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Characteristics IEEE 802.11
PHY MAC Roaming .11a, b, g, h, i …
HIPERLAN Bluetooth / IEEE 802.15.x IEEE 802.16/.20/.21/.22 RFID Comparison
Mobile Communication Technology according to IEEE
Local wireless networks WLAN 802.11
802.11h 802.11i/e/…/w 802.11g
Personal wireless nw WPAN 802.15 802.15.1
802.15.4a/b 802.15.5 802.15.3 802.15.3a/b
Wireless distribution networks WMAN 802.16 (Broadband Wireless Access)
802.20 (Mobile Broadband Wireless Access)
Characteristics of wireless LANs
very flexible within the reception area Ad-hoc networks without previous planning possible (almost) no wiring difficulties (e.g. historic buildings, firewalls) more robust against disasters like, e.g., earthquakes, fire - or users pulling a plug...
typically very low bandwidth compared to wired networks (1-10 Mbit/s) due to shared medium many proprietary solutions, especially for higher bit-rates, standards take their time (e.g. IEEE 802.11) products have to follow many national restrictions if working wireless, it takes a vary long time to establish global solutions like, e.g., IMT-2000
Design goals for wireless LANs global. simple management protection of investment in wired networks security (no one should be able to read my data). safety (low radiation) transparency concerning applications and higher layer protocols. privacy (no one should be able to collect user profiles). but also location awareness if necessary . seamless operation low power for battery use no special permissions or licenses needed to use the LAN robust transmission technology simplified spontaneous cooperation at meetings easy to use for everyone.
furniture etc.) typically using the license free ISM band at 2.) Disadvantages interference by sunlight.4 GHz Advantages simple.Comparison: infrared vs. heat sources etc. radio transmission Infrared Radio uses IR diodes. multiple reflections (walls. available in many mobile devices no licenses needed simple shielding possible Advantages experience from wireless WAN and mobile phones can be used coverage of larger areas possible (radio can penetrate walls. furniture etc. many things shield or absorb IR light low bandwidth Disadvantages very limited license free frequency bands shielding more difficult. interference with other electrical devices Example Example IrDA (Infrared Data Association) interface available everywhere Many different products . cheap. diffuse light.
Comparison: infrastructure vs. ad-hoc networks infrastructure network AP AP wired network AP: Access Point AP ad-hoc network .
11 .x LAN terminal with access mechanisms to the wireless medium and radio contact to the access point group of stations using the same radio frequency station integrated into the wireless LAN and the distribution system bridge to other (wired) networks interconnection network to form one logical network (EES: Extended Service Set) based on several BSS STA1 BSS1 Access Point Portal Basic Service Set (BSS) Access Point Distribution System ESS BSS2 Access Point Portal Distribution System STA2 802.802.11 LAN STA3 .11 LAN Station (STA) 802.Architecture of an infrastructure network 802.
11 .802.11 LAN .11 LAN STA1 IBSS1 STA3 STA2 IBSS2 STA5 STA4 802.Architecture of an ad-hoc network Direct communication within a limited range Station (STA): terminal with access mechanisms to the wireless medium Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS): group of stations using the same radio frequency 802.
3 PHY application TCP IP LLC 802.11 MAC 802.11 MAC 802.3 MAC 802.IEEE standard 802.11 PHY 802.11 fixed terminal mobile terminal infrastructure network access point application TCP IP LLC 802.3 MAC 802.11 PHY LLC 802.3 PHY .
Layers and functions MAC PLCP Physical Layer Convergence Protocol access mechanisms. encryption synchronization. coding channel selection.11 . fragmentation. power management clear channel assessment signal (carrier sense) modulation.802. MIB. roaming. MIB coordination of all management functions MAC Management PMD Physical Medium Dependent PHY Management Station Management DLC LLC MAC PLCP PHY Management MAC Management PHY a Mnot a S i t PMD .
signal strength. diffuse light. 2. two-level GFSK modulation DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) DBPSK modulation for 1 Mbit/s (Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying). typ. 1 IR data rates 1 or 2 Mbit/s FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) spreading. -1. 1mW Infrared 850-950 nm. synchronization . +1. +1. energy detection. 1 Mbit/s min.802.4 GHz). +1. despreading. rest of transmission 1 or 2 Mbit/s chipping sequence: +1. typ. +1. DQPSK for 2 Mbit/s (Differential Quadrature PSK) preamble and header of a frame is always transmitted with 1 Mbit/s. 10 m range carrier detection. -1 (Barker code) max.5 frequency hops/s (USA). +1.11 . -1. -1. 2. 100 mW (EU). radiated power 1 W (USA). -1. min.Physical layer (classical) 3 versions: 2 radio (typ.
