . 2 − 6 .. v3 . then ⌠ xne−ax dx = n+1 ⌡ a 0 101 .. 4 . v2. (1) If u and v are functions of x. u′′′ . + (− 1)n unvn + . 2 .. n ∞ (2) If n is a positive integer. are repeated integrals of v The above formula is well known as Bernoulli’s formula.
We get u = x3 u′ = 3x2 u′′ = 6x u′′′ = 6 0 dv = e2x dx v = 1/2 e2x v1 = 1/4 e2x v2 = 1/8 e2x v3 = 1/16 e2x 3 2x 3 1 2x 2 1 2x 1 2x 1 2x ⌠x e dx = (x ) 2 e − (3x ) 4 e + (6x) 8 e − (6) 16 e ⌡ 1 3 3x 3 = 2 e2x x3 − 2x2 + 2 − 4 1 (ii) ⌠ x e− 4x dx ⌡ 0 Using Bernoulli’s formula we get 1 u=x 1 u′ = 1 dv = e−4x dx 1 v = − 4 e−4x 1 v1 = 16 e−4x ⌠xe ⌡ 0 − 4x 1 1 dx = (x) − 4 e−4x − (1) 16 e−4x 0 1 1 = − 4 e−4 − 0 − 16 (e−4 − e0) 1 5 = 16 − 16 e−4 ∞ (iii) ⌠ x5e−4x dx ⌡ 0 5 ∞ Using Gamma Integral ⌠ x5e−4x dx = 6 ⌡ 4 0 7 ∞ (iv) ⌠ e−mxx7 dx = 8 (Using Gamma Integral) ⌡ m 0 102 . Example 7.17 : Evaluate : 1 ∞ ∞ (ii) ⌠ x e− 4x dx (iii) ⌠ x5e−4x dx (iv) ⌠ e−mxx7 dx (i) ∫x3e2x dx ⌡ 0 ⌡ 0 ⌡ Solution : (1) ∫x3e2x dx Using Bernoulli’s formula ∫udv = uv − u′v1 + u′′v2 ...Note : The above formula is known as a particular case of Gamma Integral.
b]. the xaxis and the ordinates x = a and x = b is given by x =a x =b b b Area = ⌠ f(x)dx or ⌠ ydx ⌡ ⌡ a a If f(x) ≤ 0 (f(x) lies on or below xaxis) for all x in a ≤ x ≤ b then area is given by b b Area = ⌠ (− y) dx = ⌠ (− f(x) dx) y C D x Fig. 7.e. the area bounded by the curve y = f(x). Then. we apply the definite integral to compute measure of area.5. which is positive (f(x) lies on y =f(x) A or above xaxis) on the interval [a. length of arc and surface area. is a number without any unit of measurement attached to it.5 Area and Volume : In this section.EXERCISE 7. 7.3 (1) Evaluate : (i) ⌠sin x dx ⌡ 4 (ii) ⌠ cos5x dx ⌡ π/2 (2) Evaluate : (i) ⌠ sin6x dx ⌡ 0 π/4 8 (3) Evaluate : (i) ⌠ cos 2x dx ⌡ π/2 (ii) ⌠ cos9x dx ⌡ 0 π/6 7 (ii) ⌠ sin 3x dx ⌡ (4) Evaluate : (i) ⌠ x e−2x dx 0 1 0 ⌡ 0 ∞ 6 −x/2 (ii) ⌠ x e dx ⌡ 0 7. b]. In our treatment it is understood that area.1 D x =a C x =b y =f(x) B x ⌡ a ⌡ a A (i. volume etc. The area below the xaxis is negative) Fig. 7.2 103 ..1 Area of bounded regions : Theorem : Let y = f(x) be a y continuous function defined on B [a.
x = 1. units Example 7.20: Find the area of the region bounded y = x2 − 5x + 4.3)) the required area 3 3 3 A = ⌠ ydx = 2 ⌠ (x + 2) dx ⌡ ⌡ 1 1 x 0 1 2 3 3 2 x 3 = 2 2 + 2x Fig. x = 3 and xaxis. x = 3 and the xaxis. y The line 3x − 5y − 15 = 0 lies 1 4 below the xaxis in the interval x = 1 x and x = 4 5) 4 1 3x ∴Required area = ⌠ (− y) dx 5 )( ⌡ 1 (1/ y= Fig. x = 1. units.4 4 1 3 = ⌠ − 5 (3x − 15) dx = 5 ⌡ 1 3 x2 (5 − x) dx = 5 5x − 2 ⌠ 4 1 4 y= (3/ 2) ( ⌡ x+ 2) 1 3 1 = 5 5(4 − 1) − 2 (16 − 1) 3 15 9 = 5 15 − 2 = 2 sq. 104 . (i. 3].3 1 3 1 3 = 2 2 (9 − 1) + 2(3 − 1) = 2 [4 + 4] Area = 12 sq. x = 2. y Since the line 3x − 2y + 6 = 0 lies above the xaxis in the interval [1.e. 7. Example 7.19: Find the area of the region bounded by the line 3x − 5y − 15 = 0. y > 0 for x ∈ (1. 7.18 : Find the area of the region bounded by the line 3x − 2y + 6 = 0. x = 4 and xaxis..Example 7.
7. units Area between a continuous curve and yaxis : y Let x = f(y) be a continuous y =d B function of y on [c. 3 Required area = ⌠ (− y) dx y ⌡ 2 3 0 1 1 2 3 4 x = ⌠ − (x2 − 5x + 4) dx ⌡ 2 2 3 x3 x2 Fig. 7. d ∴ The required area A = ⌠ xdy ⌡ c 0 Fig. y = 5 and y – axis. d]. 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 the curve lies below the xaxis.8 105 . 7. B x =f(y) A x C y =d D ⌡ c y =c Fig. Solution : The line y = 2x + 1 lies to the right of yaxis between the lines y = 3 and y = 5. y = 3.5 = − 3 − 5 2 + 4x 2 45 13 8 20 − 13 = − 9 − 2 + 12 − 3 − 2 + 8 = − 6 = 6 sq. y = d to the right of d A C yaxis is given by ⌠ xdy y =c x ⌡ Fig.For all x. the area is given by ⌠ (− x) dy. The area D bounded by the curve x = f(y) and the x =f(y) abscissae y = c. 7.7 y= 2x +1 y =5 y =3 x y Example 7.6 y c If the curve lies to the left of yaxis between the lines y = c and d y = d.21: Find the area of the region bounded by y = 2x + 1.
y = 1 and y = 3 and yaxis. units.9 3 1 3 1 1 y2 = 2 ⌠ (4 − y)dy = 2 4y − 2 = 2 [8 − 4] = 2 sq.22: Find the area of the region bounded y = 2x + 4. 7. The curve lies to the left of yaxis between the lines y = 1 and y = 3 ∴ Area is given by 3 y =3 A = ⌠ (− x) dy ⌡ 1 3 1 y−4 = ⌠ − 2 dy ⌡ y =1 3 2 1 0 x Fig. 1 ⌡ 1 Remark : f (x) If the continuous curve f crosses b the xaxis. c d b f(x) dx = ⌠ f(x) dx + ⌠ (− f(x)) dx + ⌡ ⌡ ⌠ a c d b x Fig. units Example 7.5 y−1 1 5 = ⌠ 2 dy = 2 ⌠ (y − 1)dy ⌡ ⌡ 3 3 5 1 25 9 1 y2 = 2 2 − y = 2 2 − 2 − (5 − 3) 3 1 = 2 [8 − 2] = 3 sq. then the integral ⌠ f(x) dx x y= 2x +4 f (x) ⌡ 1 a gives the algebraic sum of the areas between the curve and the axis.10 b ⌡ a ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ d ↓ above axis a ↓ above axis c ↓ below axis 106 . 7. counting area above as positive and below as negative.
The fundamental theorem asserts that the antiderivative method works even when the function f(x) is not always positive.24: Find the area bounded by the curve y = sin 2x between the ordinates x = 0. x = π and xaxis.23: (i) Evaluate the integral ⌠ (x − 3)dx ⌡ 1 (ii) Find the area of the region bounded by the line y + 3 = x. sin 2x = 0 ⇒ 2x = nπ . Example 7.5 Example 7. n ∈ Z 107 .11 5 3 5 ∴ Total area = ⌠(x − 3)dx = ⌠ − (x − 3) dx + ⌠ (x − 3) dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 1 1 3 = (6 − 4) + (8 − 6) = 2+2 = 4 sq. y 3 A2 ∴ A1 = ⌠ (− y) dx. 7. ⌡ 1 1 O A1 3 5 x As A2 lies above the xaxis 5 A2 = ⌠ ydx ⌡ 3 Fig. units … (II) Note : From I and II it is clear that the integral f(x) is not always imply an area. x = 1 and x = 5 Solution : 5 5 x2 25 1 (i) (x − 3) dx = 2 − 3x = 2 − 15 − 2 − 3 = 12 − 12 = 0 … I ⌠ 1 ⌡ 1 (ii) The line y = x − 3 crosses xaxis at x = 3 From the diagram it is clear that A1 y −3 x = lies below xaxis. Solution : The points where the curve y = sin 2x meets the xaxis can be obtained by putting y = 0.
25: Find the area between the curves y = x2 − x − 2. ∴Required area π/2 π A = ⌠ sin 2x dx + ⌠ (− sin 2x)dx ⌡ ⌡ 0 π/2 − cos2x cos2x π = 2 0 + 2 π/2 1 = 2 [−cos π + cos 0 + cos 2π − cos π] 1 = 2 [1 + 1 + 1 + 1] = 2 sq. π π i. units. ± 2. ± 3 2… π ∴ The values of x between x = 0 are x = π are x = 0. 7.n x = 2 π. π The limits for the second arch are 2 and π and the curve lies below xaxis. ± π. 2..e. Example 7. ∴ A2 = − ⌠ y dx ⌡ 2 y y π/2 0 y =sin 2x π x π/2 Fig.13 108 . 7. π π The limits for the first arch are 0 and 2 and the curve lies above xaxis. x = 0. xaxis and the lines x = − 2 and x = 4 Solution : y = x2 − x − 2 = (x + 1) (x − 2) This curve intersects xaxis at x = − 1 and x=2 Required area = A1 + A2 + A3 The part A2 lies below xaxis.12 x2 x =2 A1 y= 2 x – x =4 A3 4 x 2 2 2 A2 −1 Hence required area Fig.
15 2 = ⌠ [(x + 1) − (x2 − 1)]dx x =a ⌡ −1 109 A bo ve :y = x+ 1 x =b . from x = a to x = b. then the area R between f and g.4 −1 2 = ⌠ y dx + ⌠ (− y)dx + ⌠ y dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 2 −2 −1 4 −1 2 = ⌠ (x2 − x − 2) dx + ⌠ − (x2 − x − 2)dx + ⌠ (x2 − x − 2) dx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 2 −2 −1 11 9 26 = 6 + 2 + 3 = 15 sq. x2 − 1 = x + 1 x2 − x − 2 = 0 ⇒ (x − 2) (x + 1) = 0 ∴ x = −1 or x = 2 ∴ The line intersects the curve at x = − 1 and x = 2. g (a)) (b. Example 7. units General Area Principle : Let f and g be two continuous curves. with f lying above g. is given by b R = ⌠ (f − g)dx (a.1 ⌡ a Fig. y we get. Solution : To get the points of intersection of the curves we should solve the equations y = x + 1 and y = x2 − 1. f (b)) ⌡ a g (a. f (a)) f (b. Both may be lie above or Fig.26: Find the area between the line y=x + 1 and the curve y = x2 − 1.14 below the xaxis or g lies below and f lies above the xaxis. 7. 7. g (b)) No restriction on f and g where they lie. x b f(x) g(x) 1 1 2 Required area = ⌠ above − below dx Below : y =x2 .
units. 2) respect to x. To get the points of intersection. solve the curves y = x3. 2) y To compute the region [shown in figure (6.17)] by integrating with x =y2 (4.27: Find the area bounded by the curve y = x3 and the line y = x. 1) y= x ⌡ ⌡ 0 y y= (1.28: Find the area of the region enclosed by y2 = x and y = x − 2 Solution : The points of intersection of the parabola y2 = x and the line y = x − 2 are (1.2 changes at x = 1. − 1) and (4. We get x = {0. 1) integrate with respect to y no splitting is necessary. 1 y = x3 (1. y = x ⇒ x3 = x . 7.16 Example 7. ± 1} 1 0 The required area = A1 + A2 = ⌠ [g(x) − f(x)]dx + ⌠ [f(x) − g(x)]dx −1 1 0 = ⌠ (x3 − x)dx + ⌠ (x − x3)dx ⌡ ⌡ 0 −1 0 1 x4 x2 x2 x4 = 4 − 2 + 2 − 4 −1 0 1 1 1 1 = 0 − 4−0 − 2+2 − 0−4 − 0 1 1 1 1 1 = − 4 + 2 + 2 − 4 = 2 sq. However if we (1. 7. because the x equation of the lower boundary y =x .17 110 x . Solution : The line y = x lies above the curve y = x3 in the first quadrant and y = x3 lies above the line y = x in the third quadrant. units Example 7. 1) 0 y = x3 x 1 Fig.2 2 x2 x3 = ⌠ [2 + x − x2]dx = 2x + 2 − 3 −1 ⌡ −1 1 1 8 9 = 4 + 2 − 3 − − 2 + 2 + 3 = 2 sq. Fig. we would have to split the region into two parts.
Example 7. x = 2. 7. − 2 3) Required area is OABC Due to symmetrical property.2√3) (2. 2{[Area bounded by y2 = 6x. units. 2 3) and (2. the B x required area O 2 OABC = 2 OBC i.29: Find the area of the region common to the circle x2 + y2 = 16 and the parabola y2 = 6x y Solution : The points of intersection 2 2 2 y =√6x of x + y = 16 and y = 6x are D C (2.e.2 Required area = ⌠ (f(y) − g(y) dy ⌡ −1 2 2 y3 y2 = ⌠ [(y + 2) − y2]dy = 2 + 2y − 3 −1 ⌡ −1 4 1 8 1 = 2 − 2 + (4 + 2) − 3 + 3 3 9 9 = 2 + 6 − 3 = 2 sq. x = 4 and xaxis]} Fig.. x = 2 and xaxis] + [Area A 2 2 bounded by x + y = 16.18 2 = 2⌠ ⌡ 0 4 6x dx + 2⌠ ⌡ 2 y= √( 16 16 − x2 dx 42 x 42 − x2 + 2 sin−1 4 4 2 x3/22 x = 2 6 3/2 + 2 2 0 = 8 12 8π 3 − 2 12 + 8π − 3 4 = 3 (4π + 3) 111 – x2 ) . x = 0.
20 112 .31: Find the area of the region bounded by the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1 a b Solution : The curve is symmetric y about both axes. 2 2 2 2 x2 y2 Example 7.19 π From the figure we see that cos x > sin x for 0 ≤ x < 4 and sin x > cos x for π 4<x<π π/4 π ∴ Area A = ⌠ (cos x − sin x) dx + ⌠ (sin x − cos x)dx ⌡ ⌡ 0 π/4 π π/4 = (sin x + cos x) 0 + (− cos x − sin x) π/4 π π π π = sin 4+ cos 4−(sin 0 + cos0) + (−cosπ − sin π) − − cos 4−sin 4 1 1 1 1 = + − (0 + 1) + (1 − 0) − − − = 2 2 sq. y =(b/a) √(a2 – x2) ∴Area of the ellipse = 4 × Area of the ellipse in the I quadrant. sin 1 x π 1 π Sin x = cos x = ⇒x=4 x 0 2 3π/2 π/4 π/2 1 y= 5π −1 co s ⇒x= 4 sin x = cos x = x 2 Fig. 7. 7.30: Compute the area between the curve y = sin x and y = cosx and the lines x = 0 and x = π y Solution : To find the points of y= intersection solve the two equations. a I = 4 ⌠ ydx x ⌡ 0 a 0 a b = 4⌠ a ⌡ 0 a2 − x2 dx Fig.Example 7. units.
e. Hence the area between the curve at x = 5 and x = 6 is zero. a π/2 By using parametric form i. b (ii) Required area = ⌠ ydx ⌡ a 5)√ (x – 6) = 2 ⌠ (x − 5) x − 6 dx ⌡ 6 (Since the curve is symmetrical about xaxis) 7 = 2 ⌠ (t + 1) t dt ⌡ 6 1 = 2 ⌠ (t3/2 + t1/2)dt 7 y= (x – x =7 5 6 7 x ⌡ 0 Fig. 4 ⌠ y dx = 4 ⌠ b sin θ (− a sin θ) dθ. units. ∴ The curve does not exist in the interval 5 < x < 6. we ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 get the same area. 7.32: Find the area of the curve y2 = (x − 5)2 (x − 6) (i) between x = 5 and x = 6 (ii) between x = 6 and x = 7 Solution : (i) y2 = (x − 5)2 (x − 6) ∴y = (x − 5) x − 6 This curve cuts the xaxis at x = 5 and at x = 6 When x takes any value between 5 and 6. y2 is negative.21 Take t = x − 6 dt = dx t = x−6 x 6 7 t 0 1 113 .4b a = a ⌠ ⌡ 0 4b x a2 − x2 dx = a 2 a2 x a2 − x2 + 2 sin−1 a a 0 4b a2 π 4b a2 = a 0 + 2 sin−1(1) − 0 = a 2 2 = π ab sq.. Example 7.
∴ Required area = Example 7.33: Find the area of the loop of the curve 3ay2 = x(x − a)2 Solution : y Put y = 0 . 7. units. ∴ a(1 − cos 2t) = 0 ∴ cos 2t = 1 . y = a (1 − cos 2t) Solution : The curves crosses xaxis when y = 0. 2t = 2nπ.0) x 1 Fig. 0) and (a.34: Find the area bounded by xaxis and an arch of the cycloid x = a (2t − sin 2t).2 2 6 + 10 32 t5/2 t3/2 = 2 5 + 3 = 2 5 + 3 = 2 15 = 15 sq. we get x = 0.22 ⌡ 0 a = −2⌠ 2 a x (x − a) [x3/2 − a x]dx dx = − 3a 3a ⌠ ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 a 8a2 8 3 a2 2 2 5/2 2a 3/2 = x − 3 x =− 0 15 3 = 45 3a 5 8 3 a2 45 sq. a Required area = 2 ⌠ y dx (a. … ∴ One arch of the curve lies between 0 and π 114 . a It meets the xaxis at x = 0 and x = a ∴ Here a loop is formed between the points (0. Since the curve is symmetrical about xaxis. the area of the loop is twice the area of the portion above the xaxis. 0) about xaxis. n ∈ z ∴ t = 0. 2π. units 2 2 0 Example 7. π.
2 Volume of solids of revolution : Let f be a nonnegative and continuous curve on [a. f(x) f(x) x a b Fig.5.23(b)] along xaxis perpendicular to the disc. the crosssectional area is A(x) = π [f(x)]2 = πy2 The volume of the solid is generated by moving the plane circular disc [Fig.b Required area = ⌠ y dx ⌡ a π = ⌠ a(1 − cos 2t) 2a (1 − cos 2t) dt ⌡ 0 y = a(1 − cos2t) x = a (2t − sin 2t) dx = 2a(1 − cos 2t) dt π π π = 2a2 ⌠ (1 − cos 2t)2dt = 2a2 ⌠ (2 sin2t)2dt = 8a2 ⌠ sin4t dt ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 0 π/2 = 2 × 8a2 ⌠ sin4t dt ⌡ 0 a 2a ‡ ⌠ f(x) dx = 2⌠ f(2a − x)dx ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 3 1 π = 16a2 4 × 2 × 2 = 3πa2 sq.23(b)]. 7. 115 .23 (b) When this region is revolved about the xaxis. below by the xaxis and on the sides by the lines x = a and x = b [Fig 6. it generates a solid having circular cross sections (Fig. 7. 7. units.23(a) Fig. Since the cross section at x has radius f(x). b] and let R be the region bounded above by the graph of f.23 (a)].6. 7.
7. y = 2 and x = 0 is revolved about the yaxis. a2 b2 Limits for y is obtained by putting x = 0 ⇒ y2 = b2 ⇒ y = ± b a2 From the given curve x2 = 2 (b2 − y2) b ∴ Volume is given by d 2 y b a b a Fig.25 b a2 2 2 a2 2 y3 b y − 3 V = ⌠ π x dy = ⌠ π 2 (b − y ) dy = 2π 2 0 ⌡ ⌡ b b c −b b = 2π a2 3 b3 4π 2 b − 3 = 3 a b cubic units b2 Example 7.36: Find the volume of the solid generated when the region enclosed by y = x.24 Example 7. the yaxis and on the sides by the lines y = c and y = d (Fig.35: Find the volume of the solid that results when the ellipse x2 y2 + = 1 (a > b > 0) is revolved about the minor axis. a2 b2 Solution : Volume of the solid is obtained by revolving the right side of the curve x2 y2 + = 1 about the yaxis. 7.24) then the volume of the solid generated is given by d d V = ⌠ π [g(y)]2dx = ⌠ π x2 dy y g(y) ⌡ c ⌡ c Fig. 116 . 7.b b Therefore volume of the solid is V = ⌠ π [f(x)]2dx = ⌠ π y2 dx ⌡ a ⌡ a (ii) If the region bounded by the graph of x = g(y).
x = − 2 and x = 0 (2) Find the area of the region bounded by the line x − 2y − 12 = 0 and (i) yaxis. x = 2. (4) Find the area of the region bounded by the curve y = 3x2 − x and the xaxis between x = − 1 and x = 1. y = 0 is revolved about the xaxis. we get y = 0) d Volume is given by V = ⌠ π x2dy y y =√x y =2 Fig. 7. a > 0. (9) Find the common area enclosed by the parabolas 4y2 = 9x and 3x2 = 16y (10) Find the area of the circle whose radius is a Find the volume of the solid that results when the region enclosed by the given curves : (11 to 14) (11) y = 1 + x2. y = 0 and y = 2 (putting x = 0 in x = y2. y = 2 and y = 5 (ii) yaxis. yaxis.4 (1) Find the area of the region bounded by the line x − y = 1 and (i) xaxis.26 2 πy5 32 π 4 5 = 5 cubic units. x = 2 and x = 4 (ii) xaxis. 117 ⌡ x .Solution : Since the solid is generated by revolving about the yaxis. rewrite y = x as x = y2. y = 2 and y = 4. Taking the limits for y. = ⌠ π y dy = 0 ⌡ 0 c 2 EXERCISE 7. x = 1. y = − 1 and y = − 3 (3) Find the area of the region bounded by the line y = x − 5 and the xaxis between the ordinates x = 3 and x = 7. (12) 2ay2 = x(x − a)2 is revolved about xaxis. (5) Find the area of the region bounded by x2 = 36y. (6) Find the area included between the parabola y2 = 4ax and its latus rectum. (8) Find the area of the region bounded by the parabola y2 = 4x and the line 2x − y = 4. x2 y2 (7) Find the area of the region bounded by the ellipse 9 + 5 = 1 between the two latus rectums.
6. y = 1 is revolved about the yaxis. b] then the arc length L of the curve y = f(x) from x = a to x = b is defined b dy 2 1 + dx dx to be L = ⌠ ⌡ a (ii) Similarly for a curve expressed in the form x = g(y). then the surface area of the solid of revolution obtained by the revolution about xaxis.(13) y = x3.27 118 . where g is continuous on [c. the area bounded by the curve y = f(x) the two ordinates x = a.A. x2 y2 (14) 2 + 2 = 1 is revolved about major axis a > b > 0. (16) The area of the region bounded by the curve xy = 1. 7.7 Surface area of a solid : (i) If the function f(x) and its derivatives f ′(x) are continuous on [a. x = 0. x = b and xaxis is b dy 2 S. the arc length L from y = c to y = d is given by d dx 2 L= ⌠ 1 + dy dy ⌡ c (iii) When the equation of the curve y = f(x) is represented in parametric form x = φ(t). x = 1. = 2π ⌠ y 1 + dx dx ⌡ a f(x) x Fig. xaxis. Length of the curve : (i) If the function f(x) and its derivative f ′(x) are continuous on [a. b]. a b (15) Derive the formula for the volume of a right circular cone with radius ‘r’ and height ‘h’. 7. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the area mentioned about xaxis. α ≤ t ≤ β where φ(t) and Ψ(t) are continuous function with continuous derivatives and φ′(t) does not vanish in the β given interval then L = ⌠ (φ′(t))2 + (Ψ′(t))2 dt ⌡ α 7. y = Ψ(t). d].
the surface area of the solid of revolution obtained by the revolution about yaxis.29 9x 9x 9x 1+ 1 + 16 2 = 3 = 16 × 4y 16x The curve is symmetrical about xaxis. t=α Example 7. then S. = 2π ⌠ y y g(y) ⌡ c dx 2 1 + dy dy Fig. 7.A.37: Find the length of the curve 4y2 = x3 between x = 0 and x = 1 y Solution : 2 3 4y2 =x3 4y = x Differentiating with respect to x dy 8y dx = 3x2 x =1 dy 3x2 dx = 8y x ⌡ dy 2 1 + dx = = 1+ 1+ 9x4 64y2 4 4 Fig. = 2π ⌠ y (g′(t))2 + (h′(t)) 2 dt.28 (iii) When the equation of the curve y = f(x) is represented in parametric form x = g(t).A.(ii) Similarly for the curve expressed in the form x = g(y) where g′(y) is continuous on [c. y = h(t). The required length 1 1 dy 2 9x 1/2 1 + dx dx = 2⌠ 1 + 16 dx L = 2⌠ ⌡ 0 ⌡ 0 119 . α ≤ t ≤ β where g(t) and h(t) are continuous function with continuous derivatives and g′(t) does not vanish in the t=β interval. 7. y = d and y axis is d S. d]. the area bounded by the curve x = g(y) the two abscissa y = c.
38: Find the length of the curve a + a = 1 Solution : x = a cos3t. 7. − cos 2tπ/2 = − 3a [cos π − cos 0] 2 0 = − 3a [− 1 − 1] = 6a 120 .30 dx + dy = dt dt 2 2 9a2 cos4t sin2t + 9a2 sin4t cos2t = 3a sin t cos t Since the curve is symmetrical about both axes. π But t varies from 0 to 2 in the first quadrant. y = a sin3t is the parametric form of the given astroid. the total length of the curve is 4 times the length in the first quadrant. π/2 ∴ Length of the entire curve = 4 ⌠ ⌡ 0 dx + dy dt dt dt 2 2 π/2 π/2 = 4 ⌠ 3a sin t cos t dt = 6a ⌠ sin 2t dt ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 = 6a . dy 2 dt = 3a sin t cos t y a x a a a x2/3 + y2/3 =a2/3 Astroid Fig.9x 1 + 16 1 64 9x 3/21 = 2 × 9 3 = 27 1 + 16 0 16 × 2 0 3/2 64 125 61 = 27 64 − 1 = 27 x 2/3 y 2/3 Example 7. where 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π dx 2 dt = − 3a cos t sin t .
y = a (1 + cos t) dx dy dt = a (1 + cos t) dt = − a sin t dx + dy = dt dt 2 2 t a2 (1 + cos t)2 + a2 sin2t = 2a cos 2 121 . π S = ⌠ 2π sin x ⌡ 0 1 + cos2x dx Put cos x = t − sin x dx = dt x t 0 1 t = cos x π −1 −1 = ⌠ 2π ⌡ 1 t = 4π 2 1 1 + t2 (− dt) = 4π ⌠ ⌡ 0 1 + t2 (dt) 1 1 + t2) 0 1 1 + t2 + 2 log (t + = 2π [ 2 + log (1 + 2)] − 0 = 2π [ 2 + log (1 + 2)] Example 7. Solution : y = 0 ⇒ 1 + cos t = 0 cos t = − 1 ⇒ t = − π.40: Find the surface area of the solid generated by revolving the cycloid x = a(t + sin t).Example 7. π x = a (t + sin t) . y = a(1 + cos t) about its base (xaxis). ∴ dy 2 1 + dx = ⌡ 1 + cos2x dy 2 1 + dx dx b Surface area = ⌠ 2πy a when the area is rotated about the xaxis.39: Show that the surface area of the solid obtained by revolving the arc of the curve y = sin x from x = 0 to x = π about xaxis is 2π [ 2 + log (1 + 2)] Solution : y = sin x dy Differentiating with respect to x dx = cos x.
(b > a). (2) Find the length of the curve x = a(t − sin t). units. EXERCISE 7. −π π 122 .5 (1) Find the perimeter of the circle with radius a. bounded by its latus rectum about xaxis.π t Surface area = ⌠ 2πa (1 + cos t) 2a cos 2 dt ⌡ π t t t = ⌠ 2π a . 2 cos2 2 . 2 a cos 2 dt = 16π a2 ⌠ cos3 2 dt ⌡ ⌡ 0 −π π/2 t = 16πa2 ⌠ 2cos3 x dx Take 2 = x ⌡ 0 2 = 32πa2I3 = 32πa2 × 3 64 = 3 πa2 sq. y = a(1 − cos t) between t = 0 and π. (3) Find the surface area of the solid generated by revolving the arc of the parabola y2 = 4ax. (4) Prove that the curved surface area of a sphere of radius r intercepted between two parallel planes at a distance a and b from the centre of the sphere is 2πr (b − a) and hence deduct the surface area of the sphere.
plays an important role in Science. Introduction : One of the branches of Mathematics conveyed clearly in the principal language of science called “Differential equations”. Each nation builds its own arms to defend the nation from attack. whenever the competition between two species begins. Suppose that the susceptible population of a town is p. is commonly noticed in the plant life having common supply of water. This process continues to cover the entire susceptible population. fertilizer and minerals. Because of contact another susceptible person is also infected. A small grievance quite often creates a warlike 123 . (4) The determination of the amount of a radioactive material that disintegrates over a period of time is yet another mathematical formulation which yield the required result. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 8. (3) If a dead body is brought for a medical examination at a particular time. Naturally a spirit of race in building up arms persists between conflicting nations.1. One person gets the infection. (1) Suppose that there are two living species which depend for their survival on a common source of food supply. Let us analyse a few of the examples cited below. With some assumptions to simplify the mathematical considerations this situation can be framed into a mathematical model and a solution can be determined which would provide informations regarding the spread of the epidemic in the town. the growth rate of one is retarded and we can note that the rate of retardation is naturally proportional to the size of the other species present at time t.8. This situation can be expressed as a Mathematical model whose solution would help us to determine the time at which one species would become extinct. the exact time of death can be determined by noting the temperature of the body at various time intervals. However. (2) Several diseases are caused by spread of an infection. (5) Several examples exist in which two nations have disputes on various issues. The phenomenon. formulating it into a mathematical problem with available initial conditions and then solving it. This fact results in a competition in consuming the available food. Engineering and Social Sciences.
