One of the most cost-effective forms of naval warfare is the mine. Mines are small, easily concealed, cheap to acquire, require virtually no maintenance, have a long shelf life, are easy to store in considerable numbers and can be laid easily and simply from almost any type of platform, which need not necessarily be a military platform. They can be used both strateg ically and tactically to deny waters to hostile forces and to defend high-value targets such as ports, anchorages and offshore structures from amphibious or seaborne attack, and can very quickly wipe out or very seriously impair the effectiveness 01 surface forces. To counter and neutralise the mine requires an effort out of all proportion to its size. In short, the mine is probably one of the most deadly weapons that any navy can deploy in its armoury.

Mine design has advanced significantly in the last decade or two, particularly with the introduction 01 low-cost signal processing electronics. Advanced intelligent mines of varying shapes and materials are now available, even to the smallest of navies. Furthermore, thcss modern technologies are not only incorporated into seabed mines, but are now being applied to moored mines as well.

Triggering mechanisms for mines are becoming even more sophisticated as mine designers seek to minimise the efforts of mlnehunting, minesweeping and mine clearance.

As the future maritime warfare scenario moves even closer to coastlines, the value of the mine as an offensive as well as defensive weapon will assumed even greater strategic significance. Environmental conditions in the very shallow water littoral region, together WIth the latest mine stealth technology will make it even more difficult to conduct effective mine countermeasures operations, and the mine may well prove to be the deciding factor in maritime warfare operations.

Moored mines

The moored mine has changed little Irom its forbears 01 the First and Second World Wars. Although a relatively unsophisticated weapon, it remains, nevertheless, an extremely effective one. Being simple to manufacture and relatively 'easy to lay (all that is necessary is a set of rails and a reasonably accurate navigation system which can be installed quickly on a wide variety of available ships), an extensive minefield will require a large force of minesweepers to sweep the field, an exercise which may take considerable time. The moored mine is therefore an ideal weapon for defensive purposes. A moored minefield can be used to protect extensive areas of vulnerable coastline and important port areas and anchorages. It can be used to create specified navigation channels leading to important areas such as ports; channels which can be rapidly closed using ground mines in face of Impending attack.

Because of the nature of the weapon, the modern moored mine can be laid in much deeper waters than the ground mine (that is, beyond the limits of the continental shelf). The moored mine is therefore eminently suitable for use in a barrier system, denying passage in open waters. Although post-5econd World War developments concentrated on the ground or influence mine, the moored mine has again come into prominence in new forms for use in submarine barriers in deep waters and to control choke points.

While many moored mines are of the older homed variety which are detonated by physical contact, the new moored mines for deep water barriers are detonated by magnetic or acoustic influence. These new types of moored mine can be countered USing. deep sweeps towed between two minesweepers. Naturally the mines incorporate anti-sweep devices such as time delays and snag lines.

The normal contact mine is usually triggered in one of three ways:

Contact - hydrostatic Contact - mechanical Contact - chemical.

The moored mine comprises the mine itself coupled to an anchor box for laying.

Mine and anchor are laid together by the minelaying Ship. On reaching the seabed the mine is released from the anchor mechanism and rises on a cable attached to the anchor to a pre-selected height, determined in advance from operational requirements. The body of the mine is made of steel or GRP and contains the explosive charge, fuzes, detonators and other elements (such as influence devices, batteries and security devices) required for the correct functioning of the weapon.

Mines in a moored defensive minefield can be linked to a shore-based coastal defence station together with torpedoes, guns and coastal defence missiles, with overall command and control being exercised from the defence station. In other words, an integrated coastal defence system combining sensors (both underwater and above surface) and defensive weapons (underwater and above water).

Seabed mines

Seabed mines are detonated using: one of three influences created by a target: acoustic, magnetic or pressure signature, or a combination of these ,nfluences. Influence mines are technologically the most sophisticated of all types of mine, and their reactivity to the specific type of influence on which they operate is infinitely variable. So sophisticated is the technology associated with these types of mine that they literally can be programmed to react not only to a specific class of ship, but, where sufficient data is available, even to a named ship within that specific class.

Unlike the moored mine, the seabed mine houses all its operating equipment within Ihe steel or GRP casing, which is usually cylindrical in shape, A cylindrical shaped mine has obvious advantages in that it is compatible to laying from a wide


variety of platforms, rangi types and sizes to aircraft sonar pattems or shadov improve stealth capabillth some seabed mines empl or return to an indefinable


J from submarine torpedo tubes to surface vessels of all iowever, cylindrical shaped objects reflect fairly definite which can be identified by a minehunter's sonar. To and make the task of mine neutralisation more difficult, y specific 'shaping' which diffuses the acoustic shadow oattern, Sonar patterns are further contused by the use

of anechoic coatings.

For use on soft or sand) ieds, some modern ground mines have the capability to bury themselves in the Sf bed, and are virtually undetectable to all but Ihe most sophisticated sonars. Sue mines, however, are small in size, with a small explosive charge and are better sui -d to very shallow water operation such as in estuarial areas or in areas where h ;tile submarine activity Is anticipated fairly close to the coast or in specific navigc Ie channels.

The two principal types f influence are the acoustic and magnetic.

The other principal type If influence used is the pressure influence. Because of the method of operation, n ,es incorporating this type of influence certainly cannot be swept using normal IT thods (as can some magnetic and acoustic influence mines) and have to be 'hu ed' using sonar and neutralised using either clearance divers or remote-control s srnersibtes.

In addition to the IT Ititude of fuzing refinements available, triggering mechanisms can also be rntrolled with activate/deactivate devices, and various types of delay, counters a i tirne responses.

Tethered mines

Tethered mines are spec principally the submarine, remains completely passh

The most common form US and the former Soviet systems rely on passive de mobile homing system car

Tethered mines are ve" shipping and to control rns

The other major type o such as an acoustic torpesystem is linked to a slat SOSUS system) which def response to pre-proqramm torpedo which then reacts

Controlled mines

These were, in fact, the \ consisted of a series of lar; by electric cables to a posit was observed passing ove observer in the shore static

Such systems using moe indeed some navies do op;

However, more sophistic activation ot minefields. E> control of deep water rruns This is necessary due to th, as home to a variety of m transducers. Consequently the transducers.

Furthermore. there is a j mine's various electronic sy well beyond the capacity ( remain dormant in the wate all bel ng activated by a s activati ng system must be ~ on this method is deployed before active hostilities.

Remote control of such transmissions which are t~ communications at depth.S high power and would mas'

Influence sensors Traditionally, the main sen: variety) have been rnaqnetk pressure sensor has not qui magnetic sensors, as it is problems in clearance, no However, as greater centre incorporation of modern st employ newer forms of sens the effectiveness of mine ( electric field (UEP and ELFE

Influence design always h need to destroy the target I countermeasures capability tolerances in the mine 10·

signatures required for actu ion.

:ally reactive to the approach 01 the target, which is s distinct from the normal type of moored mine which until struck by the victim.

,f tethered mine is known as the 'rising mine'. Both the Jnion have developed such weapons. Most tethered sctton of an approaching target to activate a powered, 'ing Ihe explosive charge.

-nucn a barrier weapon to prevent passage of hostile )f choke points.

ethered system comprises a mobile homing system 1 tethered to the seabed in depths below 300 m. The

passive acoustic sensing system (such as the US .ts, analyses and classifies underwater sounds, and in j target signatures activates the release of the homing its normal way to the approach of the target.

ry earliest type of mine ever devised. They simply explosive charges laid on the seabed and connected n on the shore overlooking the minefield. As the target the position Of the mines they were detonated by an

m explosives and technology are still valid today and ate such controlled minefields.

ed means are being developed to provide the remote eriments in this area have been geared towards the elds controlling principally acoustic influence mines. Fact that while a mi ne remains in water its casi fig acts fne life which affects the sensitivity of the acoustic he longer a mine remains in water, the less sensitive

lite limit to the life of the batteries which power the ems. If the mine can be remotely activated at intervals any in-built timing device in the mine, then it could 'or considerable lengths of time, its onboard sensors 'pie remote command, Naturally any such remote )ved to be almost mtalubte before any system relying "his Is essential if any such system is to be deployed

1inelields will, in all probability, rely on coded VLF only satisfactory means of long-range underwater ch a communications system, however, requires very )robably be shore-based.

.rs used to detonate mines (apart from the contact and acoustic with, to a lesser degree, pressure. The achieved the same prominence as the acoustic and ~r more difficult to control and creates enormous only for hostile forces but for friendly forces too. is exercised over platform signatures through the itth techniques, so mine designers have sought to .; both to make the mine more effective and to reduce u ntermeasures forces. Hence the development of and seismic sensors,

I, and will continue to be, a compromise between the d the need to embody some form of mine counter ro achieve such a compromise involves introducinq c tor the acceptance of magnetic and acoustic

me's Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2005

328 MINES/Introduction

If the tolerance is too narrow in order to achieve effective counter countermeasures, targets will not be detected. On the other hand, if the tolerance is too wide in order to ensure that all targets are detected, then the mine can be easily swept.

The introduction of microprocessor technology into mine mechanisms has allowed mine design to greatly reduce this tolerance. Not only does this technology largely overcome Ihe problem of tolerance latitude, it also offers the ability to carry out sophisticated analysis and targeting logic, which has led to much more advanced mine capability such as identifyi ng specific types of target.

However, development of software algorithms for mine logic is constrained by a number of factors including:

• The potential need to present a threat to a variety of targets

• The problems of a target's induced magnetic signature, which varies with heading and geographic position, while the permanent magnetic signature changes overtime

• Variations in signature between ships of the same class

• The magnetic signature of a degaussed vessel, which varies with depth and offset range, It presents a complex structure in the near field, which evens out as the range from the target increases

• A vessel's magnetic signature is directly related to the status of its degaussing system and it's magnetic treatment history

• Magnetic and acoustic signatures can be deliberately varied in an effort to confuse the mine logic parameters

• Magnetic signatures. particularly of merchant ships, vary according to the payload

• Mechanical detects and other factors affect the acoustic signature

• Acoustic influence is subject to the same limitations that affect any underwater

acoustic sensor Acoustic

Acoustic signatures are notoriously unreliable influences to use in mine warfare for they are subject to the vagaries of multi-path interference and high ambient noise resulting from the existing sea state, marine life and the increasing volume of marine traffic now using the oceans; all of which mask the actual acoustic signature of the target The sensor is also dependent on the propagation conditions existing in the area where the mine is laid. These factors create more of a problem for rnme countermeasures forces than they do for the mine's sensor when used to detect an oncoming target. However, they do affect the effectiveness of the mine. This is usually overcome by combining the acoustic sensor with a magnetic sensor which is less susceptible to outside interference. Modem acoustic sensors for mines are usually constructed of piezoelectric materials which detect the acoustic signature which is then fed into a low noise amplifier with a response ranging from a few Hz up to several kHz.. The problems associated with detecting ship acoustic signatures are overcome by the signal processing incorporated in the mine, in which the minute electric signals are changed into the frequency domain using a Fast Fourier Transform engine before underqomq processing from which tonal signal information can be extracted for analysis. The acoustic influence can be programmed to react to specific types of ship's signature such as propeller cavitation, engine noise, hull cavitation or shaft revolutions and even imperfections in this regular sound pattern, when these are known.