. PLW < 4096 data of payload (1 or 2 Mbit/s) CRC with x16+x12+x5+1 80 16 SFD 12 PLW 4 PSF 16 HEC variable payload bits SFD (Start Frame Delimiter) PLW (PLCP_PDU Length Word) PSF (PLCP Signaling Field) HEC (Header Error Check) synchronization PLCP preamble PLCP header ..FHSS PHY packet format Synchronization synch with 010101. pattern 0000110010111101 start pattern length of payload incl. 32 bit CRC of payload.
gain setting. 00: 802. frequency offset compensation 1111001110100000 data rate of the payload (0A: 1 Mbit/s DBPSK.11 compliant length of the payload HEC (Header Error Check) protection of signal. service and length. x16+x12+x5+1 128 16 SFD 8 8 16 16 variable payload bits synchronization signal service length HEC PLCP header PLCP preamble . 14: 2 Mbit/s DQPSK) SFD (Start Frame Delimiter) Signal Service Length future use..DSSS PHY packet format Synchronization synch. energy detection.
DFWMAC Traffic services Asynchronous Data Service (mandatory) exchange of data packets based on “best-effort” support of broadcast and multicast Time-Bounded Service (optional) implemented using PCF (Point Coordination Function) Access methods DFWMAC-DCF CSMA/CA (mandatory) collision avoidance via randomized „back-off“ mechanism minimum distance between consecutive packets ACK packet for acknowledgements (not for broadcasts) DFWMAC-DCF w/ RTS/CTS (optional) Distributed Foundation Wireless MAC avoids hidden terminal problem DFWMAC.MAC layer I .11 .802.PCF (optional) access point polls terminals according to a list .
MAC layer II Priorities defined through different inter frame spaces no guaranteed. for asynchronous data service PIFS (PCF IFS) DIFS (DCF.11 . polling response medium priority. Distributed Coordination Function IFS) DIFS medium busy DIFS PIFS SIFS contention next frame t direct access if medium is free ≥ DIFS .802. for time-bounded service using PCF lowest priority. hard priorities SIFS (Short Inter Frame Spacing) highest priority. CTS. for ACK.
the back-off timer stops (fairness) . then the station must additionally wait a random back-off time (collision avoidance. the station has to wait for a free IFS. Clear Channel Assessment) if the medium is free for the duration of an Inter-Frame Space (IFS).11 .CSMA/CA access method I DIFS medium busy direct access if medium is free ≥ DIFS DIFS contention window (randomized back-off mechanism) next frame t slot time station ready to send starts sensing the medium (Carrier Sense based on CCA.802. the station can start sending (IFS depends on service type) if the medium is busy. multiple of slot-time) if another station occupies the medium during the back-off time of the station.
11 .competing stations .simple version DIFS station1 station2 station3 station4 station5 busy boe bor busy boe busy boe busy boe bor boe bor t medium not idle (frame.) packet arrival at MAC boe elapsed backoff time bor residual backoff time DIFS boe boe bor busy DIFS boe bor DIFS boe busy . ack etc.802.
CSMA/CA access method II Sending unicast packets station has to wait for DIFS before sending data receivers acknowledge at once (after waiting for SIFS) if the packet was received correctly (CRC) automatic retransmission of data packets in case of transmission errors DIFS sender receiver other stations data SIFS ACK DIFS waiting time data t contention .11 .802.
DFWMAC Sending unicast packets station can send RTS with reservation parameter after waiting for DIFS (reservation determines amount of time the data packet needs the medium) acknowledgement via CTS after SIFS by receiver (if ready to receive) sender can now send data at once.11 .802. acknowledgement via ACK other stations store medium reservations distributed via RTS and CTS DIFS sender receiver RTS SIFS CTS SIFS data SIFS ACK other stations NAV (RTS) NAV (CTS) defer access DIFS data t contention .
Fragmentation DIFS sender receiver RTS SIFS CTS SIFS frag1 SIFS ACK1 SIFS frag2 SIFS ACK2 NAV (RTS) NAV (CTS) other stations NAV (frag1) NAV (ACK1) DIFS contention data t .
DFWMAC-PCF I t0 t1 medium busy PIFS D1 point SIFS coordinator wireless stations stations‘ NAV SuperFrame SIFS SIFS SIFS U1 NAV U2 D2 .
DFWMAC-PCF II t2 D3 PIFS D4 SIFS U4 NAV contention free period SIFS CFend t3 t4 point coordinator wireless stations stations‘ NAV contention period t .