These commonly experienced facts can be presented in a mathematical language and hence solved. (i) Ordinary and (ii) Partial. From the above examples it is found that the mathematical formulation to all situations turn out to be differential equations. Its importance can further be realised from the fact that every natural phenomena is governed by differential equations. Hence it is rightly considered as the language of Sciences. This branch of Mathematics called ‘Differential Equations’ is like a bridge linking Mathematics and Science with its applications. dy If y = f(x) is a given function. then its derivative dx can be interpreted as the rate of change of y with respect to x. In any natural process the variables involved and their rates of change are connected with one another by means of the basic scientific principles that govern the process. Each of these statements can be formulated as an equation involving the rate of change of an unknown function and is therefore an ds example of what Mathematicians call a Differential Equation. the result is often a differential equation.situation and adds to increasing the level of arms. 124 . Differential equation are of two types. Thus dt = kt is a differential equation which gives velocity of a falling body from a distance s proportional to the time t. Thus the latent significance of differential equations in studying physical phenomena becomes apparent. Galileo once conjectured that the velocity of a body falling from rest is proportional to the distance fallen. Definition: An equation involving one dependent variable and its derivatives with respect to one or more independent variables is called a Differential Equation. Later he decided that it is proportional to the time instead. Definition : An ordinary differential equation is a differential equation in which a single independent variable enters either explicitly or implicitly. It is a fact that such a model has been tested for some realistic situations that had prevailed in the First and Second World War between conflicting nations. In this chapter we concentrate only on Ordinary differential equations. When this expression is written in mathematical symbols. Thus a differential equation is an equation in which differential coefficients occur.
dy d2y dy For instance (i) dx = x + 5 (ii) (y′)2 + (y′)3 + 3y = x2 (iii) 2 − 4 dx + 3y = 0 dx are all ordinary differential equations. t … to be free from radicals and fractions. Example 8. The degree of a differential equation does not require variables r. 2) d2y dy 2 4 (iii) 2 = 4 + dx dx To eliminate the radical in the above equation.2 Order and degree of a differential equation : Definition : The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest order derivative occurring in it. 4). Clearly (order. dx 4 3 3 125 . dx = 4dx + 3x Highest order = 1 Degree of Highest order = 2 (order. we get 2 = 4 + dx . raising to the power 4 on dy 2 d2y both sides. s. The degree of the highest order is 1. degree) = (1. 1) dx 1 dy dy (ii) y = 4 dx + 3x dy ⇒ y = 4dx + 3x dy dx dy Making the above equation free from fractions involving dx we get dy dy 2 y . ∴ (order.1: Find the order and degree of the following differential equations: d3y d2y dy5 + + +y=7 (i) dx3 dx2 dx d2y dy 2 4 (iii) 2 = 4 + dx dx 3 3 dy dx (ii) y = 4 dx + 3x dy (iv) (1 + y′)2 = y′2 Solution : (i) The order of the highest derivative in this equation is 3. degree) = (2. The degree of the differential equation is the degree of the highest order derivative which occurs in it. after the differential equation has been made free from radicals and fractions as far as the derivatives are concerned. 8. degree) = (3.
Illustration : Let us find the differential equation of straight lines y = mx + c where both m and c are arbitrary constants. then by differentiating n times we get (n + 1) equations in total. y and dx . If the n arbitrary constants c1. we get three equations (including f). y. …cn) = 0 containing n arbitrary constants c1. … cn are eliminated we get a differential equation of order n. c1. Similarly.1 126 . c2) = 0 containing two arbitrary constants c1 and c2. y. then by differentiating this twice. y. c2 … cn. we get a differential equation of second order.2x + 4 y= x Fig.(iv) (1 + y′)2 = y′2 ⇒ 1 + y′2 + 2y′ = y′2 from which it follows that dy 2 dx + 1 = 0 ∴ (order. c1. degree) = (1. c1) = 0 be an equation containing x. 8. if we have an equation f(x.3 Formation of differential equations : Let f (x. we get a relation involving x. c2. y. y and one arbitrary constant c1. Therefore the required differential equation is d2 y =0 dx2 y= 2 x +8 x y= 2 . which is evidently a differential equation of the first order. 8. If c1 is eliminated by differentiating f (x. If the two arbitrary constants c1 and c2 are eliminated from these equations. Note : If there are relations involving these arbitrary constants then the order of the differential equation may reduce to less than n. c2. Since m and c are two arbitrary constants differentiating twice we get y dy dx = m d2y =0 dx2 Both the constants m and c are seen to be eliminated. c1) = 0 with respect to the dy independent variable once. In general if we have an equation f(x. 1).
y Fig. (ii) y = ex (A cos 3x + B sin 3x) (iv) y2 = 4a(x − a) ye−2x = A+ Bx … (1) Since the above equation contains two arbitrary constants. 127 . Now the following two cases may arise. (i) y = e2x (A + Bx) (iii) Ax + By = 1 Solution : (i) y = e2x (A + Bx) 2 2 x Fig. Case (i) : m is arbitrary and c is fixed.2 Case (ii) : c is an arbitrary constant and m is a fixed constant. 8. Clearly c is eliminated from the above equation.Note : In the above illustration we have taken both the constants m and c as arbitrary.2: Form the differential equation from the following equations. Since m is the only arbitrary constant in y … (1) = mx + c .3 Example 8. differentiating twice. 8. y Differentiating once we get dy … (2) dx = m Eliminating m between (1) and (2) we get the required differential equation dy x dx − y + c = 0 1/3)x y =( +c C y= (1 /3) x +c x y= y= 2 2 x+ c c Since c is the only arbitrary constant differentiating once we get dy dx = m. we get y′e−2x − 2y e−2x = B {y′′e−2x − 2y′ e−2x} − 2{y′e−2x − 2y e−2x} = 0 e−2x {y′′ − 4y′ + 4y} = 0 [‡ e−2x ≠ 0] y′′ − 4y′ + 4y = 0 is the required differential equation. Therefore the required differential equation is dy dx = m.
e.(ii) y = ex (A cos 3x + B sin 3x) ye−x = A cos 3x + B sin 3x We have to differentiate twice to eliminate two arbitrary constants y′e−x − ye−x = − 3A sin 3x + 3 B cos 3x y′′ e−x − y′e−x − y′e − x + ye−x = − 9 (A cos 3x + B sin 3x) i. (2) and (3) we get x x 1 2 y2 yy′ yy′′ + y′2 −1 0 =0 0 ⇒ (yy′′ + y′2) x − yy′ = 0 … (1) … (2) (iv) y2 = 4a(x − a) Differentiating..e. 2Ax + 2Byy′ = 0 i. 2yy′ = 4a Eliminating a between (1) and (2) we get yy′ y2 = 2yy′ x − 2 ⇒ (yy′)2 − 2xyy′ + y2 = 0 EXERCISE 8. Ax + Byy′ = 0 Differentiating again. dy 2 (ii) y′ + y2 = x (i) dx + y = x (iii) y′′ + 3y′2 + y3 = 0 d2y dy d3y2 − y + dx + 3 = 0 dx2 dx 3 (iv) d2y +x= dx2 dy y + dx 2 (v) (vi) y′′ = (y − y′3)3 (vii) y′ + (y′′)2 = (x + y′′)2 dx dy 2 (ix) dx + x = dy + x2 (viii) y′ + (y′′)2 = x(x + y′′)2 (x) sinx (dx + dy) = cosx (dx − dy) 128 ..1 (1) Find the order and degree of the following differential equations. A + B (yy′′ + y′2) = 0 Eliminating A and B between (1). e−x (y′′ − 2y′ + y) = − 9ye−x ⇒ y′′ − 2y′ + 10y = 0 (‡ e−x ≠ 0) … (1) … (2) … (3) (iii) Ax2 + By2 = 1 Differentiating.
b} {c} {a..4. B} a (3) Find the differential equation of the family of straight lines y = mx + m when (i) m is the parameter . 8. m both are parameters (4) Find the differential equation that will represent the family of all circles having centres on the xaxis and the radius is unity..e. (i) Variable separable (ii) Homogeneous (iii) Linear. viz. (ii) a is the parameter .4 Differential equations of first order and first degree : In this section we consider a class of differential equations. the order and degree of each member of the class is equal to one. For example. the equation can be written as f2(x)g1(y)dy = − f1(x) g2(y) dx g1(y) f1(x) ⇒ g (y) dy = − f (x) dx 2 2 129 . b} {A.1 Variable separable : Variables of a differential equation are to be rearranged in the form f1(x) g2(y) dx + f2(x) g1(y) dy = 0 i.(2) Form the differential equations by eliminating arbitrary constants given in brackets against each (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) y2 = 4ax y = ax2 + bx + c xy = c2 x2 y2 + =1 a2 b2 y = Ae2x + Be−5x y = (A + Bx)e3x y = e3x {C cos 2x + D sin 2x) y = emx y = Ae2x cos (3x + B) {a} {a. (iii) a. x+y (i) yy′ + x = 0 (ii) y′ + xy = sinx (iii) y′ = (iv) x dy + y dx = 0 x−y Solutions of first order and first degree equations: We shall consider only certain special types of equations of the first order and first degree. D} {m} {A. B} {C. B} {A. 8.
4: Solve 3ex tan y dx + (1 + ex) sec2y dy = 0 Solution : The given equation can be written in the form 3ex sec2y dx + tan y dy = 0 1 + ex Integrating. we have 3 log (1 + ex) + log tan y = log c ⇒ log [tan y (1 + ex) ] = log c ⇒ (1 + ex) tan y = c. 1 1 3 3 dy 1−y 2 =− dx 1 − x2 130 .5: Solve dx + =0 1 − x2 Solution : The given equation can be written as dy 1 − y22 = − ⇒ dx 1 − x2 Integrating. we have sin−1y + sin−1x = c ⇒ sin−1 [x ⇒ x 1 − y2 + y 1 − x2] = c 1 − y2 + y 1 − x2 = C is the required solution. we have x2 log (1 + y) = x + 2 + c. log c. 1 Note : The arbitrary constant may be chosen like c. which is the required solution.⌠ g1(y) ⌠ f1(x) The solution is therefore given by g (y) dy = − f (x) dx + c ⌡ 2 ⌡ 2 dy Example 8. c . which is the required solution. dy 1 − y22 Example 8.3: Solve : dx = 1 + x + y + xy Solution : The given equation can be written in the form dy dx = (1 + x) + y(1 + x) dy ⇒ dx = (1 + x) (1 + y) dy ⇒ 1 + y = (1 + x)dx Integrating. ec etc depending upon the problem. Example 8.
Example 8.6: Solve : ex
y 1 − y2 dx + x dy = 0
Solution : The given equation can be written as −y dy xexdx = 1 − y2 Integrating, we have y ⌠ xex dx = − ⌠ ⌡ 1 − y2 dy ⌡ 1 dt ⌠ ⇒ xex − ⌡ex dx = 2 ⌠ where t = 1 − y2 so that −2y dy = dt ⌡ t 1 t2 ⇒ xe − e = 2 1/2 + c
x x
1
⇒ xex − ex = ⇒ xe − e −
x x 2
t+c
1 − y = c which is the required solution. dy Example 8.7: Solve : (x + y)2 dx = a2 Solution : Put x + y = z. Differentiating with respect to x we get dy dz dy dz 1 + dx = dx i.e., dx = dx − 1 dz The given equation becomes z2 dx − 1 = a2 a2 z2 dz dz = dx ⇒ dx − 1 = 2 or 2 z z + a2 Integrating we have,
⌠ z 2 2 dz = ⌠ dx ⌡ ⌡z + a
2
2 2 2 a2 ⌠z +a −a ⌠ 2 2 dz = x + c ⇒ 1 − 2 2 dz = x + c ⌡ z +a ⌡ z +a
1 z ⇒ z − a2 . a tan−1 a = x + c x+y ⇒ x + y − a tan−1 a = x + c (‡ z = x + y) x+y i.e., y − a tan−1 a = c, which is the required solution.
131
Example 8.8: Solve : x dy = (y + 4x5 ex )dx Solution : xdy − y dx = 4x5 ex dx 4 xdy − ydx = 4x3 ex dx 2 x
4 xdy − ydx Integrating we have, ⌠ = ⌠4x3 ex dx ⌡ x2 ⌡ 4
4
y ⌠ ⇒ ⌠ d x = ⌡ et dt ⌡ ⇒
where t = x4
y t x = e +c 4 y i.e., x = ex + c which is the required solution.
Example 8.9: Solve: (x2−y)dx + (y2 − x) dy = 0, if it passes through the origin. Solution : (x2 − y)dx + (y2 − x) dy = 0 x2dx + y2dy = xdy + ydx x2dx + y2 dy = d(xy) x3 y3 3 + 3 = xy + c Since it passes through the origin, c = 0 Integrating we have, ∴ the required solution is x3 y3 3 3 3 + 3 = xy or x + y = 3xy
Example 8.10 : Find the cubic polynomial in x which attains its maximum value 4 and minimum value 0 at x = − 1 and 1 respectively. Solution : Let the cubic polynomial be y = f(x). Since it attains a maximum at x = −1 and a minimum at x = 1. dy dx = 0 at x = − 1 and 1 dy 2 dx = k (x + 1) (x − 1) = k(x − 1) Separating the variables we have dy = k(x2 − 1) dx
132
2 ⌠ ⌡ ⌡dy = k ⌠(x − 1) dx
x3 y = k 3 − x + c
when x = − 1, y = 4 and when x = 1, y = 0 Substituting these in equation (1) we have
… (1)
2k + 3c = 12 ; − 2k + 3c = 0 On solving we have k = 3 and c = 2. Substituting these values in (1) we get the required cubic polynomial y = x3 − 3x + 2. Example 8.11 : The normal lines to a given curve at each point (x, y) on the curve pass through the point (2, 0). The curve passes through the point (2, 3). Formulate the differential equation representing the problem and hence find the equation of the curve. Solution : dx Slope of the normal at any point P(x, y) = − dy Slope of the normal AP = y−0 x−2 dx ∴ − dy = y ⇒ ydy = (2 − x)dx x−2 … (1)
x2 y2 Integrating both sides, 2 = 2x − 2 + c Since the curve passes through (2, 3) 9 4 5 5 2 = 4 − 2 + c ⇒ c = 2 ; put c = 2 in (1), x2 5 y2 = 2x − 2 + 2 ⇒ y2 = 4x − x2 + 5 2 EXERCISE 8.2 Solve the following : (1) sec 2x dy − sin5x sec2ydx = 0 (3) (x2 − yx2)dy + (y2 + xy2)dx = 0 (5) (x2 + 5x + 7) dy + dy (7) (x + y)2 dx = 1 9 + 8y − y2 dx = 0
(2) cos2xdy + yetanxdx = 0 (4) yx2dx + e−xdy = 0 dy (6) dx = sin(x + y)
(8) ydx + xdy = e−xy dx if it cuts the yaxis.
133
8.4.2 Homogeneous equations :
Definition : A differential equation of first order and first degree is said to be dy f1(x, y) dy y homogeneous if it can be put in the form dx = f x or dx = f2(x, y) Working rule for solving homogeneous equation : By definition the given equation can be put in the form dy y dx = f x y = νx To solve (1) put Differentiating (2) with respect to x gives dν dy dx = ν + x dx Using (2) and (3) in (1) we have dν dν ν + x dx = f(ν) or x dx = f(ν) − ν Seperating the variables x and ν we have dν dx ⌠ dν x = f(ν) − ν ⇒ log x + c = f(ν) − ν ⌡ y where c is an arbitrary constant. After integration, replace ν by x . dy y y Example 8.12: Solve : dx = x + tan x Solution : Put y = vx dν L.H.S. = ν + x dx ; R.H.S. = v + tan v dν dx cos ν dv ∴ ν + x dx = ν + tan ν or x = sinν Integrating, we have logx = log sin ν + log c ⇒ x = c sin ν y i.e., x = c sin x , Example 8.13: Solve : (2 xy − x) dy + ydx = 0 −y dy Solution : The given equation is dx = 2 xy − x Put y = vx
… (1) … (2) … (3)
134
dv −v v L.H.S. = v + x dx ; R.H.S. = = 2 v−1 1−2 v v dv ∴ v + x dx = 1−2 v 2v v dx dv 1 − 2 v ⇒ ⇒ x dx = dv = 2 x 1 −2 v v v 1 dx i.e., v−3/2 − 2. v dv = 2 x ⇒ − 2v−1/2 − 2 log v = 2 log x + 2 log c − v−1/2 = log (v x c) − x/y x/y x or ye =c − y = log(cy) ⇒ cy = e Note : This problem can also be done easily by taking x = vy Example 8.14: Solve : (x3 + 3xy2)dx + (y3 + 3x2y)dy = 0 Solution : x3 + 3xy2 dy =− 3 dx y + 3x2y Put y = νx dν x3 + 3xy2 1 + 3ν2 L.H.S. = ν + x dx ; R.H.S. = − 3 2 =− 3 y + 3x y ν + 3ν dν 1 + 3ν2 ∴ ν + x dx = − 3 ν + 3ν ν4 + 6ν2 + 1 dν ⇒ x dx = − ν3 + 3ν ⇒ Integrating, we have 4 log x = − log (ν4 + 6ν2 + 1) + log c log[x4(ν4 + 6ν2 + 1)] = log c i.e., x4 (ν4 + 6ν2 + 1) = c or y4 + 6x2y2 + x4 = c Note (i) : This problem can also be done by using variable separable method. 4dx 4ν3 + 12ν =− 4 dν x ν + 6ν2 + 1
135
dy (eν + 1) =− ν dν y e +ν … (1) log y = − log (eν + ν) + log c or y(eν + ν) = c ⇒ yex/y + x = c Now y = 1 when x = 0 ⇒ 1e0 + 0 = c ⇒ c = 1 ∴ yex/y + x = 1 Example 8. R.16: Solve : xdy − ydx = x2 + y2 dx Solution : From the given equation we have dy y + dx = Put y = νx v + 1 + v2 dν L. R.S. Example 8. = 1 dν ∴ ν + x dx = ν + 1 + ν2 or dx x = dν 1 + ν2 x2 + y2 x … (1) 136 .H. where x = 0 Solution : The given equation can be written as dx (x / y − 1)ex/y dy = 1 + ex/y Put x = νy dν (v − 1)ev L.S.15: Solve : (1 + ex/y)dx + ex/y(1 − x/y) dy = 0 given that y = 1. = ν + y dy . = ν + x dx .S.S. The following example explains this case. = 1 + ev dν (ν − 1)eν ∴ ν + y dy = 1 + eν dν (eν + ν) or y dy = − 1 + eν ⇒ Integrating we have.H.Note (ii) : Sometimes it becomes easier in solving problems of the type dx f1(x/y) dy = f2(x/y) .H.H.
3 Linear Differential Equation : Definition : A first order differential equation is said to be linear in y if the power of the dy terms dx and y are unity..Integrating. xc = ν + v2 + 1 ] (y2 + x2) ν2 + 1 ⇒ x2c = y + EXERCISE 8. If a term occurs in the form y dx or y2. 8.4. where P and Q are function of x only. as the degree of each term is two.3 Solve the following : dy y y2 (1) dx + x = 2 x dy y(x − 2y) (2) dx = x(x − 3y) (3) (x2 + y2) dy = xy dx dy (4) x2 dx = y2 + 2xy given that y = 1. when x = 1. y). then it is not linear.e. Similarly a first order linear differential equation in x will be of the form dx dy + Px = Q where P and Q are functions of y only. (5) (x2 + y2) dx + 3xy dy = 0 (6) Find the equation of the curve passing through (1. dy dy For example dx + xy = ex is linear in y. The solution of the equation which is linear in y is given as ye∫ Pdx= ∫Qe∫ Pdx dx + c where e∫ Pdx is known as an integrating factor and it is denoted by I.log x + logc = log [v + i. since the power of dx is one and dy also the power of y is one. 0) and which has slope y 1 + x at (x. A differential equation of order one satisfying the above condition can dy always be put in the form dx + Py = Q.F. we have. 137 .
) = ⌠(Q (I.F. 1 =⌠ 1 − x2 ⌡ ∴ x (1 − x ) 2 × 1 dx.F. Put 1 − x2 = t ⇒ −2xdx = dt 1 − x2 y − 1 −3/2 ⌠ dt + c 2 = 2 ⌡t 1−x 138 .18 : Solve : (1 − x2) dx + 2xy = x (1 − x2) x dy 2x . Here P = cotx and Q = 2 cos x I. = e∫ Pdx= e∫ cot x dx = elog sin x = sin x ∴ The required solution is y (I.Similarly if an equation is linear in x then the solution of such an equation becomes x e∫ Pdy = ∫Q e∫ Pdy dy + c (where e∫ Pdy is I.F.) We frequently use the following properties of logarithmic and exponential functions : 1 (i) elog A = A (ii) em log A = Am (iii) e− m log A = m A dy Example 8.)) dx + c ⇒ y(sinx) = ⌠2 cosx sin x dx + c ⌡ ⌡ ⇒ y sin x = ⌠sin 2x dx + c ⌡ cos 2x 2 +c ⇒ 2y sin x + cos 2x = c dy Example 8. = e∫ Pdx = 1 − x2 The required solution is y.17 : Solve : dx + y cot x = 2 cos x dy Solution : The given equation is of the form dx + Py = Q. This is linear in y. This is linear in y Solution: The given equation is dx + 1 − x2 y = (1 − x2) ⇒ y sin x = − 2x 2 Here ∫ Pdx = ⌠ 1 − x2 dx = − log (1 − x ) ⌡ 1 I.F.F.
e.F. Here ∫Pdx = − ⌠ x + 1 dx = − log (x + 1) ⌡ 1 So I.⇒ y = t−1/2 + c 1 − x2 y 1 ⇒ +c 2 = 1−x 1 − x2 x tan−1y = . x + 1 = ∫ex (x + 1) x + 1 dx + c = ∫ex dx + c y i.19 : Solve : (1 + y2)dx = (tan−1y − x)dy dx Solution : The given equation can be written as dy + This is linear in x. = e∫ Pdy = etan y The required solution is xe tan−1y −1 tan−1y = ⌠e tan y dy + c ⌡ 1 + y2 put tan−1y = t dy ∴ 1 + y2 = dt −1 ⇒ xe tan y = ⌠ et . Therefore we have ∫Pdy = ⌠ 1 dy = tan−1y 1 + y2 ⌡ −1 I.. x + 1 = ex + c 139 .20 : Solve : (x + 1) dx − y = ex(x + 1)2 dy y Solution : The given equation can be written as dx − x + 1 = ex(x + 1) 1 This is linear in y. t dt + c ⌡ −1 ⇒ xe tan y = tet − et + c −1 −1 ⇒ xe tan y = e tan y (tan−1y − 1) + c dy Example 8. 1 + y2 1 + y2 Example 8.F. = e ∫ Pdx = e−log(x + 1) = x + 1 ∴ The required solution is 1 1 y .
dy Example 8. To solve (1).F. = e ∫ Pdx = elog sec x = sec2x The required solution is y sec2x = ∫ sec2x .5 Second order linear differential equations with constant coefficients : A general second order nonhomogeneous linear differential equation with constant coefficients is of the form … (1). sinx dx = ∫ tanx sec x dx 2 ⇒ y sec x = sec x + c or y = cos x + c cos2x EXERCISE 8. and X is a function of x. a2 are constants a0 ≠ 0.21 : Solve : dx + 2y tanx = sinx Solution : This is linear in y. a0 ≠ 0 … (2) is known as a homogeneous linear second order differential equation with constant coefficients. a1. Now y′ = pepx and y′′ = p2epx 140 . a0y′′ + a1y′ + a2y = X where a0. To do this we proceed as follows : Consider the function y = epx. p is a constant. The equation a0y′′ + a1y′ + a2y = 0.4 Solve the following : dy (1) dx + y = x dx x tan−1y (3) dy + = 1 + y2 1 + y2 dy y (5) dx + x = sin(x2) dy 4x 1 (2) dx + 2 y = 2 x +1 (x + 1)2 dy (4) (1 + x2) dx + 2xy = cosx dy (6) dx + xy = x dy (8) (y − x) dx = a2 (7) dx + xdy = e−y sec2y dy (9) Show that the equation of the curve whose slope at any point is equal to y + 2x and which passes through the origin is y = 2(ex − x − 1) 8. Here ∫ Pdx = ⌠2 tanx dx = 2 log secx ⌡ 2 I. first we solve (2).
Since epx ≠ 0 we get that a0p2 + a1p +a2 = 0 … (3) Note that epx satisfies the equation L(y) = a0y′′ + a1y′ + a2y = 0 then p must satisfy a0p2 + a1p + a2 = 0. 0 + c2 . 0 = 0. Hence we have the following : Theorem : If λ is a root of a0p2 + a1p +a2 = 0. Then the following three cases do arise. λ x λ x λ x λ x λ x λ x For L(y) = a0(c1e 1 + c2e 2 )′′+ a1(c1e 1 + c2e 2 )′ + a2(c1e 1 + c2e 2 ) λ x λ x = c1(a0λ12 + a1λ1 + a2)e 1 + c2(a0λ22 + a1 λ2 + a2)e 2 = c1 . In general the characteristic equation has two roots say λ1 and λ2. λ x λ x and the solution c1e 1 + c2e 2 is known as the complementary function. by the above theorem e 1 and e 2 are solutions of (2). and the λ x λ x linear combination y = c1 e 1 + c2e 2 is also a solution of (2). Moreover if the various derivatives of a function look similar in form to the function itself then epx will be an ideal candidate to solve a0y′′ + a1y′ + a2y = 0 . Case (ii) : λ1 and λ2 are complex λ1 = a + ib and λ2 = a − ib In this case as the two roots λ1 and λ2 are complex from theory of equations λ x e 1 = e(a + ib)x = eax . λ x λ x In this case. Case (i) : λ1 and λ2 are real and distinct. eibx= eax (cos bx + i sin bx) and 141 . Hereafter we will consider only those set of differential equations which admits epx as one of the solutions.Note that the derivatives look similar to the function y = epx itself and if L(y) = a0y′′ + a1y′ + a2y then L(y) = L(epx) = (a0p2epx + a1pepx + a2 epx) = (a0p2 + a1p + a2)epx Hence if L(y) = 0 then it follows that (a0p2 + a1p + a2)epx = 0. then eλx is a solution of a0y′′ + a1y′ + a2y = 0 8.5.1 Definition : The equation a0p2 + a1p + a2 = 0 is called the characteristic equation of (2).
then the solution of (2) is y= Ae 1 + Be 2 if λ1 and λ2 are real and distinct ax e (A cos bx + B sin bx) if λ1 = a + ib and λ2 = a − ib λ x (A + Bx)e 1 if λ1 = λ2 (real) λ x λ x A and B are arbitrary constants. Case (iii) :The roots are real and equal λ1 = λ2 (say) Clearly eλ1x is one of the solutions of (2). i. If X = 0 then the C. the particular integral is associated with the term X. General solution : The general solution of a linear equation of second order with constant coefficient consists of two parts namely the complementary function and the particular integral. Then the general dx solution is given by y = u + ν where ν is called the particular integral of (1). By using the double root property.. the complementary function is associated with the homogeneous equation and v.λ x e 2 = eax (cos bx − i sin bx) Hence the solution λ x λ x y = c1e 1 + c2e 2 = eax [(c1 + c2) cos bx + i(c1 − c2) sinbx] = eax [A cos bx + B sin bx] where A = c1 + c2 and B = (c1 − c2)i and the complementary function is eax [A cos bx + B sin bx].e.) we solve the equation dy d2y 2 + a1 dx + a2y = 0 and obtain a solution y = u (say).F. Now the linear combination c1eλ1x + c2xeλ1x becomes the solution. The above discussion is summarised as follows : Given a0y′′ + a1y′ + a2y = 0 Determine its characteristic equation a0p2 + a1p + a2 = 0 … (3). we will obtain xeλ1x as the other solution of (2). a0 142 . Let λ1. Working rule : To obtain the complementary function (C. λ2 be the two roots of (3). y = (c1 + c2x)eλ1x is the solution or C.F. becomes the general solution of the equation.F. The function u.
Dy = dx dx . If f(α) = 0 then D = α is a root of the characteristic equation for the differential equation f(D) = 0 ⇒ D − α is a factor of f(D). D2 (eαx) = α2 eαx … Dn(eαx) = αneαx . e− ∫ α dx. f(D) eαx = f(D) f(α)eαx 1 1 ⇒ eαx = f(D) f(α)eαx (‡ f(D) . 1 = eαx D − α θ(α) 1 1 eαx … (3) = θ(α) D − α 1 Put eαx = y ⇒ (D − α)y = eαx (D − α) ⌠ then ye− ∫ α dx = ⌡eαx. …(2) Thus the P.. D2y = d2y dx2 8. ye−αx = ⌡eαx e−αx dx ⇒ y = eαxx 143 .e. Let f(D) = (D − α) θ(D).2 Method for finding Particular Integral : (a) Suppose X is of the form eαx. dx ⌠ i. α a constant D(eαx) = αeαx .I.5. f(D) = I) 1 1 αx e = f(D) eαx then f(α) 1 αx 1 e represented symbolically. is given by f(D)eαx= f(α) (2) holds when f(α) ≠ 0. where θ(α) ≠ 0 then 1 1 αx . αx f(D) e = (D − α) θ(D) e 1 .Note : In this section we use the differential operators d2 dy d D ≡ dx and D2 ≡ 2 . 1 1 f(D) . then f(D) eαx = f(α) eαx … (1) 1 Note that f(D) is the inverse operator to f(D). 1 Operating both sides of (1) by f(D) we have.