The traditional magnetic sensor is based on an induction coil (usually reterred to as the coiled rod) which responds to the rate of change in the magnetic field surrounding the mine rather than the actual magnetic field. It usually operates in a single axis of detection with a low sensitivity. Modern ground mines, on the other hand, usually incorporate a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer which incorporates a filter which separates Into several components the earth's static field, the target's static field and altemating fields in the immediate vicinity of operation. The magnetometer is much smaller and more highly sensitive than the induction coil, with a much lower self-noise signature. Unlike the acoustic sensor, the magnetic sensor is less influenced by outside interferences for their strength is less than the earth's magnetic field. This makes it easier to filter out the unwanted magnetic anomalies thus greatly assisting in the signal processing to reduce the effect of non-coherent signals. MagnetiC influence mines react to changes in the ambient magnetic field and can be fuzed to react to magnetic polarity in either a vertical plane or fore and aft or athwartships in a horizontal plane on a target, and to specific fields and strengths, reacting to specific parts of a ship such as the machinery area or stern area.

Generally, static fields of targets are detected in the 5 MHz to 5 Hz band and for undegaussed platforms the signal-to-noise ratio is usually of sufficient strength for

targets to be detected at mec stqnal-to-noise ratio is lower an' much more difficult 10 detee' detection. With degaussed pls type of magnetic field for detec created by a target's on boarc Other allernati ng fields are ere would exhibit a higher allernat currents created by rotatin generated by the wake 01 the frequency typically ranging fr sensitivity is more easily abl magnetic noise.


As a ship moves through the v hull which varies according to change can be used in a numt the mine, the decrease in pres detonate the mine.

The modern pressure sense to detect a reduction in pressi mine, These signals are extrr conditioning' are able to dete Signal created by tidal movi Mod ern signal processing er averages of the signal and to the passage of the bow an' enhancing target discriminati sensors operate on a strai. diaphragm exposed to pre: demand higher power than I resulti ng from hysterisis and Electric field

Two types of electriC field ca Potential (UEP) and the altE (ELFE). Sensors used 10 deter a sensitivity of 10 nV per met usually created by the pia propagate for some conside sensitive sensors, such fields results from the modulation' propeller, machinery, generE defined as the UEP field, part as frequency increases. Or sensitivity in the ELFE band noise in the ELFE field is mur results in a much higher pre band.


When acoustic wave fronts manating from a target at below 10 Hz strike the seabed, some of the energy s changed into velocity or seismic energy, which is then more easily retransmltu I into the surrounding environment. It is this seismic energy which is used to dete the presence of a target. Because of the form of the energy it is not necessary fa any part of the sensor to be in contact with the sea through which the energy pa ses. This means til at seismic sensors are not unduly affected when mines becorr buried in sediment or mud on the seabed.

Seismic sensors are eithE based on the piezo-electnc accelerometer, or on a pendulous mass Which inca orates a permanent magnet and a fixed sensor coil. Both have advantages ana lisadvantages. The accelerometer uses electronic processing to derive a velocr signal, while the pendulous mass has to be mounted in such a way that.the rnech 1ism is maintained in the correct plane of operation using a gimbal-type mounti ~. This requires a certain delicacy of construction which is not required by th accelerometer. On the other hand, the pendulous mass provides a direct real 19 signal proportional to the velocity and does not require any signal processin

rrn range. However, with degaussed vessels the :he form of the signature is very different, making it 3. target with consequent reduction in range of orms, therefore. it is necessary to use a different In, and this is usually the alternating magnetic field electric generating and other electrical systems. ed through corrosion currents (that is, a rusty ship g field in this region than a newly built ship), eddy

machinery and magneto-hydrodynamic fields .hlp. These fields are all of low intensity, but at a 11 5 to 500 Hz, the modern sensor with its high to detect them against the lower background

.ter an area of law pressure is created beneath the 1e speed and draught of the vessel. This pressure r of ways to operate the pressure sensing device in ure opening and completing an electrical circuit to

IS based on piezoelectric materials which are used e caused by the passag e of a vessel over or near a lely small, but modern electronics used in signal , the small target signals against the much larger 1ent and the static water head above the mine. bles the system to compare short and long term reasurs the duration af pressure pulses created by stern of a target through the water, thus further 1 against other extraneous signals. Other pressure gauge principle in which the deformation of a ure signals is measured. However, these latter e piezoelectric sensor and are lower in resolution In-Iinear problems.

be used to detect a target. the Underwater Electric 1aling field or Extra Low-Frequency Electric field these fields operate in the 5 MHzto 1 kHz band with per root Hertz. The UEP static field of a platform is orm's cathodiC protection system. These fields ible distance beyond a vessel and with sufficiently an be detected at reasonable ran ges. The ELFE field the target's static field by moving parts such as the rrs, shafts and so on. The ELFE field is not so well ularly in deep water and propagation falls off quickly :he other hand, influence sensors have a higher ompared to the UEP band, while the background lower than that associated with UEP signals, which

ability of detection in the ELFE band than the UEP


Brazil/MINES 329




Moored contact mine.


The MCF-100 moored contact rmne was developed in the 1980's.


The MCF-100 moored contact mine is designed for use against submarines and surface ships at depths between 3 and 50 m in strong currents. It can be laid at bottom depths between 10 and 100 rn, The mine can be programmed to remain inert on the bottom for a fixed period of time and then to self-release and anchor itself at the desired depth.

The newly developed installation procedure allows the mine to be moored with an accuracy in anchoring level of 0.50 m independently of currents and surface waves.

During 1992, Consub, in co-operation with the Brazilian Navy Research Institute, completed development of an influence (magnetic and acoustic) sensor which will. increase the efficiency at the MCF-100. The sensor replaces the contact head assembly in the mine. This sensor can also be used in combination with up to three explosive modules. a priming charge and fuze, resulting in a powerful ground influence mine which could also be deployed lrom submarine torpedo tubes.

Three different versions of this mine are available: combat (MCF-100C), exercise (MCF-100E) and handling simulation (MCF-l00M).

The MCF-100 can also be supplied with modular skids allowing: (a) smaller storage area

(b) easier and safer transportation

(c) the skids can also be mounted and aligned on almost any COOP vessel to create a modular rail deployment system.

Operational status

The mine has been exhaustively tested by the Brazilian Navy. It has also been designed to meet US Navy military standards. A contract for 100 mines was plaoed

MCF-l00 stored in modular skids reducing storage space requirements

MCF-l00 In s.kid faci/itating handling

by the, Brazilian Navy in August )91. Since then the Brazilian Navy has purchased the MCF-100 on a regular basis rile submarine Tikuna carries 32 01 these mines.


Length: 1,400 mm

Width: 1,020 mm

Height: 1,500 mm Wei9ht: 770 kg

Charge: 160 kg Trotyl Operating depth: 3-50 m Mooring depth: 1 ().100 m


DSND Consub SA, Rio de Jane a, 1980s



Type Limpet mine,


The MCT limpet mine consists magnets and programming am

The mine is designed to alia structures in locations down

. fou r modules: a casing, explosive charge, set of 'iring module.

explosives to be placed on ferromagnetic naval depths of 30 m. The programming and firing

MCF-100 mine on launching rail

Jar .'s Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2005

330 MINES/Brazil-Bulgaria

carvas explosivas (CE'$)

pinos de eenexac magnetos

grampasde: fi><a~o


MGT limpet mine with typical damage caused to ferromagnetic material

(OSNO Consub SA) 0077633

module is fitted with a switch panel, through which the operator can adjust the timing of detonation between 25 minutes and 24 hours,

Specifications Length: 428 mm Width: 375 mm Height: 70.5 mm Weight

(in water) 1 kg

(in air) 15 kg

Charge: 6 kg Plastex Operating depth: 30 m

Power source: 3 x 3.6 V lithium batteries


DSND Consub SA, Rio de Janeiro.




Moored influence mine.


The MFI intelligent acoustic/magnetic moored influence mine is designed for operations against both surface ships and submarines.

It is intended for laying at depths between 10 and 90 m and the mooring device is precise offering accuracy of ±1 ,0 m.

The mine casing is structural aluminium protected with a corrosion resistance material allowing the mine to remain in an aggressive environment for lang periods 01 time.

Two different and independent mechan lcat locks assure maximum safety. The influence mechanism is equipped with a highly sensitive triaxial magnetometer and hydrophone and a nuggedised control unit. The control unit detects magnetic and acoustic signals, feeding them to a preselected detonation algorithm. The unit also maintains a housekeeping algorithm which measures power saving, detonation and sterilisatioro parameters in addition to target validation.

Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems 2004·2005

Specific parameters (insul. on depth, sterilisation time and so on) can be programmed immediately p or to laying using a portable field test and programmer unit. The mine ca be set to activate from 1 to 72 hours in 1 hour steps.

The MFI mine family incorp- ates a dual purpose skid suitable for transporation and minelaying,

Operational status Developed and in service.


Length: 1,400 mm

Width: 1,020 mm

Height: 1,500 mm

Weight: 680 kg

Charge: 160 kg Trotyl Operating depth: 15 to 100 I Mooring depth: 10 to 50 m


DSND Gonsub SA, Rio de Ja slro,




Type Anti-invasion mine.


The PDM-2H, developedfror the earlier POM·2C-2, is a microprocessor-controlled antl-invasicn mine. The bat ''1 powered mine is designed tor laying in fields configured for the protectio of vital shore irostallations and areas susceptible to amphibious assault. The mir lields can be remotety controlled either from a shore station or from a surface ves ~1.

The PDM·2H is designed f - an operating environment of between -15to +55°C at depths of 5 to 15 m. It ( n be programmed with a lifetime ranging from 30 minutes up 10 24 hours, n reaching its preprogrammed lifetime the mine

deactivates, when it can be raised for reprogramming. All programming of the mine is carried out prior to laying.

The battery is supplied by Germanos of Greece while Pyrkal supplies the power management system.

Operational status

Currently being assembled by Pyrkal in Greece.


Bulgarian Academy of Sciences' Institute of Metal Science, Sofia.





RocKet propelled rising mine.


The Chinese Navy, which largely relies upon former Soviet-designed naval mines, has developed an 'intelligent' sea mine actuation system for what are described as 'large' and 'medium' moored mines.

The rocket propelled rising mine, EM 52, developed around 198f, closely resembles the first Russian Cluster rising mine. It features a programmable central processor which can accept inputs from acoustic and magnetic sensors and. optionally, pressure sensors as well. It incorporates a ship counter system (up to a count of 99) which can permit up to 15 actuations before detonation, a delay mechanism of up to 250 days before arming and a self-destruction timer for up to 500 days. There are eight operating modes which are believed to be mixtures of fuze and logic settings to meet different operational or environmental conditions. The EM' 55 can operate in one of three modes: straight rising, vectoring or homing'.

Operational status

In service. Reports indicate IT may be in service with Iranian forces.

Specifications Length: 3,700 mm Diameter: 450 mm Weight: 620 kg

Charge: 140 kg R5-21 1 Operating depth: 200 m


Dalian Warship Institute, Dalian.




Rocket propelled rising mine.


The rocket propelled rising mine EM 55. closely resembles the first Russian Cluster rising mine. It features a programmable central processor which can accept inputs from acoustic and magnetic sensors and, optionally. pressure sensors as well. It incorporates a ship counter system (up to a count of 99) which can permit up to 15 actuations before detonation, a delay mechanism of up to 20 days before arming and a selt-destruction timer for up to 360 days. Activation is either active or passive acoustic or magnetic, or a combination of any of the three influences. The EM 55 can operate in one of three modes: straight rising, vectoring or homing. The weapon is manufactured in two sizes for deployment by both submarines (533 mm version) and surface ships (450 mm version).