BSS identifier. transmitter (physical). data 0-2312 Data 1 4 CRC Sequence numbers Addresses Miscellaneous bytes 2 2 6 6 6 2 6 Frame Duration/ Address Address Address Sequence Address Control ID 1 2 3 Control 4 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 bits Protocol To From More Power More Type Subtype Retry WEP Order version DS DS Frag Mgmt Data .11 . management frames.802. frame control. sender (logical) sending time. checksum.Frame format Types control frames. data frames important against duplicated frames due to lost ACKs receiver.
within DS to DS from DS 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 address 1 address 2 address 3 address 4 DA DA BSSID RA SA BSSID SA TA BSSID SA DA DA SA DS: Distribution System AP: Access Point DA: Destination Address SA: Source Address BSSID: Basic Service Set Identifier RA: Receiver Address TA: Transmitter Address . to AP infrastructure network. from AP infrastructure network.MAC address format scenario ad-hoc network infrastructure network.
Special Frames: ACK. CTS Acknowledgement ACK bytes 2 2 6 Frame Receiver Duration Control Address 4 CRC Request To Send bytes RTS 2 2 6 6 Frame Receiver Transmitter Duration Control Address Address 4 CRC Clear To Send bytes CTS 2 2 6 Frame Receiver Duration Control Address 4 CRC . RTS.
Power management sleep-mode without missing a message periodic sleep. change networks by changing access points scanning.802. read. i. active search for a network MIB . frame buffering.e. i.e.Management Information Base managing.MAC management Synchronization try to find a LAN.11 . try to stay within a LAN timer etc. traffic measurements Association/Reassociation integration into a LAN roaming. write .
Power management Idea: switch the transceiver off if not needed States of a station: sleep and awake Timing Synchronization Function (TSF) stations wake up at the same time Traffic Indication Map (TIM) Infrastructure list of unicast receivers transmitted by AP list of broadcast/multicast receivers transmitted by AP Delivery Traffic Indication Map (DTIM) Ad-hoc Ad-hoc Traffic Indication Map (ATIM) announcement of receivers by stations buffering frames more complicated .no central AP collision of ATIMs possible (scalability?) .
Power saving with wake-up patterns (infrastructure) TIM interval DTIM interval access point medium station D B busy busy T busy T d busy p d D B t T B TIM D DTIM awake p PS poll d data transmission to/from the station broadcast/multicast .
Power saving with wake-up patterns (ad-hoc) ATIM window beacon interval station1 station2 B1 B2 B2 A D B1 a d t B beacon frame awake random delay A transmit ATIM D transmit data a acknowledge ATIM d acknowledge data .
station can now participate failure: continue scanning AP accepts Reassociation Request signal the new station to the distribution system the distribution system updates its data base (i.Roaming No or bad connection? Then perform: Scanning scan the environment.e..11 . i. the distribution system now informs the old AP so it can release resources . location information) typically. listen into the medium for beacon signals or send probes into the medium and wait for an answer station sends a request to one or several AP(s) Reassociation Request Reassociation Response success: AP has answered.e.802..
30m indoor Max. 5.11b Data rate 1. Encryption) Quality of Service Transmission range 300m outdoor. simple system Disadvantage: heavy interference on ISM-band. WEP insecure. integrated in laptops. depending on SNR User data rate max.WLAN: IEEE 802. 11 Mbit/s. no guarantees (unless polling is used. no service guarantees. slow relative speed only Free 2. available worldwide. approx.5.4 GHz ISM-band Limited. many vendors. data rate ~10m indoor Manageability Frequency Special Advantages/Disadvantages Advantage: many installed systems. 6 Mbit/s Connection set-up time Connectionless/always on Typ. lot of experience. Best effort. SSID Many products. limited support in products) Limited (no automated key distribution. sym. 2. free ISM-band. many vendors Security Availability .
16 SFD 8 8 16 16 variable payload bits signal service length HEC PLCP header (2 Mbit/s. 5.IEEE 802.5 or 11 Mbit/s . DQPSK) 96 µs PLCP preamble (1 Mbit/s.5 or 11 Mbit/s PLCP preamble 192 µs at 1 Mbit/s DBPSK Short PLCP PPDU format (optional) 56 short synch. 2. DBPSK) 2. 5.11b – PHY frame formats Long PLCP PPDU format 128 synchronization 16 SFD 8 8 16 16 variable payload bits signal service length HEC PLCP header 1.