22 : Solve : (D2 + 5D + 6)y = 0 or y″ + 5y′ + 6y = 0 Solution : To find the C. ∴ p= 1−4 2 Example 8.F. is Ae12x + Bex Particular integral P. Example 8. is (Ax + B)e− 3x Hence the general solution is y = (Ax + B)e−3x where A and B are arbitrary constants. is Ae + Be−3x. then D = α is a repeated root for f(D) = 0.25 : Solve : (D2 − 13D + 12)y = e−2x Solution : The characteristic equation is p2 − 13p + 12 = 0 ⇒ (p − 12) (p − 1) = 0 ⇒ p = 12 and 1 The C. Example 8.F. Hence the general solution is y = Ae−2x + Be−3x where A and B are arbitrary constants. (p + 3)2 = 0 ⇒ p = − 3.F.I. = 1 e−2x D − 13D + 12 2 −1± 144 .24 : Solve : (D2 + D + 1)y = 0 Solution : The characteristic equation is p2 + p + 1 = 0 −1 3 = 2 ±i 2 3 3 Hence the general solution is y = e−x/2 A cos 2 x + B sin 2 x where A and B are arbitrary constant.. θ(α) = 0.Substituting in (3) we have 1 1 αx αx f(D) e = θ(α) xe If further. − 3 The C. x2 1 Then f(D) eαx = 2 eαx Example 8. solve the characteristic equation p2 + 5p + 6 = 0 ⇒ (p + 2) (p + 3) = 0 ⇒ p = − 2 and p = − 3 −2x The C.e.23 : Solve : (D2 + 6D + 9)y = 0 Solution : The characteristic equation is p2 + 6p + 9 = 0 i.F.
I. = 1 1 e−2x e−2x = (D + 4) (D + 2) D + 6D + 8 Since f(D) = (D + 2) θ(D)) 2 = 1 xe−2x 1 xe−2x =2 θ (−2) 1 xe−2x Hence the general solution is y = Ae− 4x + Be−2x + 2 Example 8.e.F..28 : Solve : (2D + 5D + 2)y = e −5± 2 −2x 1 Solution : The characteristic equation is 2p2 + 5p + 2 = 0 ∴ p= 25 − 16 − 5 ± 3 = 4 4 145 . 3 The C.I.F. is Ae− 4x + Be−2x Particular integral P. is (Ax + B)e3x Particular integral P.26 : Solve : (D2 + 6D + 8)y = e−2x Solution : The characteristic equation is p2 + 6p + 8 = 0 ⇒ (p + 4) (p + 2) = 0 ⇒ p = − 4 and − 2 The C. (p − 3)2 = 0 ⇒ p = 3.27 : Solve : (D2 − 6D + 9)y = e3x Solution : The characteristic equation is p2 − 6p + 9 = 0 i. = = 1 e3x D − 6D + 9 2 1 e3x x2 e3x = 2 2 (D − 3) x2 e3x Hence the general solution is y = (Ax + B)e3x + 2 Example 8.1 1 e−2x = 4 + 26 + 12 e−2x (− 2) − 13 (− 2) + 12 1 = 42 e−2x 1 Hence the general solution is y = CF + PI ⇒ y = Ae12x + Bex + 42 e−2x = 2 Example 8.
say φ(D2) and then replace D2 by − a2. D2). In such cases we proceed as follows : 1 cos3x For example : P. Working rule : Formula 1: Express f(D) as function of D2.I. Then we use the following result. is Ae Particular integral 1 P.I. 2 1 Hence the general solution is y = Ae −2x 1 + Be −2x 1 −2x +3xe 1 Caution : In the above problem we see that while calculating the particular integral the coefficient of D expressed as factors is made unity. = 2 2D + 5D + 2 − x e 2 1 1 − x e 2 1 = 1 2D + 2 (D + 2) 1 1 − x xe 2 1 x e− 2 x 1 =3 = 1 θ − 2 . If φ(− a2) ≠ 0.F.1 ⇒ p = − 2 and − 2 −2x + Be−2x The C. that is. = 2 D − 2D + 1 1 cos3x = Replace D2 by − 32 2 − 3 − 2D + 1 − 1 cos3x = 2(D + 4) − 1 D − 4 cos3x = 2 Multiply and divide by D − 4 D2 − 42 146 . = f(D) cos ax = cos ax 2 cos ax = φ(D ) φ(− a2) 1 1 1 For example PI = 2 cos 2x = cos 2x = − 3 cos 2x 2 D +1 −2 +1 Formula 2 : Sometimes we cannot form φ(D2).I. a function of D and D2. 1 1 1 P. (b) When X is of the form sin ax or cos ax. Then we shall try to get φ(D.
= R. = D + a2 φ(D2) 1 cosax = (D + ia) (D − ia) eiax 1 1 xeiax = R.P.I. (D + ia) (D − ia) D +a Example 8.I.−1 1 = 2 (D − 4) cos3x 2 − 3 − 42 1 = 50 (D − 4) cos 3x 1 1 = 50 [D cos 3x − 4 cos 3x] = 50 [− 3 sin 3x − 4 cos 3x] Formula 3 : If φ(− a2) = 0 then we proceed as shown in the following example: 1 1 cosax cosax = 2 Example : P.F. (D + ia) (D − ia) θ(ia) xeiax = Real part of 2ia as θ (ia) = 2ia −x = 2a [Real part of i [cos ax + i sin ax]] −x x sin ax = 2a (− sin ax) = 2a Note : If X = sin ax 1 sin ax Formula 1 : φ(− a2) Formula 2 : Same as cos ax method eiax − x 1 1 Formula 3 : 2 = 2a cos ax 2 sin ax = I.F.P. = 2 (sin 2x) = (sin 2x) = − 8 sin 2x −4−4 D −4 1 Hence the general solution is y = C. = Ae2x + Be−2x . + P. ⇒ y = Ae2x + Be− 2x − 8 sin 2x Example 8.30 : Solve : (D2 + 4D + 13)y = cos 3x Solution : The characteristic equation is p2 + 4p + 13 = 0 147 .P.29 : Solve : (D2 − 4)y = sin 2x Solution : The characteristic equation is p2 − 4 = 0 ⇒ p = ± 2 C.I. 1 1 1 P.
y = (A cos 3x + B sin 3x) − (c) When X is of the form x and x2 Working rule : Take the P. = = = = 1 (cos 3x) D + 4D + 13 2 1 1 (cos 3x) = 4D + 4 (cos 3x) − 3 + 4D + 13 2 (4D − 4) 4D − 4 (cos 3x) = (cos 3x) (4D + 4) (4D − 4) 16D2 − 16 4D − 4 1 (cos 3x) = 40 (3 sin 3x + cos 3x) −160 The general solution is y = C. 148 . = 1 sin 3x D2 + 9 1 −x since 2 2 sin ax = 2a cos ax D +a x cos 3x 6 −x = 6 cos 3x Hence the solution is y = C.I.31 : Solve (D2 + 9)y = sin 3x Solution : The characteristic equation is p2 + 9 = 0 ⇒ p = ± 3i C. = e−2x (A cos 3x + B sin 3x) P. take y = c0 + c1x or y = c0 + c1x + c2x2 according as f(x) = x or x2.I. as c0 + c1x if f(x) = x and c0 + c1x + c2x2 if f(x) = x2.I.e. + P.F. is also a solution of (aD2 + bD + c)y = f(x).F. Since P.I.I. By substituting y value and comparing the like terms. i.I.. c1 and c2. = (A cos 3x + B sin 3x) P.F. one can find c0. + P.p= −4± 16 − 52 − 4 ± − 36 − 4 ± i6 = = = − 2 ± i3 2 2 2 C. 1 y = e−2x (A cos 3x + B sin 3x) + 40 (3 sin 3x + cos 3x) Example 8.F.
F. = c0 + c1x + c2x2 But P. 2 The C. x 3 y = Aex + Be2x + 2 + 4 Example 8. (2c2 − 4c1 + c0) + (− 8c2 + c1)x + c2x2 = x2 c2 = 1 − 8c2 + c1 = 0 ⇒ c1 = 8 2c2 − 4c1 + c0 = 0 ⇒ c0 = 30 P.33 : Solve : (D2 − 4D + 1)y = x2 Solution : The characteristic equation is p2 − 4p + 1 = 0 ⇒ p= 4± 16 − 4 4 ± 2 3 = =2± 3 2 2 3)x 1 3 C.F..I.I.e. ∴ (D2 − 4D + 1) (c0 + c1x + c2x2 ) = x2 i. + P.I. is also a solution.. is (Aex + Be2x) Let P.I. = Ae (2 + + Be (2 − 3 )x Let P.e. ∴ (D2 − 3D + 2) (c0 + c1x) = x i.I.F. = 2 + 4 Hence the general solution is y = C.32 : Solve : (D2 − 3D + 2)y = x Solution : The characteristic equation is p2 − 3p + 2 = 0 ⇒ (p − 1) (p − 2) = 0 p = 1. = x2 + 8x + 30 149 .I. (− 3c1 + 2 c0) + 2c1x = x ⇒ 2c1 = 1 ∴ c1 = 2 (− 3c1 + 2 c0) = 0 ⇒ c0 = 4 x 3 ∴ P.Example 8. = c0 + c1x ∴ c0 + c1x is also a solution.
The rate of change of population is directly proportional to initial population i.I. y = 0 dx (8) (D2 − 2D − 3)y = sinx cosx (10) (D2 − 6D + 9) y = x + e2x (12) (D2 + 5)y = cos2x (14) (3D2 + 4D + 1)y = 3e−x/3 2 (7) (D2 + 3D − 4) y = x2 (9) D y = − 9 sin 3x (11) (D2 − 1)y = cos2x − 2 sin 2x (13) (D2 + 2D + 3)y = sin 2x 8. y = 0 and when x = 0. (2) If k < 0 we say that A decreases exponentially with decreasing constant k (decay problem). dt = kA where k is called the constant of proportionality (1) If k > 0. + P.e.F.6 Applications : In this section we solve problems on differential equations which have direct impact on real life situation. dA dA dt α A i. In all the practical problems we apply the principle that the rate of change of population is directly proportional to the initial population 150 . y = 2 and when x = 2... Solving of these types of problems involve (i) Construction of the mathematical model describing the given situation (ii) Seeking solution for the model formulated in (i) using the methods discussed earlier. we say that A grows exponentially with growth constant k (growth problem).Hence the general solution is y = C.5 Solve the following differential equations : (1) (D2 + 7D + 12)y = e2x (3) (D2 + 14D + 49)y = e−7x + 4 (2) (D2 − 4D + 13)y = e−3x (4) (D2 − 13D + 12)y = e−2x + 5ex π (5) (D2 + 1) y = 0 when x = 0. y = Ae (2 + 3 )x + Be (2 − 3)x + (x2 + 8x + 30) EXERCISE 8. y = − 2 (6) d2y dy 3x 2 − 3 dx + 2y = 2e when x = log2.e. Illustration : Let A be any population at time t.
F. In general we have to find out c as well as k from the given dA data. the rate of change of temperature is proportional to the difference in temperatures) we get the equation as dT dt = k(T − S) [T− cooling object temperature.dA dA i. dt α A or dt = kA (Here k may be positive or negative depends on the problem).. (i) variable separable (ii) linear (using I.. ∴ A = cekt (iv) In the case of Newton’s law of cooling (i.38. Sometimes the value of k may be given directly as in 8.35.F.e.e. is cekt But there is no P.e. dA Solution : dt = kA dA (i) ⇒ log A = kt + log c A = kdt ⇒ (ii) dA dt − kA = 0 is linear in A I. S − surrounding temperature] dT = kdt ⇒ log (T − S) = kt + log c ⇒ T − S = cekt T−S ⇒ T = S + cekt A = ekt + log c ⇒ A = cekt 151 .I.) (iii) by using characteristic equation with single root k.. This linear equation can be solved in three ways i. In all the ways we get the solution as A = cekt where c is the arbitrary constant and k is the constant of proportionality.F. = e−kt Ae−kt = ⌠e−kt O dt + c ⇒ Ae−kt = c ⌡ A = cekt (iii) (D − k)A = 0 Chr. equation is p − k = 0 ⇒ p = k The C. dt is directly given in 8.
Example 8.34 : In a certain chemical reaction the rate of conversion of a substance at time t is proportional to the quantity of the substance still untransformed at that instant. At the end of one hour, 60 grams remain and at the end of 4 hours 21 grams. How many grams of the substance was there initially? Solution : Let A be the substance at time t
dA dA kt dt α A ⇒ dt = kA ⇒ A = ce
When t = 1, A = 60 ⇒ cek = 60 When t = 4, A = 21 ⇒ ce (1) ⇒ c e
4 4k 4k
… (1) … (2) … (3)
= 21
= 60
4 4
(3) 60 3 (2) ⇒ c = 21 ⇒ c = 85.15 (by using log) Initially i.e., when t = 0, A = c = 85.15 gms (app.) Hence initially there was 85.15 gms (approximately) of the substance. Example 8.35 : A bank pays interest by continuous compounding, that is by treating the interest rate as the instantaneous rate of change of principal. Suppose in an account interest accrues at 8% per year compounded continuously. Calculate the percentage increase in such an account over one year. [Take e.08 ≈ 1.0833] Solution : Let A be the principal at time t dA dA dA dt α A ⇒ dt = kA ⇒ dt = 0.08 A, since k = 0.08 ⇒ A(t) = ce0.08t A(1) − A(0) × 100 Percentage increase in 1 year = A(0)
c. e0.08 A(1) = A(0) − 1 × 100 = c − 1 × 100 = 8.33%
Hence percentage increase is 8.33% Example 8.36 : The temperature T of a cooling object drops at a rate proportional to the difference T − S, where S is constant temperature of surrounding medium. If initially T = 150°C, find the temperature of the cooling object at any time t.
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Solution : Let T be the temperature of the cooling object at any time t dT dT kt dt α (T− S) ⇒ dt = k (T − S) ⇒ T − S = ce , where k is negative ⇒ T = S + cekt When t = 0, T = 150 ⇒ 150 = S + c ⇒ c = 150 − S ∴ The temperature of the cooling object at any time is T = S + (150 − S)ekt Note : Since k is negative, as t increases T decreases. It is a decay problem. Instead of k one may take − k where k > 0. Then the answer is T = S + (150 − S)e− kt . Again, as t increases T decreases. Example 8.37 : For a postmortem report, a doctor requires to know approximately the time of death of the deceased. He records the first temperature at 10.00 a.m. to be 93.4°F. After 2 hours he finds the temperature to be 91.4°F. If the room temperature (which is constant) is 72°F, estimate the time of death. (Assume normal temperature of a human body to be 98.6°F). log 19.4 = − 0.0426 × 2.303 and log 26.6 = 0.0945 × 2.303 e 21.4 e 21.4 Solution : Let T be the temperature of the body at any time t dT By Newton’s law of cooling dt α (T − 72) since S = 72°F dT kt dt = k (T − 72) ⇒ T− 72 = ce or T = 72 + cekt At t = 0, T = 93.4 ⇒ c = 21.4 [ First recorded time 10 a.m. is t = 0] ∴ T = 72 + 21.4ekt 19.4 1 19.4 When t = 120, T = 91.4 ⇒ e120k = 21.4 ⇒ k = 120 loge21.4 1 = 120 (− 0.0426 × 2.303) Let t1 be the elapsed time after the death. When t = t1 ; T = 98.6 ⇒ 98.6 = 72 + 21.4 e
kt1
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1 26.6 − 120 × 0.0945 × 2.303 ⇒ t1 = k loge 21.4 = = − 266 min 0.0426 × 2.303 [For better approximation the hours converted into minutes] i.e., 4 hours 26 minutes before the first recorded temperature. The approximate time of death is 10.00 hrs − 4 hours 26 minutes. ∴ Approximate time of death is 5.34 A.M. dT Note : Since it is a decay problem, we can even take dt = − k(T − 72) where k > 0. The final answer will be the same. Example 8.38 : A drug is excreted in a patients urine. The urine is monitored continuously using a catheter. A patient is administered 10 mg of drug at time t = 0, which is excreted at a Rate of − 3t1/2 mg/h. (i) What is the general equation for the amount of drug in the patient at time t > 0? (ii) When will the patient be drug free? Solution : (i) Let A be the quantum of drug at any time t
1
The drug is excreted at a rate of − 3t2 dA i.e., dt = − 3t2 ⇒ A = − 2t2 + c When t = 0, A = 10 ⇒ c = 10
3 1 3
At any time t
A = 10 − 2t2
3
(ii) For drug free, A = 0 ⇒ 5 = t2 ⇒ t3 = 25 ⇒ t = 2.9 hours. Hence the patient will be drug free in 2.9 hours or 2 hours 54 min. Example 8.39 : The number of bacteria in a yeast culture grows at a rate which is proportional to the number present. If the population of a colony of yeast bacteria triples in 1 hour. Show that the number of bacteria at the end of five hours will be 35 times of the population at initial time. Solution : Let A be the number of bacteria at any time t dA dA kt dt α A ⇒ dt = kA ⇒ A = ce
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Initially, i.e., when t = 0, assume that A = A0 ∴ A0 = ce° = c ∴ A = A0ekt when t = 1, A = 3A0 ⇒ 3A0 = A0ek ⇒ ek = 3 When t = 5, A = A0e5k = A0(ek)5 = 35. A0 ∴ The number of bacteria at the end of 5 hours will be 35 times of the number of bacteria at initial time EXERCISE 8.6 (1) Radium disappears at a rate proportional to the amount present. If 5% of the original amount disappears in 50 years, how much will remain at the end of 100 years. [Take A0 as the initial amount]. (2) The sum of Rs. 1000 is compounded continuously, the nominal rate of interest being four percent per annum. In how many years will the amount be twice the original principal? (loge2 = 0.6931). (3) A cup of coffee at temperature 100°C is placed in a room whose temperature is 15°C and it cools to 60°C in 5 minutes. Find its temperature after a further interval of 5 minutes. (4) The rate at which the population of a city increases at any time is proportional to the population at that time. If there were 1,30,000 people in the city in 1960 and 1,60,000 in 1990 what population may be 16 anticipated in 2020. log e 13 = .2070 ; e.42 = 1.52 (5) A radioactive substance disintegrates at a rate proportional to its mass. When its mass is 10 mgm, the rate of disintegration is 0.051 mgm per day. How long will it take for the mass to be reduced from 10 mgm to 5 mgm. [loge2 = 0.6931]
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9. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
Discrete Mathematics deals with several selected topics in Mathematics that are essential to the study of many Computer Science areas. Since it is very difficult to cover all the topics, only two topics, namely “Mathematical Logic”, and “Groups” have been introduced. These topics will be very much helpful to the students in certain practical applications related to Computer Science.
9.1. Mathematical Logic : Introduction :
Logic deals with all types of reasonings. These reasonings may be legal arguments or mathematical proofs or conclusions in a scientific theory. Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) wrote the first treatise on logic. Gottfried Leibnitz framed the idea of using symbols in logic and this idea was realised in the nineteenth century by George Boole and Augustus De’Morgan. Logic is widely used in many branches of sciences and social sciences. It is the theoretical basis for many areas of Computer Science such as digital logic circuit design, automata theory and artificial intelligence. We express our thoughts through words. Since words have many associations in every day life, there are chances of ambiguities to appear. In order to avoid this, we use symbols which have been clearly defined. Symbols are abstract and neutral. Also they are easy to write and manipulate. This is because the mathematical logic which we shall study is also called symbolic logic.
9.1.1 Logical statement or Proposition :
A statement or a proposition is a sentence which is either true or false but not both. A sentence which is both true and false simultaneously is not a statement, rather it is a paradox. Example 1 : (a) Consider the following sentences : (i) Chennai is the capital of Tamilnadu. (ii) The earth is a planet. (iii) Rose is a flower. Each of these sentences is true and so each of them is a statement. (b) Consider the following sentences : (iv) Every triangle is an isosceles triangle.
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(vii) is a command. (viii) Where are you going? (ix) May God bless you with success.. But the use of these connectives in English language is not always precise and unambiguous. Example 2 : Each of the sentences (vii) Switch on the light. to form new statements by combining two or more statements. This is a compound statement and it is a combination of two simple statements “It is raining”. The fundamental property of a compound statement is that its truth value is completely determined by the truth values of its substatements together with the way in which they are combined to form the compound statement. Each of these sentences is false and so each of them is a statement. In fact. ‘or’. Truth value of a statement : The truth or falsity of a statement is called its truth value. “It is cold”.(v) Three plus four is eight (vi) The sun is a planet. All the statements in (a) and (b) of Example 1 are simple statements. Simple statements : A statement is said to be simple if it cannot be broken into two or more statements. All the statements in Example 1(a) have the truth value T. Basic logical connectives The words which combine simple statements to form compound statements are called connectives. Compound statements : If a statement is the combination of two or more simple statements. we say that its truth value is FALSE or F. Simple statements which on combining form compound statements are called substatements or component statements of the compound statement. etc. Hence it is necessary to define a set of connectives with definite meanings in the 157 . (viii) is a question (ix) is an optative and (x) is exclamatory. If a statement is true. (x) How beautiful Taj Mahal is! cannot be assigned true or false and so none of them is a statement. then it is said to be a compound statement. we say that its truth value is TRUE or T and if it is false. We use the connectives ‘and’. Example : It is raining and it is cold. while all the statements in Example 1 (b) have the truth value F.
158 . the given statement can be rewritten as : ‘Usha is going to school’. ∴ By (A2) (i) has the truth value F. ‘disjunction’ which corresponds to the word ‘or’ ‘negation’ which corresponds to the word ‘not’. and ‘Mala is going to school’. “∨” to denote disjunction and “ ~ ” to denote negation. Conjunction : If two simple statements p and q are connected by the word ‘and’. called object language.language of logic. We use the symbol “∧” to denote conjunction. then the resulting compound statement ‘p and q’ is called the conjunction of p and q and is written in the symbolic form as ‘p ∧ q’. Example 2 : Convert the following statement into symbolic form : ‘Usha and Mala are going to school’. (A2) The statement p ∧ q has the truth value F whenever either p or q or both have the truth value F. The given statement in symbolic form is p ∧ q. Let p : Usha is going to school. q : Ravi is handsome. q : Mala is going to school. Example 1 : Form the conjunction of the following simple statements p : Ram is intelligent. Rule : (A1) The statement p ∧ q has the truth value T whenever both p and q have the truth value T. Example : Write the truth value of each of the following statements : (i) (ii) Ooty is in Tamilnadu and 3 + 4 = 8 Ooty is in Tamilnadu and 3 + 4 = 7 (iii) Ooty is in Kerala and 3 + 4 = 7 (iv) Ooty is in Kerala and 3 + 4 = 8 In (i) the truth value of the statement 3 + 4 = 8 is F. Three basic connectives are conjunction which corresponds to the English word ‘and’. p ∧ q : Ram intelligent and Ravi is handsome.
Rule : (A3) The statement p ∨ q has the truth value F whenever both p and q have the truth value F. (ii) has truth value T. The given statement in symbolic form is p w q. p ∨ q : John is playing cricket or there are thirty students in the class room. the truth value of (iii) is F. If p denotes a statement. (ii) and (iv) are T and by (A3). Example : Form the disjunction of the following simple statements : p : John is playing cricket. The truth values of (iii) and (iv) are F. By (A4). Negation : The negation of a statement is generally formed by introducing the word ‘not’ at some proper place in the statement or by prefixing the statement with ‘It is not the case that’ or ‘It is false that’. Example : (i) Chennai is in India or 2 is an integer.In (ii) both the substatements have truth value T and hence by (A1). “5 is a positive integer or a square is a rectangle”. we see that the truth values of (i). (ii) Chennai is in India or 2 is an irrational number. q : A square is a rectangle. q : There are thirty students in the class room. (A4) The statement p ∨ q has the truth value T whenever either p or q or both have the truth value T. We use the symbol ∼p to denote the negation of p. 159 . Example : Convert the following statement into symbolic form. then the negation of p is written as ∼p or p. (iii) Chennai is in China or 2 is an integer. then the resulting compound statement ‘p or q’ is called the disjunction of p and q and is written in symbolic form as p ∨ q. Disjunction : If two simple statements p and q are connected by the word ‘or’. (iv) Chennai is in China or 2 is an irrational number. Let p : 5 is a positive integer.
(3) The sky is blue. if the truth value of p is F. (10) 2 is the only even prime. (16) Sin x is an even function. (4) How are you? (5) 7 + 2 < 10. Example : p : All men are wise. (2) A square has five sides.1 Find out which of the following sentences are statements and which are not? Justify your answer. (15) Paris is in France. ∼p : Not all men are wise. (7) How beautiful you are! (8) Wish you all success. (19) The product of a complex number and its conjugate is purely imaginary. (13) Milk is white. Also. Write down the truth value (T or F) of the following statements : (11) All the sides of a rhombus are equal in length. It only modifies a statement. (17) Every square matrix is nonsingular. (6) The set of rational numbers is finite. Note : Negation is called a connective although it does not combine two or more statements. (or) ∼p : It is not the case that all men are wise (or) ∼p : It is false that all men are wise. 160 . (18) Jupiter is a planet. (9) Give me a cup of tea. (12) 1 + 8 is an irrational number. (1) All natural numbers are integers. (14) The number 30 has four prime factors. then the truth value of ∼p is T.Rule : (A5) If the truth value of p is T then the truth value of ∼p is F. EXERCISE 9. (20) Isosceles triangles are equilateral.
The initial columns are filled with the possible truth values of the substatements and the last column is filled with the truth values of the compound statement on the basis of the truth values of the substatements written in the initial columns. 9. Therefore. (ii) p : I like tea.2 Truth tables : A table that shows the relation between the truth values of a compound statement and the truth values of its substatements is called the truth table. Thus the truth table for ∼p is as given below : Truth table for ∼ p p ∼p T F F T 161 . q : Anand plays cricket. Also we know that if p has the truth value T then ∼p has the truth value F and if p has the truth value F. (iv) 3 + 2 = 5 and Ganges is a river. (iii) This picture is good or beautiful. (ii) Suresh reads ‘Indian Express’ or ‘The Hindu’. If the compound statement is made up of n substatements. (24) If p stands for the statement “Sita likes reading” and q for the statement “Sita likes playing’ what does ∼p ∧ ∼ q stand for? (25) Write negation of the each of the following statements : (i) 5 is an irrational number. then its truth table will contain 2n rows. its truth table will contain 21(= 2) rows.1. q : I like icecream. (22) Let p be “Kamala is going to school” and q be “There are twenty students in the class “. Example 9. (iii) It is false that the mangoes are sweet. Give a simple verbal sentence which describes each of the following statements : (i) p ∨ q (ii) p ∧ q (iii) ∼ p (iv) ∼ q (v) ∼p ∨ q (23) Translate each of the following compound statements into symbolic form : (i) Rose is red and parrot is a bird. then ∼p has the truth value T. (v) It is false that sky is not blue. (ii) Mani is sincere and hardworking.1 : Construct the truth table for ∼p Solution: The statement ∼p consists of only one simple statement p. A truth table consists of rows and columns.(21) Form the conjunction and the disjunction of (i) p : Anand reads newspaper.
enter all possible truth values of p. In the second column. In the first column. as given below : Truth table for p ∨ q p q p∨q T T T T F T F T T F F F 162 . Therefore. enter the truth values of ∼p based on the corresponding truth values of p. enter the truth values of p ∨ (∼p).Example 9. using (A4). there must be 22(= 4) rows in the truth table of p ∧ q.3 : Construct the truth table for p ∧ q. in the last column. enter the truth values of p ∧ q in the final column based on the corresponding truth values of p and q in the first two columns. TF. Solution: The compound statement p ∧ q consists of two simple statements p and q. Therefore its truth table will contain 21(= 2) rows. FT and FF in the first two columns of the truth table. Using (A1) and (A2). Finally. Now enter all possible truth values of statements p and q namely TT. Solution: The compound statement p∨ (∼p) consists of only one single statement p. by using (A3) and (A4) we can construct the truth table for p ∨ q.2 : Construct the truth table for p ∨ (∼p). Truth table for p ∧ q p q p∧q T T T T F F F T F F F F Note : Similarly. Truth table for p∨(∼p) p ∼p p∨(∼p) T F T F T T Example 9.
4 : Construct the truth table for the following statements : (i) ((∼p) ∨ (∼ q)) (iii) (p ∨ q) ∧ (∼ q) Solution: (i) p T T F F (ii) p T T F F (iii) p T T F F (ii) ∼ ((∼ p) ∧ q) (iv) ∼ ((∼ p) ∧ (∼ q)) Truth table for ((∼p) ∨ (∼ q)) q ∼p ∼q ((∼p) ∨ (∼ q)) T F F F F F T T T T F T F T T T Truth table for ∼ ((∼ p) ∧ q) q ∼p (∼ p) ∧ q ∼ ((∼ p) ∧ q) T F F T F F F T T T T F F T F T Truth table for (p ∨ q) ∧ (∼ q) q p∨q ∼q (p ∨ q) ∧ (− q) T T F F F T T T T T F F F F T F Truth table for ∼ ((∼ p) ∧ (∼ q)) (iv) p q ∼p ∼q (∼ p) ∧ (∼ q) ∼ ((∼ p) ∧ (∼ q)) T T F F F T T F F T F T F T T F F T F F T T T F Example 9. The truth value of p remains at the same value of T or F for each of four consecutive assignments of logical values. Therefore.Example 9. 163 . The truth value of q remains at T or F for two assignments and that of r remains at T or F for one assignment. there must be 23(= 8) rows in the truth table of (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼r). q and r.5 : Construct the truth table for (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼ r) Solution: The compound statement (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼ r) consists of three simple statements p.