Operational status

In service. Reports indicate it may be in service with Iranian forces.


Length: 3,500 or 3,350 mm Diameter: 450 or 533 mm Weight: 620 or 840 kg Charge: 130 kg R5-211 Operating depth: 200 m


Dalian Warship Institute, Dalian.

OM 51 (SAl)

Type Anti-invasion mine.

Bulgaria-Germany/MINES 331

l iermany


STN ATLAS Elektronik has devel oed tha DM 51 SAl (Seemine Anti-Invasion) mine under a bilateral programme in, mjunction with the German MoD and Denrnar«, Designed to counter shallow dr; t amphibious vessels, the mine is fitted with an active acoustic fuze. The weapo can also be remotely detonated.

NEW ENTRY Cutaway of OM 61

Operational status

SAl was prod uced for the Germ; Navy and Denmark between 1982-90.

Specifications Length: 750 mm Diameter: 300 mm Weight: 110 kg Charge: 60 kg HE


ATLAS Elektronik GmbH, Brerne /Wedel.

OM 61


Seabed influence mine.



Development commenced in 191 I and was com pleted in 1986.


The DM 61 (SM G2) heavywei\ blocking shipping lanes, and for sea areas.

The mine comprises an equi and pressure influence sensors, and signal processing electronic and safety devices.

The sensors detect target si pressure) which are then anaiys preprogrammed data held in signatures. When certain preset environmental factors filtered out range for that target, the detonate programs and parameters are fe programming units; particular tac weapon just before laying.

t, non-magnetic seabed mine is designed for ying defensive minefields in coastal waters and

nent section incorporating acoustic, magnetic hich can operate individually or in combination and an explosive charge section with detonator

vaturee (acoustic LF or audio, magnetic and d by the signal processor and compared with e computer's programmable library of ship arameters are recognised with unwanted local ange to the target estimated and at the optimum is actuated and the mine explodes. The analysis into the onboard computer via the testing and cal parameters can still be prog rammed into the

Operational status

Serial production has been au orised under a MoU between Denmark and Germany and assembly was carr d out in German and Danish naval arsenals. For training purposes an exercise rm e is available, and for data acquisition of ships' signatures a special version is al: available.

A total of 1,058 units were m rufactured for the German Navy by 1994 with further deliveries planned. An l known number have been purchased by the Danish Navy.


Length: 2,000 mm (approx) Diameter: 600 mm (approx)

Jane Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2005,

332 MINES/Germany-Italy

Weight: 750 kg (approx)

Operating temperature range: -2.5 to +38"C


ATLAS Elektronik GmbH, BremenfWedel (prime contractor).


Limpet IMine Type

Anti-ship mine.


Developed in 1994 and designed specifically for use by divers and frogmen, the mine is completely self-contained within a glass fibre shell. The device is attached to the target either by six powerful magnets or, in the case of a non-magnetictarget, by a syslem of straps. Once fixed to the target, the frogman sets the timing device and starts a mechanical timer by removing the satety-arrnlnq pin. After a period of 20 minutes the mine is armed and exploded at the preset time by an electronic detonator. The mine incorporates countermeasure devices to prevent removal and disarming. The explosive is capable of blasting a hole 240 mm in diameter through 20 mm thick steel plate.

SpecifIcations Diameter: 310 mm Depth: 135 mm Weight: 6 kg

Explosive, 1 kg RDXjTNT

'Operational status In production.


C- TEG, New Delhi.


Mine Target Detection Device Type

Influence package for updating mines.


Large quantities of old sea mines, manufactured shortly after the end of the Second World War, still remain in many inventories around the world. Both technically and operationally, these mines are now considered obsolete and are unable to comply with the modem requirements of naval mine warfare. In addition, their firing devices, designed and using technology of 40 years ago, are no longer reliable and are thus often unusable. Modern targets present operational, constructional and passive countermeasure techniques completely different from those extant when these mines were designed. To be effective, such mines require a modern, sophisticated and intelligent firing mechanism.

To meet these requirements a refit package, based on the Target Detection Device (TDD) which can be fitted inside the original mine casing and allowing the mine to retain its main charge, was developed in 1985. The TOO can operate over a wide range of pressure and magnetic sensors, as well as different acoustic

Typical elements incorporated in an updated Mk 13 Mod 6 mine

Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2005



frequencies. TDD can be used 0 update any type of mine, both ground and moored. The refit TDD package also availabte in exercise versions.

Operational status

The TDD is currently in product! 1. Incorporated in the M0-90 mine of Spain.


SEI SpA, Ghedi (Brescia).


IMk 31


Underwater charge.


The Mk 31 is designed to be carr d by a Chariot (one per Chariot) to attack ships at anchor or alongside a pier, or tc attacking oil rigs and pipelines. On arrival at the target, the charge is released frc 1 the Chariot and towed by the combat divers to the position where il is 10 be laic

The charge is armed by twoe ctronlc fuzes.

Operational status Developed.

Specificat;ions Length: 2,000 mm Diameter: 470 mm Weight: 290 kg (in air) Charge: 220 kg


Cosmos SpA, Livorno.


Mk 31 underwater demolition cl rge


Scbemetic of Mk 31 charge (Co nos)


IMk 41


Underwater charge.


The Mk41 is designed to be carr d by a Chariot (two per Chariot) to attack ships at anchor or alongside a pier, or fe attacking oil rigs and pipelines. On arrival at the target, the charge is released trc 1 the Chariot and towed by the combat divers to the position where it is to be laic

The charge is armed by an ell rtronic fuze.

Operational status Developed.

Italy/MINES 333

Mk 41 underwater demolition charge

Schematic of Mk 41 charge (Cosmos)

Specifications Length: 995 mm Diameter: 470 mm Weight: 147 kg (in air) Charge: 105 kg


Cosmos SpA, Livomo.


Mk 414/430


Limpet mines.


These light underwater charges are designed for attacking ships at anchor or alongside port installations, oil rigs and pipelines. They are carried by Chariots in the equipment containers used by commandos. The charges are easily transported and secured to a target by the combat divers.

Operational status Developed.



Schematic of Mk 414 limpet line (Cosmos)


Weight: <0.5 kg (in sea wate Charge: 7 kg

Specifications Mk 430 Height: 230 mm

Diameter Ibas,;": 420 mm Weight: <0.5 kg (in sea wate Charge: 15 kg



Cosmos SpA, Livorno.


MN 102. - Murena


Multi·influence seabed mine.


Murena, currently in product n, is the third generation of SEI mines and results from the upqradinq olthe 'MR 0 arid 'MP-80/MRP mines. The weapon is a general· purpose advanced influence ine developed for the Italian Navy and is currently in service with several navies th >ughout the world.


Murena is a multi-influence s abed mine designed to be effective against a wide range of targets.

The mine logic is based OJ l unique analysis of target acoustic, magnetic and pressure signatures and proves the operator with a high degree of flexibility. The precision reached in target en sltlcatlon and localisation makes Murena extremely effective against a wide rang of targets and resistant to mine countermeasures. Special background noise, dE th and tide compensation guarantees the best 'kill' probability in any envlronrne tal scenario. The option of remote cable control increases the flexibility, enab 19 the mine to be used in harbour, strait and port defences.

The mine consists of a cl ndrical shaped casing constructed of glass fibre impregnated with epoxy resin vhich houses the explosive, target detection device (TOO) and safety and arming Ievice. The TOO can be easily extracted from the casing for maintenance. TOO afety against removal or flooding is verified during

Mk 414 limpet mine (Josh Corless)

0089212 MNI02 Murena live version m e (SEI SpA)

J~ a's Underwater Warfare Systems 2004·2005


334 MilNES/Italy

Murena target detection device (TDD) (SEI SpA)


operating life by anti-tampering and anti-tloodinq devices. The mine is shaped SO as to provide it with the best in water trajectory during laying.

The mine can be laid by surface vessels, aircraft and clandestinely delivered from submarine torpedo tubes.

Murena is also available in 'exercise and dummy variants suitable tor training simulation, target data acquisition and sea trials. The exercise variant can be used in the SEI mine warfare ranges (MWR).

O,perational status

In production and in service with the Italian Navy and many other navies.


Length: 2,096 mm Dlameterz 533 mm

Weight: 780 kg

Charge: 630 kg HBX-3 Operational depth: 6-300 m


SEI SpA, Ghedi (Brescia).


MN 103 Manta


Stealth shallow water antHnvasion mine.


The MN 103 Manta is a multi-influence sea mine designed to be effective against landing craft and small to medium tonnage vessels, It's unique shape. low target strength and law magnetic signature make the mine very difficult to detect Its shape- and in water weight make it remarkably stable on the bottom, even in rivers, channels and in the presence of currents.

The mine's logi c is based on 5 rte-ot-the-art analysis of the targel's acoustic and magnetic influences. The option f cable remote control increases the flexib Ility of use in harbour, strart or port def Ice,

The mine, which can be laic by surface vessels. helicopters and aircraft, is available in warshot, exercise, d dummy variants for training, simulation and target data acquisition and sea t 3015.

Operational status

The mine is in production and Sf lice with the Italian and many other navies. It has been combat proven in a numbs of situations and a number of Manta mines were cleared from Kuwaiti waters atte the first Gulf War.


Diameter: 980 mm

IHeight: 440 mm

Weight: 220 kg (in air) Charge: 130 kg TNT or HBX·3 Operational depth:' 3-100 m

Contractor SEI SpA, Ghedi.


EXE105 Manta exercise mine « J SpA)


A live version of Manta (SEI Spl



MN 103 Manta shallow water anti-invasion influence mine. Key to diagram: (1) main charge (2) booster(3} detonator{4} pnming device (5) firing mechanism (6) battery

(7), acoustic transducer(Bl magnetic sensor (g) calibrated holes A Manta mine after a week on t ! seabed (SEI SpA)

Jane's Underwater W,arfare Systems 2004-2005


juws.janes .. com

MN 105 Seppia


MultHnfluence moored mine.


Seppia is a multHnftuence moored mine which offers high flexibility, operating capability, effectiveness and reliability that assures a successful mining strategy in any naval scenario. The mine can be laid by surface vessels and aircraft and can operate in any type of sea against both surface and submerged targets according to the laying depth.

The mine's logic is based on a state-of-the-art analysis of the target's acoustic and magnetic influences.

The mine comprises a cylindrical shaped casing of glass fibre impregnated with epoxy resin which houses the explosive, TOO and safety and arming device mooring system (SADMS), which allows the mine to be laid at the required depth, The TOO can easily be extracted from the casing for maintenance.

Seppia is also available in exercise and dummy variants suitable for training, simulation, target data acquisition and sea trials. The exeroise variant can be used in th.e SEI MWR.

Operational status

In production and in service with the Italian and other navies.


Length: 1,560 mm

Diameter: 533 mm

Weight: 870 kg (in air) Charge: 200 kg HBX-3 Operational depth: 20-300 m

Contractor SEI SpA, Ghedi.


MN 105 Seppia moored mine (SEI SpA)

NEW!' 020473



Seabed Influence mine.


Designed in co-operation with the Italian Navy to meet a requirement for an influence seabed mine capable of meeting the latest concepts on mining doctrine.