simple system. 9. 12. 24.g. SSID Some products. 48. 18 up to 40 m. available. 5. depending on SNR User throughput (1500 byte packets): 5. 18. 10m indoor Connectionless/always on Typ. 48 up to 12 m. 24 up to 30m.725-5. WEP insecure. 54 Mbit/s. 24 (36).11 products) Limited (no automated key distribution.11a Data rate Connection set-up time 6. sym. uses less crowded 5 GHz band Disadvantage: stronger shading due to higher frequency. 18 (24). 24 Mbit/s mandatory 100m outdoor. Encryption) Advantage: fits into 802.15-5. no QoS Quality of Service Transmission range Manageability E. 32 (54) 6. 54 Mbit/s up to 5 m.25-5. 12. best effort. some vendors Availability . 36 up to 25 m.x standards. 12 up to 60 m Special Advantages/Disadvantages Frequency Free 5..3 (6). no guarantees (same as all 802.825 GHz ISM-band Security Limited.WLAN: IEEE 802. 5.35.25. 36. free ISM-band.
36.IEEE 802. 54 Mbit/s symbols . 24. 12.11a – PHY frame format 4 1 12 1 6 16 variable payload 6 tail variable pad bits rate reserved length parity tail service PLCP header PLCP preamble 12 signal 1 6 Mbit/s data variable 6. 18. 48. 9.
11c: Bridge Support Definition of MAC procedures to support bridges as extension to 802.11e: MAC Enhancements – QoS Enhance the current 802.11 MAC to expand support for applications with Quality of Service requirements.11 – future developments (03/2005) 802.11h: Spectrum Managed 802. performance loss during mixed operation with 11b Extension for operation of 802.11a in Europe by mechanisms like channel measurement for dynamic channel selection (DFS. Transmit Power Control) 802.11d: Regulatory Domain Update 802.1D Support of additional regulations related to channel selection.WLAN: IEEE 802.11g: Data Rates > 20 Mbit/s at 2. OFDM Successful successor of 802. and in the capabilities and efficiency of the protocol Definition of a data flow (“connection”) with parameters like rate. 54 Mbit/s. hopping sequences 802.11a . Dynamic Frequency Selection) and power control (TPC. burst.4 GHz. period… Additional energy saving mechanisms and more efficient retransmission 802.11b.11f: Inter-Access Point Protocol Establish an Inter-Access Point Protocol for data exchange via the distribution system Currently unclear to which extend manufacturers will follow this suggestion 802.
11a for operation at 5GHz in Japan using only half the channel width at larger range Devices and access points should be able to estimate channel quality in order to be able to choose a better access point of channel 802.11– future developments (03/2005) 802. TKIP enhances the insecure WEP.11i: Enhanced Security Mechanisms Enhance the current 802. up to 600Mbit/s are currently feasible However.925GHz band in North America .11k: Methods for channel measurements 802. 200km/h and ranges over 1000m Usage of 5.11p: Inter car communications Communication between cars/road side and cars/cars Planned for relative speeds of min.11 MAC to provide improvements in security.11n: Higher data rates above 100Mbit/s Changes of PHY and MAC with the goal of 100Mbit/s at MAC SAP MIMO antennas (Multiple Input Multiple Output). but remains compatible to older WEP systems AES provides a secure encryption method and is based on new hardware 802.850-5. still a large overhead due to protocol headers and inefficient mechanisms 802.WLAN: IEEE 802.11m: Updates of the 802.11j: Extensions for operations in Japan Changes of 802.11 standards 802.
WLAN: IEEE 802.g. e.11v: Network management Extensions of current management functions..ieee.11i protect only data frames.11t: Performance evaluation of 802.11– future developments (03/2005) 802. channel measurements Definition of a unified interface Classical standards like 802. not the control frames.11 networks 802.org/11/.ieee802.11i) plus incompatible devices from different vendors are massive problems for the use of. Thus. this standard should extend 802.g.11 Support of point-to-point and broadcast communication across several hops Standardization of performance measurement schemes 802.11r: Faster Handover between BSS Secure. no control frames can be forged. 802. many ideas get stuck at working group level Info: www.com.. 802wirelessworld.11s: Mesh Networking 802.11. VoIP in WLANs Handover should be feasible within 50ms in order to support multimedia applications efficiently Design of a self-configuring Wireless Distribution System (WDS) based on 802.11i in a way that. but also 802.11u: Interworking with additional external networks 802.org/getieee802/ .11w: Securing of network control Note: Not all “standards” will end in products. standards. e. fast handover of a station from one AP to another within an ESS Current mechanisms (even newer standards like 802.