In this case we write A ≡ B. Example 9.6 : Construct the truth table for (p ∨ q) ∧ r Solution: p q r p∨q (p ∨ q) ∧ r T T T T T T T F T F T F T T T T F F T F F T T T T F T F T F F F T F F F F F F F EXERCISE 9.7 : Show that ∼ (p ∨ q) ≡ (∼ p) ∧ (∼ q) 164 . if they have identical last columns in their truth tables.2 Construct the truth tables for the following statements : (1) p ∨ (∼ q) (2) (∼ p) ∧ (∼ q) (3) ∼ (p ∨ q) (4) (p ∨ q) ∨ (∼ p) (5) (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼ q) (6) ∼ (p ∨ (∼ q)) (7) (p ∧ q) ∨ [∼ (p ∧ q)] (8) (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼ q) (9) (p ∨ q) ∨ r (10) (p ∧ q) ∨ r Logical Equivalence : Two compound statements A and B are said to be logically equivalent or simply equivalent.p q r p∧q ∼r (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼r) T T T T F T T T F T T T T F T F F F T F F F T T F T T F F F F T F F T T F F T F F F F F F F T T Example 9.
They are denoted by p → q. Such statements are called conditional statements or implications. The conditional p → q is false only if p is true and q is false. read as ‘p implies q’. Hence p and ∼ (∼ p) are logically equivalent. 165 . the columns corresponding to p and ∼ (∼ p) are identical. if p is false then p → q is true regardless of the truth value of q. Example 9. we frequently come across statements of the form “If p then q”. ∴ ∼ (p ∨ q) ≡ ((∼ p) ∧ (∼ q)) Negation of a negation : Negation of a negation of a statement is the statement itself. Equivalently we write ∼ (∼ p) ≡ p p ∼p ∼ (∼ p) T F T F T F In the truth table.Solution: Truth table for ∼ (p ∨ q) p q p∨q ∼ (p ∨ q) T T T F T F T F F T T F F F F T Truth table for ((∼ p) ∧ (∼ q)) p q ∼p ∼q ((∼ p) ∧ (∼ q)) T T F F F T F F T F F T T F F F F T T T The last columns are identical. Solution: p : The sky is blue : The sky is not blue ∼p ∼ (∼ p) : It is not the case that the sky is not blue or It is false that the sky is not blue or The sky is blue Conditional and biconditional statements : In Mathematics. Accordingly.8 : Verify ∼ (∼ p) ≡ p for the statement p : the sky is blue.
. then the compound statement p → q and q → p is called a biconditional statement and is denoted by p ↔ q. 166 .. i.e. ∴ p ∨ (∼p) is a tautology. otherwise it is F. ∴ p ∧ (∼p) is a contradiction. i.Truth table for p → q p q p→q T T T T F F F T T F F T If p and q are two statements. read as p if and only if q. (ii) p ∧ (∼ p) is a contradiction Solution: (i) Truth table for p ∨ (∼ p) p ∼p p ∨ (∼ p) T F T F T T The last column contains only T. A statement is said to be a contradiction if the last column of its truth table contains only F.e.1.3 Tautologies : A statement is said to be a tautology if the last column of its truth table contains only T. (ii) Truth table for p ∧ (∼ p) p ∼p p ∧ (∼ p) T F F F T F The last column contains only F. p ↔ q has the truth value T whenever p and q have the same truth values. it is false for all logical possibilities. it is true for all logical possibilities.9 : (i) p ∨ (∼ p) is a tautology. Truth table for p ↔ q p q p↔q T T T T F F F T F F F T 9. Example 9.
(i) ((∼ p) ∧ q) ∧ p (ii) (p ∨ q) ∨ (∼ (p ∨ q)) (iii) (p ∧ (∼ q)) ∨ ((∼ p) ∨ q) (iv) q ∨ (p ∨ (∼ q)) (v) (p ∧ (∼ p)) ∧ ((∼ q) ∧ p) 167 . ∴ The given statement is a tautology. Example 9.3 (1) Use the truth table to establish which of the following statements are tautologies and which are contradictions.10 : (i) Show that ((∼ p) ∨ (∼ q)) ∨ p is a tautology. ∴ ((∼ p) ∨ (∼ q)) ∨ p is a tautology. (ii) Truth table for ((∼ q) ∧ p) ∧ q p q ∼q (∼ q) ∧ p ((∼ q) ∧ p) ∧ q T T F F F T F T T F F T F F F F F T F F The last column contains only F. EXERCISE 9.Example 9. Solution: Truth table for ((∼ p) ∨ q) ∨ (p ∧ (∼ q)) p q ∼ p ∼ q (∼ p) ∨ q p ∧ (∼ q) ((∼ p) ∨ q) ∨ (p ∧ (∼ q) T T F F T F T T F F T F T T F T T F T F T F F T T T F T The last column contains only T. ∴ ((∼ q) ∧ p) ∧ q is a contradiction. Solution: (i) Truth table for ((∼ p) ∨ (∼ q)) ∨ p p q ∼ p ∼ q (∼ p) ∨ (∼ q) ((∼ p) ∨ (∼ q))∨ p T T F F F T T F F T T T F T T F T T F F T T T T The last column contains only T.11 : Use the truth table to determine whether the statement ((∼ p) ∨ q) ∨ (p ∧ (∼ q)) is a tautology. (ii) Show that ((∼ q) ∧ p) ∧ q is a contradiction.
b) → a * b.The set of all nonnegative integers (whole numbers). Z .such that 168 .The set of all nonzero real numbers.The set of all odd integers.The set of all natural numbers.2. we also say that S is closed under *.The set of all rational numbers. In this section we are going to deal with the notion of a binary operation or a binary composition on a set which is nothing but a generalisation of the usual addition and usual multiplication on the number systems.The set of all complex numbers.The set of all nonzero rational numbers. a third number. their sum in the case of addition. b ∈ S ⇒ a * b ∈ S. which associates to each ordered pair (a. if * is a binary operation on S then a.there exists ∋ .1 Binary Operation : We know that the addition of any two natural numbers is a natural number. From the definition we see that. This property is known as the “closure axiom” or “closure property”. C . b) of elements a. b in S an element a * b in S. Definition : A binary operation * on a nonempty set S is a rule. and their product in the case of multiplication. * : S × S → S by (a. R – {0} . E . b) in S under *.The set of all nonzero complex numbers. the product of any two natural numbers is also a natural number. Thus a binary operation * on S is just a map. List of symbols used in this chapter : N . O . R . 9. Show that (p ∧ q) → (p ∨ q) is a tautology. Where we denote by a * b.The set of all integers. W . C . Q − {0} .2 Groups : 9. the image of (a.(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Show that p → q ≡ (∼ p) ∨ q Show that p ↔ q ≡ (p → q) ∧ (q → p) Show that p ↔ q ≡ ((∼ p) ∨ q) ∧ ((∼ q) ∨ p) Show that ∼(p ∧ q) ≡ ((∼ p) ∨ (∼ q)) Show that p → q and q → p are not equivalent. Each of these operations associates with the two given numbers. .}0} . In this case.for every ∀ ∃ .The set of all even integers. Q .The set of all real numbers.
From this we see that. . 5 ∈ N. Since a. . we see that − is a binary operation on Z. ÷ respectively. But the usual subtraction is not binary on N. multiplication and division denoted by +. ‡ a. consider the operation * on N defined by a * b = ab.e. Since 2. For example. b} a * b = maximum of {a. N is closed under +. b} (iii) a * b = a (iv) a * b = b All the above operations (*) are binary operations on the corresponding sets. i. subtraction. Define * as (i) (ii) a * b = minimum of {a. Some more facts about binary operations : (1) Let the set S be R or any subset of real number system. an operation becoming binary or not binary depends on the set. It is clear that * is binary on N. some new operations on the number systems can also be defined. ÷ N binary not binary binary not binary Z binary binary binary not binary Q binary binary binary not binary R binary binary binary not binary C binary binary binary not binary Q − {0} not binary not binary binary binary R − {0} not binary not binary binary binary C − {0} not binary not binary binary binary Apart from the usual algebraic operations. Number Systems Operations + − . At the same time. b ∈ N ⇒ a * b = ab ∈ N. but 2 − 5 = − 3 ∉ N. The following table gives which number systems are closed under the usual algebraic operations. b ∈ N ⇒ a + b ∈ N. namely addition.. 169 .Illustrative examples : The usual addition + is a binary operation on N. −. ∴ N is not closed under subtraction.
an} can be described by means of multiplication table. ∴ * is a binary operation on N. (9) Matrix multiplication is a binary operation on the set of singular matrices as well as on the set of nonsingular matrices. The n × n = n2 spaces can be filled by writing ai * aj in the space common to the ith row and the jth column of the table.) Multiplication is a binary operation on the set of odd integers. Place each element of S at the head of one row and one column. a2 . (8) Matrix addition is not a binary operation on the set of n × n singular matrices as well as on the set of n × n nonsingular matrices. (10) Cross product is a binary operation on the set of vectors. the operation * defined by a * b = ab − 5 is not binary on N because 2 * 1 = (2)(1) − 5 = − 3 ∉ N. The operator * is placed at the left hand top corner. Since ab and 5 are natural numbers. but dot product is not a binary operation on the set of vectors. On the other hand.. Since sum of two m × n matrices is again an m × n matrix. *) * is defined as a * b = ab + 5. b = − 1 1 ab = 2−1 = 2 ∉ Z Note that * is also not a binary operaton on R − {0} 1 ab = (− 1)1/2 ∉ R − {0} because take a = − 1. Since product of two odd integers is an odd integer. +) Addition is not a binary operation on the set of odd integers. is not a binary operation on z. *) Define a * b = a + b + ab Clearly * is a binary operation on R since a + b and ab are real numbers and their sum is also a real number. . since addition of two odd integers is not odd. ab + 5 is also a natural number.. 170 . (7) Matrix addition is a binary operation on the set of m × n matrices. Since take a = 2. usually taking them in the same order for columns as for rows. (6) (O. b = 2 (4) (R. Because. *). (5) (O. sum of two nonsingular matrices need not be nonsingular and sum of two singular matrices need not be singular. This table consists of ‘n’ rows and ‘n’ columns. where * is defined by. Multiplication table for a binary operation Any binary operation * on a finite set S = {a1.(2) (N. (3) (Z. a * b = ab.
In the next section we will see that these composition tables are very much helpful in exhibiting finite groups. The study of groups was started in the nineteenth century in connection with the solution of equations..... (a * b) * c = a * (b * c) (3) Identity axiom : There exists an element e ∈ G such that a * e = e * a = a... *) is said to be a group if it satisfies the following axioms (1) Closure axiom : a.. ai ai * a j . Group is the simplest of all algebraic structures.. b ∈ G ⇒ a * b ∈ G (2) Associative axiom : ∀a.. e is called the identity element of G and a−1 is called the inverse of a in G. b. b ∈ S 171 ... It is the one operational algebraic system. 9.. * a1 ... .. .. Definition (Commutative property) : A binary operation * on a set S is said to be commutative if a * b = b * a ∀ a.a2 aj a1 ..2.2 Groups : Given any nonempty set S.. ∀a ∈ G. the possibility of combining two of its elements to get yet another element of S endows S with an algebraic structure. ... ..e. Definition : A nonempty set G.. (G.. Chemistry and Biology. The concept of group arises not only in Mathematics but also in other fields like Physics. together with an operation * i.. .... (4) Inverse axiom : ∀a ∈ G there exists an element a−1∈G such that a−1 * a = a * a−1 = e.. c ∈ G.. This table is also known as Cayley’s table or composition table. A nonempty set S together with a binary operation * is called an algebraic structure..... ....
But it is not a group. (Z. (S. . b ∈ S ⇒ a * b ∈ S (2) Associative axiom : (a * b) * c = a * (b * c). because the identity element O ∉ N. but 5 ∉ Z). *) is said to be a monoid if it satisfies the following axioms : (1) Closure axiom : a. (1) Closure axiom : a.) are semigroups as well as monoids.. ∀a ∈ M. (N. ∀ a. Definition : A nonempty set S with an operation * i. b.. 172 . associative axiom is not satisfied. (Z.. because. (M. because. Note (2) : We shall often use the same symbol G to denote the group and the underlying set. From the definitions. Note (1) : If the operation * is a binary operation. the inverse axiom is not 1 satisfied.e. *) is said to be a semigroup if it satisfies the following axioms. The order of a group G is denoted by o(G). (N. consider (2 * 3) * 4 = 23 * 4 = 84 = 212 and 2 * (3 * 4) = 2 * 34 = 2 * 81 = 281 ∴ (2 * 3) * 4 ≠ 2 * (3 * 4) i. Order of a group : The order of a group is defined as the number of distinct elements in the underlying set. otherwise it is called a nonabelian group. +) is a semigroup but it is not a monoid. b.) is a monoid. (5 ∈ Z. .Definition : If a group satisfies the commutative property then it is called an abelian group or a commutative group. +) and (Z.e. c ∈ M (3) Identity axiom : There exists an element e ∈ M such that a * e = e * a = a.e. the closure axiom will be satisfied automatically. Definition : A nonempty set M with an operation * i. If the number of elements is finite then the group is called a finite group and if the number of elements is infinite then the group is called an infinite group. *) where * is defined by a * b = ab is not a semigroup. c ∈ S. b ∈ M ⇒ a * b ∈ M (2) Associative axiom : (a * b) * c = a * (b * c) ∀a. it is clear that every group is a monoid.
a = a . ∴ (Z. +) is an infinite abelian group. (b .13 : Show that (R − {0}. a ∴ Commutative property is true. ∴ Inverse axiom is true. 1 (iv) Inverse axiom : ∀ a ∈ R − {0}.) is an abelian group. (vi) Since Z is an infinite set (Z. a . b ∈ Z. b. ∀a.Example 9. ∀ a ∈ R − {0} ∴ Identity axiom is true. ∴ (R − {0}.12 : Prove that (Z. ∃ an element − a ∈ Z such that − a + a = a + (− a) = 0 ∴ Inverse axiom is true. ∴ (R − {0}. ∀ a ∈ Z Identity axiom is true. . b ∈ R. b = b .e.. .e. a . b) .’ denotes usual multiplication.. ∀ a. c ∈ R − {0} ∴ associative axiom is true. i. +) is an abelian group. c ∀ a. a = 1 (identity element). b. Here ‘. c ∈ Z. Solution: (i) Closure axiom : Since product of two nonzero real numbers is again a nonzero a real number.) is an infinite abelian group.e. a + b = b + a ∴ addition is commutative. +) is a group. (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) (iii) Identity axiom : The identity element O ∈ Z and it satisfies O + a = a + O = a. (ii) Associative axiom : Multiplication is always associative in R− {0} i. b ∈ R. (v) ∀ a. c) = (a . (iv) Inverse axiom : For every a ∈ Z. 1 = a.. b ∈ R − {0}.) is a group. a ∈ R − {0} such that 1 1 a . . ∴ (Z. (ii) Associative axiom : Addition is always associative in Z i. Solution: (i) Closure axiom : We know that sum of two integers is again an integer. 173 . (iii) Identity axiom : The identity element is 1 ∈ R − {0} under multiplication and 1 . +) is infinite abelian group. a = a . Example 9. (v) ∀ a. a .
i. . ω2}. ω. ∴ (G. the closure property is true. (iv) the inverse of 1 is 1 . 1 1 −1 i − i (i) the closure axiom is true. The Caylely’s table is . ω2 ω 2 1 (iv) The inverse of 1 is 1 The inverse of ω is ω2 the inverse of ω2 is ω and it satisfies the inverse axiom also. ∴ (G. Example 9. Further it satisfies the inverse axiom. 1 ω ω2 (i) all the entries in the table are members of G. (v) the commutative property is also true.) is a group. i is − i . . Solution: (i) Closure axiom : Sum of two complex numbers is always a complex number. (G. − 1.(vi) Further R − {0} is an infinite set. − 1 is − 1 . the commutative property is also true. Example 9. we see that.) is an abelian group. . (v) From the table. hence (G. and − i is i. The Cayley’s table is From the table. Let G = {1.) is an infinite abelian group. − 1. Solution: Let G = {1.) is a group. Solution: We know that the fourth roots of unity are 1. +) is an infinite abelian group. . − i.15 : Prove that the set of all 4th roots of unity forms an abelian group under multiplication. (ii) multiplication is always associative in C and i −1 −1 1 −i hence in G. − i}. . 174 . (vi) Since G is a finite set. ∴ (G. Example 9. . 1 1 ω ω2 So.) is an abelian group. i.14 : Show that the cube roots of unity forms a finite abelian group under multiplication. (R − {0}. (ii) multiplication is always associative. 1 −1 i − i From the table.) is a finite abelian group. i i −i −1 1 (iii) the identity element is 1 ∈ G and it satisfies i 1 −1 −i −i the identity axiom. . ω ω ω2 1 (iii) the identity element is 1 and it satisfies the ω identity axiom.16 : Prove that (C.
(iii) Identity axiom : 1 = 1 + io ∈ G. Thus inverse axiom is satisfied. z2 ∈ C ⇒ z1 + z2 ∈ C Closure axiom is true. . (iv) Inverse axiom : For every z ∈ C there exists a unique − z ∈ C such that z + (− z) = − z + z = 0. Hence (C . z1.. (ii) Associative axiom : Addition is always associative in C i. z = z . Solution: (i) Closure axiom : Let G = C − {0} Product of two nonzero complex numbers is again a nonzero complex number. (v) Commutative property : ∀ z1. Here z ≠ 0 ⇒ x and y are not both zero. +) is a group.e. 1 = z ∀ z ∈ G. (iv) Inverse axiom : Let z = x + iy ∈ G. Inverse is true.i. Since C is an infinite set (C. (ii) Associative axiom : Multiplication is always associative. (z1 + z2) + z3 = z1 + (z2 + z3) ∀ z1. ∴ Identity axiom is true. 1 is the identity element and 1. ∴ Closure axiom is true. z1 + z2 = z2 + z1 ∴ the commutative property is true. z2 ∈ C . z3 ∈ C ∴ Associative axiom is true.z = z . z = 1 ∴ z has the inverse z ∈ G. ∴ (G.17 : Show that the set of all nonzero complex numbers is an abelian group under the usual multiplication of complex numbers. Example 9. ∴ x2 + y2 ≠ 0 1 1 x − iy x − iy x −y z = x + iy = (x + iy) (x − iy) = x2 + y2 = x2 + y2 + i x2 + y2 ∈ G 1 1 1 Further z . ∴ (C. +) is an abelian group. 175 .e. (iii) Identity axiom : The identity element o = o + io ∈ C and o + z = z + o = z ∀ z ∈ C ∴ Identity axiom is true. +) is an infinite abelian group.. z2.) is a group. ∴ Associative property is true.
− ÷ N Semi group monid not closed not closed semigroup not associative not closed monoid not associative not closed monoid not associative not closed monoid not associative not closed monoid not associative not closed not associative not not associative associative group not closed group not closed group not closed E group Z group Q group R group C group Q − {0} not closed R − {0} not closed C − {0} not closed Example 9. *) is an infinite abelian group where * is defined as a * b = a + b + 2. b and 2 are integers a + b + 2 is also an integer. * + . R − {0} are abelian groups under multiplication. follow the order given in the definition. But Z − {0} is not a group under multiplication. (ii) Associative axiom : Let a. We can also show that Q − {0}. b. Note : Here the number 0 is removed. c ∈ G (a * b) * c = (a + b + 2) * c = (a + b + 2) + c + 2 = a + b + c + 4 a * (b * c) = a * (b + c + 2) = a + (b + c + 2) + 2 = a + b + c + 4 ⇒ (a * b) * c = a * (b * c) Thus associative axiom is true. Solution: (i) Closure axiom : Since a. If one axiom fails. The following table shows which number systems are satisfying the axioms of a group in the order for a particular operation. b ∈ z Thus closure axiom is true. stop the process at that stage. ∴ G is an abelian group under the usual multiplication of complex numbers. There is no use in continuing further. ∴ a * b ∈ z ∀ a.(v) Commutative property : z1 z2 = (a + ib) (c + id) = (ac − bd) + i (ad + bc) = (ca − db) + i (da + cb) = z2 z1 ∴ It satisfies the commutative property. 176 . because 0 has no inverse under multiplication. 1 Q 7 ∈ Z − {0} while its inverse 7 ∉ Z − {0} Note : While verifying the axioms.18 : Show that (Z.
(v) Commutative property : Let a. By the definition of e. A.(iii) Identity axiom : Let e be the identity element.e.19 : Show that the set of all 2 × 2 nonsingular matrices forms a nonabelian infinite group under matrix multiplication. The group is an infinite abelian group. A (BC) = (AB) C ∀ A. further. 177 . a * e = a By the definition of *. (iv) Inverse axiom : Let a ∈ G and a−1 be the inverse element of a By the definition of By the definition of a−1.e.. where the entries belong to R. Z is an infinite set. i. C ∈ G. b ∈ G a * b = a + b + 2 = b + a + 2 = b * a ∴ * is commutative. Thus identity axiom is true. a * a−1 = e = − 2 *.. a * e = a + e + 2 ⇒ a+e+2=a ⇒e=−2 − 2 ∈ Z. a * a−1 = a + a−1 + 2 ⇒ a + a−1 + 2 = − 2 ⇒ a−1 = − a − 4 Clearly − a − 4 ∈ Z. ∴ (Z. ∴ Inverse axiom is true. (i) Closure axiom : Since product of two nonsingular matrices is again nonsingular and the order is 2 × 2. B ∈ G ⇒ AB ∈ G. Solution: Let G be the set of all 2 × 2 nonsingular matrices. the closure axiom is satisfied. (where the entries belong to R). (ii) Associative axiom : Matrix multiplication is always associative and hence associative axiom is true. i. *) is a group. ∴ (Z. Example 9. 1 0 (iii) Identity axiom : The identity element is I2 = ∈ G and it satisfies 0 1 the identity property. *) is an abelian group. B.
. A−1 exists and is of order 2 × 2 and AA−1 = A−1A = I. we can form the multiplication table as given below : I A B C . A = 0 1 0 1 0 − 1 0 − 1 G = {I. Solution: − 1 0 − 1 0 1 0 1 0 Let I = . under 0 1 0 1 0 − 1 0 − 1 multiplication of matrices. is commutative.e. B = . B. 178 . I is the identity element in G. The group is an infinite nonabelian group. G is closed under . form an abelian group. taken in pairs. C = I ⇒ C is the inverse of C From the table it is clear that . ∴ G is an abelian group under matrix multiplication. Example 9. (iv) I . matrix multiplication is noncommutative (in general) and the set contain infinitely many elements.20 : Show that the set of four matrices 1 0 − 1 0 1 0 − 1 0 . (ii) Matrix multiplication is always associative (iii) Since the row headed by I coincides with the top row and the column headed by I coincides with the extreme left column. . C} By computing the products of these matrices. I = I ⇒ I is the inverse of I A . ∴ Closure axiom is true.(iv) Inverse axiom : the inverse of A ∈ G. I I A B C A A I C B B B C I A C C B A I (i) All the entries in the multiplication tables are members of G. Thus the inverse axiom is satisfied. exists i. Further. So. Hence the set of all 2 × 2 nonsingular matrices forms a group under matrix multiplication. A. B = I ⇒ B is the inverse of B C . A = I ⇒ A is the inverse of A B . C = and let .
e e (iii) Let E= ∈ G be such that AE = A for every A ∈ G. ∴ G is a group under matrix multiplication..21 : Show that the set G of all matrices of the form . B = ∈G x x y y 2xy 2xy AB= ∈ G . ( ‡ x ≠ 0. (i) Closure axiom : x x y y A= ∈ G. G is closed under matrix multiplication. 179 . e e x x e e x x AE = A ⇒ = x x e e x x 1 2xe 2xe x x ⇒ = ⇒ 2xe = x ⇒ e = 2 (‡ x ≠ 0) 2xe 2xe x x Thus E = 1/2 1/2 ∈ G is such that AE = A. is a group under matrix multiplication. ∴ E is the identity element in G and hence identity axiom is true. y ≠ 0 ⇒ 2xy ≠ 0) 2xy 2xy i. Solution: x x Let G = / x ∈ R − {0} we shall show that G is a group under x x matrix multiplication. ∴ A−1 is the inverse of A. y y (iv) Suppose A−1 = ∈ G is such that A−1A = E y y 1 1 2xy 2xy 1/2 1/2 Then we have = ⇒ 2xy = 2 ⇒ y = 4x 2xy 2xy 1/2 1/2 1/4 x 1/4 x ∴ A−1 = ∈ G is such that A−1A = E 1/4 x 1/4 x Similarly we can show that A A−1 = E. for every A ∈ G 1/2 1/2 We can similarly show that EA = A for every A ∈ G.e. where x x x ∈ R − {0}. (ii) Matrix multiplication is always associative.x x Example 9.
d ∈ Q.23 : Let G be the set of all rational numbers except 1 and * be defined on G by a * b = a + b − ab for all a. (iv) Inverse axiom : For each x = a + b 2 ∈ G. +) is an infinite abelian group. we see that (G. since (a + c) and (b + d) are rational numbers. x + y = (a + b 2) + (c + d 2) = (a + c) + (b + d) 2 ∈ G. x + 0 = (a + b 2) + (0 + 0 2) = a+b 2=x Similarly. ∴ G is closed with respect to addition.22 : Show that the set G = {a + b 2 / a. *) is an infinite abelian group. 180 . ∴ The commutative property is true. Since G is infinite. y ∈ G. +) is an abelian group. Then a and b are rational numbers and a ≠ 1. addition is associative. But in general matrix multiplication is not commutative. for all x. Example 9.Note : The above group is abelian since AB = BA. ∴ (G. y = c + d 2 . Example 9. we have 0 + x = x. Then x = a + b 2. b ∈ G. ∴ G is a group under addition. c. b ∈ G. (ii) Associative axiom : Since the elements of G are all real numbers. (v) Commutative axiom : x + y = (a + c) + (b + d) 2 = (c + a) + (d + b) 2 = (c + d 2) + (a + b 2) = y + x. b ∈ Q} is an infinite abelian group with respect to addition. b ≠ 1. Solution: (i) Closure axiom : Let x. a. b. ∴ 0 is the identity element of G and satisfies the identity axiom. (iii) Identity axiom : There exists 0 = 0 + 0 2 ∈ G such that for all x = a + b 2 ∈ G. y ∈ G. there exists − x = (− a) + (− b) 2 ∈ G such that x + (− x) = (a + b 2) + ((− a) + (− b) 2) = (a + (− a)) + (b + (− b)) 2 = 0 Similarly we have (− x) + x = 0 ∴ (− a) + (− b) 2 is the inverse of a + b 2 and satisfies the inverse axiom. Solution: Let G = Q − {1} Let a. Show that (G.
But to prove a * b ∈ G. because b ≠ 1. On the contrary. 1− a ≠ 0) This is impossible. ∴ a * b ≠ 1 and hence a * b ∈ G. b. (ii) Associative axiom : a * (b * c) = a * (b + c − bc) = a + (b + c − bc) − a (b + c − bc) = a + b + c − bc − ab − ac + abc (a * b) * c = (a + b − ab) * c = (a + b − ab) + c − (a + b − ab) c = a + b + c − ab − ac − bc + abc ∴ a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c ∀ a. a * a−1 = a + a−1 − aa − 1 ⇒ a + a−1 − aa−1 = 0 ⇒ a−1 (1 − a) = − a a ⇒ a−1 = ∈ G since a ≠ 1 a−1 ∴ Inverse axiom is satisfied. ∴ (G. a * a−1 = e = 0 By the definition of *. *) is a group. c ∈ G ∴ Associative axiom is true. By definition of e. we have to prove that a * b ≠ 1. By the definition of inverse. ∴ Closure axiom is true. a * e = a By definition of *.(i) Closure axiom : Clearly a * b = a + b − ab is a rational number. 181 . (iii) Identity axiom : Let e be the identity element. ∴ Our assumption is wrong. a * e = a + e − ae ⇒ a + e − ae = a ⇒ e(1 − a) = 0 ⇒ e = 0 since a ≠ 1 e = 0∈G ∴ Identity axiom is satisfied. (iv) Inverse axiom : Let a−1 be the inverse of a ∈ G. assume that a * b = 1 then a + b − ab = 1 ⇒ b − ab = 1 − a ⇒ b(1 − a) = 1 − a ⇒ b = 1 (‡ a ≠ 1.
f3. f3(z) = z and f4(z) = − z ∀ z ∈ C − {0} forms an abelian group with respect to the composition of functions. f4 on the set of nonzero complex numbers C − {0} defined by 1 1 f1(z) = z. f4} Solution: (f1° f1) (z) = f1(f1(z)) = f1(z) ∴ f1°f1 = f1 f2° f1 = f2 . f2(z) = − z. f3°f1 = f3. (G. f3. *) is an abelian group. f2. f4°f4 = f1 Using these results we have the composition table as given below : f2 f3 f4 f1 ° f1 f2 f3 f4 f1 f2 f3 f4 f2 f3 f4 f1 f4 f3 f4 f1 f2 f3 f2 f1 For any a. b ∈ G.(v) Commutative axiom : a * b = a + b − ab = b + a − ba = b*a ∴ * is commutative in G and hence (G. f4°f1 = f4 Again (f2°f2) (z) = f2(f2(z)) = f2(− z) = − (− z) = z = f1(z) ∴ f2°f2 = f1 Similarly f2°f3 = f4.24 : Prove that the set of four functions f1. Since G is infinite. Example 9. f3°f4 = f2 1 1 = = f (z) (f4°f2) (z) = f4(f2(z)) = f4(− z) = − −z z 3 ∴ f4°f2 = f3 Similarly f4°f3 = f2. *) is an infinite abelian group. f2. Let G = {f1. f2°f4 = f3 1 (f3°f2) (z) = f3 (f2 (z)) = f3(− z) = − z = f4(z) ∴ f3°f2 = f4 Similarly f3°f3 = f1. 182 .
a = qb + r. (G.e. For example. n) As given above a . o) is a group. Then we can divide a by b to get a quotient q and a nonnegative remainder r which is smaller in size than b. ∴ Closure axiom is true.. This is called “Division Algorithm”. where r is the least nonnegative remainder when ab is divided by n. b = 5 then 17 = (3 × 5) + 2 Here q = 3 and r = 2 Addition modulo n (+ n) : Let a. 0 ≤ r < n where r is the least nonnegative remainder when a + b is divided by n. b ∈ Z with b ≠ 0. b ∈ Z and n be a fixed positive integer. Inverse of f3 is f3 . To define these operations we require the notion of “Division Algorithm”. if a = 25. ∴ (G.2.From the table (i) All the entries of the composition table are the elements of G . o) is an abelian group.54 = 3 7 . Let a. if a = 17.3 Modulo Operation We shall now define new types of operations called “Addition modulo n” and “Multiplication modulo n”. Inverse of f2 is f2 Inverse of f4 is f4 Inverse axiom is satisfied. i.98 = 2 183 .n b = r . For example. We define addition modulo n by a +n b = r . (ii) Composition of functions is in general associative. b = 8 and n = 7 then 25 +78 = 5 (‡ 25 + 8 = 33 = (4 × 7) + 5) Multiplication modulo n (. (iii) Clearly f1 is the identity element of G and satisfies the identity axiom. 2 . where 0 ≤ r <  b . 0 ≤ r < n. For example. where n is a positive integer. (iv) From the table : Inverse of f1 is f1 . (v) From the table the commutative property is also true. 9.