The MP-80 uses the same general mechanical structure as the previous MR-80, but with an updated firing mechanism and the addition of sophisticated data processing to improve performance. The target detection device uses four microprocessors to provide digital processing of target signatures (magnetic, pressure and/or acoustic) and comparison with an on board threat library. The system can discriminate between targets and countermeasures and, when presented with multiple choice targets, selects the most suitable.

Activation is by combined magnetic, acoustic and pressure sensors controlled by the programmable microprocessor. Arming and neutralisation delay time is also programmable.

Operational status

No longer in production. Remains in service wfth the Italian, Indian and other navies. Replaced by MN 102 Murena.


Length: 2,096 mm Diameter: 533 mm

Weight: 780 kg (approx) Charge: 620 kg HBX-3 Operational depth: 6-300 m


SEI SpA, Ghedi (Brescia).




Seabed influence mine.


Developed in the early 1960s, t any type of platform and is ac pressure, low-frequency acous and is able to damage or sink conventional or nuclear power! fibre, which renders the mine r previous generation mines. The tail section contains all the actu means of a cover, which hou: together with the safety and an

All mfluenoe devices are cor safety intervals, sterilisation, in and filing control are located.

The sale plate supporti ng all linked to the cover by slides the of the crown, the tail cover is e; way every part of the mine is a.

Operational status

Entered service in the early 196 remains in service with the Ita Turkey, Iraq developed a mine MN 102 Murena.

Italy/MINES 335

, MR-80 cylindrical seabed mine can be laid from ated by a combination of influences (magnetic, " audio high-frequency acoustic) from the target Irface vessels and submarines of all types either . The cylindrical body is of epoxy resin and glass slstant to sea corrosion and makes it lighter than 1ain body contains the explosive charge, while the ion, prtming and operating devices. It is closed by s the acoustic, magnetic and pressure sensors ng device.

ected to a central unit, where all delay functions, .ience combinations, ship counting, anti-femoval

1e electronic modules and the magnetic sensor is -un inside the tail section. By unscrewing the bolts lIy removed with all the devices linked to it; in this .essible for assembly and adjustment operations.

s with the Italian Navy. No longer in production, but 10 Navy, Reportedly sold to Greece, Norway and vhich was very similar to the MR-80. Replaced by


Leng1h: 2,750 mm (Mod A); 2, ~6 mm (Mod B); 1,646 mm (Mad C) Diameter: 533 mm

Weight: 565-1,035 kg (accordi g to model and type of explosive)

Charge: TNT, HBX.-3 orsimilar ts: 460, 630, 870 kg (Mod C, Mod B, Mod A) Operational depth: 5-300 m (f • surface targets and for submerged submarines)


SEI SpA, Ghedi (Brescia).


Diagram of MR-80 general ou. oss seabed influence mine



Exercise mine warfare range ( IWR).


The MWR has been develc ed to provide a realistic mine warfare training environment for naval forces which ship safety condition and MCM equipment are efficiently tested against n ~e threats in various seabed conditions, and which allows the collection of signat 'es from co-operative vessels.


The MWR architecture is full~ scalable, allowing a wide range of configurations. These range from a fast shor enrn operation deploying a single mine, to a longterm activity with numbers 01 nines in different areas according to the different logistic and environmental co stralnts of the operative scenario and environment,

the threat type and the types mine available.

The key feature of the MWR ITS real-time mine influence data acquisition and ship position tracking on the range. his allows the effective evaluation of mine and vessel performance and the supervis n of the operation. The tracking system is based on GPS ortransponder systems. ( her tracking systems can be integrated if requested.

The main function during" :M evaluation and training operations are:

• simulation of combat sceru 'as

• petiormance assessment E d risk estimation of MCM missions

• evaluation of the effectiven ss of MCM

• determination of the best n "l8sweeping techniques to counter the threat

• assessment 01 MCM tech ques (ships, drones, ROVs, divers, sweep gear) during MCM operations

J 1e'S Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2005

336 MINES/Italy-Romania

• assessment of vulnerability of friendly vessels

• measurement of the damage from a simulated mine explosion,

The main function of the MWR during mine evaluation and training operations are:

• acoustic/magnetic/pressure signature acquisition

• collection of underwater influences from co-operative vessels

• evaluation of the eflectiveness of mines against different naval targels .' determination of the optimum mine settings against various targels

• evaluation of the capability of mines to be resistant to minesweeping techniques

• mine setting activation probability and configuration effectiveness.

MWR is designed to operate with the exercise variants of Murena, Manta and Seppia. The old MR-80, MP-80 and MRP and customer's own mines can be easily integrated on the range.

The MWR can be equipped with a special sea laboratory, which allows the collection of multiple underwater influences (including ELFE and EUP signatures) from co-operative vessels to give comprehensive information on mine and countermining operations.

Operational status In production.

Specifications Operational: area: 30 miles

Water depth: up to and in excess of tOO m Operating area of communication buoy: to km'


SEI SpA, Ghedi (Brescia).


Nlew Zealand



Exercise limpet mine.


The MAS exercise limpet mine, developed in 1998, is an inert device used to train navy divers in mine removal techniques. The device was originally developed to meet New Zealand Navy requirements. but export variants are also available with alternative configu rations and pertormance characteristics.

The device simulates the appearance, method of attachment, arming and activation characteristics of real limpet mines that are available internationally. The device is hemispherical in shape with a flat baseplate fitted with four magnets used to attach the device to a target. The base supports the sealed 'electronics chamber that Is housed in a thick-walled PVC casing. The entire device is protected by a rugged PVC outer casinq.

The device is fitted with a time delay counter which can be preset up to 24 hours using a to-position selector switch which is programmable to customer requirements. Once the device is attached to the target using the magnets, the arming pin is withdrawn which allows the anti-lift plungerto make contact with the hull.

The device is actuated when the time delay is reached, or if any attempt is made to remove the device. Detonation is indicated by a flashing Xenon strobe light. The strobe light is turned off by pressing the anti-lift plunger home and installing a reptacement-arming pin. An event counter provides a permanent record of activation. Power is provided by eight size 'C' cells.

An anti-lift device with incremental encoding is fitted which enhances the discrimination of the detector. When the mine is placed on the hull and the arming pin removed, the anti-lift plunger moves under spring pressure against the hull. After II few seconds, the circuitry records the datum position of the plunger and thereafter its position is monitored by the electronics. When II change of more than the preset amount (for example ±t mm) is detected, the strobe is actuated.

A proximity detector, mounted on the innermost end of the antHift plunger housing, senses when the plunger is home (that is, the device is not armed). This proximity detector is fitted with contacts so that only when the plunger moves tothe target's hull is the Circuitry powered.

A unit without the electronics chamber is available for use with limpet mine disposal equipment.

Specifications Diameter: 300 mm Depth: 170 mm Weight: 6.S kg

Operational status

In service with the New Zealand Navy and a number of other navies.


Marine Air Systems, Wellington.


Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems 2004--2005

F omania



Moored contact anti-invasion min


The MAD-t has been developed t provide coastal protection against amphibious assault landings against landing ( .ft operating in areas of water depth between 5 and 35 rn.


The moored contact mine is desi~ ed for laying in shallow waters off the coast and is effective against landing craft c d small- and medium-size surface vessels. The weapon consists of two parts: 1 e body, containing the explosive, safety and arming devices and selt-destn, t mechanism; and the Sinker, holding the mechanism for automatic anchor g and depth-setting.

The MAD-t is fitted with four co act horns set at 45° from the top afthe mine and at 90° from each other.

The mine can be laid in water' depth between 0.6 and 2.4 m, ad The mine is fitted with ar automatically anchored from sun

rpths of between 5 and 35 m with an operating stable in steps of 0_3 m.

inertial galvanic-{;ontact firing mechanism, ce to bottom.

Operational status

In production and service.

Specification Length: 700 mm Diameter: 734 mm Height: 1,160 kg Weight: 220 kg Charge: 30 kg TGAF

Operational depth: 5·35 m (min, jepth 0.6-2.4 m)

Contractor Romtehnica, Bucharest.




Shallow water seabed influence ine.


The MMA shallow water influen s rnine, developed from the Russian ADM-SaO influence mine of which a nurnbe are held in the Romanian inventory, is designed for deployment in water depths t tween 6 and 50 rn. Two variants of the mine are available, the MMA-t designed f use in rivers and the MMA-2 for use in shallow coastal waters. The mines differ i the content of the explosive charge - the MMA·t being filled with TNT and the M~ 2 with TGAG-S explosive.

The cylindrical seabed mine i~ itted with both magnetic and acoustic influence fuzes for use against surface s ps and submarines. The acoustic influence is sensitive against both LF and NF oise and the magnetic fuze uses the intensity of either the horizontal Dr vertical c, nponent of the target's magnetic field.

The mine is equipped with a ti er that activates the mine after a predetermined delay time and with a ship count

The mine is powered by alkali s-manqanese/zlnc batteries (MnO,-ZN).

Operational status

In production and service.


Length: 1,967 mm Diameter: 452 mm Weight: 572 kg

Charge: 300 kg Operational depth: 6-50 m

Contractor Romtehnica, Bucharest.


General arrangement of MMA m 'e (Romtehnica)




Type Contact mine.


Developed from the Russian KB-KRAB mine, 01 which a number are held in the Romanian inventory, the MMMCA contact mine is designed. for use against submarines and surface vessels in depths of 2 to 175 m with the sinker at depths between 12 and 390 m. The weapon is designed to operate like a limpet mine.

The mine can be programmed to remain inert for a fixed period of time.

Operational status,

In production and service.

Specificatlons Length:, 2,200 m Diameter: 925 m Height: 1,250 m Weight: 1,125 kg enarge: 240 kg trotyl

Operational depth: 12·390 m (mine depth 2·175 m)


Romteh nlca, Bucharest.


Romania- !ussian Federation/MIINIES 337

Operational status.

In production and service.

Specifications Width: 18 kg

Charge: 10 kg Operating depth: 50 m

Contractor Romtehnica, Bucharest.


Russi In IFederaUon


In 1987, the US DoD estimate inventory of 300,000 naval min includes about 100,000 moore' provided to other former Warsa countries. Among countries out received stocks of former Soviet Korea, Libya and Syria. It is also I of former Soviet design. At lsast lines 10 manufacture mines base

that the former Soviet Union possessed an s, According to US intelligence, the inventory contact mines. In addition, mines have been Pact navies and also exported to many other de the Warsaw Pact that are believed to have lines are China, Egypt, Finland, Iran, Iraq, North ely that other Third World navies possess mines .oms of these countries have set up production on these designs.

MODred mines

The RFAS is known to have at I, 1St 1 t different types of contact mine. Some of these are no longer in productio: but many of them could be encountered.

The main type is the basic c nact moored mine using an inertia type firing mechanism which can be either alvano-contact, mechanico-contact or etectncocontact.

The two smallest mines are Jesignated MYaRM and MYaM_ Both have a conventional spherical shape wit 10rns and small sinker units. The MYaRM has an explosive charge of 3 kg and i used in rivers and lakes. The MYaM has an explosive charge of 20 kg and is sed in lakes and shallow coastal areas to protect them from small' boats and lane Ig craft. The MYaM is thought to have entered se rvice immediately.after the Sec nd World War and was first encountered in 1952 :by the US Navy. It has been used y both the Iranians and Iraqis in the Persian Gulf.