. QoS support commercial constraints HIPERLAN 1 standardized since 1996 – no products! higher layers logical link control layer medium access control layer physical layer IEEE 802.ETSI – HIPERLAN (historical) ETSI standard European standard. Enhancement of local Networks and interworking with fixed networks integration of time-sensitive services from the early beginning HIPERLAN family one standard cannot satisfy all requirements range.x layers medium access control layer channel access control layer physical layer HIPERLAN layers network layer data link layer physical layer OSI layers . cf. DECT. . GSM. bandwidth..
1-5. point-tohoc/infrastructure centralized multipoint omni-directional directional 50 m 50-100 m 5000 m 150 m statistical ATM traffic classes (VBR. UBR) <10m/s stationary conventional LAN ATM networks 23.Overview: original HIPERLAN protocol family HIPERLAN 1 wireless LAN HIPERLAN 2 access to ATM fixed networks HIPERLAN 3 wireless local loop HIPERLAN 4 point-to-point wireless ATM connections 17.2-17. CBR.5 Mbit/s yes >20 Mbit/s 155 Mbit/s not necessary HIPERLAN 1 never reached product status.3GHz point-to-point Application Frequency Topology Antenna Range QoS Mobility Interface Data rate Power conservation 5. the other standards have been renamed/modfied ! . ABR.3GHz decentralized adcellular.
1 W power.5 Mbit/s. 2383 byte max. encryption. point-to-multipoint. packet size Services asynchronous and time-bounded services with hierarchical priorities compatible with ISO MAC Topology infrastructure or ad-hoc networks transmission range can be larger then coverage of a single node („forwarding“ integrated in mobile terminals) Further mechanisms power saving.HIPERLAN 1 . connectionless 23.Characteristics Data transmission point-to-point. checksums .
2470562 GHz channel 4: 5.2235268 GHz optional channel 3: 5.Physical layer Scope modulation.1764680 GHz channel 1: 5.1999974 GHz channel 2: 5.2705856 GHz . bit and frame synchronization forward error correction mechanisms measurements of signal strength channel sensing Channels 3 mandatory and 2 optional channels (with their carrier frequencies) mandatory channel 0: 5. demodulation.HIPERLAN 1 .
HIPERLAN 1 .. maximum 47 frames with 496 bit each for higher velocities of the mobile terminal (> 1.4 m/s) the maximum number of frames has to be reduced Frame structure Modulation GMSK for high bit-rate.Physical layer frames Maintaining a high data-rate (23..problematic for mobile terminals packet header with low bit-rate comprising receiver information only receiver(s) address by a packet continue receiving LBR (Low Bit-Rate) header with 1. datam -1 .4 Mbit/s 450 bit synchronization minimum 1.5 Mbit/s) is power consuming . FSK for LBR header HBR LBR synchronization data0 data1 .
CAC sublayer Channel Access Control (CAC) assure that terminal does not access forbidden channels priority scheme. therefore. rises automatically . waiting time is permanently subtracted from lifetime based on packet lifetime. waiting time in a sender and number of hops to the receiver. the packet is assigned to one out of five priorities the priority of waiting packets. maximum 16000ms if a terminal cannot send the packet due to its current priority. access with EY-NPMA 5 priority levels for QoS support QoS is mapped onto a priority level with the help of the packet lifetime (set by an application) Priorities if packet lifetime = 0 it makes no sense to forward the packet to the receiver any longer standard start value 500ms.HIPERLAN 1 .
the higher the priority the earlier the time-slot to send higher priorities can not be preempted if an earlier time-slot for a higher priority remains empty. contention resolution.HIPERLAN 1 . stations with the next lower priority might send after this first phase the highest current priority has been determined IPS IPA IES IESV IYS priority detection priority assertion elimination burst yield listening transmission not az no hc nys i i r prioritization contention transmission user data t . transmission finding the highest priority elimination survival verification every priority corresponds to a time-slot to send in the first phase.EY-NPMA I EY-NPMA (Elimination Yield Non-preemptive Priority Multiple Access) 3 phases: priority resolution.
rate) Elimination Survival Verification: contenders now sense the channel. high bit.EY-NPMA II Several terminals can now have the same priority and wish to send contention phase Elimination Burst: all remaining terminals send a burst to eliminate contenders (11111010100010011100000110010110. if the terminal senses its slot idle it is free to transmit at the end of the contention phase the important part is now to set the parameters for burst duration and channel sensing (slot-based. a small chance of collision remains) if the channel was idle for a longer time (min. exponentially distributed) data transmission the winner can now send its data (however. if the channel is free they can continue. for a duration of 1700 bit) a terminal can send at once without using EY-NPMA synchronization using the last data transmission . otherwise they have been eliminated Yield Listening: contenders again listen in slots with a nonzero probability.HIPERLAN 1 .