[7] = [2] . [4]} and it will be deonoted by Z5.. [5]}.. − 5. 184 .. 9. k ∈ Z consider the congruence classes modulo 5. k ∈ Z} = {. 14 . .....Congruence modulo n : Let a.. [1] .e. k ∈ Z} = {. [1].. . [1].. − 4. 12. − 10. [a] = {x ∈ Z / x = a + kn} [0] = {x ∈ Z / x = 5k. 6..... we have only 5 distinct classes whose union gives the entire Z. [3]. − 8.. Thus the set of congruence classes corresponding to 5 is [0]. 11.} [1] = {x ∈ Z / x = 5k + 1.. k ∈ Z = {x ∈ Z / x = a + kn}.. . 15 ≡ 3 (mod 4) is true because 15 − 3 is divisible by 4. 4.. [2]. 8. we have Z6 = {[0].} = [0] Similarly [6] = [1] . 3. 10. Thus for any positive integer n. − 3. we have Zn = {[0].. 17 ≡ 4 (mod 3) is not true because 17 − 4 is not divisible by 3.} [3] = {x ∈ Z / x = 5k + 3. Z5 = {[0].. [4]} If we take the modulo 6..} [2] = {x ∈ Z / x = 5k + 2.} [4] = {x ∈ Z / x = 5k + 4. [2]. This set will be denoted as [a] and is called the congruence class modulo n or residue class modulo n.. We say that “a is congruent to b modulo n” ⇔ (a − b) is divisible by n Symbolically.. [n − 1]} Here [n] = [0] and the union of these classes gives Z. k ∈ Z} = {. 13... 10. b ∈ Z and n be a fixed positive integer. 0. − 1.. 5. 0. Congruence classes modulo n : Let a ∈ Z and n be a fixed positive integer. − 5. a ≡ b (mod n) ⇔ (a − b) is divisible by n. − 7. − 9. Collect all numbers which are congruent to ‘a’ modulo n.. [3]. − 6. . 7. k ∈ Z} = {.} [5] = {x ∈ Z / x = 5k + 5. − 2. Thus [a] = {x ∈ Z / x ≡ a (mod n)} = {x ∈ Z / (x − a) is divisible by n} = {x ∈ Z / (x − a) is a multiple of n} = {x ∈ Z / (x − a) = kn}. 5. etc. k ∈ Z} = {.. 1. 2. k ∈ Z} = {... { i. Note that. [1] .
[2]. and let [l].25 : Show that (Zn. (ii) Addition modulo n is always associative in the set of congruence classes modulo n. m.8 [3] = [7] Example 9.5[2] = [4] [3] . Solution: Let Zn = {[0]. +n) forms group.. [b] ∈ Zn [a] + n [b] = [a + b] if a + b < n = [r] if a + b ≥ n Where r is the least nonnegative remainder when a + b is divided by n.5 [4] = 2 In Z7.. [5] +10 [7] = [2] In Z8 . [3] . (iv) The inverse of [l] ∈ Zn is [n − l] Clearly [n − l] ∈ Zn and 185 .7 [3] = [2] [5] . In Z8 . ∈ Zn 0 ≤ l. . n + r 0 ≤ r < n In both the cases.Operations on congruence classes : (1) Addition : Let [a]. [l + m] ∈ Zn and [r] ∈ Zn ∴ Closure axiom is true. In Z10 . [m]. < n (i) Closure axiom : By definition [l + m] if l + m < n [l] + n [m] = [r] if l + m ≥ n where l + m = q . [1]. For example. [3] +8 [5] = [0] (ii) Multiplication : [ab] if ab < n [a] .n [b] = if ab ≥ n [r] where r is the least nonnegative remainder when ab is divided by n In Z5 [2] . [n − 1]} be the set of all congruence classes modulo n. (iii) The identity element [0] ∈ Zn and it satisfies the identity axiom.
.26 : Show that (Z7 − {[0]}.7) forms a group. . In general.. [5] is [3] and [6] is [6] and it satisfies the inverse axiom. ωn − 1 are the nth roots of unity. +n) is a finite abelian group of order n.[l] + n [n − l] = [0] [n − l] + n [l] = [0] ∴ The inverse axiom is also true. Hence (Zn.. ω2 . form a group under multiplication modulo n. ω. [2] is [4] . ω. m ≤ (n − 1) To prove ωl ωm = ωl + m ∈ G 186 . . Solution: We know that 1.. (iii) the identity element is [1] ∈ G and satisfies the identity axiom. (iv) the inverse of [1] is [1] .. . (ii) multiplication modulo 7 is always associative. Let G = {1. ∴ the given set forms a group under multiplication modulo 7. a positive integer.. +n) is a group.. [2].7 [1] [2] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [2] [4] [6] [1] [3] [5] [3] [3] [6] [2] [5] [1] [4] [4] [4] [1] [5] [2] [6] [3] [5] [5] [3] [1] [6] [4] [2] [6] [6] [5] [4] [3] [2] [1] From the table : (i) all the elements of the composition table are the elements of G. Note : (Zn. ∴ The closure axiom is true. ? Example 9. ωn − 1} (i) Closure axiom : Let ω l. p) is a group for any prime p. Example 9.27 : Show that the nth roots of unity form an abelian group of finite order with usual multiplication. Solution: Let G = [[1]. [3] is [5] . Note : Does the set of all nonzero congruence classes modulo n. it can be shown that (Zp − {(0)}. 0 ≤ l. where 2π ω = cis n . But the proof is beyond the scope of this book. ωm ∈ G... ω2. [4] is [2] . [6]] The Cayley’s table is .
1 = ωl ∀ ωl ∈ G (iv) Inverse axiom : For any ωl ∈ G. . (v) Commutative axiom : ωl . na. it is a symbol to denote a * a * a .) is a group.) is a finite abelian group of order n.2. If * is usual addition then an is a + a + a + . the identity element is the only element of order 1. .. ωn − l = ωn − l ... q 9. ωl + m = ωqn + r = (ωn) . if a ∈ G .e. ωr = (1)qωr = ωr ∈ G ‡ 0 ≤ r < n Closure property is true. + a (n times) i.. (G.a. ωm = ∀ ω l. (By the repeated application of closure axiom).e. If * is usual multiplication ‘. Since G contains n elements. l + m = (q . e is the identity element. ωm = ωl + m = ωm + l = ωm .Case (i) l + m < n If l + m < n then clearly ωl + m ∈ G Case (ii) l + m ≥ n By division algoritham.. . (ii) Associative axiom : Multiplication is always associative in the set of complex numbers and hence in G ωl . *a (n times).. (n times) i. Thus an is not “a to the power n”. ωl ∀ ωl . ωp) . ωm. then a is said to be of infinite order.(ωp. ωm ∈ G ∴ (G.ωm) = ωl . * a (n times). ωp ∈ G (iii) Identity axiom : The identity element 1 ∈ G and it satisfies 1.ωl = ωn = 1 Thus inverse axiom is true.’ then an is a . ∴ (G. ωn − l ∈ G and ωl . q is a positive integer.. ω(p + m) = ωl + (p + m) = ω( l + p) + m = (ωl + p) . 187 .. The order of a is denoted by 0(a). ωm = (ωl . Clearly an ∈ G.ωl = ωl . Note : Here an = a * a * a . The order of ‘a’ is defined as the least positive integer n such that an = e.) is an abelian group. n) + r where 0 ≤ r < n.. an .4 Order of an element : Let G be a group and a ∈ G. If no such positive integer exists. a .. Theorem : For any group G.
The identity element is [0] and note that [4] = [8] = [12] = [0] ∴ 0([0]) = 1 0([1]) = 4 [Q we have to add [1] four times to get [4] or [0]] 0 ([2]) = 2 [Q we have to add [2] two times to get [4] or [0]] 0 ([3]) = 4 Q we have to add [3] four times to get [12] or [0] 9. (− 1) (− 1) = 1] 0(i) = 4 [Q we have to multiply i four times to get 1. we have e1 * e2 = e1 From (1) and (2). 0(− 1) = 2 [Q we have to multiply − 1 two times (minimum) to get 1 i. Since ω .e. If possible let e1 and e2 be identity elements in G. Example 9. Theorem : The inverse of each element of a group is unique. − 1.. .5 Properties of Groups : Theorem : The identity element of a group is unique.) where G = {1. ω = ω3 = 1 0(ω2) = 3 since (ω2) (ω2) (ω2) = ω6 = 1 Example 9. Solution: In the given group. i. Example 9. ∴ 0(1) = 1. e1 = e2 ∴ Identity element of a group is unique. [1]. Proof : Let G be a group and let a ∈ G. +4) Solution: Z4 = {[0]. Proof : Let G be a group. i.2.29 : Find the order of each element in the group G = {1. Solution: We know that the identity element is 1. the identity element is 1. … (1) … (2) 188 .Proof : If a (≠ e) is another element of order 1 then by the definition of order of an element. let a1 and a2 be two inverses of a. we have (a)1 = e ⇒ a = e which is a contradiction. (i) (i) (i) (i) = 1] 0(− i) = 4 [Q we have to multiply − i four times to get 1].. consisting of cube roots of unity with usual multiplication.30 : Find the order of each element of the group (Z4. Treating e1 as an identity element we have e1 * e2 = e2 Treating e2 as an identity element. ω . ω2}. 0(ω) = 3.28 : Find the order of each element of the group (G. [2]. ∴ e is the only element of order 1. [3]} is an abelian group under the addition modulo 4. − i}. ω. If possible. ∴ 0(1) = 1.e.
Theorem : (Cancellation laws) Let G be a group.Treating a1 as an inverse of ‘a’ we have a * a1 = a1 * a = e. Clearly a * a−1 = a−1 * a = e = (a−1) * a−1 = e * a−1 (by Right Cancellation Law) ⇒ a * a−1 = (a−1) ⇒ a = (a−1) Theorem : (Reversal law) Let G be a group a. (a−1) Proof : a−1 * (a−1) −1 −1 Now = a for every a ∈ G. (i) a * b = a * c ⇒ b = c (Left Cancellation Law) (ii) b * a = c * a ⇒ b = c (Right Cancellation Law) Proof : (i) a * b = a * c ⇒ a−1 * (a * b) = a−1 * (a * c) ⇒ (a−1 * a) * b = (a−1 * a) * c ⇒ e*b=e*c ⇒ b=c (ii) b * a = c * a ⇒ (b * a) * a−1 = (c * a) * a−1 ⇒ b * (a * a −1) = c * (a * a−1) ⇒ b*e=c*e ⇒ b=c Theorem : In a group G. we have a * a2 = a2 * a = e a1 = a1 * e = a1 * (a * a2) = (a1 * a) * a2 = e * a2 = a2 ⇒ Inverse of an element is unique. b. Then (a * b)− 1 = b−1 * a−1. Then for all a. c ∈ G. Proof : It is enough to prove b−1 * a−1 is the inverse of (a * b) ∴ To prove (i) (a * b) * (b−1 * a−1) = e (ii) (b−1 * a−1) * (a * b) = e (i) (a * b) * (b−1 * a−1) = a * (b * b−1) * a−1 = a * (e) * a−1 = a * a−1 = e 189 . b ∈ G. −1 We know that a−1 ∈ G and hence (a−1) −1 −1 −1 ∈ G. Treating a2 as an inverse of ‘a’.
4 (1) Let S be a nonempty set and o be a binary operation on S defined by xoy = x . [5]. y ∈ S. a ∈ R − {0} forms o o an abelian group under matrix multiplication.. Determine whether o is commutative and associative. .(ii) (b−1 * a−1) * (a * b) = = = b−1 * (a−1 * a) * b b−1 * (e) * b b−1 * b = e ∴ b−1 * a−1 is the inverse of a * b i. (12) Show that the set G = {2n / n ∈ Z} is an abelian group under multiplication. (5) Show that the set G of all positive rationals forms a group under the ab composition * defined by a * b = 3 for all a.e. (7) Show that the set M of complex numbers z with the condition  z  = 1 forms a group with respect to the operation of multiplication of complex numbers. ω ≠ 1 form a group with respect to matrix multiplication. . x. . . (10) Find the order of each element in the group (Z5 − {[0]}. [3]. . [4]. b ∈ G. b ∈ G. Is it a monoid? (3) Show that the set of all positive even integers forms a semigroup under the usual addition and multiplication.5) a o (11) Show that the set of all matrices of the form . y}. (a * b)−1 = b−1 * a−1 EXERCISE 9. 0 1 0 ω2 0 ω 1 0 ω 0 ω2 0 where ω3 = 1. Is it a monoid under each of the above operations? 1 0 0 1 (4) Prove that the matrices . 1 0 ω 0 ω2 0 0 1 0 ω2 0 ω (6) Show that . (2) Show that the set N of natural members is a semigroup under the operation x * y = max {x. (8) Show that the set G of all rational numbers except − 1 forms an abelian group with respect to the operation * given by a * b = a + b + ab for all a. (9) Show that the set {[1]. 190 . [9]} forms an abelian group under multiplication modulo 11. form a group under matrix 0 1 1 0 multiplication.
In Statistics we deal with random variables . 4. Random Variable : The outcomes of an experiment are represented by a random variable if these outcomes are numerical or if real numbers can be assigned to them. In this sense a random variable is a real valued function that maps the sample space into the real line. TT}. For example. Therefore X takes the values 0. Therefore X (TT) = 0.variables whose observed value is determined by chance. HT. The possible results are {HH. Note : Biased coins may have both sides marked as tails or both sides marked as heads or may fall on one side only for every toss. A random variable is also called a chance variable or a stochastic variable. it is called a discrete random variable.1 Introduction : In XI Standard we dealt with random experiments which can be described by finite sample space. 3. Definition : If S is a sample space with a probability measure and X is a real valued function defined over the elements of S. TH. then X is called a random variable. Similarly biased dice may have repeated numbers on several sides .1. 6} . X = 1 to the outcome of getting only 1 head and X = 2 to the out come of getting 2 heads.2. it has equal chances of falling on heads and tails.2. For a fair die the probability of getting any number from one to six will be 1/6. Let us consider the variable X which is “the number of heads obtained” while tossing two fair coins. in a die rolling experiment. We studied the assignment and computation of probabilities of events.2. while in the coin tossing experiment the outcomes head (H) or tail (T) can be represented as a random variable by assuming 0 to T and 1 to H.1 Discrete Random Variable : Definition : Discrete Random Variable If a random variable takes only a finite or a countable number of values. PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS 10.10. Thus we can assign a real number X(s) to every element s of the sample space S. In the Sciences one often deals with variables as a ‘quantity that may assume any one of a set of values’. 2. 10. We could assign the value X = 0 to the outcome of getting no heads. whereas a fair or unbiased coin means. Types of Random variables : (1) Discrete Random variable (2) Continuous Random variable 10. X(TH) = 1. the corresponding random variable is represented by the set of outcomes {1. X (HT) = 1 and X (HH) = 2. 191 . some numbers may be missing. 5. Let us consider the tossing of two fair coins at a time.
X (No aces) = 0. − ∞ < x < ∞ 192 . P(X = x) = p(x) = px. b1. 2. (2) p(x) is non – negative for all real x. 1 or 2 which form a countable set. . . b be the values of the discrete random variable X in ascending order then (i) P(X ≥ a) = 1 − P(X < a) (ii) P(X ≤ a) = 1 − P(X > a) (iii) P(a ≤ X ≤ b) = P(X = a) + P(X = b1) + P(X = b2) + .Example : 1. X (four aces) = 4 Probability Mass Function : The Mathematical definition of discrete probability function p(x) is a function that satisfies the following properties : (1) The probability that X can take a specific value x is p(x) ie. The number of heads obtained when two coins are tossed is a discrete random variable as X assumes the values 0. The random variable X assumes 0. .. 1. a2. . X (two aces) = 2. a.. . bn. i. Distribution function : (Cumulative Distribution function) The distribution function of a random variable X is defined as F(x) = P(X ≤ x) = ∑ p(xi) : (− ∞ < x < ∞). 3 or 4 which is again a countable set. That is ∑pi = 1 where j represents all possible values that X can have and pi is the probability at X = xi If a1. X (three aces) = 3. .e. xi ≤ x Properities of Distribution function : 1) 2) F(x) is a nondecreasing function of x 0 ≤ F(x) ≤ 1. 2. . + P(X = bn) + P(X = b). . X (one ace) = 1. . . b2. am. Number of Aces when ten cards are drawn from a well shuffled pack of 52 cards. (3) The sum of p(x) over all possible values of X is one.
of Heads) Since X is the random variable getting the number of heads.1 We have F(x) = xi = − ∞ ∑ P(X = xi) 193 . (X : S → R). 1.3) 4) 5) Lt F(x) = 0 x→−∞ Lt F(∞) = → + ∞ F(x) =1 x P(X = xn) = F(xn) − F(xn −1) F(− ∞) = Illustration : Find the probability mass function and cumulative distribution function for getting number of heads when three coins are tossed once. Sample space when three coins are tossed is S = HHH HHT HTH THH HTT THT TTH TTT ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ R : 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 (No.2 and 3. 10. 1 P (getting no head) = P (X = 0) = 8 3 P (getting one head) = P (X = 1) = 8 3 P (getting two heads) = P (X = 2) = 8 1 P (getting three heads) = P (X = 3) = 8 P(x) ∴ probability mass function is given by 1 1/8 if x = 0 3/8 if x = 1 OR P (X= x) = 3/8 if x = 2 1/8 if x = 3 X 0 1 2 3 1/ P(X = x) 1/8 3/8 3/8 1/8 8 To find cumulative distribution function. X takes the values 0. x 0 1 2 3 x Fig. Solution : Let X be the random variable “getting number of Heads”.
Solution : Two dice are thrown. F(0) = P(X = 0) = 8 When X = 1. Let X be the random variable of getting number of ‘3’s. and the cumulative distribution function for getting ‘3’s when two dice are thrown.1 : Find the probability mass function. F(2) = i=−∞ ∑ P(X = 2 xi) = P (X = 0) + P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) 1 3 3 7 = 8 + 8 + 8 =8 When X = 3. F(3) = i=−∞ ∑ P(X = 3 xi) = P (X = 0) + P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) + P(X = 3) 3 3 1 1 =8 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 1 Cumulative distribution function is 0 if − ∞ < x < 0 1/8 if 0 ≤ x < 1 1/2 if 1 ≤ x < 2 F(x) = 7/8 if 2 ≤ x < 3 1 if 3 ≤ x < ∞ F(x) 1 7/8 1/2 1/8 0 1 Fig.1 When X = 0.2 2 3 x Example 10. Therefore X can take the values 0. 1. 10. 2. 194 . F(1) = i=−∞ ∑ P(X = 1 xi) 3 4 1 1 = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) = 8 + 8 = 8 = 2 When X = 2.
3) (1.3) (6. Solution : 6 (1) Since P(X = x) is a probability mass function ∑ P(X = x) = 1 x=0 ie.5) (3.6) (5. 1 ⇒ k + 3k + 5k + 7k + 9k + 11k + 13k = 1 ⇒ 49 k = 1 ⇒ k = 49 195 .1) (3.3) (3.4) (2.1) (1.6) (2.3) (5.4) (2.3) (3.25 P(no ‘3’) = P(X = 0) = 36 10 P(one ‘3’) = P(X = 1) = 36 1 P(two ‘3’s) = P(X = 2) = 36 (1.1) (6.5) (5.5) (1.2) (4.6) (6.2) (6.6) (4.P(X=0) + P(X = 1) +P(X = 2) +P(X = 3) +P(X = 4) +P(X = 5)+P(X = 6) = 1.4) (1.2) Sample Space (1.4) (4.1) (4.2) (5..3) (6.6) (4.5) (4.1) (5.2) (2.5) (2. (2) Evaluate P(X < 4).4) (5.2 A random variable X has the following probability mass function x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 5k 7k 9k 11k 13k P(X = x) k 3k (1) Find k.5) (6.2) (3.6) (3.4) probability mass function is given by x 0 1 2 P(X = x) 25/36 10/36 1/36 Cumulative distribution function : We have F(x) = xi = − ∞ ∑ P(X = x xi) 25 F(0) = P(X = 0) = 36 10 35 25 F(1) = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) = 36 + 36 = 36 25 10 1 36 F(2) = P(X = 0 ) + P(X = 1) + P(X =2) = 36 + 36 + 36 = 36 = 1 x 0 1 2 F(x) 25/36 35/36 1 Example 10.1) (2. P(X ≥ 5) and P(3< X ≤ 6) 1 (3) What is the smallest value of x for which P (X ≤ x) > 2 .
3.1.3 :An urn contains 4 white and 3 red balls. P(X ≤ 3) = 49 < 2 1 25 P(X ≤ 4) = 49 > 2 1 ∴ The smallest value of x for which P(X ≤ x) > 2 is 4. (i) with replacement (ii) without replacement Solution : (i) with replacement Let X be the random variable of drawing number of red balls in three draws.2. P(X ≤ 1) = 49 < 2 1 16 1 9 P(X ≤ 2) = 49 < 2 . Example 10. 1 4 1 1 P(X ≤ 0) = 49 < 2 . ∴ X can take the values 0. Find the probability distribution of number of red balls in three draws one by one from the urn.(2) P(X < 4) = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1 ) + P(X = 2) + P(X = 3) 3 5 7 16 1 = 49 + 49 + 49 + 49 = 49 11 13 24 P(X ≥ 5) = P(X = 5) + P(X = 6) = 49 + 49 = 49 9 11 13 33 P(3 < X ≤ 6) = P(X = 4) + P(X = 5) + P(X = 6) = 49 + 49 + 49 = 49 (3) The minimum value of x may be determined by trial and error method. 3 P(Red ball) = 7 = P(R) 4 P(Not Red ball) = 7 = P(W) 4 4 4 64 Therefore P(X = 0) = P(www) = 7 × 7 × 7 = 343 P(X = 1) = P(Rww) + P(wRw) + P(wwR) 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 = 7 × 7 × 7 + 7 × 7 × 7 + 7 × 7 × 7 144 48 = 3 × 343 = 343 P(X = 2) = P(RRw) + P(RwR) + P(wRR) 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 = 7 × 7 × 7 + 7 × 7 × 7 + 7 × 7 × 7 3 4 36 108 3 = 3 × 7 × 7 × 7 = 3 × 343 = 343 196 .
3 27/343 2) Without replacement : It is also treated a simultaneous case. Method 1 : Method 2 : Using combination Using Conditional Probability 3 2 4 (i) P(no red ball) (i) P(www) = 7 × 6 × 5 4c × 3c 3 0 4 P(X = 0) = 7c = 35 3 4 4×1 = 35 = 35 (ii) P(1 red ball) 4c × 3c P(X = 1) = 2 1 7c 3 6×3 18 = 35 = 35 (iii) P(2 red ball) 4c × 3c P(X = 2) = 1 2 (ii) P(Rww) + P(wRw) + P(wwR) 4 3 3 3 3 4 = 7 × 6 × 5 + 7 × 6 × 5 3 3 4 +7 × 6 × 5 36 36 18 = 3 × 210 = 70 = 35 (iii) P(RRw) + P(RwR) + P(wRR) 2 4 4 2 3 3 = 7 × 6 × 5 + 7 × 6 × 5 3 2 4 +7 × 6 × 5 24 12 = 3 × 210 = 35 (iv) 3 2 1 P(RRR) = 7 × 6 × 5 1 = 35 7c 3 4×3 12 = 35 = 35 (iv)P(3 red ball) 4c × 3c P(X = 3) = 0 3 7c 3 1 1×1 = 35 = 35 197 .3 3 3 27 P(X = 3) = P(RRR) = 7 × 7 × 7 = 343 The required probability distribution is X 0 1 2 P(X = x) 64/343 144/343 108/343 Clearly all pi’s are ≥ 0 and ∑pi = 1.
(i) The probability that X is between two points a and b is b P(a ≤ x ≤ b) = ⌡f(x) dx ⌠ a (ii) It is nonnegative for all real X.2. a i. Then X is a continuous random variable because any ph value. If in the study of ecology of a lake. we make depth measurements at randomly chosen locations then X = the depth at such location is a continuous random variable.e.e. Probability Density Function (p.e. the probability at a single point is always zero.X P(X = x) 0 4 35 1 18 35 2 12 35 3 1 35 Clearly all pi’s are ≥ 0 and ∑pi = 1 10. the set of Natural numbers. P(X = a) = ⌡f(x) dx = 0.) : The mathematical definition of a continuous probability function f(x) is a function that satisfies the following properties..d.f.d. Since continuous probability function are defined for uncountable number of points over an interval.. X is said to be continuous if its values cannot be put in 1 − 1 correspondence with N. i. between 0 and 14 is possible. ∞ (iii) The integral of the probability function is 1 i. ⌠f(x) dx = 1 ⌡ −∞ Continuous probability functions are referred to as p.f. ⌠ a 198 .. Let X denote the ph value of a chemical compound which is randomly selected. The limit will be between the maximum and minimum depth in the region sampled. Examples for Continuous Random Variable The life length in hours of a certain light bulb.2 Continuous Random Variable : Definition : A Random Variable X is said to be continuous if it can take all possible values between certain given limits.
F′(x) = f(x) Example 10. Properties of Distribution function : (i) F(x) is a nondecreasing function of x (ii) 0 ≤ F(x) ≤ 1. d (vi) f(x) = dx F(x) ⌠f(x) dx = ⌠f(x) dx = 1 ⌡ ⌡ P(a ≤ x ≤ b) = F(b) − F(a) i.. The term probability function covers both discrete and continuous distribution.4 : A continuous random variable X follows the probability law. That is.f ⌠f(x) dx = 1 ⌡ −∞ 199 . − ∞ < x < ∞.d. x −∞ lt (iii) F(− ∞) = x → − ∞ ⌠f(x) dx = ⌠f(x) dx = 0 ⌡ ⌡ −∞ −∞ lt (iv) F(∞) = x → ∞ x ∞ −∞ −∞ (v) For any real constant a and b and a ≤ b. ∴ P(a ≤ x ≤ b) = P(a ≤ X < b) = P(a < x ≤ b) = P(a < x < b) Discrete Probability function are referred to as probability mass function and continuous probability function are referred to as probability density function.e. the function given by x F(x) = P(X ≤ x) = ⌠ f(t)dt for − ∞ < x < ∞ where f(t) is the value of the ⌡ −∞ probability density function of X at t is called the distribution function or cumulative distribution of X.The probabilities are measured over intervals and not at single points. 0 < x < 1 f(x) = elsewhere 0 Find k ∞ Solution : Since f(x) is a p. k x (1 − x )10. Cumulative Distribution Function : If X is a continuous random variable. the area under the curve between two distinct points defines the probability for that interval.
f(x) = 3x2.05 1 1 ∴ ⌠f(x) dx = 0. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.05 b 95 19 3 b = 1 − 0.1 i. a = 2 0 (ii) P(X > b) = 0. Find a and b such that.05 Solution : (i) Since the total probability is 1.e. (i) P(X ≤ a) = P(X > a) and (ii) P(X > b) = 0.d.05 ∴ ⌠3x2 dx = 0.05 = 0.e.f.e.e. k ⌠ (1 − x)x10dx = 1 0 1 0 ⌡ x11 x12 1 1 i. ⌠kx(1 −x)10 dx = 1 ⌡ 0 10 ⌠ k(1 − x) [1 − (1 − x)] dx = 1 ⌡ 1 By properties of definite integral a a f(x) dx = ⌠ f(a − x)dx ⌠ ⌡ 0 ⌡ 0 i.e..5 : A continuous random variable X has p.e.... k ⌠ (x − x )dx = 1 ⇒ k 11 − 12 = 1 ⇒ k 11 − 12 = 1 ⇒ k = 132 0 ⌡ 1 0 Example 10.e. P(X ≤ a) + P(X ≤ a) = 1 1 ⇒ P(X ≤ a) = 2 1 ⇒ ⌠f(x) dx = 2 ⌡ 0 a a a 10 11 1 ⇒ ⌠3x2 dx = 2 ⌡ 0 1 1 3x3 1 1 1 3 i. i.95 = 100 ⇒ b = 20 3 1 200 .05 ⌡ ⌡ b 1 b 3x3 3 = 0....05 ⇒ 1 − b3 = 0. [Given that P(X ≤ a) = P (X > a] P(X ≤ a) + P(X > a) = 1 i. 3 = 2 ⇒ a3 = 2 i.