The rnedlurn-sized moored C itact mine is largely confined to the extensive

0110110 stocks of the M-08 series use for coastal defence barriers. The M'{)8 was

Outline of MMMCA contact mine (Romtetmica)


Type Limpet mine,


The Mp·2 limpet mine has been developed from the earlier Mp·2 variant.


The Mp·2 limpet mine is designed for use against ships and underwater platforms. It features improved security against removal from the target through the incorporation of a modernised electric panel. The mine is fixed to the target by means of magnets and with special screws provided on the mine.

The weapon is filted. with a time fuze and clock mechanism with time settings ranging: from 1'0 minutes to 3 hours. Fuze activation is performed after the mine has been fixed to the tarqet,

developed in 1908 and rernain robust, reliable, spherical mine mec han ism consists of 5 Hz he M·08 can be laid' in up to t 10 m , were, according to US inteliiger from components supplied by th M·08 themselves.

There are two improved vers identical to the M'()8 except that to the anchor, enabling them to t devised a version of the M'16 in with only one mine case being detonates, the second mine is rE

The M·26 is totally different fro When armed, a shock causes allowing the trigger to strike per entire mine comes to rest on the anchor. Although this makes it impossible 10 use the M·26 in de. pressures. The M·26 has been u

ill widespread service in various navies. The ; filled with 115 kg of explosive and the firing is, Intended for use against surface ships, the water. The M-OB mines used in the Persian Gu If e reports, assembled by the Iranians, probably North Koreans, who apparently manufacture the

ns af the M'{)8: the M·t2 and. M·tS, which are ey have longercables connecting: the mine case laid in deeper waters. In addition, the RFAS has nich two of them are linked together in tandem, eleased at a time. If the first mine is swept or rased.

the M'()8, using a PL T inertial firing mechanism. re trigger shalt to move out of position, thus ission caps that detonate the main charge, The ottom before the mine case is released from the xssible 10 use a simple anchor, it also makes it ) water, where the case might be cnushed by high 3d by the North Koreans.

Block schematic of Mp·2 mine



M~AG antenna mine

Jan. s Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2005

338 MINES/Russian Federation

Firing mechanism for KMD mine

The M-K'B is a large mine with a 230 kg explosive charge inte nded for use in deep waters down to 300 m. It operates in much the same way as the M'{)B and even uses some of the M'{)8's components. The M-KB is known to have been supplied to a number of countries including Egypt and North Korea.

Several variants of the M-KB mine have appeared. The case of the M-KB-3 is 6 in shorter with a corresponding reduction In the size of its explosive charge. The M-AG is almost identical to the M-KB except that it also has an antenna firing device and can be laid in considerably deeper water. The mine has a 35 m long upper antenna and a 24 m long lower antenna. The antenna operates by generating an electric current when the copper wire of the antenna comes into contact with the steel hull of a surface ship or submarine. The mine is intended primarily for use as an ASW weapon as it increases the vertical area covered by the mine. Antenna mines tend to be unreliable, however, and most countries now use influence mines for ASW.

The AMG·l is a. version of the M-KB adapted lor air delivery. Not being fitted with a parachute, it must be laid at low altitudes and slow speeds. However, because of its high~mpact velocity IT can penetrate several inches of ice. Because of this feature it is possible that this otherwise obsolescent mine might still be used operationally by the RFAS.

Two contact mines exist which can be laid by submarines, the PLT and PLT-3.

The large PL T can only be laid by specially designed submarines fitted with an internal minelaying mechanism. As there are no such submarines operational. the PLT is likely to be encountered only if laid by surface ships. 'The newer PLT-3, however, can be laid through submarine torpedo tubes.

It is likely that the RFAS has additional types of moored mines in her inventory.

According to one report there is an acoustic moored mine, and it would seem probable that a magnetic influence moored mine has also been developed. These could be versions of existing moored mines fitted with influence sensors. It is also probable that the RFAS has developed a new aircraft-delivered moored mine. The AMG-1 is a primitive weapon not suited for deployment from modern high-speed aircraft. Hence, the appearance of a new moored mine fitted with either a contact or an influence firing mechanism would not be surprising.

Mine protectors

Because of the ease with which moored mines can be swept, the RFAS has developed the MZ-26 mine protector. Attached by a cable to an anchor is a magazine with a buoyancy chamber and four floats. The magazine is normally set

I be up to 46 m deep. Each of the floats is sually 12 m long. The floats contain a small {hen a sweep cable comes into contact with 19 minesweeping operations. Although the rat is automatically released when one is potential for cutting up to four sweep wires. ctlcn with M-16 tandem mines.

Egyptian KMD mines on display in 1 '7

to float at a depth of 18m, but it c: attached to the chamber by a cable explosive charge which is detonated it, cutting the sweep cable. and hal float is destroyed, a replacement destroyed. Thus each MZ-26 has lh, The protectors can be used in conju

Seabed mines

Relatively little is known about Rus an influence mines. The first seabed mine available in any quantity was the KM developed in the late 19405. The AMD is an aircralt-delivered version of the K~ ). It was first identified in the late 19505

but early variants first entered s, featured a single channel, two-pulse variants noted in the 19505 carrie exploder. Subsequent variants wet sensor: acoustic (using either or b generated by the target), magnetic ( or vertical component of the target field), pressure, or a combination fir; influences in conjunction. The KII. set to activate the mine after a delay ship counter that requires up to 11 E Both mines can carry either 500 k been exported to other former War!. World.

The former Soviet Union is known in the past 30 years. The first of these Libyans in the Red Sea. According diameter, suggesting it was desigr believed to have been of modular ( enabled the sensitivity to be altered ~ The mine carried an explosive chart

It is probable that several differen' an alr-deployed version of the subn was large, it is probable that srnalk latest types of ground mine proba

Type IMine Firing mechanism
Bottom AMD-1000 Influence
AM 0-500 Influence
KMO-l000 Influence
KM0-500 Influence
Mirab Influence - magnetic
Mobile ? Influence
Moored AMG-l Contact - chemical horn
M-08 Contact - chemical horn
M-12 Contact - chemical horn
M-16 Contact - chemical horn
M·26 Contact - inertial
M-AG Antenna
M"!(B Contact - chemical horn
M·KB-3 Contact - chemical horn
MYaM Contact - chemical horn
MYaRM Contact - chemical horn
PLT Contact - impact·inert.iai
PLT-3 Contact - chemical horn
UEP? Influence - electrical
Obstructor MZ-26
Rising 'Cluster Bay' Influence - acoustic
'Cluster Gulf Influence - acoustic Overall weight 987 kg

987 kg 500 kg 279 kg

1,034 kg

1,089 kg 1,089 kg. 1.061 kg 175 kg

839 kg 998 kg

413 kg

Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2005

vi ce in 1942. The first variants (AM 0-1) iaqnetic influence exploder while the A'MD-.2 a combined acoustic/magnetic influence fitted with one of fou r different types of .h low-frequency and high-frequency noise

lying on either the intensity of the horizontal magnetic field or the rate of change of its ;j mechanism using two or all three different ) mine is fitted with a timer that can be up to 10 days, and it can also be fitted with a tivations before the mine actually detonates. or 1,000 kg of explosives, and both have w Pact navies and to countries in the Third

) have developed additional influence mines vas identified in 1985 after being used by the published reports the mine was 533 mm in d for submarine deployment. The mine is sign wrth replaceable circuit boards, which cording to the type of target to be countered. of 680 kg.

ypes of ground mine are available, including rine-Iaunched mine. As that particular mine anti-invasion ground mines also exist. The y follow Westem practice in that they are

EJtplosive 'Minelayi!l.g depth case depth
charqe Min Ylax Min Max
782 kg 4m 100m Om 54.9m
299 kg 4m 'Om Om 24.4 m
762 kg 4m '00 m Om 54.9m
300 kg 4m 'Om Om 24.4m
64 kg 2m Om 9.1 m
40m 'Om Om
262 kg 13m '00 m 2m 9m
115 kg 6m 110m am 6rn
115 kg 6m 147 m Om 6m
116 kg 6m 166m Om 6m
240 kg 6m 139 m 1 m 8m
230 kg BOrn 154 m Om 91 m
230 kg Om 100m Bm 9m
200 kg Om 173m Om 9m
20 kg 3m ,am 1 m 3m
3 kg 314m jOm 2m
230 kg 9m 139m Om 9m
100 kg Om 128m Om 9m
227 kg Om 190m Om
1 kg 24 m IBm Om 34 m
230 kg 80m ~OOm Om 609.6 m
230 kg 80m ~.OOO m Om Iranian M-08 mines captured by the US Navy in the Persian Gulf

An Egyptian KMD mine. The AMD mine is similar

programmable mtcroprocessor-controued types, whose mechanisms call also be retrofitted into existing warstocks.

While tile RFAS has exported its newer mines to countries as diverse as Libya and Fin land, it is u nl ikely that they will incorporate firing devices as so phisticated as those fitted in the former Soviet Navy's inventory,

Specialised mines

Several special purpose mines intended for a deep water ASW role have been developed, Two such weapons are the torpedo shaped, rocket-propelled, tethered rising mines, NATO designation 'Cluster Bay' (operating in water 80to .200 m deep) and 'Cluster Gulf' (which can be laid in 2,000 m of water) which first entered service during the 19705, The speed of rise of this rocket-propelled mine is understood to be about 155 kt,

Targets are initially detected by a passive acoustic sensor and located by transmissions from an active acoustic sensor, If the target is confirmed as being within the vertical attack zone, the tether is cut and the rocket ignited, The fast upward speed allows very little time for the target to evade the device if its launch has been detected.

The RFAS also developed an Underwater Electric Potential (UEP) mine, Nothing is known about this mine, except that the firing mechanism operates by detecting the electrical field generated by a target,

It is possible also that the RFAS has developed a mobile mine similar to those used by the US Navy, Mobile mines are attached to torpedoes, making it possible for a submarine to lay a mine at a distance from the location where the mine is released into the water.


The RFAS is believed to have a small stockpile of nuclear mines with yields ranging between 5 and 20 kT for use against high-value surface units and base targets, Laying of these mines is almost certainly assigned to specially selected SSKjSSN units,

Operational status

The following list is considered to typify inventories of some navies with whom the former Soviet Union was in close contact. However, many of these mines are obsolescent and may no longer be retained in inventories,

China: MYaM, M-OB, M,12, M-16, M-26, M-KB, PLT-3, KMD, AMD

Egypt: MYaM, 'M~8. M-KB, KMD, A'MO

Iran: MYaM, M-OB, M-26(?),

Iraq: MYa'M

North Korea: MYaM, M~8, M·12, 'M·26, M-KB, PLT-3, KMO, AMD Libya: MYa'M

Poland: KMD, AMO

Russian FederationjMINIES 339

Russia: MYaM, M'()8, M-1 M-16, M·KB, M-AG, PLT-3,KMO, AMD, VEP, Cluster Bay, Cluster Gutf

Bulgaria: KMD, AMD

MDM series


Seabed mines,


This family of seabed influ platforms, The MDM-1 a torpedo tubes of submarii lau rlchi ng from surface s aircraft, These mines dif parach ute is dispensed wi from a much lower altitud view, il does give rise to s. resulting from high-speed possibility of deep penetn stabilisers which also hel~

The MDM-1 features at type and conventional dev surface ships with rails an speed Ira rn surface ships

The MDM-2 is laid tror features a tnree-cnanr-cl functional devices includ il The MDM-3/5 are fitted pressure influences and ( MDM-2, These mines are The MDM 6 is basically

magnetic sensor combine The influence exploder The MOM-3/4/5 were d


Ice mines is desigl1ed for delivery from a wide range of j MDM-6 variants are designed for layingtrom the is and surface ships, while the MDM-2 is designed for ps. MDM-3 and MDM-5 are designed: to be laid by r from most normal air-launched mines in that the I, enabling the mine to be laid much more covertly and , While this is advantageous from the tactical poi nt of 'ere technical design problems with regard to damage 1 pact with the water, the possibility of ricochet, and the on of solt seabed, This is overcome by the use of soft o ensure accuracy of placement.

o-channel influence exploder of the acoustic-magnetic es, a timing device and ship counter. It can be laid from stern ramps or from submarine' torpedo tubes, Laying between 4 and 15 kt and from submarines 4 to 8 kt, surface ships at speeds of between 4 and 10 kt. It coustic influence fuze and a set of protective and J a time delay, ship counter and salt-destruct unit,

lith a three-channel fuze using acoustic, magnetic and rries a set of protective and functional devices as the id trom air or surface vessel platforms.