HIPERLAN 1 .DT-HCPDU/AK-HCPDU LBR LBR 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 HI HDA HDA HDACS BLIR = n BLIRCS 1 bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 HI AID AID AIDCS bit Acknowledgement HCPDU HI: HBR-part Indicator HDA: Hashed Destination HCSAP Address HDACS: HDA CheckSum BLIR: Block Length Indicator BLIRCS: BLIR CheckSum TI: Type Indicator BLI: Block Length Indicator HID: HIPERLAN IDentifier DA: Destination Address SA: Source Address UD: User Data (1-2422 byte) PAD: PADding CS: CheckSum AID: Acknowledgement IDentifier AIDS: AID CheckSum HBR bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 byte TI BLI = n 1 PLI = m 2 HID 3-6 DA 7 .(52n-4) CS (52n-3) .18 UD 19 .(52n-m-4) PAD (52n-m-3) .52n Data HCPDU .12 SA 13 .
g. periodic wake-ups to receive data) additionally.MAC layer Compatible to ISO MAC Supports time-bounded services via a priority scheme Packet forwarding support of directed (point-to-point) forwarding and broadcast forwarding (if no path information is available) support of QoS while forwarding Encryption mechanisms mechanisms integrated.HIPERLAN 1 . but without key management Power conservation mechanisms mobile terminals can agree upon awake patterns (e. some nodes in the networks must be able to buffer data for sleeping terminals and to forward them at the right time (so called stores) ..
25 ASA 26 .DT-HMPDU 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 byte LI = n 1-2 TI = 1 3 RL 4-5 PSN 6-7 DA 8 . 1–2383 byte SC: Sanity Check (for the unencrypted PDU) .19 ADA 20 .n bit Data HMPDU n= 40–2422 LI: Length Indicator TI: Type Indicator RL: Residual Lifetime PSN: Sequence Number DA: Destination Address SA: Source Address ADA: Alias Destination Address ASA: Alias Source Address UP: User Priority ML: MSDU Lifetime KID: Key Identifier IV: Initialization Vector UD: User Data.31 UP ML 32 ML 33 KID IV 34 IV 35 .(n-2) SC (n-1) .13 SA 14 .HIPERLAN 1 .37 UD 38 .
distance] [neighbor.address of nodes outside the net Source Multipoint Relay Information Base (SMRIB) . sequence] [source. next hop. alias MSAP address] [local multipoint forwarder.status of destination (via next hop) Alias Information Base (AIB) .status of direct neighbors Hello Information Base (HIB) . multipoint relay set] [destination. next hop] [original MSAP address.Information bases Route Information Base (RIB) .remove duplicates .current MP status Topology Information Base (TIB) .current HIPERLAN topology Duplicate Detection Information Base (DDIB) .how to reach a destination [destination. forwarder. status. status] [destination. sequence] Neighbor Information Base (NIB) .
e..Ad-hoc networks using HIPERLAN 1 1 Forwarder 2 RIB NIB HIB AIB DDIB Information Bases (IB): RIB: Route NIB: Neighbor HIB: Hello AIB: Alias SMRIB: Source Multipoint Relay TIB: Topology DDIB: Duplicate Detection RIB NIB HIB AIB SMRIB TIB DDIB 4 5 Forwarder 3 RIB NIB HIB AIB DDIB RIB NIB HIB AIB SMRIB TIB DDIB RIB NIB HIB AIB DDIB neighborhood (i. within radio range) RIB NIB HIB AIB SMRIB TIB DDIB 6 Forwarder .
1 Mbit/s gross data rate One of the first modules (Ericsson). low power consumption.Bluetooth Idea Universal radio interface for ad-hoc wireless connectivity Interconnecting computer and peripherals. goal: 5€/device (2005: 40€/USB bluetooth) Short range (10 m). . approx. cell phones – replacement of IrDA Embedded in other devices. license-free 2.45 GHz ISM Voice and data transmission. handheld devices. PDAs.