∞ Solution: (i) Since f(x) is a p. 1) x F(x) = ⌠ f(t) dt −∞ x x 3 0 3 = ⌠ f(t) dt + ⌠ f(t) dt = 0 + ⌠ 2 (1 − t2) dt = 2 ⌡ ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 −∞ 1 1 ⌡ ⌡ x3 x − 3 (c) When x ∈ [1.6 : If the probability density function of a random variable is given k (1 − x2). ⌠f(x) dx = 1 ⌡ −∞ x3 1 ⇒ k x − 3 = 1 ⇒ k 1 − 3 = 1 0 0 3 2 ⇒ 3 k = 1 or k = 2 x (ii) The distribution function F(x) = ⌠ f(t) dt ⌡ ⌠k(1 − x2) dx = 1 ⌡ −∞ (a) When x ∈ (− ∞. 0] x F(x) = ⌠ f(t) dt = 0 −∞ (b) When x ∈ (0.f.d.Example 10. 0 < x < 1 by f(x) = elsewhere 0 find (i) k (ii) the distribution function of the random variable. ∞) 1 x 13 x 0 F(x) = ⌠ f(t) dt = ⌠ f(t) dt + ⌠ f(t) dt + ⌠ f(t) dt = 0 + ⌠ 2 (1 − t2) dt + 0 −∞ 1 ⌡ −∞ ⌡ ⌡ 0 ⌡ 1 ⌡ 0 3 t3 = 2 t − 3 = 1 0 −∞<x≤0 0 ∴F(x) = 3/2 (x − x3/3) 0 < x < 1 1≤x<∞ 1 201 .
1 < x < e3 is a probability density function of Example 10.d.x≤0 0 2 Solution : F(2) = P(X ≤ 2) = ⌠f(x) dx ⌡ −∞ 202 .1 π + tan−1 x − ∞ < x < ∞ is a distribution π 2 function of a continuous variable X. ⌡f(x) dx = 1 ⌠ Example 10. x > 0 f(x)= .8 : If f(x) = x 0. 1 < x < e3 Therefore f(x)= 3x 0 elsewhere e3 e 1 1 1 P(x > e) = 3 ⌠ x dx =3 [log x] ⌡ e e 3 1 2 1 = 3 [log e3 − log e] = 3 [3 − 1] = 3 Example 10. elsewhere a continuous random variable X.f.7 : If F(x) = −∞ e 3 3 ⌠A dx = 1 ⇒ A[log x] e = 1 1 ⌡x 1 ⇒ A[log e3 − log 1] = 1 ⇒ A[3] = 1 ⇒ A = 1/3 1 . find P(0 ≤ x ≤ 1) 1 π Solution: F(x) = 2 + tan−1 x π P(0 ≤ x ≤ 1) = F(1) − F(0) 1 π 1 π = + tan−1 1 − 2 + tan−1 0 π π 2 1 π π 1 π 1 π π π 1 = 2 + 4 − 2 + 0 = π π 2 + 4 − 2 = 4 π A . find p(x > e) ∞ Solution: Since f(x) is a p.9 :For the probability density function 2e−2x. find F(2) .
(2) Two cards are drawn successively without replacement from a well shuffled pack of 52 cards. −2 0 e 0 Example 10.e−2x e4 − 1 ⌠ = − [e−4 − 1] = 1 − e−4 = 4 = ⌡ 2 e−2x dx = 2 . (3) Two bad oranges are accidentally mixed with ten good ones. (4) A discrete random variable X has the following probability distributions. Obtain the probability distribution for the number of bad oranges. for x > 5 Find the probability that such a five year old dog x2 will live (i) beyond 10 years (ii) less than 8 years (iii) anywhere between 12 to 15 years. Solution : (i) P(dog living beyond 10 years) P(X > 10) = 1 − P(X ≤ 10) 25 = 1 − 1 − 2 when x = 10 x 1 − 25 = 1 − 3 = 1 = 1− 4 4 100 (ii) P(dog living less than 8 years ) P(X < 8) = F(8) [since P(X < 8) = P(X ≤ 8) for a continuous distribution] 25 25 39 = 1 − 2 = 1 − 64 = 64 8 2 2 (iii) P(dog living any where between 12 and 15 years ) = P(12 < x < 15) 25 25 1 = F(15) − F(12) = 1 − 2 − 1 − 2 = 16 15 12 EXERCISE 10. X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P(x) a 3a 5 a 7 a 9 a 11 a 13 a 15 a 17 a (i) Find the value of a (ii) Find P(x < 3) (iii) Find P(3 < x < 7) 203 . Three oranges are drawn at random without replacement from this lot.1 (1) Find the probability distribution of the number of sixes in throwing three dice once. for x ≤ 5 0 F(x) = 1 − 25 . Find the probability distribution of the number of queens.10 : The total life time (in year) of 5 year old dog of a certain breed is a Random Variable whose distribution function is given by .
α. p2.3 Mathematical Expectation : Expectation of a discrete random variable : Definition : If X denotes a discrete random variable which can assume the values x1.f f(x) = cx (1 − x) elsewhere 0 1 find (i) the constant c (ii) P x < 2 (7) The probability density function of a random variable x is α − 1 −β xα e .75) (9) A continuous random variable x has the p.(5) Verify that the following are probability density functions. . denoted by E(X) is defined by E(X) = p1 x1 + p2 x2 + . x2. xn with respective probabilities p1. 0 < x < 2π f(x) = 0 elsewhere π 3π π Find (i) k (ii) P 0 < X < 2 (iii) P 2 < X < 2 10. (10) A random variable X has a probability density function k .f defined by ce−ax. −∞ < x < ∞ (b) f(x) = (a) f(x) = 9 π (1 + x2) 0 elsewhere 3.d. 0<x<1 (6) For the p. . . .5) (iii) P(X > 0. Find the value of c if a > 0. . . β > 0 . 2x . x. . . Also evaluate (i) P(0. . .d. pn then the mathematical expectation of X.5 < X < 0.75) (ii) P(X ≤ 0. elsewhere x<0 0 2 (8) For the distribution function given by F(x) = x 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 1 x>1 find the density function. 0 < x < ∞ f(x) = 0 elsewhere . . Find (i) k (ii) P(X > 10) f(x) = kx 0 . 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 1 1 . . + pnxn = ∑ pi xi where ∑ pi = 1 i=1 i=1 n n 204 . .
. . (c xn) pn = c( p1 x1 + p2x2 +.. Second moment : µ2′ = E(X2) = ∑ pi xi2 205 . . Moments about the origin : If X is a discrete random variable for each positive integer r (r = 1. pn xn) + b∑ pi = a E(X) + b. pn xn) = E(aX + b) = E(aX + b) = = c E(X) a E(X) + b.) the th r moment µr′ = E(Xr) = ∑ pi xir First moment : µ1′ = E(X) = ∑ pi xi This is called the mean of the random variable X. Similarly E(aX − b) = aE(X)− b Moments : Expected values of a function of a random variable X is used for calculating the moments. then E[ϕ (X)] = ∑ P(X = x) ϕ (x). Properties : Result (1) : Proof : E(c) = c where c is a constant E(X) = ∑ pi xi ∴ E(c) = ∑ pi c = c ∑ pi = c as ∑ pi = 1 Result (2) : Proof : ∴ E(c) = c E(cX) = c E(X) E(cX) = ∑ (cxi)pi = (c x1) p1 + (c x2) p2 + .. . ∑ (a xi+ b) pi (a x1+ b) p1 + (a x2 + b)p2 + (a xn + b) pn Result (3) : Proof : = a( p1 x1 + p2x2 +. . . (i) Moments about the origin (ii) Moments about the mean which are called central moments. . . We will discuss about two types of moments. .Thus E(X) is the weighted arithmetic mean of the values xi with the weights p(xi) ∴ X = E(X) Hence the mathematical Expectation E(X) of a random variable is simply the arithmetic mean. Result : If ϕ(X) is a function of the random variable X.
k. 2.Moments about the Mean : (Central Moments) For each positive integer n.) the nth central moment of the discrete random variable X is − µn = E(X − X )n = ∑(xi −x )n pi − First moment about the Mean µ1 = E(X − X )1 = ∑(xi −x )1 pi µ = ∑ x p − − ∑ p = ∑ x p − − (1) as ∑ p = 1 x x 1 i i i i i i = E(X) − E(X) = 0 The algebraic sum of the deviations about the arithmetic mean is always zero 2nd moment about the Mean µ2 = E(X − X )2 2 2 = E(X2 + X − 2 X X ) = E(X2) + X −2 X E(X) (‡ X is a constant) = E(X2) + [E(X)]2 − 2E(X) E(X) µ2 = E(X2) −[E(X)]2 = µ2′ − (µ1′)2 Second moment about the Mean is called the variance of the random variable X µ2 = Var (X) = E(X − X )2 = E(X2) − [E(X)]2 Result (4) : Proof : Var (X ± c) = Var X where c is a constant.. Result (5) : Proof : Var (aX) = a2 Var (X) Var (aX) = E[aX − E(aX)]2 = E[aX − aE(X)]2 = E[a {X − E(X)}]2 = a2 E[X − E(X)]2 = Change of scale affects the variance a2 Var X 206 ..t. . (n = 1. w. Var (X) = E(X − X )2 Var (X + c) = E[(X + c) − E (X + c)]2 = E[X + c − E(X) − c]2 = E[X − X ]2 = Var X Similarly Var (X − c) = Var (X) ∴ Variance is independent of change of origin.
2) (3. ∴ Probability is qp. 2) (5. 4) (4. As it goes on. 1) (1. 3) (5. 6) (6. The success can occur in the 1st trial. The success in the 2nd trial means failure in the 1st trial. 6) ∴ The probability distribution is given by. the success may occur in the nth trial which mean the first (n −1) trials are failures. 2) (4. 6) (4. Proof : Var (c) = E[c − E(c)]2 = E[c − c]2 = E(0) = 0 Example 10. Solution: Let X be the random variable denoting ‘Number of trials to get a first success’. 5) (6. Find the expected value of the total number of points shown up. Find the expected number of trials to get a first success. (1. 1) (1. . 1) (2. 3) (4. ∴ Probability of success in the 3rd trial is q2p. 2) (6. 5) (5. . 5) (3. 3) (4. 5) (4. 4) (5. ∴ probability = qn−1p.11 : Two unbiased dice are thrown together at random. Result (6) : 207 . Success in the 3rd trial means failure in the first two trials. 2) (2. X 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 3 4 5 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 P(X = x) 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 E(X) = ∑ pi xi = ∑ xi pi 1 2 3 1 252 = 2 × 36 + 3 × 26 + 4 × 36 + . 1) (1. ∴ The probability of success in the 1st trial is p. 3) (6.12 : The probability of success of an event is p and that of failure is q.Var (c) = 0 where c is a constant. 4) (5. If both show six then the sum is 12. . If both show one then the sum total is 2. The random variable X can take values from 2 to 12.+ 12 × 36 = 36 = 7 Example 10. 5) (2. 6) (2. 4) (2. 1) (1. 1) (1. 6) (3. 3) (2. 5) (6. 6) (5. 4) (3. 3) (3. Solution : Let X be the random variable which represents the sum of the numbers shown in the two dice. 2) (3. 4) (6.
+ nqn−1 p . Solution : The required probability distribution is [Refer Example 10. Find the probability distribution of the number of red balls in three draws when a ball is drawn at random with replacement. 20 if a 2 turns up. While he neither wins nor loses if any other face turns up. Find the expected sum of money he can win.13 : An urn contains 4 white and 3 Red balls..∴ The probability distribution is as follows 1 2 3 .. Rs. . A player wins Rs. ] p 1 = p[1 − q]−2 = p(p)−2 = 2 = p p Example 10. loses Rs. X P(x) p qp q p 2 n .. n−1 q p. ∴ E(X) = ∑ pi xi = 1 . − 30 and 0.. 30 if a 6 turns up. .. 208 .. 40 if a 4 turns up. Also find its mean and variance...40. Solution : Let X be the random variable denoting the amount he can win. The possible values of X are 20. .. 1 P[X = 20] = P(getting 2) = 6 1 P[X = 40] = P(getting 4) = 6 1 P[X = − 30] = P(getting 6) = 6 .3] X 0 1 2 3 144 108 27 64 P(X = x) 343 343 343 343 Mean E(X) = ∑ pi xi 9 64 144 108 27 = 0 343 + 1 343 + 2 343 + 3 343 = 7 Variance = E(X2) − [E(X)]2 E(X2) = ∑ pi xi2 117 64 144 108 27 = 0 343 + 12343 + 22343 + 32 343 = 49 36 9 2 117 Variance= 49 − 7 = 49 Example 10. . = p[1 + 2q + 3q2 + .14 :A game is played with a single fair die. .. p + 2qp + 3q2p + .+ nqn−1 + .
5 Expectation of a continuous Random Variable : Definition : Let X be a continuous random variable with probability density function f(x).1 The remaining probability is 2 X 20 40 0 −30 P(x) 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/2 Mean E (X) = ∑ pi xi 1 1 1 1 = 20 6 + 40 6 + (−30) 6 + 0 2 = 5 Expected sum of money he can win = Rs. Then the mathematical expectation of X is defined as ∞ E(X) = ⌡ xf(x) dx ⌠ −∞ Note : If ϕ is function such that ϕ(X) is a random variable and E [ϕ (X)] exists then ∞ E[ϕ (X)] = ⌠ϕ (x) f(x) dx ⌡ −∞ E(X ) = ⌠ x2 f(x) dx ⌡ −∞ Variance of X = E(X2) − [E(X)]2 Results : (1) E(c) = c where c is a constant ∞ ∞ E(c) = ⌡c f(x) dx = c ⌡f(x) dx = c ⌠ ⌠ 2 −∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ as ⌡f(x) dx = 1 ⌠ −∞ (2) E(aX ± b) = a E(X) ± b ∞ ∞ ⌠ E(aX ± b) = ⌡(ax ± b) f(x) dx = ⌡ax f(x) dx ⌠ −∞ ∞ ± ⌡b f(x) dx ⌠ −∞ −∞ ∞ = a ⌠x f(x) dx ± b ⌠f(x) dx = a E(X) ± b ⌡ ⌡ ∞ −∞ −∞ 209 .
d. 2 ∞ 3 E(X) = ⌠ x f(x) dx = ⌠ x.elsewhere 0 Solution : ∞ E(X) = ⌡ x f(x) dx ⌠ −∞ n − αx dx = n + 1 ⌠x e ⌡ α ∞ n 1 1 = ⌠ x (3e−3x) dx = 3 ⌠ x e−3x dx = 3.15 : In a continuous distribution the p. 4 x(2 − x) dx Solution : ⌡ 3 3 = 4 ⌠ x2 (2 − x) dx = 4 ⌠(2x2 − x3) dx ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 −∞ 2 ⌡ 0 2 3 =4 x x 3 2 16 2 3 − 4 = 4 3(8) − 4 = 1 0 3 4 2 2 ∴ Mean = 1 ∞ 2 ⌠ E(X ) = ⌡ x2f(x) dx = −∞ 2 0 ⌠ x2 3 x(2 − x) dx ⌡ 4 0 2 3 3 x4 x5 3 16 32 6 ⌠ = 4 ⌡ (2 x3 − x4) dx = 4 2 4 − 5 = 4 2 − 5 = 5 0 6 1 Variance = E(X2) − [E(X)]2 = 5 − 1 = 5 Example 10.Example 10.f of X is 3 x (2 − x) 0< x < 2 f(x)=4 . 0 Find the mean and the variance of the distribution.0 < x < ∞ f(x) = . otherwise. 2 = 3 ⌡ ⌡ 3 0 0 ∞ ∞ 0 When n is a positive integer ∞ ∞ 2 2 E(X2) = ⌠ x2 (3e−3x) dx = 3 ⌠ x2 e−3x dx = 3 .16 : Find the mean and variance of the distribution 3e−3x. 3 = 9 ⌡ ⌡ 3 0 0 210 .
otherwise (iii) f(x) = xe−x 0 (ii) f(x) = αe−α x 0 .2 1 2 1 Var(X) = E[X2] − E[X]2 = 9 − 3 = 9 1 ∴Mean = 3 1 . (6) The probability distribution of a random variable X is given below : X P(X = x) 0 0.otherwise . Find his expectation of gain. (2) Find the expected value of the number on a die when thrown.1 1 0. (3) In an entrance examination a student has to answer all the 120 questions.1 If Y = X2 + 2X find the mean and variance of Y.5 3 0. A success is getting an odd number on a toss. (5) In a gambling game a man wins Rs.3 2 0. What is the expectation of the mark scored by a student if he chooses the answer to each question at random? (4) Two cards are drawn with replacement from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards.10 if he gets all heads or all tails and loses Rs.2 (1) A die is tossed twice.5 if he gets 1 or 2 heads when 3 coins are tossed once.−12 ≤ x ≤ 12 (i) f(x) = 24 0 .otherwise 211 . if x > 0 . (7) Find the Mean and Variance for the following probability density functions 1 . Variance = 9 EXERCISE 10. if x > 0 . Find the mean and variance for the number of aces. A student gets 1 mark for a correct answer and loses half mark for a wrong answer. Find the mean and the variance of the probability distribution of the number of successes. Each question has four options and only one option is correct.
Discrete Distributions : Binomial Distribution : This was discovered by a Swiss Mathematician James Bernoulli (1654−1705) Bernoulli’s Trials : Consider a random experiment that has only two possible outcomes. xi 0 1 2 . p being the probability of success in a trial. Also let q = 1 − p. Assume that these outcomes have probabilities p and q respectively such that p + q =1. For example when a coin is tossed we can take the falling of head as success and falling of tail as failure. n P(xi) qn nc1pqn−1 nc2 p2qn−2 . (i) any trial.. In this section we shall study (1) Binomial distribution (2) Poisson distribution (3) Normal distribution which figure most prominently in statistical theory and in application.10. 212 . result in a success or a failure (ii) There are a finite number of trials which are independent. The first two distributions are discrete probability distributions and the third is a continuous probability distribution. Theoretical distributions are based on expectations on the basis of previous experience. Probability function of Binomial Distribution : Let n be a given positive integer and p be a given real number such that 0 ≤ p ≤ 1. The constants n and p are called the parameters of the distribution.. A Binomial distribution can be used under the following condition. If the experiment is repeated ‘n’ times independently with two possible outcomes they are called Bernoulli’s trials. (iii) The probability of success is the same in each trial. pn The table shown above is called the Binomial distribution.. Binomial probability function B(n.. Consider the finite probability distribution described by the following table.x) gives the probability of exactly x successes in ‘n’ Bernoullian trials.p. The 2nd row of the table are the successive terms in the binomial expansion of (q + p)n.4 Theoretical Distributions : The values of random variables may be distributed according to some definite probability law which can be expressed mathematically and the corresponding probability distribution is called theoretical distribution.
4).18 : A pair of dice is thrown 10 times. 6 ways. x = 0. If getting a doublet is considered a success find the probability of (i) 4 success (ii) No success. (4.3). 2. 3 Solution : np = 2 ∴ npq = 4/3 npq ∴ q = np .2) (3. 1.17 : Let X be a binomially distributed variable with mean 2 and 2 standard deviation . (5. Find the corresponding probability function.Definition of Binomial Distribution : A random variable X is said to follow Binomial distribution if its probability mass function is given by n px qn −x. Example 10. npq = 2 3 4 2 6 =3 1 2 ∴ p = 1−q = 1−3 = 3 1 np = 2 ∴ n 3 = 2 ⇒ n = 6 ∴ The probability function for the distribution is 1 x 2 6−x . q = 1 − p = 1 − 6 = 6 213 . . 1. Solution : n = 10 .6)} ie. P[X = x] = 6C 3 3 x = 2 4/3 = …6 Example 10. Note : In a Binomial distribution mean is always greater than the variance. p) denotes that the random variable X follows Binomial distribution with parameters n and p.. x = 0. A doublet can be obtained when a pair of dice thrown is {(1.1).n P(X = x) = p(x) = Cx 0 otherwise Constants of Binomial Distribution : Mean = np Variance = npq Standard deviation = variance = npq X ∼ B(n. .5) (6. . Probability of success is getting a doublet 6 1 1 5 ∴ p = 36 = 6 . (2.
19 : In a Binomial distribution if n = 5and P(X = 3) = 2P(X = 2) find p Solution : P(X = x) = nC px qn−x x P(X = 3) = 5C p3q2 and P(X = 2) = 5C p2q3 3 2 ∴ 5C p3q2 = 2 5C p2q3 3 2 ∴ p = 2q ( ) 2 ⇒ 3p = 2 . npq = 5 ∴ q = 6 .2)5−x.8 p = 2 (1 − p) p2 − 2p + 0. x = 0 to 5 x Example 10. 0. p = 3 Example 10.8 ∴ p = 0.96 = 0 ⇒ p = 1. 214 .2 .8 Solution : 5 p [1 + (1 − p) = 4. We have P[X = x] = nC px qn−x x 1 4 5 6 (a) P(4 successes) = P[X = 4] = 10C 6 6 4 = (b) 35 5 6 210 × 56 = 216 6 10 6 P (no success) = P(X = 0) = 10C 0 5 10 = 5 10 6 6 Example 10.8 for 5 trials find the distribution. np + npq = 4.Find n. q = 0.21 : The difference between the mean and the variance of a Binomial distribution is 1 and the difference between their squares is 11. p = 6 ⇒ n = 36. Solution : Let the mean be (m + 1) and the variance be m from the given data.Let X be the number of success.8 ⇒ np(1 + q) = 4.8)x (0.20 : If the sum of mean and variance of a Binomial Distribution is 4.2 [‡p cannot be greater than 1] ∴ The Binomial distribution is P[X = x] = 5C (0.8 .[Since mean > variance in a binomial distribution] (m +1)2 − m2 = 11 ⇒ m = 5 ∴ mean = m + 1 = 6 5 1 ⇒ np = 6 .
x = 0. What is the probability of getting (a) exactly 2 heads (b) at least two heads (c) at most two heads. (iii) np = λ is finite where λ is a positive real number. The probability that he 5 will clear each hurdle is 6. Poisson distribution is also a discrete distribution. (2) A die is thrown 120 times and getting 1 or 5 is considered a success. If 6 candidates appear in the examination what is the probability that atleast 5 pass the examination. …for some λ > 0 x The mean of the Poisson Distribution is λ. What is the probability that he will knock down less than 2 hurdles..2. and the variance is also λ.2 Poisson Distribution : It is named after the French Mathematician Simeon Denis Poisson (1781 − 1840) who discovered it. Find the mean and the standard deviation of ships returning safely out of a total of 500 ships (4) Four coins are tossed simultaneously. the distribution of such an event may be assumed to follow a Poisson distribution.EXERCISE 10.4. (i) n the number of trials is indefinitely large ie. 10.1. (6) In a hurdle race a player has to cross 10 hurdles.3 (1) The mean of a binomial distribution is 6 and its standard deviation is 3. The parameter of the Poisson distribution is λ. n → ∞. Find the mean and variance of the number of successes. (3) If on an average 1 ship out of 10 do not arrive safely to ports. (5) The overall percentage of passes in a certain examination is 80. (ii) p the constant probability of success in each trial is very small ie. p → 0. Is this statement true or false? Comment.. When an event occurs rarely. Definition : A random variable X is said to have a Poisson distribution if the e−λ λx probability mass function of X is P(X = x) = . Poisson distribution is a limiting case of Binomial distribution under the following conditions. 215 .
e−0.1353 . (4) The number of printing errors at each page of a book by a good publication.819].23 : If a publisher of nontechnical books takes a great pain to ensure that his books are free of typological errors. (ii) atmost three pages with errors. (2) The number of telephone calls received at a telephone exchange in a given time interval. x 0 1 2 x=0 = e0 = 1 λ2 = e−λ [1 + λ + + . p = 0.1363 × 2 = 0.. (5) The number of road accidents reported in a city at a particular junction at a particular time.2.005 and errors are independent from page to page (i) what is the probability that one of its 400 page novels will contain exactly one page with error.2726 1 1 (ii)P(atmost 3 pages with error) = P(X ≤ 3) = ∑ e−λ λx 3 e−2(2)x 2 22 23 =∑ = e2 1 + + + x 1 2 3 x=0 x 0 19 = e−2 3 = 0. Solution : ∑ p(x) = ∑ x=0 ∞ ∞ e−λ λx e−λ λ0 e−λ λ1 e−λ λ2 = + + + . Example 10.22 : Prove that the total probability is one. produced by a good industry. (3) The number of defective articles in a packet of 100. so that the probability of any given page containing atleast one such error is 0.. .8569 3 216 . n = 400 . [e−2 = 0. eλ 2 Example 10.005 Solution : ∴ np = 2 = λ (i) P(one page with error) = P(X = 1) = e−λ λ1 e−221 = = 0.Examples of Poisson Distribution : (1) The number of alpha particles emitted by a radio active source in a given time interval. = 0. . ] = e−λ .
Solution : Given P(X = 2) = P(X = 3) ∴ e−λ λ2 e−λ λ3 = 2 3 ⇒ 3λ2 = λ3 ⇒ λ2 (3 − λ) = 0 P(X = 5) = As λ ≠ 0. If 1000 persons are inoculated. P(atmost 1 person suffer) = p(X ≤ 1) = p(X = 0) + p(X = 1) = e−λ λ0 e−λλ1 + = e−λ [1 + λ] 0 1 be p = e−5 (1 + 5) = 6 × e−5 = 6 × 0.Example 10.0067] Solution : Let the probability of suffering from side effect n = (i) 1000 . 5 or 6 persons suffer.0067 24 = = 0.25 : In a Poisson distribution if P(X = 2) = P(X = 3) find P(X =5) [given e−3 = 0.0402 (ii) P(4.4944 Example 10. (ii) 4. find approximately the probability that (i) atmost 1 person suffer. λ = np = 5.050 × 243 = = = 0.0067 = 0.005.101 120 5 5 217 .005 . p = 0.24 : Suppose that the probability of suffering a side effect from a certain vaccine is 0. [e−5 = 0. λ = 3 e−λ λ5 e−3 (3)5 0. 5 or 6 persons suffer) = p(X = 4) + p(X = 5) + p(X = 6) = e−λ λ4 e−λ λ5 e−λ λ6 e−λ λ4 λ λ2 1 + 5 + 30 + + = 4 5 6 4 5 25 e−5 54 17 10625 e−5 54 1 + 5 + 30 = 24 6 = 144 × 0.050].
9)x x x=0 13 (The answer can be left at this stage). (2) If the probability of a defective fuse from a manufacturing unit is 2% in a box of 200 fuses find the probability that (i) exactly 4 fuses are defective (ii) more than 3 fuses are defective [e−4 = 0.e.2 ∴ Required probability = ∑ e−7. find the probability that there will be (i) Exactly 9 incoming buses during a period of 5 minutes (ii) Fewer than 10 incoming buses during a period of 8 minutes. P(X = 9) = (ii) e−4.Example 10.9 (i) buses per minute ∴ λ for number of incoming buses per 5 minutes = 0.0183].2 × (7.. Find (i) P(X ≤ 3) (ii) P(2 ≤ X < 5) [e−4 = 0.9. Solution : λ for number of incoming = 0.9 × (9.26 : If the number of incoming buses per minute at a bus terminus is a random variable having a Poisson distribution with λ=0. EXERCISE 10.9 ∴ Required probability = 1 − ∑ e−9.9 = 9.5 × (4.2)x x x=0 9 (iii) P atleast 14 incoming buses during a period of 11 minutes = P(X ≥ 14) = 1 − P(X < 14) Here λ = 11 × 0.5)9 9 fewer than 10 incoming buses during a period of 8 minutes = P(X <10) Here λ = 0. (iii) Atleast 14 incoming buses during a period of 11 minutes.9 × 8 = 7.0183]. 218 .4 (1) Let X have a Poisson distribution with mean 4.9 × 5 = 4.5 P exactly 9 incoming buses e−λ λ9 during 5 minutes = 9 i.
e. Find the probability that in a sample of 10 bolts chosen at random exactly 2 will be defective using (i) Binomial distribution (ii) Poisson distribution. [e−2 = 0.1353]. a continuous distribution is needed. Definition : A continuous random variable X is said to follow a normal distribution with parameter µ and σ (or µ and σ2) if the probability function is −2 1 σ f(x) = e σ 2π 1 x − µ2 .4. (4) Alpha particles are emitted by a radio active source at an average rate of 5 in a 20 minutes interval. −∞ < x < ∞. [e−5 = 0. (5) The number of accidents in a year involving taxi drivers in a city follows a Poisson distribution with mean equal to 3. happens to be the most useful theoretical distribution for continuous variables. the normal distribution may also be regarded as a limiting case of binomial distribution. 10. they relate to the occurrence of distinct events. Indeed when n is large and neither p nor q is close to zero the Binomial distribution is approximated by the normal distribution inspite of the fact that the former is a discrete distribution. where as the later is a continuous distribution. Out of 1000 taxi drivers find approximately the number of drivers with (i) no accident in a year (ii) more than 3 accidents in a year [e−3 = 0. In fact normal distribution is the ‘corner stone’ of Modern statistics.3 Normal Distribution : The Binomial and the Poisson distribution described above are the most useful theoretical distribution for discrete variables i. reaction times in psychological experiment. Like the Poisson distribution.(3) 20% of the bolts produced in a factory are found to be defective. In order to have mathematical distribution suitable for dealing with quantities whose magnitude is continuously varying. anthropometric measurements of fossils. The normal distribution is also called the normal probability distribution. measurements of intelligence and aptitude. Using Poisson distribution find the probability that there will be (i) 2 emission (ii) at least 2 emission in a particular 20 minutes interval. scores on various tests and numerous economic measures and indication.0067]. Many statistical data concerning business and economic problems are displayed in the form of normal distribution. 219 . − ∞ < µ < ∞. Examples include measurement errors in scientific experiments.0498].. and σ > 0.