1 MDM-1 with a pressure sensor added to the acoustic/ In,

all versions has an operating radius 01 50 to 60 rn. /elopeo for export,

Operational status

According to unconflrmec eports the MOM·6 is to be deployed: by the new 'Yasen' class from its torpedo tub •.

Diameter 533mm 79 mm 450mm 6,50mm 630mm 533mm
L'ength 2,850 mm 2,: Omm 1,580/ 2,790/ 3,060/ 2,860 mm
1,530mm 2,300 mm 2,400 mm
Weight 1,1'20 kg I,' 3 kg 525/635 kg 1,370/ 1,500/ 1,120kg
1,420 kg 1,470 kg
Charge 960 kg 95 kg 300 kg 950 kg 1,350 kg 96D kg
Operating 12-120 m 12 25m 15-35 rn 15-125m 15-300 m 12-120 m
Dvigatel, St Petersburg,


Continental shelf mine,


The 'MSHM is desiqnec for use against submarines and surface ships in continental shelf waters at epths between 60 and 300 rn, The weapon is fitted with an acoustic sensor which etects and identifies the target, establishes the course' and speed and computes he required intercept trajectory before the underwater rocket is fired, The rocke hen homes on to the target using its acoustic homing device,

The mine is constructe with a double-casing with a large air gap in between, This effectively reduces II 'impact velocity performance of a panatrator by some 25 per cent. The mine cal remain on the seabed for up to a year,

Specifi'cations Diamele.r: 533 mm Length: 4,000 mm Weight: 1,500 kg Charge: 250 kg

Operating depth: 60-300 1

Contract.or Rosoboronexport, Mosco


Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2005


340 MINES/Russian Federation-Serbia and Montenegro


Und.erwater rocket-powered torpedo.


Developed in the mid-1970s, the PMK-l features a combined. launcher and. tethered rising mine based on a rocket-powered torpedo. Designed for attacking submarines, the on board sensor and computer detects and identifies the target, establishes the course, depth and speed and computes the required intercept trajectory before aclivating the rocket motor. Detonation is achieved using a combined influence, contact and, time luze which operates either independently or in combination.

Specifications Diameter: 533 mm

l.ength: 4,500 mm (torpedo)

7,830 moo (overall) Weight: 1,850 kg

Warhead: 324 mm diameter Charge: 350 kg HE

Speed; 30 or 60 kt

Operating depth: 200-400 m Radius of action: 1,000-1,500 m

Conlmctor Rosoboronexport, Moscow.


SMDM series


Sell-propelled seabed mines.


Developed in the 19705 from the MDS-l self-propelled seabed. mine. these mines are a development of the basic MDM seabed influence mine incorporating, a dual magnetic/acoustic sensor. combining a mine into the body of a 53-£5 KE torpedo. They are designed to be laid from submarines as defensive mine barriers in the entrances to naval bases, harbours and restricted waterways, forming part of an integrated defensive system with other weapons such as coastal defence guns, missiles and torpedoes.

The SMDM-l, after covert launch, travels up to a distance of about 10 n miles betore descending to the seabed. The trajectory and distance are preset before launch and the weapon is believed to incorporate various devices such as timing circuits for activation/deactivation, counters, target identifying algorithms and so on. The mine module incorporates either a khannel (acoustic/magnetic/ pressure) or 2-channel (acoustic/magnetic) influence exploder.

The SMDM-2 variant prototype is believed to have an extended range in the region of about 25 n miles 'based on the propulsion plant of a 650 mm torpedo.

Standard torpedoes can be adapted into SMDM'.



Di'arneter: 533 mm l.e"gth: 7 ,900 mm We'ighl: 1,980 kg

Charg:e,: 480 kg Operatlngl depth: 4-120 m


IDiameter: 650 mm Length: 11,000 mm Weight: 5,500 kg

Charge: 800 kg Opernting depth: 8-150 m


DVigatel, St Petersburg.


Serbiia and Montenegro



Diversionary underwater mine.

weapon incorporates a pyrotechnic" safety device whiCh enables full safety in handling and preparation of the mil '. Various clockwork fuze settings from a minimum of 20 minutes up to a maxir .irn of 10 hours are posstbte. FUl'!e timing is set during weapon preparation. Once 19 mine has been attached to its target and the mine safety and pyrotechnical sate f elements removed, the weapon cannot be remo v ed from the target without nskil 1 detonation.

Specifications Length: 670 rnrn Diamsler: 320 mm WIdth: 430 mm Weight: 50 kg

Charge: 27 kg TNT (approx) Operating depth: 30 m


Yugoimport SOPR, Belgrade.



Influence seabed mine.


The M70 acoustic/magnetic intl"en, seriously damage warships up to 20,OOOlonnes and over. Highly sen! make the weapon extremely effect defensive roles.

The mine can be laid from submar submarine (150 m) and anti-surface depths can be preselected.

The detonating system comprise electrical devices using printed circuit compact, robust and resistant to vic conditions for long periods of time.


, seabed mine is designed to destroy or ,000 tcnnes and merchant sh i ps up to ive sensors and a large explosive charge e and applicable tor either offensive or

e torpedo tubes in depths suitable for antizesse' (50 m) targets. Targets and laying

both mechanical and fully transistortsed .oard tech nology. The detonation system is rtion/ahcck and stable under any climatic

Operational statu s

Held in inventories oj Croatia and YU! )slavia, and possibly also Libya.

Specifications Leng1h: .2,823 mm Diameter: 534.4 mm Weight: 1.000 kg Charge: 700 kg

Operating depth: 5(l..150 m


Yugoimport SDPR, Belgrade.


Type' Limpet mine.


The M71 limpet mine is desiqned I, Detonation of the weapon is designt plating. It is attached to the target by r by special SCrews fitted On the mine.

The weapon is fitted with a time settings ranging from 0.5 to 10 hours, is pertormed afterthe mine has been

Bpeciffcatlons Diameter: 345 mm Height: 245 mm Weight: 14 kg

Char,ge: 3 kg pressed TNT Operating depth: 30 m


Descriptiioll Yugoimport SOPR, Belgrade.

This virtually non-magnetic mine is designed lor the destruction of vessels, harbour

installations and other fixed offshore installations and in rivers and lakes. The

Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2005


use against both ships and submarines. to rupture the underwater part of the hull eans of magnets and, to wooden structures,

uze and clockwork mechanism with time .d with anti-removal devices. Fuze acti .... ation xed to the target,


South Africa



Family of modular mines.


The Matrix mine system, developed in the early 1980s, is a family of eight diHerent multi-influence moored and seabed mines. DiHerent configurations of mines can be made up using various combinations from a total of 13 available modules which include sensors {magnetic, acoustic, pressure and other sensors), warhead. sinkers, microprocessors and chain. The mines are said to incorporate a high level of intelligence and can be deployed from a variety of platforms including aircraft and helicopters. The mines are suitable for use against both submarines and surface vessels.

An air-launched version is fitted with a double parachute retarding system which pulls the weapon sharply into a near vertical descent [ust after release ensuring very accurate placement.

Operational status

The Matrix mines have been in production since 1987 and have been sold to a number of export customers. The Matrix 3S arms su bmarines of the South African Navy while an air-launched version arms Mirage F.1 s of an overseas force.


Northbend Underwater Systems {Ply) Ltd. Capetown,


Samcon ,600

Type Multi-influence mine.


The Sam con 600 mine has been developed by a consortium of South African defence companies primarily for deployment in defensive barrier fields once a situation begins to rapidly deteriorate towards hostilities. The mine can be laid bya variety of platforms including aircraft, surface vessel. submarine (from 533 and 555 mm diameter torpedo tubes) or from midget submarine using an external launch system and requires less than 20 minutes to prepare lor launching.

The complete system comprises a multi-influence mine (acousnc/maqnetlc/ pressure with optional seismic sensor) that can accommodate three sizes of underwater charge (600. 400 or 200 kg), a computerised maintenance and support system and an optional underwater intelligence centre. The mine is eHective against surface targets in water depths of 60 m and against submarine targets to a depth of 150 m.

The mines are fitted with programmable intelligent on-board computers that can analyse all the parameters that characterise the signature of naval vessels.

The firing algorithms are software programmable, and can be adapted by the user navy to suit its changing needs.

The underwater intelligence centre provides full analysis of all the strategic, operational and tactical options. facilitates the planning of mine barriers, and is used to control the deployment of the mines when necessary.

The complete technical history of each individual mine can be tracked using the computerised maintenance system.

The total system comprises: combat. exercise and drill mines, maintenance test system and special tools.

Operational status Developed in 1997.


Denel (Naschem) (main contractor).

Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT), Simons' Town (subcontractor). Laingsdale Engineering (subcontractor).

Stelkon (subcontractor).





Naval limpet mine.


MILA is a time-fuzed tactical underwater limpet mine that can also be used as a demolition charge.


South Africa-Spain/MINES 341

A Mila-68 limpet mine (S,o S)


A Mila-<3B limpet mine (SI ;S)


The limpet mine can I > attached to all kinds of underwater structures using either a method of magn. c or mechanical attachment.

The main features of t ~ limpet mine are safe transport and handling, simple operating procedures, c untemneasures to prevent removal from the target, enhanced robustness an, reliability and low maintenance.

The device consists of I '0 main subassemblies. The upper assembly houses the electronic fuze and armi 3 device, while the main section contains the relevant hardware for attaching II ! mine to its target, the explosive charge and an antremoval device.

MILA incorporates a la e number of safety devices covering transportation and arming. Arming safety rne rods include explosive train out of line, unpowered firing circuit and detonator she circuit.

A built-in test function, abies testing the mine without requiring disassembly. A MILA Exercise Version to.AEV) is available for operator training (above and underwater).

Operational status

In production and In serv e with the Spanish Navy since 2000.

Specifications Height; 150 mm Diameter; 350 mm

Weight: 6.5 kg (air) 0.5 k (water)

Fuze delay: up to 72 h (~ :Jgrammable) Operating depth; down ) 40 m

Contractor SAES. Cartagena_


Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2005

34.2 MINES/Spain-Sweden



Moored influence mine.


Developed by SAES in close co-operation with the Spanish Navy, the MQ-90 moored mine is an intelligent. multi-influence mine designed for use against submarines or surface ships. It is designed for ,25 years' shelf life with up to two years in-water life.