Nokia.org 1999: erection of a rune stone at Ercisson/Lund .-) 2001: first consumer products for mass market.bluetooth. Motorola > 2500 members Common specification and certification of products . Agere (was: Lucent). Toshiba Added promoters: 3Com. Intel.Bluetooth History 1994: Ericsson (Mattison/Haartsen). version 1. www. “MC-link” project Renaming of the project: Bluetooth according to Harald “Blåtand” Gormsen [son of Gorm]. King of Denmark in the 10th century (was: ) 1998: foundation of Bluetooth SIG. spec. IBM.1 released 2005: 5 million chips/week Special Interest Group Original founding members: Ericsson. Microsoft.
determined by a master Time division duplex for send/receive separation Voice link – SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) FEC (forward error correction).6 kbit/s asymmetric.4 GHz ISM band. 1-100 mW transmit power FHSS and TDD Frequency hopping with 1600 hops/s Hopping sequence in a pseudo random fashion. up to 433.2/57.9 kbit/s symmetric or 723.Characteristics 2. 79 (23) RF channels. point-to-multipoint. circuit switched Asynchronous. pointto-point. fast acknowledge. packet switched Overlapping piconets (stars) forming a scatternet Data link – ACL (Asynchronous ConnectionLess) Topology . 64 kbit/s duplex. 1 MHz carrier spacing Channel 0: 2402 MHz … channel 78: 2480 MHz G-FSK modulation. no retransmission.
Piconet Collection of devices connected in an ad hoc fashion P One unit acts as master and the others as slaves for the lifetime of the piconet Master determines hopping pattern. slaves have to synchronize Each piconet has a unique hopping pattern Participation in a piconet = synchronization to hopping sequence Each piconet has one master and up to 7 simultaneous slaves (> 200 could be parked) S S M SB P SB S P M=Master S=Slave P=Parked SB=Standby .
unique worldwide) Phase in hopping pattern determined by clock Addressing Active Member Address (AMA. 3 bit) Parked Member Address (PMA.Forming a piconet All devices in a piconet hop together Master gives slaves its clock and device ID Hopping pattern: determined by device ID (48 bit. 8 bit) SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB S SB P S M P SB P S .
Scatternet Linking of multiple co-located piconets through the sharing of common master or slave devices Devices can be slave in one piconet and master of another Devices jumping back and forth between the piconets P S M SB S P SB S SB P M Communication between piconets S S P Piconets (each with a capacity of 720 kbit/s) M=Master S=Slave P=Parked SB=Standby .
AT modem commands TCS BIN SDP Control Host Controller Interface . TCP/UDP IP BNEP PPP RFCOMM (serial line interface) Audio Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) Link Manager Baseband Radio AT: attention sequence OBEX: object exchange TCS BIN: telephony control protocol specification – binary BNEP: Bluetooth network encapsulation protocol SDP: service discovery protocol RFCOMM: radio frequency comm. vCal/vCard OBEX telephony apps. NW apps.Bluetooth protocol stack audio apps. apps. mgmnt.
Piconet/channel definition Low-level packet definition
Channel, device access, e.g., derived from master 1/3-FEC, active member address (broadcast + 7 slaves), link type, alternating bit ARQ/SEQ, checksum
access code packet header
sync. (trailer) AM address
Baseband link types
Polling-based TDD packet transmission
625µs slots, master polls slaves Periodic single slot packet assignment, 64 kbit/s full-duplex, point-to-point Variable packet size (1,3,5 slots), asymmetric bandwidth, point-to-multipoint
SCO f0 ACL f4 SCO f6 ACL f8 SCO f12 ACL f14 SCO f18 ACL f20
SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) – Voice
ACL (Asynchronous ConnectionLess) – Data
SCO payload types
payload (30) HV1 HV2 HV3 audio (10) audio (20) audio (30) FEC (20) FEC (10)
CRC (2) (bytes)
ACL Payload types payload (0-343) header (1/2) DM1 header (1) DH1 header (1) DM3 DH3 DM5 DH5 header (2) header (2) header (2) header (2) payload (0-17) payload (0-27) payload (0-121) payload (0-339) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) CRC (2) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) CRC (2) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) CRC (2) (bytes) CRC (2) payload (0-183) payload (0-224) payload (0-339) payload (0-29) AUX1 header (1) .
High-quality Voice.0 64.6 D 108.4 286.6 Type DM1 DH1 FEC 2/3 no 2/3 no 2/3 no no 1/3 2/3 no CRC yes yes yes yes yes yes no no no no 3 slot DM3 DH3 DM5 DH5 AUX1 HV1 5 slot SCO HV2 HV3 DV 10+(0-9) D 2/3 D yes D Data Medium/High rate.1 390.0+57.0 64.8 723.2 585.4 86.7 433.6 185. Data and Voice .Baseband data rates ACL 1 slot Payload User Header Payload [byte] [byte] 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 na na na 1D 0-17 0-27 0-121 0-183 0-224 0-339 0-29 10 20 30 Symmetric Asymmetric max.8 387.2 185.9 185.8 54.3 57.4 36. Rate [kbit/s] [kbit/s] Forward Reverse 108.8 172.6 64.8 172.0 64.8 172. Rate max.8 258.6 108.6 477.