. σ2) symbolically. It was also known to Laplace not later than 1744 but through a historical error it has been credited to Gauss who first made reference to it in 1809.. The normal distribution is also called Gaussian Distribution. σ) denotes that the random variable X follows normal distribution with mean µ and standard deviation σ. neither p nor q is so small. (11) It is also a limiting form of Poisson distribution i. (7) The points of inflection are at X = µ ± σ (8) Since the curve is symmetrical about X = µ. Note : Even we can write the normal distribution as X∼ N(µ.e.X ∼ N(µ. (5) It has only one mode at X = µ. 220 .. 10. Constants of Normal distribution : Mean = µ Variance = σ2 Standard deviation = σ ∞ ∞ x =µ The graph of the normal curve is z =0 shown above. Fig. The normal distribution was first discovered by DeMoivre (1667 − 1754) in 1733 as a limiting case of Binomial distribution. (3) Mean = Median = Mode = µ 1 is the (4) The height of the normal curve is maximum at X = µ and σ 2π maximum height (probability). as λ → ∞ Poisson distribution tends to normal distribution.3 Properties of Normal Distribution : (1) The normal curve is bell shaped (2) It is symmetrical about the line X = µ ie. ∴ The normal curve is unimodal (6) The normal curve is asymptotic to the base line.9544 P(µ −3σ < X < µ + 3σ) = 0. (9) Area property : P(µ −σ < X < µ + σ) = 0. the number of trials is very large and p the probability of success is close to 1/2 i.9973 (10) A normal distribution is a close approximation to the binomial distribution when n.6826 P(µ −2σ < X < µ + 2σ) = 0. In this case the parameters are mean and variance. the skewness is zero. about the mean line.e.
. µ + σ) is given by µ +σ 1 ⌠ϕ (z)dz = 0.4 = 2 × 0. ⌡ f(x) dx = ⌠ϕ (z)dz = 1 ⇒ ⌠ ϕ (z)dz = ⌠ ⌡ ⌡ −∞ −∞ −∞ Area Property of Normal Distribution : The Probability that a random variable X lies in the interval (µ − σ.6826 221 . ∞ 0 ∞ i. A normal distribution with mean µ and standard deviation σ can be converted into a standard normal distribution by performing change of scale and origin.Standard Normal Distribution : A random variable X is called a standard normal variate if its mean is zero and its standard deviation is unity.5 ⌡ 0 ∞ P(µ −σ < X < µ + σ) = ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ µ −σ substituting X = µ − σ and X = µ + σ in Z = 1 X−µ σ P(−1< Z< 1)= ⌠ ϕ (z)dz ⌡ −1 1 = 2⌠ ϕ (z)dz (by symmetry) ⌡ 0 ∞ 1 0 1 ∞ Fig. −∞ < z < ∞ 2π The distribution does not contain any parameter.3413. The formula that enables us to change from the x scale to the z – scale and X−µ vice versa is Z = σ The probability density function of the standard normal variate Z is given by − 2 z2 1 ϕ(z) = e . The standard normal distribution is denoted by N(0.e. The total area under the normal probability curve is unity. 10.1). (from the area table) = 0.
Also P(µ −2σ < X < µ + 2σ) µ +2σ = ⌠ f(x) dx ⌡ µ −2σ 2 ∞ 2 0 2 ∞ P(−2 < Z < 2) = ⌠ϕ (z)dz ⌡ −2 2 Fig. The entries in the table gives the areas under the normal curve between the mean (z = 0) and the given value of z as shown below : Therefore entries corresponding to negative values are unnecessary because the normal curve is symmetrical. 10. for any problem first convert X to Z.2 ≤ Z ≤ − 0. 10.2 ≤ Z ≤ 0) (iv) Area to the left of Z = 1.4772 = 0.7 Example 10. 10.5 ≤ Z ≤ 2. Calculate the following probabilities.0027 Note : Since the areas under the normal probability curve have been tabulated interms of the standard normal variate Z. (i) P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 1.5 = 2⌠ϕ (z)dz .3 (v) P(−1.2 ≤ Z ≤ 2.9973 Fig.27 : Let Z be a standard normal variate. (by symmetry) ⌡ 0 = 2 × 0.6 Therefore the probability that a normal variate X lies outside the range µ ± 3σ is given by P(  X − µ  > 3σ) = P(  Z  >3) = 1 − p(−3 < Z < 3) = 1 − 0.5) (iii) Area to the right of Z = 1.9973 = 0.5 (vii) P(1.2 ≤ Z ≤ 0) Fig.5) 222 .5) (vi) P(−1.2) (ii) P(−1.2) = P(−1.49865 = 0.9544 Similarly P(µ −3σ < X < µ + 3σ) µ +3σ 3 ∞ −3 3 0 3 ∞ = ⌠ f(x) dx = ⌠ϕ (z)dz ⌡ ⌡ µ −3σ = 2 × 0. For ∞ ∞ z 0 example P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 1.
4938 = 0.5 ∞ Fig.8787 (vi) P(−1.5) = P(−∞ < Z< 0) + P(0 ≤ Z < 1.2 ≤ Z ≤ 0) = P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 1.5) [due to symmetry] = 0.5 + 0.5) = P(− 1.3849 + 0.10 ∞ z =0 z =1.2 z =0 ∞ area between Z = 0 and Z = 1.2 < Z < 0) + P(0 < Z < 2.2 < Z < 0) − P(−0.2 ≤ Z < 2.2 ∞ Fig.3) = 0.2) P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 1.2 0.0968 (iv) Area of the left of Z = 1. 10.5) = P(−1.13 223 .4032 = 0.5 − 0.2 ≤ Z ≤ −0.3849 (iii) Area to the right of Z = 1.3849 ∞ z =0 z =1.3 = P(0 < Z < ∞) − P(0 ≤ Z <1. 10.Solution : (i) P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 1.5) = 0. 10.5 = P(Z < 1.9 ∞ z =0 z =1.5 ∞ Fig.8 Fig.3849 − 0.2 z =.9332 (v) P(−1.2) + P(0≤ Z ≤ 2.2 z =0 2. 10.2) by symmetry = 0.3 P(Z > 1.11 ∞ 1.5 ∞ Fig.12 ∞ z =0 z =1.1934 P(−1.5 < Z < 0) = P(0 < Z < 1.2 ≤ Z ≤ 0) ∞ z =1.1915 = 0.2) = = (ii) P(−1.4332 = 0.5) = P(0 ≤ Z < 1. 10.5) [by symmetry] = 0.3) = area between Z = 0 to Z = ∞ − area between Z = 0 to Z = 1. 10.3 ∞ Fig.2) − P(0 < Z < 0.
c = − 0.05 = P(0 < Z < c) 0.16 ∴ c = 1.. 0.94 ∴ We have P(0 < Z < c) = 2 = 0.05 (ii) P(−c < Z < c) = 0.5) − P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 1.05 From the data it is clear that c lies to the right of Z = 0 The area to the right of Z = 0 is 0. 45 ∞ z =0 0.88 (iii) P(Z > c) = 0.05 As area is < 0. 94 .65 . 47 z =0 z =c ∞ Fig. Find the value of c in the following problems.5 − P(0 < Z < c) = 0.65 As c is less than zero.45 is 1.65 (iv) P(c < Z < 0) = 0.0606 Example 10. 10.(vii) P(1. 47 ∞ z =c .4938 − 0.5 − 0. (i) P(0 ≤ X ≤ 8) (ii) P(  X − 6  < 10) 224 .47.5 P(0 < Z < ∞) − P(0 < Z < c) = 0.05 0.29 : If X is normally distributed with mean 6 and standard deviation 5 find. (i) P(Z < c) = 0.94 As Z = −c and Z = +c lie at equal distance from Z = 0.47 from the table is 1.31 Solution : (i) P(Z < c) = 0. 10.28 : Let Z be a standard normal variate. c lies to the left of Z = 0.05 ⇒ P(c < Z < ∞) = 0.05 ∴ 0. 10.88 and − c = − 1.14 (ii) P(−c < Z < c) = 0.88 Example 10. it lies to the left of Z = 0.65.5.88.45 = P(0 < Z < c) From the area table Z value for the area 0.5) = 0.31 is 0. ∴c = − 1. P(− ∞ < Z < c) = 0.05 z =c ∞ Fig. From the area table the Z value for the area 0.94 (iv) P(c < Z < 0) = 0.31 . From the area table Z value for the area 0.15 . 45 ∞ c 0 ∞ Fig.4332 = 0.5 ≤ Z ≤ 2. Z value for the area 0.e.88 ∴ c = 1.05 i.5) Required area = P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 2.05 (iii) P(Z > c) = 0. As it in to the left of Z = 0.45 is 1.
σ = 16.2 z =1.63 (app. Z = 5 ∞ ∞ 16 − 6 10 z =2 z =2 z =0 When X = 16.4) (due to symmetry) = 0.25 z1 z2 Z1 = −0. 10.) We know that Z = P(−0. 10. Z1 = 16 σ ∞ ∞ −4 x =30 x =34 x =60 = 16 = −0.25) + P(0 < Z < 1.625 Z2 = 16 Z2 ≈ 1.2) + P(0 < Z < . Z = 5 = 5 = 2 Fig.9544 Example 10.17 When X = 8.4 ∴ P(0 ≤ X ≤ 8) = P(−1.18 P(− 4 < X < 16) = P(−2 < Z < 2) = 2 P(0 < Z < 2) (due to symmetry) = 2 (0.30 : The mean score of 1000 students for an examination is 34 and S. Z = 5 = 5 = 0. Z = 5 = 5 = − 1.1554 = 0.63) =P(0 < Z< 0.4772) = 0.2 < Z < 0. (i) How many candidates can be expected to obtain marks between 30 and 60 assuming the normality of the distribution and (ii) determine the limit of the marks of the central 70% of the candidates.Solution : Given µ = 6. Solution : µ = 34.3849 + 0. N = 1000 X−µ (i) P(30 < X < 60) .2 z =0 z =.63) (due to symmetry) 225 .D is 16.4) = P(0< Z <1. Z = σ 30 − µ 30 − 34 = ∴ X = 30.25 < Z < 1.4 8−6 2 Fig.25 Fig.19 60 − 34 26 = 16 = 1. 10. σ = 5 (i) P(0 ≤ X ≤ 8) X−µ σ 0−6 −6 ∞ ∞ When X = 0.5403 (ii) P(  X − 6 < 10) = P(−10 < (X − 6) < 10) ⇒ P(−4 < X < 16) −10 −4 − 6 = 5 = −2 When X = −4.
σ =4 we get σ = 2 = µ = 1 and k = 1 .04 16 X1 = 16 × 1.64 Fig. µ and σ2 of the normal distribution whose probability distribution function is given by 2 f(x) = k e−2x + 4x −∞ < X < ∞ Solution : Consider −2x2 + 4x = −2 (x2 − 2x) = −2 [(x −1)2 − 1] = −2 (x − 1)2 + 2 2 2 ∴ e−2x + 4x = e2.64.35 [ as Z1 lies to left of Z = 0] Similarly Z2 = 1. Example 10. (ii) limit of central 70% of Candidates : Value of Z1 from the area table = − 1.5471 No of students scoring between 30 and 60 = 0.4484 = 0.64 + 34 X2 = 17.04 for the area 0. e Comparing it with f(x) we get ke ⇒ ke 2 −2x2 + 4x = e2.04 + 34 Z1 = = 16.0987 + 0.20 X − 34 Z2 = 16 = − 1.36 ∴ 70% of the candidate score between 17.04 × 16 + 34 X2 = − 16.36 and 50. 35 z =0 z2 ∞ X − 34 = 1. e−2 = 2π 2 2π 226 .04 X2− 34 = − 1. e 1 x −µ −2 1 = e σ σ 2π 2 1 x −1 2 −2 1 e /2 −2 1 = e σ σ 2π 1 x −µ 2 1 2e−2 2 1 1 .04 ∞ z1 .5471 × 1000 = 547.= 0. e−2(x −1) 1 (x −1) −2 1/4 2 1 x −1 2 −2 1/2 = e2. 35 .64 + 34 X1 = 50.31 : Obtain k. 10.
5) = P(Z > − 2.5 ∞ Fig.4938) = 0.5 − 31 −0.5) = 0.5) = P( −2.) (ii) When X = 30.5 ∞ Fig.5 .5 and 31.5 < X < 31.5 0.5) [since due to symmetry] = 2(0.5 < Z < 2.5 + 0.2 psi.22 30. 10.5) = 2 P(0< Z < 2.2 (i) (a) P(30.5 0. 10.5 psi ? Solution : Given µ = 31 and σ = 0.5 = 0.32 : The air pressure in a randomly selected tyre put on a certain model new car is normally distributed with mean value 31 psi and standard deviation 0.5) .2 = −2.9938 ∞ z =2.5 < X < 31.2 ∞ x =30.5 = 0.5.2 = − 5 32 − 31 1 0. Z = When X = 30.4938 = 0.2 31.5 − 31 −0. Z = When X = 31.2 = 2.5 0. Z = X−µ σ 30. Z = P(X > 30.21 ∴ Required probability P(30.5 = 0.23 227 . (i) What is the probability that the pressure for a randomly selected tyre (a) between 30.Example 10.5 µ =31 x =31.5 + p(0 < Z < 2. When X = 32.5.2 P(30 < X < 32) = P(−5 < Z < 5) = area under the whole curve = 1 (app.2 = 0.2 = −2.2 = 5 ∞ µ =31 ∞ Fig.5 − 31 0.2 = 0. Z= Z= 30 − 31 −1 0.5 psi (b) between 30 and 32 psi (ii) What is the probability that the pressure for a randomly selected tyre exceeds 30.5) = 0.9876 (b) P(30 < X < 32) When X = 30. 10.
µ and σ2 of the normal distribution whose probability function 2 is given by f(x) = c e−x + 3x . If 5000 pairs are issued.EXERCISE 10. 10% of the students scored below 40 marks and 10% of the students scored above 90 marks.85 (3) Suppose that the amount of cosmic radiation to which a person is exposed when flying by jet across the United States is a random variable having a normal distribution with a mean of 4. (7) Marks in an aptitude test given to 800 students of a school was found to be normally distributed. find the value of c for the following (i) P(0 < Z < c) = 0. (i) P(X ≤ 100) (iii) P(65 ≤ X ≤ 100) (v) P(85 ≤ X ≤ 95) (2) If Z is a standard normal variate. (6) If the height of 300 students are normally distributed with mean 64.59 m rem. (5) The mean weight of 500 male students in a certain college in 151 pounds and the standard deviation is 15 pounds. how many pairs would be expected to need replacement within 12 months. − ∞ < X < ∞.3 inches. (ii) P(X ≤ 80) (iv) P(70 < X) (ii) P(−c < Z < c) = 0.40 228 .20 m rem of cosmic radiation of such a flight. (4) The life of army shoes is normally distributed with mean 8 months and standard deviation 2 months.5 inches and standard deviation 3. Find the number of students scored between 40 and 90. (8) Find c. What is the probability that a person will be exposed to more than 5. compute the following probabilities by standardizing. Assuming the weights are normally distributed.25 (iii) P(Z > c) = 0.5 (1) If X is a normal variate with mean 80 and standard deviation 10.35 m rem and a standard deviation of 0. find the height below which 99% of the student lie. find how many students weigh (i) between 120 and 155 pounds (ii) more than 185 pounds.
2 (4) 2 . 2 −5 – 17 −5 17 3 – 17 (2) 2 .OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS Choose the correct or most suitable answer : (1) The gradient of the curve y = − 2x3 + 3x + 5 at x = 2 is (1) − 20 (2) 27 (3) −16 (4) − 21 (2) The rate of change of area A of a circle of radius r is dr dr dr (3) π r2 dt (4) π dt (1) 2 π r (2) 2 π r dt (3) The velocity v of a particle moving along a straight line when at a distance x from the origin is given by a + bv2 = x2 where a and b are constants. 2 (3) 2 . The rate at which the diameter is decreasing when the diameter is 10 cms is 1 −1 cm / min (2) cm / min (1) 50π 50π (3) −11 cm / min 75π (2) 2 (4) −2 cm / min. 2 x3 (8) The equation of the tangent to the curve y = 5 at the point (−1. −1/5) is (1) 5y + 3x = 2 (2) 5y − 3x = 2 (3) 3x − 5y = 2 (4) 3x + 3y = 2 229 . 75π (4) − 1 2 (5) The slope of the tangent to the curve y = 3x2 + 3sin x at x = 0 is (1) 3 (3) 1 (6) The slope of the normal to the curve y = 3x at the point whose x coordinate is 2 is 1 1 1 −1 (2) 14 (3) 12 (4) 12 (1) 13 (7) The point on the curve y = 2x2 – 6x – 4 at which the tangent is parallel to the x – axis is 5 – 17 (1) 2 . Then the acceleration is b a x x (1) x (2) x (3) b (4) a (4) A spherical snowball is melting in such a way that its volume is decreasing at a rate of 1 cm3 / min.
1 cm / sec. y = a3 sin θ (13) If the normal to the curve x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3 makes an angle θ with the x – axis then the slope of the normal is (1) – cot θ (2) tan θ (3) – tan θ (4) cot θ (14) If the length of the diagonal of a square is increasing at the rate of 0. y = a sin3 θ (3) x = a3 sin θ . The rate of change of volume when the radius is 3cm and the altitude is 5cm is (1) 23π (2) 33π (3) 43π (4) 53π 230 . − 3 (2) 3 . 1 (17) The radius of a cylinder is increasing at the rate of 2cm / sec and its altitude is decreasing at the rate of 3cm / sec.15 cm2/sec (15) What is the surface area of a sphere when the volume is increasing at the same rate as its radius? 1 4π (1) 1 (2) (3) 4π (4) 3 2π (16) For what values of x is the rate of increase of x3 − 2x2 + 3x + 8 is twice the rate of increase of x 1 1 1 1 (1) − 3 . − 1/3) is (1) 3 θ = 27 t – 80 (2) 5 θ = 27t – 80 1 (3) 3 θ = 27 t + 80 (4) θ = t x2 y2 x2 y2 (10) The angle between the curves 25 + 9 = 1 and 8 − 8 = 1 is π (1) 4 π (2) 3 π (3) 6 π (4) 2 (11) The angle between the curve y = emx and y = e–mx for m >1 is 2m 2m (1) tan−1 2 (2) tan−1 m 1 1− m2 2m −2m (3) tan−1 (4) tan−1 2 m +1 1+ m2 (12) The parametric equations of the curve x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3 are (1) x = a sin3 θ . 3 (4) 3 . What is the rate of increase of its area when the side 15 is cm? 2 (1) 1. y = a3 cos θ (4) x = a3 cos θ . 3 (3) − 3 .5 cm2/sec (2) 3 cm2/sec (3) 3 2 cm2/sec (4) 0.1 (9) The equation of the normal to the curve θ = t at the point (−3. y = a cos3 θ (2) x = a cos3 θ .
the rate of change of slope when x = 3 is (1) − 90 units / sec(2) 90 units / sec (3) 180 units / sec (4) − 180 units / sec (19) If the volume of an expanding cube is increasing at the rate of 4cm3 / sec then the rate of change of surface area when the volume of the cube is 8 cubic cm is (1) 8cm2/sec (2) 16cm2 / sec (3) 2 cm2 / sec (4) 4 cm2 / sec (20) The gradient of the tangent to the curve y = 8 + 4x − 2x2 at the point where the curve cuts the yaxis is (1) 8 (2) 4 (3) 0 (4) − 4 (21) The Angle between the parabolas y2 = x and x2 = y at the origin is π π 3 4 (2) tan− 1 3 (3) 2 (4) 4 (1) 2 tan−1 4 (22) For the curve x = et cos t . y = et sin t the tangent line is parallel to the xaxis when t is equal to π π π (2) 4 (3) 0 (4) 2 (1) − 4 (23) If a normal makes an angle θ with positive xaxis then the slope of the curve at the point where the normal is drawn is (1) − cot θ (2) tan θ (3) − tan θ (4) cot θ a x (24) The value of ‘a’ so that the curves y = 3e and y = 3 e−x intersect orthogonally is 1 (4) 3 (1) − 1 (2) 1 (3) 3 3 2 (25) If s = t − 4t + 7. 2] is 2 3 (2) 0 (3) 2 (4) − 2 (1) 3 231 .(18) If y = 6x − x3 and x increases at the rate of 5 units per second. Then its acceleration is proportional to (3) s3 (4) s4 (1) s (2) s2 2 (27) The Rolle’s constant for the function y = x on [− 2. the velocity when the acceleration is zero is 32 16 − 16 − 32 (1) 3 m/sec (2) 3 m/sec (3) 3 m/sec (4) 3 m/sec (26) If the velocity of a particle moving along a straight line is directly proportional to the square of its distance from a fixed point on the line.
∞) 1 (2) x (3) − x2 (4) x−2 (1) ex (35) The function f(x) = x2 − 5x + 4 is increasing in (1) (− ∞. g ′(a) = 2 then the value of g(x) f(a) − g(a) f(x) is lim x−a x→a (1) 5 (2) − 5 (3) 3 (4) − 3 (34) Which of the following function is increasing in (0. ∞) (4) everywhere (4) (− 2. ∞) (2) (1. a = 0. 4) 2 (3) (4.(28) The ‘c’ of Lagranges Mean Value Theorem for the function f(x) = x2 + 2x − 1 . 3π] is (1) 0 2) 2π π (3) 2 3π (4) 2 (30) The value of ‘c’ of Lagranges Mean Value Theorem for f(x) = x when a = 1 and b = 4 is 9 3 1 1 (1) 4 (2) 2 (3) 2 (4) 4 (31) x2 lim is = ex x→∞ (1) 2 a −b (32) lim x x x→ 0 c − d (1) ∞ x x (2) 0 (3) ∞ (4) 1 (2) 0 ab (3) log cd (4) log (a/b) log (c/d) (33) If f(a) = 2. 0) 232 . 1) (1) (− ∞. ∞) (36) The function f(x) = x is decreasing in (2) (− ∞. f ′(a) = 1 . b = 1 is (1) − 1 (2) 1 (3) 0 1 (4) 2 x (29) The value of c in Rolle’s Theorem for the function f(x) = cos 2 on [π. ∞) (3) (0. g(a) = − 1 .
2 π π π (3) increasing in 0 . 2 (38) In a given semi circle of diameter 4 cm a rectangle is to be inscribed. The maximum area of the rectangle is (1) 2 (2) 4 (3) 8 (4) 16 2 (39) The least possible perimeter of a rectangle of area 100m is (1) 10 (2) 20 (3) 40 (4) 60 (40) If f(x) = x2 − 4x + 5 on [0. 2 π π π (4) decreasing in 0 . 3] then the absolute maximum value is (1) 2 (2) 3 (3) 4 (4) 5 −x (41) The curve y = − e is (1) concave upward for x > 0 (2) concave downward for x > 0 (2) everywhere concave upward (4) everywhere concave downward (42) Which of the following curves is concave down? (2) y = x2 (3) y = ex (4) y = x2 + 2x − 3 (1) y = − x2 (43) The point of inflexion of the curve y = x4 is at (1) x = 0 (2) x = 3 (3) x = 12 (4) nowhere 3 2 (44) The curve y = ax + bx + cx + d has a point of inflexion at x = 1 then (1) a + b = 0 (2) a + 3b = 0 (3) 3a +b = 0 (4) 3a + b = 1 ∂u y (45) If u = x then is equal to ∂x (1) yxy − 1 (2) u log x (3) u log y (4) xyx − 1 π (1) an increasing function in 0 . 4 and increasing in 4 .(37) The function y = tan x − x is π (2) a decreasing function in 0 . then x + y is equal to ∂x ∂y x2 + y2 1 (1) 2 u (2) u 3 (3) 2 u (4) − u 233 . 2 x4 + y4 (46) If u = sin−1 2 and f = sin u then f is a homogeneous function of x + y2 degree (1) 0 (2) 1 (3) 2 (4) 4 1 ∂u ∂u (47) If u = . 4 and decreasing in 4 .
then it is symmetrical about the origin. y = r sin θ. y) = 0 is symmetrical about the line y = x if f(x.(48) The curve y2 (x − 2) = x2 (1 + x) has (1) an asymptote parallel to xaxis (2) an asymptote parallel to yaxis (3) asymptotes parallel to both axes (4) no asymptotes ∂r (49) If x = r cos θ. then (1) cos x ∂2u is equal to ∂x ∂y (2) cos y (3) sin x 4) 0 234 . − x). (iv) For the curve f(x. then it is symmetrical about the origin. if f(x. y) = f(y. then is equal to ∂x (1) sec θ (2) sin θ (3) cos θ (4) cosec θ (50) Identify the true statements in the following : (i) If a curve is symmetrical about the origin. then it is symmetrical about both axes. 1 1 (1) 28 (2) 11 (3) 11 (4) 28 (53) The curve a2y2 = x2 (a2 − x2) has (1) only one loop between x = 0 and x = a (2) two loops between x = 0 and x = a (3) two loops between x = − a and x = a (4) no loop (54) An asymptote to the curve y2 (a + 2x) = x2 (3a − x) is (1) x = 3a (2) x = − a/2 (3) x = a/2 2 2 (4) x = 0 (55) In which region the curve y (a + x) = x (3a − x) does not lie? (1) x > 0 (2) 0 < x < 3a (3) x ≤ − a and x > 3a (4) − a < x < 3a (56) If u = y sin x. (iii) (2) (i). y) = 0. y) = f(− y. (iv) x2 + y2 ∂u ∂u (51) If u = log xy then x + y is ∂x ∂y (1) 0 (2) u (3) 2u (4) u−1 (52) The percentage error in the 11th root of the number 28 is approximately _____ times the percentage error in 28. (iv) (3) (i). x). (iii) A curve f(x. (1) (ii). (iii) (4) (ii). (ii) If a curve is symmetrical about both the axes.
x = 3a (3) x = 0.∂u ∂u y (57) If u = f x then x + y is equal to ∂x ∂y (1) 0 (2) 1 (3) 2u 2 2 2 (4) u (58) The curve 9y = x (4 − x ) is symmetrical about (1) yaxis (2) xaxis (3) y = x (4) both the axes 2 2 (59) The curve ay = x (3a − x) cuts the yaxis at (1) x = − 3a. x = a (4) x = 0 π/2 cos5/3x (60) The value of ⌠ dx is ⌡ cos5/3x + sin 5/3x 0 π π (1) 2 (2) 4 (3) 0 (4) π π/2 sin x − cos x (61) The value of ⌠ 1 + sin x cos x dx is ⌡ 0 π π (1) 2 (2) 0 (3) 4 (4) π 1 (62) The value of ⌠ x (1 − x)4 dx is ⌡ 0 1 (1) 12 1 (2) 30 1 (3) 24 1 (4) 20 π/2 sin x (63) The value of ⌠ 2 + cosx dx is ⌡ − π/2 (1) 0 (2) 2 (3) log 2 π (64) The value of ⌠ sin4x dx is (4) log 4 ⌡ 0 (2) 3/16 π/4 3 (65) The value of ⌠ cos 2x dx is (1) 3π/16 (3) 0 (4) 3π/8 ⌡ 0 2 (1) 3 1 (2) 3 (3) 0 2π (4) 3 235 . x = 0 (2) x = 0.
x = 2 is 3 5 1 7 (1) 2 (2) 2 (3) 2 (4) 2 (68) The area of the region bounded by the graph of y = sin x and y = cos x π between x = 0 and x = 4 is (1) 2 + 1 (2) 2 − 1 (3) 2 2 − 2 (4) 2 2 + 2 2 2 x y (69) The area between the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1 and its auxillary circle is a b (1) πb(a − b) (2) 2πa (a − b) (3) πa (a − b) (4) 2πb (a − b) 2 (70) The area bounded by the parabola y = x and its latus rectum is 4 1 2 8 (1) 3 (2) 6 (3) 3 (4) 3 x2 y2 (71) The volume of the solid obtained by revolving 9 + 16 = 1 about the minor axis is (1) 48π (2) 64π (3) 32π (4) 128 π (72) The volume. the xaxis. 3) about xaxis is (1) 18π (2) 2π (3) 36π (4) 9π 236 . 0) and (3. y = 1. 0). (3.π (66) The value of ⌠ sin2x cos3x dx is ⌡ 0 (1) π (2) π/2 (3) π/4 (4) 0 (67) The area bounded by the line y = x. when the curve y = 3 + x2 from x = 0 to x = 4 is rotated about xaxis is 100 100 100 (1) 100 π (2) 9 π (3) 3 π (4) 3 (73) The volume generated when the region bounded by y = x. x = 0 is rotated about yaxis is π π π 2π (1) 4 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 3 (74) Volume of solid obtained by revolving the area of the ellipse x2 y2 + = 1 about major and minor axes are in the ratio a2 b2 (1) b2 : a2 (2) a2 : b2 (3) a : b (4) b : a (75) The volume generated by rotating the triangle with vertices at (0. the ordinates x = 1.
y = 2 is x 1 x (1) e (2) logx (3) x (4) e−x dx (83) Solution of dy + mx = 0. intercepted between two parallel planes of distance 2 and 4 from the centre is (1) 20π (2) 40π (3) 10π (4) 30π dy y 4x (79) The integrating factor of dx + 2 x = e is (4) x dy (80) If cos x is an integrating factor of the differential equation dx + Py = Q then P = (1) − cot x (2) cot x (3) tan x (4) − tan x (81) The integrating factor of dx + xdy = e−y sec2y dy is (1) ex (2) e−x (3) ey (4) e−y 1 2 dy (82) Integrating factor of dx + x log x . where m < 0 is (1) log x (1) x = cemy (2) x = ce−my (3) x = my + c (4) x = c 2 (84) y = cx − c is the general solution of the differential equation (2) y′′ = 0 (1) (y′)2 − xy′ + y = 0 (3) y′ = c (4) (y′)2 + xy′ + y = 0 dx 2 (85) The differential equation dy + 5y1/3 = x is (1) of order 2 and degree 1 (2) of order 1 and degree 2 (3) of order 1 and degree 6 (4) of order 1 and degree 3 (86) The differential equation of all nonvertical lines in a plane is d2y dy d2y dy (2) 2 = 0 (3) dx = m (4) 2 = m (1) dx = 0 dx dx (2) x2 (3) ex 237 . x = 0 and x = 2 about xaxis is (1) 8 5 π (2) 2 5 π (3) 5π (4) 4 5π (78) The curved surface area of a sphere of radius 5.(76) The length of the arc of the curve x2/3 + y2/3= 4 is (1) 48 (2) 24 (3) 12 (4) 96 (77) The surface area of the solid of revolution of the region bounded by y = 2x.