The mine consists of a GRP buoy which contains the sensors, target detection device, safety and arming device. and the explosive charge. The sinker and reel containing Kevlar mooring rope also form part of the mine. More than 10 parameters of the mine can be programmed into the weapon's computer just before launch without opening the casing. Among the features incorporated in the design are anti-minesweeping countermeasures. The depth setting mechanism of the buoy is claimed to be extremely accurate, being in the region of ±1 m.

Said to have a lethal range of 40 m.


In production and in service with the Spanish Navy since 1992_

Specifications Length: 1,IBO mm Width: 1,090 mm Height: 1,690 mm Weight: 1,060 kg Charge: 300 kg HBX-3

Buoy depth setting: 5-340 m

Contractor SAES, Cartagena.


Moored-mine M0-90


BGM 100 (Rockan)


Anti-Invasion grou nd influence mine,


Developed early in the 19BOs this ground influence (magnetic/acoustic) mine is intended for use as an anti-invasion deterrent against small and medium tonnage vessels in coastal waters, inlets, and confined waters such as harbours. It may also be deployed in deeper waters against submarines to protect friendly routes and bases. A feature of the design is a shape which enables minelaying over a wide area While the minelayer covers the minimum distance. This Is achieved by shaping the mine in a casing, that enables it to plane or glide in the water for a distance of up to twice the depth of the water it is being laid in. This also enables mines to be planted in pairs from each side of the ship, or for mines to be spread out directly tram the quay.

Another advantage of this shape is its low profile, which makes it difficult to detect by minehunting sonars and other anti-mine techniques. The mine is

Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2005





Schematic of BGM 1 00 (Saab Bofors )ynamics AB)


After resting on the seabed for a time the Rockan ground mine becomes very difficult to detect both visually and by minehunting sonar

constructed of an outer shell of reinfor 3d plastlc containing an explosive charge, a magnetic/acoustic fuze with arming l It, and a sensor/electronic unit. The outer shell has sliding runners to enable the line to be moved on a mine rail, orientated either along or across the rails. The s~ 11 can be opened easily for maintenance or for adjustments and so on. New mufti: nsors and SAl units have been developed.

Operational status In production.


Length: 1,015 mrn

Width: BOO mm

Height: 385 mm

Weight: 190 kg

Charge: 105 kg Operating depth: 5-100 m Glide 'coefficient: 2

Glide speed: 2 m/s (approxj

Mi'n distance between mines: 25 m


Saab Bofors Dynamics AB, Karlskoqa.


BGM 600


Cable controlled mufti-influence mine.


The BGM BOO advanced cable contr ed mine has been developed for the Swedish Coastal Artillery's amphibious attalions to provide an efficient and rapid means of deploying a controlled mine aid, featuring, on/off arming capabilities which enable a navy's own forces to ~ ss over the minefield in safety tor rapid deployment.


The BGM 600 is desiqned for remote ( ntrol using a slim, flexible cable and the entire mine and cable system can be de~ >yed at high speed. When required it may also be used in autonomous mode with rt cables.

The mine features a modular main ch, ~e consisting of two, three or four charge modules each containing over 100 g of high explosive and a central


Sweden/MINES 343

BGM 600 mine showing modular charges and cent"" instrumentation unit

instrumentation tube containing the sensors and control electronics. The sensor package can be programmed for a specific target The micro-processor controlled sensors include autonomous or controlled detonator modes, with input from mulitple sensors in either a stand-alone mode or a combination of both. The bottom plate may optionally be fitted with wheels to enable ft to be handled on mine rails. The electronics include a multisensor system and advanced signal processors which are programmable for different targets, the sensitivity being changed from the shore base. The mine is capable of operating in different environments and against different target characteristics, and can be upgraded and reprogrammed.

Operational status

Developed for the Swedish Coastal Artillery and in full production.


Length: 1,700 mm (max) Width: 600 mm (max)

Height: 700 mm (max) Weight: 700 kg (max) (approx)

Charge: 2, 3 or 4 modules each containing over 100 kg exploslve Sensors: multiple sensors defined by customer


Saab Bofors Dynamics AB, Landskrona.


BGM 601 (Bunny)


Ground influence mine.


Development ended in May 1990 and was followed by a production contract.


The 8GM 601 ground influence mine has been developed as part of a new submarine weapon which will be carried in a mine girdle attached to the outer hull of submarines. The mine will also be able to be launched from any type of surface ship.

The mine incorporates a buoyant upper section which gives the weapon an underwater weight of 200 kg. Against surface targets the mine will have an operating range of 40 to 50 m but can be laid in deeper water down to 150 m for deployment against submarines.

The mine is fitted with the CelsiusTech 9SP 1SO programmable naval mine sensor unit, which incorporates multiple sensors using sophisticated logic, making it resistant to countermeasures. It will be able to discriminate specific types of target and initiate detonation at the lethal range for that particular target. The sensor unit is powered by a lithium battery pack and/or external power source. The sensor unit can remain in water forup to 12 months. The PCHS·1 combined hydrosensor unit senses depth, dynamic pressure and sound in separate channels, while the three-axis magnetometer measures variations jrom the locally determined magnetic field. The measured signals are filtered and evaluated against

3GM 601 ground influence mine shown fitted with a sultancy Photo Library)

preprogrammed criteria by the microprocessor. The logics unit reports the evaluation result throug a standard electrical interface to the firing device or corresponding unit in nOI ",ine applications. The sensor unit can also be retrofitted to existing mines.

The volume of explosi l carried is 400 litres.

A moored version of he mine has been successfully tested for submarine deployment.

The exercise variant V v1 90 can be both active and passive and is equipped for all types of training from ying to simulation of hostile attack.

Operational status

In production for the Sw, fish Navy since 1992. The mine is also being offered as a n option for the new su narfnes for Australia.


~ength: 2,000 mm (appr <) Width: 750 mm (approx) Height: 750 Mm (approx Total weight· SOD kg (ap rox) Sinker weight: 240 kg Charge: 80 kg

Bottom depth range: 2C WO m Mine depth range: 8·75 1

Min distance between r nes: 25 m


Saab Bofors Dynamics /J ,Landskrona.




Moored influence mine.


Developed in the early IS as, this influence mine is designed lor use against small and medium tonnage Sur ce ships and submarines. It is suitable for laying in water 20 to 200 m deep. The m e itself consists of a buoyancy section of cellular plastic, which also contains the xplosive charge, the fuze and the sensor/electronics package (which is similar ~ that of the BGM tOO, but adapted to the moored mine role).

The 8MM 80 is progra med to anchor itself automatically at the desired depth, which can be set before s king. A sinker unit is employed with the BMM 60 and the mine can be laid from rai

Operational status In production.

Specificatio ns I.ength: 1,125 mm Width: 660 mm Height: 1,125 mm

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Jane's Underwater Warlare Systems 2004·2005

344 MINES/Sweden-UK

BMM 80 mine on launching trolley

Total weight: 450 kg Sinker weight: 240 kg Charge: 80 kg Hexotonal Operating depth: 20-200 m 'Mine depth range: 8-75 m

'Min distance between mines: 25 m


Saab Bofors Dynamics AB, t.andskrona,


United Kingdom

Advanced Versatile Exercise Mine System (VEMS)


Exercise ground and buoyant mines.


The Advanced Versatile Exercise Mine System (Advanced VEMS) is designed for training and for assessment of the effectiveness of mine countermeasures equipment and tactics. The Advanced versi on has much greater capability than the original system with a wider range of sensors, improved processing. capability and a much larger data recording capacity. With its improved sensors and signal processor. it provides a system which can emulate the firing characteristics of the most sophisticated ground mines currently available. The enhanced underwater acoustic link is used to signal mine fires, to measure ship to VEM range and to command release. The Advanced version can also transmit recorded data while laid and permits change of emulations during exercises.

The VEM is available in a variety of forms; the standard generic ground mine, moored buoyant mine and in stealth mine shapes. It is capable of processing target acoustic and seismic influences, three independent magnetic axes (plus rate of change and total field) and pressure influences. An electric field sensor, capable of detecting static and alternating fields is also available. The processor uses digital signal processing techniques to implement spectral analysis of acoustic and seismic signals. This permits accurate programming of frequency response to

Diagram of the standard Versatile Exercise Mine System (VEMS) ground mine variant

Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems 2004--2005

B(Joyant VEM Type B

those which have a resonant response. Raw tailed analysis. The system can store and -e can be selected during an exercise by incorporation of improved memory devices ta capacity during exercise and the use of a perational life.

lith up to 30 mine emulation programs -cted either according to pre programmed

emulate all threat mine types includln· spectral data is also recorded for d execute multiple emulations and th, means of the acoustic link system. Th has led to a major increase in stored c low power design has led to a longer

The VEMs can be programmed simultaneously. Programs can be SE times or by acoustic command.

The ship transponder system is communication between the ship anc acoustic Signals are transmitted whic, This transmits the information to the Operations Room which signals an a Data recorded in the mine during the, to permit 'quick look' analysis during interrogate mine status and is also c acoustically tracking the ship retatlv programmed to signal additional ev, Its, such as indiVIdual influence channel detections and ship counts.

The ESU is a ruggedised laptop Cal outer which can be used on shore, on the deck of the vessel or in the ship's 0, rations Room. I, is used to prepare mine programs and to download those pro~ arns Into the VEM betore laying. During an exercise the ESU is connected to the, rpborns transducer via a ship transponder unit in the Operations Room and is use, a control the VEMS acoustic link. Afterthe mine has been recovered the ESU Is u ad to download data recorded in the mine via an umbilical cable. The analysis faci y of the ESU allows an MCM exercise to be analysed in detail in order to provide ar assessment of tne MCM performance and risk, and threat to target vessels.

Improvements for applications ie tne ninehunting role currently in development include; fitting of a sonar insonificat n detector (SID); provision of anechoic jackets to vary the target st-enqth of V \1S; and reconfiguration of VEM sensors, processor and transponder Into threat I ne shapes to provide more realistic sonar targets during class.flcatlon and identif ation operations.

The SID is used to detect mineh lting sonars. It records the amplitude, frequency and duration of insonitieati "1 for subsequent exercise analysis. The

sed on the exercise vessel for two-way exercise mines. When a mine 'fires', coded are detected by t~e shipbome transducer. =xercise Support Unil (ESU) in the ship's rrn and displays mine identity and range. .ercise can be transmitted back to the ship 1e exercise. The acoustic link system can pable of surveying VEM positions and of

to the VEMS. Each VEM can also be

mine response simulation software package predicts the actuation envelope 01 a mine against a specified ship's signature. This allows the exercise plannerto adjust the sensitivity so as to match the actuatlonerwelope to the damage ranqe lor an exercise target.

Enhancements can also be provided to allow use of the system as a mobile muminfluence range. These include an item umbilical cable, additional sensors and a full suite of influence analysis and modelling software. In this role, VEMS can provide many influence range configurations. from a fixed semi-permanent range to an onboard self-check facility. Advanced VEM can also be fitted with an Electric Field Sensor (EFS). This is a broadband three-axis sensor capable of detecting the static and altemating electric field signatures of vessels. The unit is fitted tothe end of the buoyant section of the VEM.