SCO still possible.Baseband states of a Bluetooth device standby unconnected detach inquiry page connecting transmit AMA connected AMA active park PMA hold AMA sniff AMA low power Standby: do nothing Inquire: search for other devices Page: connect to a specific device Connected: participate in a piconet Park: release AMA. get PMA Sniff: listen periodically. not each slot Hold: stop ACL. possibly participate in another piconet .
28s beacon interval.8V Temperature = 20°C Mode SCO connection HV3 (1s interval Sniff Mode) (Slave) SCO connection HV3 (1s interval Sniff Mode) (Master) SCO connection HV1 (Slave) SCO connection HV1 (Master) ACL data transfer 115. Sniff Mode 1. no RF activity) Deep Sleep Mode(2) Notes: (1) Current consumption is the sum of both BC212015A and the flash.0 mA 15.6 mA 47.5 mA 0. (2) Current consumption is for the BC212015A device only.4kbps UART ACL connection. (More: www.0 mA 26.0 mA 53. Sniff Mode 40ms interval. 1.2kbps UART (Master) ACL data transfer 720kbps USB (Slave) ACL data transfer 720kbps USB (Master) ACL connection.csr.com ) 26.0 mA 53.0 mA 0.28s interval.0 mA 53.Example: Power consumption/CSR BlueCore2 Typical Average Current Consumption (1) VDD=1. 38.0 µA 20.5 mA 53.4kbps UART Standby Mode (Connected to host. 38. 38.0 mA 4.0 µA .4kbps UART Parked Slave.
not the usage of services Caching of discovered services Gradual discovery Service record format Information about services provided by attributes Attributes are composed of an 16 bit ID (name) and a value values may be derived from 128 bit Universally Unique Identifiers (UUID) .SDP – Service Discovery Protocol Inquiry/response protocol for discovering services Searching for and browsing services in radio proximity Adapted to the highly dynamic environment Can be complemented by others like SLP. Salutation. … Defines discovery only. Jini.
release) Group management OBEX Exchange of objects.Additional protocols to support legacy protocols/apps. IrDA replacement WAP Interacting with applications on cellular phones . RFCOMM Emulation of a serial port (supports a large base of legacy applications) Allows multiple ports over a single physical channel Telephony Control Protocol Specification (TCS) Call control (setup.
Participant (9500$/Jahr). ember. Adopter (3500$/Jahr) No free access to the specifications (only promoters and participants) ZigBee platforms comprise IEEE 802.4 similar to Bluetooth / 802. Motorola.15. Samsung More than 150 members Promoter (40000$/Jahr). Mitsubishi.15.ZigBee Relation to 802.1 Pushed by Chipcon.15.4 for layers 1 and 2 ZigBee protocol stack up to the applications . Honeywell. freescale (Motorola). Philips.
full meshes Range extension. communication and localization CSS (Chirp Spread Spectrum): communication only 802. longer range Two PHY alternatives UWB (Ultra Wideband): ultra short pulses.4a: Alternative PHY with lower data rate as extension to 802. corrections.15.4b: Extensions. more robustness.5: Mesh Networking Partial meshes.4 Usage of new bands.4 Properties: precise localization (< 1m precision).15.WPAN: IEEE 802. and clarifications regarding 802.4 standard 802.15.15.15. more flexible security mechanisms 802. extremely low power consumption. longer battery live Not all these working groups really create a standard. not all standards will be found in products later … .15 – future developments 4 Several working groups extend the 802.15.
.x and/or non 802 networks Radio-based PHY/MAC for use by license-exempt devices on a noninterfering basis in spectrum that is allocated to the TV Broadcast Service IEEE 802. e.21: Media Independent Handover Interoperability Standardize handover between different 802. allows for roaming at 150 km/h Unclear relation to 802.16: Broadband Wireless Access / WirelessMAN / WiMax Wireless distribution system. 2-66 GHz band Initial standards without roaming or mobility support 802.Some more IEEE standards for mobile communications IEEE 802.20: Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) Licensed bands < 3.16e adds mobility support.5 GHz.16 started as fixed system… IEEE 802. for the last mile. 802. optimized for IP traffic Peak rate > 1 Mbit/s per user Different mobility classes up to 250 km/h and ranges up to 15 km IEEE 802. up to 10 km NLOS.g. alternative to DSL 75 Mbit/s up to 50 km LOS.22: Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN) .20.
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