The differential equation corresponding to the above statement is (k is negative) dp k dp dp dp (1) dt = p (2) dt = kt (3) dt = kp (4) dt = − kt (95) The differential equation satisfied by all the straight lines in xy plane is dy d2 y dy d2y (1) dx = a constant (2) 2 = 0 (3) y + dx = 0 (4) 2 + y = 0 dx dx 238 .(87) The differential equation of all circles with centre at the origin is (1) x dy + y dx = 0 (2) x dy − y dx = 0 (4) x dx − y dy = 0 (3) x dx + y dy = 0 dy (88) The integrating factor of the differential equation dx + py = Q is (1) ⌠ pdx ⌡ (1) (Ax + B)ex (2) ⌠ Q dx ⌡ (3) e⌡ ⌠Q dx (4) e ∫pdx (89) The complementary function of (D2 + 1)y = e2x is (2) A cos x + B sin x (3) (Ax + B)e2x (4) (Ax + B)e−x x (4) 2 e−2x (90) A particular integral of (D2 − 4D + 4)y = e2x is x2 (2) xe2x (3) xe−2x (1) 2 e2x (91) The differential equation of the family of lines y = mx is dy (1) dx = m (2) ydx − xdy = 0 (3) d2y =0 dx2 (4) ydx + x dy = 0 dy 1/3 d2y 1 + dx = dx2 (4) 6 (92) The degree of the differential equation (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (93) The degree of the differential equation c = 1 + dy3 dx d3y dx3 2/3 where c is a constant is (1) 1 (2) 3 (3) − 2 (4) 2 (94) The amount present in a radio active element disintegrates at a rate proportional to its amount.
I. the homogeneous differential equation x2dy + y(x + y)dx = 0 becomes (1) xdv + (2v + v2)dx = 0 (3) v2dx − (x + x2)dv = 0 (2) vdx + (2x + x2)dv = 0 (4) vdv + (2x + x2)dx = 0 dy (102) The integrating factor of the differential equation dx − y tan x = cos x is (1) sec x 2 (4) y2 − 2y1 − 2 y = 0 (2) cos x 2x (3) etanx 2x (4) cot x (4) x2/2 e2x (103) The P. of (3D + D − 14)y = 13e (1) 26x e (2) 13x e 2x is (3) x e2x (104) The particular integral of the differential equation f(D)y = eax where f(D) = (D − a) g(D). g(a) ≠ 0 is (1) meax eax (2) g(a) (3) g(a)eax xeax (4) g(a) 239 .(96) If y = keλx then its differential equation is dy dy dy dy (1) dx = λy (2) dx = ky (3) dx + ky = 0 (4) dx = eλx (97) The differential equation obtained by eliminating a and b from y = ae3x + be− 3x is d2y d2y d2 y dy d2y + ay = 0 (2) 2 − 9y = 0 (3) 2 − 9 dx = 0 (4) 2 + 9x = 0 dx2 dx dx dx (98) The differential equation formed by eliminating A and B from the relation y = ex (A cos x + B sin x) is (1) y2 + y1 = 0 (2) y2 − y1 = 0 (1) (3) y2 − 2y1 + 2 y = 0 dy x − y (99) If dx = x + y then (1) 2xy + y2 + x2 = c (2) x2 + y2 − x + y = c (3) x2 + y2 − 2xy = c (4) x2 − y2 − 2xy = c (100) If f ′(x) = x and f(1) = 2 then f(x) is 2 3 (1) − 3 (x x + 2) (2) 2 (x x + 2) 2 2 (3) 3 (x x + 2) (4) 3 x ( x + 2) (101) On putting y = vx.
(ii) Rose is a flower (iii) Milk is white. the order of w2 is (1) 4 (2) 3 (3) 2 (4) 1 240 . +) (116) In the set of integers with operation * defined by a * b = a + b − ab.(105) Which of the following are statements? (i) May God bless you. (iv) (3) (i). the value of 3 * (4 * 5) is (1) 25 (2) 15 (3) 10 (4) 5 (117) The order of [7] in (Z9 . (iii) (2) (i). (iii). (iv) (108) The number of rows in the truth table of ∼ [p ∧ (∼ q)] is (1) 2 (2) 4 (3) 6 (4) 8 (109) The conditional statement p → q is equivalent to (1) p ∨ q (2) p ∨ ∼ q (3) ∼ p ∨ q (4) p ∧ q (110) Which of the following is a tautology? (1) p ∨ q (2) p ∧ q (3) p ∨ ∼ p (4) p ∧ ∼ p (111) Which of the following is a contradiction? (1) p ∨ q (2) p ∧ q (3) p ∨ ∼ p (4) p ∧ ∼ p (112) p ↔ q is equivalent to (1) p → q (2) q → p (3) (p → q) ∨ (q → p) (4) (p → q) ∧ (q → p) (113) Which of the following is not a binary operation on R (1) a * b = ab (2) a * b = a − b (4) a * b = a2 + b2 (3) a * b = ab (114) A monoid becomes a group if it also satisfies the (1) closure axiom (2) associative axiom (3) identity axiom (4) inverse axiom (115) Which of the following is not a group? (1) (Zn . (iv) (106) If a compound statement is made up of three simple statements. +9) is (1) 9 (2) 6 (3) 3 (4) 1 (118) In the multiplicative group of cube root of unity. (ii). then which of the following have the truth value T ? (i) p ∨ q (ii) ∼ p ∨ q (iii) p ∨ ∼ q (iv) p ∧ ∼ q (1) (i). (iv) (4) (ii). . (iii). +n) (2) (Z. (iv) (4) (ii). (iv) 1 is a prime number (1) (i). (iv) (3) (i). (ii). (ii). then the number of rows in the truth table is (1) 8 (2) 6 (3) 4 (4) 2 (107) If p is T and q is F. (iii). (iii) (2) (i). (ii).) (4) (R. +) (3) (Z. (iii).
f of a continuous random variable X. then the value of A is (1) 16 (3) 4 (4) 1 241 . b ∈ G (122) The order of − i in the multiplicative group of 4th roots of unity is (1) 4 (ii) 3 (3) 2 (4) 1 (123) In the multiplicative group of nth roots of unity. (3) The set of all 2 × 2 real matrices forms a group under matrix multiplication. (4) (a * b)−1 = a−1 * b−1 for all a.−∞<x<∞ π 16 + x2 (2) 8 1 (3) 9 1 (4) 12 is a p. then the group is abelian.elsewhere 0 value of k is 1 (1) 3 (126) If f(x) = 1 (2) 6 A 1 . the identity element is (1) 0 2 (2) 1 (3) a (4) b kx . (2) If every element of a group is its own inverse.d. an operation * is defined by a*b= (1) 5 a2 + b2 . Then the value of (3 * 4) * 5 is (2) 5 2 (3) 25 (4) 50 (121) Which of the following is correct? (1) An element of a group can have more than one inverse.0<x<3 (125) If f(x) = is a probability density function then the . the inverse of ωk is (k < n) (1) ω1/k (2) ω−1 (3) ωn − k (4) ωn/k (124) In the set of integers under the operation * defined by a * b = a + b − 1.(119) The value of [3] +11 ([5] +11 [6]) is (1) [0] (2) [1] (3) [2] (4) [3] (120) In the set of real numbers R.
(127) A random variable X has the following probability distribution X P(X = x) 0 1/4 1 2a 2 3a 3 4a 4 5a 5 1/4 1 (4) 2 Then P(1 ≤ x ≤ 4) is 10 2 (1) 21 (2) 7 1 (3) 14 (128) A random variable X has the following probability mass function as follows : X P(X = x) Then the value of λ is (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 (129) X is a discrete random variable which takes the values 0. Then E(X) is (1) 5 (1) 2 (2) 7 (2) 4 (3) 6 (3) 6 (4) 3 (4) 8 (133) Variance of the random variable X is 4. 4 and 12 .d. P(X = 1) = 169 then the value of P(X = 2) is 145 24 2 (1) 169 (2) 169 (3) 169 (130) A random variable X has the following p. Then E(X2) is 242 . 4 and 12 with probabilities 1 1 5 3 . 1.f X P(X = x) 0 0 1 k 1 (2) 10 (2) 4 2 2k 3 2k 4 3k 5 k 2 −2 λ 6 3 λ 4 1 λ 12 143 (4) 169 6 2k 2 7 7k + k 1 (4) − 1 or 10 (4) 2 2 The value of k is 1 (1) 8 (1) −2 (3) 0 (3) −4 (131) Given E(X + c) = 8 and E(X − c) = 12 then the value of c is (132) X is a random variable taking the values 3. Its mean is 2. 2 and 144 1 P(X = 0) = 169 .
5 (3) 5 .5 (1) 5 . Then the value of n and p are 4 1 4 1 (2) 25. is 26 25 25 1 (2) 51 (3) 51 (4) 102 (1) 2 (142) If in a Poisson distribution P(X = 0) = k then the variance is 1 1 (1) log k (2) log k (3) eλ (4) k (143) If a random variable X follows Poisson distribution such that E(X2) = 30 then the variance of the distribution is (1) 6 (2) 5 (3) 30 (4) 25 243 . The mean number of successes is 5 3 5 9 (1) 3 (2) 5 (3) 9 (4) 5 (137) The mean of a binomial distribution is 5 and its standard deviation is 2. the probability that they are of the same colours without replacement.25 (138) If the mean and standard deviation of a binomial distribution are 12 and 2 respectively. the probability of getting 2 white balls without replacement. Then the value of its parameter p is 1 2 1 1 (2) 3 (3) 3 (4) 4 (1) 2 (139) In 16 throws of a die getting an even number is considered a success. Then the mean of the random variable X is (1) 16 (2) 5 (3) 2 (4) 1 (135) Var (4X + 3) is (1) 7 (2) 16 Var (X) (3) 19 (4) 0 (136) In 5 throws of a die.(134) µ2 = 20. If 3 balls are drawn at random.25 (4) 25. µ2′ = 276 for a discrete random variable X. getting 1 or 2 is a success. is 18 4 3 1 (2) 125 (3) 25 (4) 10 (1) 20 (141) If 2 cards are drawn from a well shuffled pack of 52 cards. Then the variance of the successes is (1) 4 (2) 6 (3) 2 (4) 256 (140) A box contains 6 red and 4 white balls.
3125 (3) 0.f. If 120 students got more marks above 85.25 (2) 0. the number of students securing marks between 45 and 65 is (1) 120 (2) 20 (3) 80 (4) 160 244 . σ2) then ⌠ ⌡ is (1) undefined (2) 1 (3) .0625 (4) 0.5 (4) − .25 (148) The random variable X follows normal distribution f(x) = (1) Then the value of c is 1 (2) (3) 5 2π 2π 2π (4) 1 5 2π f(x) dx µ (149) If f(x) is a p.d.(144) The distribution function F(X) of a random variable X is (1) a decreasing function (2) a nondecreasing function (3) a constant function (4) increasing first and then decreasing (145) For a Poisson distribution with parameter λ = 0.d.5 −1/2 (x − 100) 25 ce 2 (3) 0 (4) 0.f of a normal distribution with mean µ then ⌡f(x) dx is ⌠ −∞ (1) 1 (2) 0.025 (146) In a Poisson distribution if P(X = 2) = P(X = 3) then the value of its parameter λ is (1) 6 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 0 ∞ (147) If f(x) is a p. of a normal variate X and X ∼ N(µ.25 the value of the 2nd moment about the origin is (1) 0.5 −∞ (150) The marks secured by 400 students in a Mathematics test were normally distributed with mean 65.
f(0) ≠ f (1) 3 (iii) Fails .3 π (i) True . − 3 (2. c = ± 2 (0.1 (ii) t = 4 (iii) 200m (iv) − 100 m / sec (3) (i) 72 km / hr (ii) 60 m (5) decreasing at the rate of 1. c = 2 (ii) Fails . c = 3 16 2 245 .5936°c / sec 195 (6) km / hr 29 (1) (i) EXERCISE 5. 2) and (−1. 3 and − 2 3. c = 6 7 (iv) Fails . c = 2 − 1 + 61 (iii) True .2 (ii) 2x − y − π/2 = 0 x + 2y − 3π/2 = 0 π (iv) y − ( 2 + 1) = (2 + 2) x − 4 8x + y + 9 = 0 x − 8y + 58 = 0 (iii) y = 2 x = π/6 y − ( 2 + 1) = (2) (3) (5) (9) − 1 π x−4 2+ 2 (1) (2) (1) (2) 2 2 2 2 3.ANSWERS (1) (i) 100 m / sec (2) − 12. Function is not differentiable at x = 0 (v) True . At x = 1 the function is not differentiable (iv) True . 4) (ii) (3. 1) EXERCISE 5. 0 (4) 1.4 3 (ii) True . − 3) (4) (i) (1.6 cm / min 6 π (7) 0. 2) 2x + 3y ± 26 = 0 (6) x + 9y ± 20 = 0 log a − log b θ = tan−1 1 + log a log b EXERCISE 5. 0) and (1. 3) and (− 2. c = 2 (i) True .3 m2 / sec (8) m / min (9) ft / min 5π 63 EXERCISE 5.
1 2.6 (1) − π (6) − 2 (11) 1 (3) (i) (iv) (5) (i) (ii) (iii) (2) 2 (7) 0 (12) 1 (3) 1 (8) 2 (13) 1 (4) n2n − 1 (9) 0 (5) 2 (10) e EXERCISE 5. 7 7 1 (0. 0) and 7 . 1] strictly increasing on R π 5π π 5π (iv) decreasing in 0. π) 246 .9 Stationary points 1 1 .EXERCISE 5. 4 . 3) 8 8 4/5 20 2 (4. 7 (iv) (v) (vi) x = 0. π θ=π EXERCISE 5. decreasing st. increasing (v) increasing increasing in (− ∞. 3 (v) increasing in [0. 4 .5 (1) 1 + 2x (2x) (2x) + + +… 1 2 3 2 3 x4 (2) 1 − x2 + 3 + … x3 2x5 (4) x + 3 + 15 + … (3) 1 − x + x2 + … EXERCISE 5. − 3 3π π π (0. ∞) increasing in (− ∞. 0) (π. 2 and decreasing in 0. 4 Critical numbers 1 (1) (i) x=3 (ii) x = ± 1 8 (iii) x = 0. 3 3 (1. 0 4 . 1 (π. − 1] ∪ [1. π] π π π (vi) increasing in 4 . 2π increasing in 3 . 1) and − 2. increasing (iii) st. ∞) and decreasing in [− 1. 3 ∪ 3 . − 1/2 ] and decreasing in [−1/2 . 0) 4. − 2 π π 3π θ = 0. − 1) and (− 1.7 increasing (ii) st. 2. 4.
− 5 6 (− 1. 48) 247 . π 2 (− ∞. 1) R Points of inflection (1. ∞ 6 (− ∞. 1) π . 10 (5) ( 2 r. 2 r) EXERCISE 5. − 5) − 5 .11 Convex upward (1. 54 (1. − 2) ∪ (1. π 2 (− 2. − 5). 0 2 (1.10 (1) 50. 0) Nil 5 305 − 6 . ∞) π . ∞) − ∞. 50 (2) 10.Absolute maximum (2) (i) 5 (ii) 2 (iii) 66 (iv) 3 2 (v) 3 (vi) 2 (vii) π + 2 Local maximum 2 (3) (i) 3 3 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 12 Absolute minimum 1 −7 − 15 5 1 2 1 π −6− 3 Local minimum −2 3 3 − 19 27 −9 −1 Nil 0 Nil 1 No maximum and no minimum EXERCISE 5. ∞) − (6) 20 5 Concave upward (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (− ∞. (− 1. 9). (− 2. −1) ∪ (1. 1) 0.
dy = 10. dy = 2.) (4) (i) 270 cubic cm (ii) 0.008 (app. dy = − 0. dy = − 0.001667 EXERCISE 6.8 (iv) dy = − (v) dy = − sin x dx .96 π cm2 (iv) 58.0116 (app. 2 Existence −1≤x≤1 Symmetry Asymptote Loops 2 loops between − 1 and 1 1 loop between 0 and 6 1 loop between 0 and 1 No loops Both axes and No asymptotes hence origin xaxis xaxis x .025 (3) (i) 6.EXERCISE 6. dy = − 5 (ii) dy = (4x3 − 6x + 1) dx .24 (app. = 3x + 2y ∂y ∂x ∂2u ∂2u =2 .1 (1) (i) dy = 5x4dx (iv) dy = 1 (ii) dy = 4 x− 3/4dx (iii) dy = x (2x2 + 1) x4 + x2 + 1 dx 7 dx (2x + 3)2 (v) dy = 2 cos 2x dx (vi) dy = (x sec2x + tan x) dx (2) (i) dy = − 2x dx .3 (1) (i) ∂u ∂u = 2x + 3y .2 No.) (iii) 2.axis x=−2 No asymptotes No asymptotes 3 4 5 −2<x≤6 x≤1 x = b and x ≥ a EXERCISE 6. 2= 4 x y ∂x2 ∂y 248 . 2=2 ∂x2 ∂y (ii) (y3 + 2x3) ∂u x3 + 2y3 ∂u = 3 2 .) (ii) 0.099 (app. =− ∂y ∂x x y x2 y3 ∂2u − 6y ∂2u 6x = 4 .01 2 1−x (iii) dy = 6x (x2 + 5)2dx .) (ii) 36 cm2 (5) (i) 0.1 1 dx .
∂x ∂y2 y ∂u x ∂u (iv) = 2 2 .1 2 1 π 5 9 2 (2) 3 (3) 2 + 4 sin−1 3 (4) 4 (1) 4 π 1 1 1 16 (5) 6 (6) 3 tan−1 3 (7) log 15 (8) 64 π4 1 1 2 (10) e − 2 (11) 10 (e3π/2 − 3) (12) 2 [1 − e−π/2] (9) 3 EXERCISE 7. = 4v(u2 + v2) (4) (i) ∂θ ∂u ∂v ∂r 2u ∂w − 2v ∂w = . =0 (ii) = 4u(u2 + v2) . 2 = 2 2 2 2 (x + y ) (x + y2)2 ∂x ∂y (3) (i) 5t4et 5 (ii) 2 (e2t − e−2t) (e2t + e−2t) (iii) − sin t (iv) 2cos2t ∂w ∂w ∂w 2 ∂w =r .3 3 3 1 3 (2) (i) − 4 sin x cos x − 8 sin x cos x + 8 x 4 8 1 (ii) 5 cos4x sin x + 15 cos2x sin x + 15 sin x 249 . ∂y = − 2 ∂x x + y x + y2 ∂2u − 2xy ∂2 u 2xy = 2 .(iii) ∂u ∂u = 3 cos 3x cos 4y . = (iii) 2 ∂v 2 ∂u 1 − (u2 − v2) 1 − (u2 − v2) EXERCISE 7. = − 4 sin 3x sin 4y ∂x ∂y ∂2 u ∂2u = − 16 sin 3x cos 4y 2 = − 9 sin 3x cos 4y .2 4 1 (4) 3 (1) 0 (2) 0 (3) 4 3 2 (6) 0 (7) 0 (8) 2 (5) 3 1 π (9) 132 (10) 12 EXERCISE 7.
4 (1) (i) 4 (ii) 4 (2) (i) 57 (ii) 16 (3) 4 55 8a2 (4) 27 (5) 8 (4 − 2) (6) 3 4 5 9 2 (7) 3 5 + 2 sin−1 3 (8) 9 (9) 4 5π 32 178π (11) 15 4π ab2 (14) 3 EXERCISE 7.1 order degree order degree (1) (i) 1 1 (vi) 2 3 (ii) 1 1 (vii) 2 1 (iii) 2 1 (viii) 2 2 (iv) 2 2 (ix) 1 3 (v) 3 3 (x) 1 1 (2) (i) y = 2xy′ (ii) x2y′′ − 2xy′ + 2y − 2c = 0 (iii) xy′ + y = 0 (iv) x [(y′)2 + yy′′] − yy′ = 0 (v) y′′ + 3y′ − 10y = 0 (vi) y′′ = 6y′ − 9y ′ (vii) y′′ = 6y′ − 13y (viii) y = e(y /y)x (ix) y′′ − 4y′ + 13y = 0 (1) 2πa (4) y2 (y′) + 1 = 1 (3) (i) yy′ = (y′)2x + a (ii) y′ = m (iii) y′′ = 0 EXERCISE 8.2 sin 2y cos 7x cos 3x (2) log y + etan x = c (1) y + 2 + 7 + 3 = c (4) ex(x2 − 2x + 2) + log y = c (3) x = cy e xy y−4 2 −1 2x + 5 (5) sin−1 5 + 3 tan 3 = c (6) tan (x + y) − sec (x + y) = x + c [ 2 ] (x + y) 250 . 6 EXERCISE 7.(3) (i) 128 35π 16 −3 1 (ii) 315 (4) (i) 512 (ii) 105 (5) (i) 4 e−2 + 4 (ii) 27.5 (2) 4a πa3 (12) 24 1 (15) 3 πr2h (10) πa2 3 (13) 5 π (16) π 8πa2 (3) 3 (2 2 − 1) EXERCISE 8.
6 (2) 17 years (app.5 e− 3x (2) y = e2x [A cos 3x + B sin 3x] + 34 x2 4 e−2x 5 (3) y = (Ax + B)e− 7x + 2 e−7x + 49 (4) y = Ae12x + Bex + 42 − 11 xex (5) y = 2[cos x − sin x] (6) y = ex [2 − 3ex + e2x] 1 3x 13 (7) y = Aex + Be−4x − 4 x2 + 2 + 8 1 (8) y = Ae3x + Be− x + 130 [4 cos 2x − 7 sin 2x] (9) y = (A + Bx) + sin 3x x 2 (10) y = (A + Bx) e3x + 9 + 27 + e2x 1 2 (11) y = Aex + Be− x − 5 cos 2x + 5 sin 2x 1 1 (12) y = [C cos 5 x + D sin 5 x] + 10 + 2 cos 2x 1 (13) y = e−x [C cos 2 x + D sin 2 x] − 17 [4 cos 2x + sin 2x] 3 (14) y = Ae−x + Be−x/3 + 2 xe−x/3 (1) A = 0.(7) y − tan−1 (x + y) = c (1) (y − 2x) = cx2y (4) 2y = x(x + y) (1) ex(y − x + 1) = c (8) exy = x + 1 EXERCISE 8.3 (2) y3 = cx2 e−x/y (5) x2 (x2 + 4y2)3 = c EXERCISE 8.9025 A0 (4) 197600 EXERCISE 8.) (5) 136 days (3) 38.82° C 251 .4 2 2 (3) y = cex / 2y (6) y = x log x (2) y(x2 + 1)2 − x = c (4) y(1 + x2) = sinx + c 2 (6) y = 1 + ce− x /2 2 −1 −1 (3) xetan y = etan y (tan−1y − 1) + c (5) 2xy + cosx2 = c (7) xey = tan y + c e 2x (1) y = Ae−4x + Be−3x + 30 (8) x = y − a2 + ce− y/a EXERCISE 8.
(11) T (12) T (13) T (14) F (15) T (17) F (18) T (19) F (20) F (16) F (21) (i) Anand reads newspaper and plays cricket Anand reads newspaper or plays cricket. (iii) Kamala is not going to school. (ii) p ∧ q : Kamala is going to school and there are twenty students in the class. EXERCISE 9. (5). (25) (i) (ii) Mani is not sincere or not hardworking.EXERCISE 9. others are not statements.1 Statements : (1). 5 is not an irrational number. (iv) It is false that there are twenty students in the class. (23) (i) p ∧ q (ii) p ∨ q (iii) ∼ p (iv) p ∧ q (v) ∼ p (24) Sita likes neither reading nor playing.2 (1) Truth table for pv (∼ q) p q ∼q p ∨ (∼ q) T T F T T F T T F T F F F F T T (2) Truth table for (∼p) ∧ (∼ q) p q T T T F F T F F ∼p F F T T ∼q F T F T (∼p) ∧ (∼ q) F F F T 252 . (6). (2). (v) Kamala is not going to school or there are twenty students in the class. (3). (ii) I like tea and icecream I like tea or icecream (22) (i) p ∨ q: Kamala is going to school or there are twenty students in the class. (iii) This picture is nither good nor beautiful. (10) .
(3) Truth table for ∼ (p ∨ q) p q p∨q ∼ (p ∨ q) T T T F T F T F F T T F F F F T (4) Truth table for (p ∨ q) ∨ (∼ p) p q p∨q (p ∨ q) ∨ (∼p) ∼p T T T F T T F T F T F T T T T F F F T T (5) Truth table for (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼ q) p q p∧q (p ∧ q)∨(∼ q) ∼q T T T F T T F F T T F T F F F F F F T T (6) Truth table for ∼ (p ∨ (∼ q)) p q ∼q p∨ (∼ q) ∼ (p ∨ (∼ q)) T T F T F T F T T F F T F F T F F T T F (7) Truth table for (p ∧ q) ∨ (∼ (p ∧ q)) p q (p∧q)∨(∼(p∧q)) p∧q ∼ (p∧q) T T T F T T F F T T F T F T T F F F T T (8) Truth table for (p ∧ q) ∧ (∼ q) p q (p∧q) ∧ (∼q) p∧q ∼q T T T F F T F F T F F T F F F F F F T F 253 .
(9) Truth table for (p ∨ q) ∨ r p T T T T F F F F q T T F F T T F F r T F T F T F T F p∨q T T T T T T F F (p ∨ q) ∨ r T T T T T T T F (10) Truth table for (p ∧ q) ∨ r p T T T T F F F F q T T F F T T F F r T F T F T F T F p∧q T T F F F F F F (p ∧ q) ∨ r T T T F T F T F EXERCISE 9.3 (1) (i) ((∼p) ∧ q) ∧ p (ii) (p ∨ q) ∨ (∼ (p ∨ q)) (iii) (p ∧ (∼ q)) ∨ ((∼ p) ∨ q) (iv) q ∨ (p ∨ (∼ q)) (v) (p ∧ (∼ p)) ∧ ((∼ q) ∧ p)) contradiction Tautology Tautology Tautology Contradiction 254 .
(3) E(X) = − 15 (5) E(X) = − 1. 0 ([2]) = 4.25 (iii) 0. 0([3]) = 4.24 1 Variance = 2 (2) E(X) = 3. Identity element is 1 (10) 0([1]) = 1. Variance = 169 255 .3125 (ii) 0. Variance = 16.EXERCISE 9.5 2 24 (4) Mean = 13 .1 (1) X p (X = x) 0 125 216 0 188 221 0 12 22 1 75 216 1 32 221 1 9 22 2 15 216 2 1 221 2 1 22 3 1 216 (2) X p (X = x) (3) X p (X = x) 1 1 11 (4) (i) 81 (ii) 9 (iii) 27 α (7) (i) α β (ii) e− β(10 ) 13 (6) (i) 20 (ii) 16 2x 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 (i) 0.25 (6) Mean = 6.2 (1) Mean = 1.4 .4375 (8) f(x) = 0 elsewhere (9) c = a (10) (i) 1 1 1 (ii) 4 (iii) 2 2π EXERCISE 10.4 (1) Noncommutative but associative (2) Yes. 0([4]) = 2 EXERCISE 10.
4 (1) (i) 0.3 (1) Not possible as probability of an event can lie between 0 and 1 only.5368 48 (3) (i) 45 × 10 (ii) 0.(7) (i) Mean = 0.9772 (iv) 0. Variance = 48 (ii) Mean = 1 1 .5 (v) 0.9104 (5) (i) 291 persons (app.9598 (ii) approximately 353 drivers EXERCISE 10.19 inches (7) 640 students 256 . Variance = 3 (3) Mean = 450. standard deviation = 3 5 3 (4) (i) 8 11 (ii) 16 11 (iii) 16 (5) 2048 55 59 (6) 10 (15) 6 EXERCISE 10.8413 (2) (i) 0.5 (1) (i) 0.) (6) 72.) (8) c = e−9/4 3 1 .52 and 0. 80 (2) Mean = 40 .2417 (ii) − 0.04 (iii) 0.2706 5 (5) (i) approximately 50 drivers (2) (i) 0.5669 (4) (i) 0. Variance = 2 α α (iii) Mean = 2.0838 (ii) 0.4331 (ii) 0.52 (4) 4886 pairs (ii) 6 persons (app. µ = 2 .0749 (ii) 0.67 (3) 0. σ2 = 2 π (iii) − 1. Variance = 2 EXERCISE 10.1952 (ii) 0.
No Key 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 4 2 3 2 1 3 4 2 3 4 1 2 2 1 1 4 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 1 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 2 4 1 1 3 2 1 2 3 4 4 1 4 3 1 3 4 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 3 1 1 4 4 2 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 2 2 1 4 2 4 1 2 3 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 1 1 2 4 3 2 2 1 2 2 3 4 2 1 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 2 4 2 3 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 4 1 3 2 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 1 1 2 4 2 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 2 1 3 2 3 3 4 2 2 2 1 2 4 1 2 1 4 3 1 4 3 1 2 2 2 3 1 4 3 3 257 .No Key Q.No Key Q.No Key Q.No Key Q.KEY TO OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS Q.
258 .
House (5) Differential and Integral Calculus : Schaum’s Outline Series Frank Ayres Jr.M. An analytical approach K. Thomas Jr. Narosa Pub. Elliott Mendelson (6) Analytic Geometry with Calculus Robert C. Addison Wesley Pub. (7) Calculus for Scientists and Engineers.D.Thomas and Ross L.. Finney (ninth edition) AddisonWesley. Health and Company (3) Calculus with Analytic Geometry (third edition) Johnson & Kiokmeister (4) Calculus with Maple Labs Wieslaw Krawcewiez and Bindhya Chal Rai.. Co. University of South Florida Printice – Hall Inc.REFERENCE BOOKS (1) Calculus and Analytical Geometry (International student edition) George B.C. (9) Calculus : An Historical Approach W. (2) Calculus and Analytical Geometry Philip Gillett D. Joshi (8) Calculus and Analytic Geometry (Fourth edition) George B. Yates. Priestly (Springer) 259 .
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