Displayed for the fi·rst time in October 1994 was a stealth variant, designed. to have 11 low sonar Signature representative of a number of currently available warshot mines. Known as VEM Type S (low-profile VEM) it features a 'dumb' shape for use in simple minehunting sonar exercises or as a fully equipped variant with a full range of influence sensors and VEM electronics. Standard sensors include acoustic and magnetic, while seismic, pressure and electric field sensors are available as options. The case consists of two sections: a ballast section containing release Il nits and a recovery line, and a buoyant section with sensors and

electronics. Operational status,

Mines supplied to the Canadian Navy are provided with innovative anechoic Range of variants in servir ! with navies worldwide.

jackets which enable the target strength of the mines to be varied. Also

incorporated are modifications to allow the recordlnq of diver influences coupled Contractors

with 11 diver warning device which further enhances the training provided to BAE Systems, Underwate Weapons Division, Waterlooville, Hampshire,

explosive ordnance disposal divers.

Operational status .

VEMS is currently in production and in service with the Roya!: Navy, the US Navy and the Royal Thai Navy. Curren! orders will make the US Navy the largest operator of the VEM. VEMS is also operated by the Royal SaUdi Navy and has recently been purchased by the Belgian and Canadian navies.


BAE Systems, Underwater Systems, waterioovute, Hampshire.


liimpet mines and Underwater Timers Type

Underwater demolition devices and exercise/training v ariants.


British Aerospace Defence Systems produce a family of naval limpet mines Which includes live mines and training mines which are in service with naval, army and special forces throughout the world.

The live limpet mine contains a modular plastic explosive charge and is equipped with electronic timer, manual override and anti-tamper features, a safety and arming system, built into a modular self-contained timer unit. A firing delay of up to 24 hours can be set. Explosive charge options range from 1 to 6 kg. Slave explosive units, attached by special couplers. are available to increase explosive power.

MagnetiC and strap attachment methods are standard and OUl er options are available. Inbuilt buoyancy is standard. The training mine is equipped wrth a highintensity light to simulate detonation,

The electronic timer is also available separately for underwater demolition operations.

Limpet mine variant




Limpet mine



LNS4-3 magnetic sensor


Three-axis magnetic anor lly detector.


The PMES LNS4-3 is a II ee-axis f!uxgate magnetic sensor which detects small magnetic anomalies or rieasures low-frequency magnetic fields. Although designed primarily for us In sea mines, other applications include geophysical surveys, surveillance, se, ,rity screening, and monitorirlg for unwanted ferrous matter. The salientfeature .f the LNS4-3 is that it incorporates a reset facility, which provides a fast setting tin • of the magnetometer directly afte r the detection of a magnetic anomaly, thus e abling multiple target detection.

LNS4-3 can detect mag etlc anomalies as low as 2.4 nT in the earth's static field and requires less than 5 n V of power from a ±5 V DC supply. Two low-impedance outputs are provided for e :h axis, one is AC coupled and the other is DC coupled. Both outputs are suitable' r interfacing directly to a multiplexer and an analogue to digital converter. The dev :e is compact (100 x 690 • 46 mm), robust, totally selfcontained and encapsule d. Reliability is quoted as 300,000 h MTBF.

Operational status In service.


Ultra Electronics Signa re 'Management Systems, Hednesford, Cannock, Staffordshire.




Surface, air, submarine-Ia 1ched ground influence mine.


The modular Stonefish mi launching system and ele cap and bell-shaped tail advanced design polymer are available (100 kg an oombinations to form a 600 kg. The warhead, tog unit containing the, senso configured to cover the ra basic sensor pack compri processing includes sign, thresholds. mine logic an, modified by means of ~ cond itions before the m ir accordinq to water depth:

The Stonefish warstock or laid life of over 700 days 90 m for surface targets a refurblsn ment life for store 1raining in mine counterms

~ is composed of three sections: warhead (five or inert), ronics pack. The cylindrical device features a flat nose ssernbly, The warstock v ariants are provided with an -onded explosive (PBX) warhead. Two sizes of warhead 300 kg) and these are coupled together in various irnplete warhead unit ct 100, .200, 300, 400, 500 or :her with the appropriate' launch kit and a standard tail ;, signal conditioning and processor package, can be }e of tauncn vehicles, depths and targets available. The ss acoustic. magnetic and pressure sensors. The sig nal ;onditioning and information processing, the setting of sterilisation delay times. The mine programme can be portable presetter, changing threat and: operational

is deployed. DiHeren! sizes of warhead: can be fitted minefield pattern and expected target size.

rslons have a storage life of over 20years and an ;n-water -hey are intended to be laid at depths of between 10 and ;j down to depths of 200 m for submarine targets, The j warstock weapons is nominally six years. To provide sures, Stonefish is available as an exercise varian!.

Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2D05


Stone fish mine

The 82211 D explosive charge in the mine was developed by SNPE of France.

The explosive is claimed to have a 15-20 per cent increase in shock wave energy and 20-35 per cent greater bubble energy compared with conventional explosives.

The exercise variant is capable of assessing minehunftng and minesweeping effectiveness in its true environment. When laid it is available for data gathering relevant for target selection, together with a facility to emulate known mine characteristics. The main features are:

• command activated recovery system

• acoustic command system, enabling mine states to be interrogated or changed

• digital signal processing and large solid-state data store

• it is available as cable controlled or a seabed test platform for sensor/processing development.

Using the command link the exercise variant can accurately measure target range, change its operational status and recover itself, even if buried in deep mud on the seabed, by means of an inflatable flotation collar.

It can be refurbished at sea and recharged witl1in 4 hours ready tor relaunch. The assessment variant is used to gather mine and target data for use by the tactical planner so that the optimum minefield can be planned. The variant uses a modified version of the warstock version's electronics system and is connected by underwater cable to a shore-based computer.

The training variant is inert but can accept all the available equipment options to facilitate classroom instruction, handling, programming and test trials.

Mines of the Stonefish family are up to 2.5 m in length, with a diameter 01 533 mm and all-up weight varying up to 770 I<:g depending on configuration.

The Stonelish presetter, designed as a self-contained unit, employs a microprocessor and incorporates built-in data checking during input and automatic test facilities.

The air launching equipment comprises a frangible housing covering a hydrodynamic shaped slanted nose which ensures the mine maintains trajectory as it sinks to the' seabed. The tail unit incorporates the parachute descent retarding device.

The modular concept enables variants to be assembled to meet any tactical, exercise or training requirement.

Operational status

In production and in service with UK forces, Orders for the exercise variant of Stonefish have been received from the Royal Australian Navy and warstock units have been sold to Finland and Pakistan. Assessment mines are in service with six countries. A Mk III variant has been offered to the Commonwealth of Australia under Joint Project 2045 and is due to enter service shortly (see Stonefish Mk III entry).

Specificatio ns

length Olameter Weight Warhead

Mk II Warstoc:k mine' 2,500 mm


990 kg

600 kg B2211D PBX (max)

10-200 m

10-200 m

Ex.ercise mine' 1,912 mm 520mm

440 kg


Assessment mine 506 mm

530 mm

120 kg

Operating depth


BAE Systems, Underwater Systems_ Waterlooville, Hampshire.


Stonefish Mk III


Surface-, alr-, submarine-launched ground influence mine.

Air-launched version of the Stonel h MK /1/ (BAE Systems)



The Stonefish Mk III mining syster submarine deployment and role kr each laying platform.

The fu Iy digital Stonefish Mk III earlier version. The air-launched v. Ih e hydrodynam ically shaped sian water entry and descent to the sec and incorporates a retarding para, Detection Device (TDO), Safety c Analysis Unit (PAU) 'or all thrr programming flexibility that will scenarios.

The Stonefish Mk III open arc conditioning functions for the ac allows the weapon to discrimlnan warshot mine can simultaneousl minefield effectiveness.

Use ot frequency domain anal)" to discriminate between target anc to mine countermeasures.

The lethal ity of th e warshot val increase of 15 to 20 per cent in she compared with conventional explc The training variant can be pro! different mine types and its phys wars hot variant to ensure iderrtlca Essentially similar role kits for ail

operational and logistical benefits

The low-cost Stonefish Mk III ex be used for training in handling, variant. In conjunction with the effectiveness from the Stonefish s:

Key features of the Stonefish MI (1) Deployable by submarine, surf (2) Training mine can be remon acoustic communication syste (3) Safety and Arming Unit (SAU) i. fuze technology with an exploc (4) System commonality offers m operators.

(5) Twenty-year shelf life with a ( 12-15 years.

features a single mine type for air, surface and are used to read ily adapt the warshot variant to

tains only the body casing and warhead of the sian incorporates a frangible housing to cover d nose to achieve the correct attitude angle for ed. The tail unit ensures aerodynamic stability iute, The mine incorporates a universal Target d Arming Unit (SAU) and Programming and

deployments. Its multisensor TOO allows ater for the widest range of mine warfare

uectore TDD incorporates advanced sensor .istic, magnetic and pressure sensors which between targets and other contacts. A single target several vessel types, thus increasing

, techniques enables the Stonefish. Mk III TDD ion-tarqet signatures, making it highly resistant

tnt's sensitive munition warhead provides an k wave and 20 to 35 per cent in bubble energy ves.

ammed to simulate the performance of many al characteristics are closely matched to the :arriage, release and trajectory behaviours. submarine and surface launch offer significant

addition to exercise realism.

-eise variant is a single inert store designed to ansportation and preparation of the wars hot lining mine it ensures the best operational tem.

II mining system are: ;.e and air.

f programmed through the water using an

jesigned to be fail-safe and employs the latest 19 foil initiator,

or operational, logistical and cost benefits to

'sign target for preventative maintenance of

Operational status

Selected to meet requirement for 'oject 2045 for the Australian defence forces. The mine is due to enter service w 1 Australian forces in the near future.

Speclflcations length: 1,821 mm Diameter: 533 mm Weight: 755 kg Charge: 500 kg PBX


Development BAE Systems, Underwater Weapor Division, Waterlooville.

The Mk III Stonefish mine was developed to meet Australian requirements for

Project 2045_ -

Jane's Underwater Wartare Systems 2004~2005



United States



Uttoral sea mine.


The Naval and Maritime Integrated Systems division of the Raytlleon Company and the US Naval Coastal Systems Station, Panama City, Florida, under a technology demonstration project sponsored by the US Office of Naval Research, is jointly developing the LSM. The project is being run under a three-year programme that began in March 1999.

The aim of the LSM project is to develop a weapon that will achieve battles pace dominance in tile littoral region, project power and provide crisis response via a controllable wide-area littoral sea denial system.


Tile LSM, which can be delivered by air, surface or submarine platform, is a widearea mine concept comprising three elements:

.' a target detection system

• an encapsulated mobile homing warhead based on the Mk 54 homing torpedo

• a remote control subsystem.

The target detection system will provide detection, localisation and tracking at targets in the littoral until they come within lethal range of the Mk 54 torpedo. Passive LF acoustic and non-acoustic sensor arrays in the bottom of the mine will process target Signature data and initiate transition to the active acoustic verification mode. The HF active transmit/receive sonar in the top of the mine will transmit low probability of target alertment pulses to make multiple range and bearing measurements until a target track converges with sufficient quality to verify that the larget is within the mine's lethal range. Initiallests have shown that it is possible to detecl slow. quiet surface ships and submarines out to ranges of 700m.

The target detection system will then activate the encapsulated mobile homing warhead, pass targeting information to the vehicle and prepare it for launch.

The primary function of the encapsulated mobile homing warhead, is to deliver a bulk charge warhead from the mine's vertically deployed position, to within the mission a bort damage range of the target and to detonate the warhead al the appropriate time. On emerging from its capsule the torpedo pitches over on to the target bearing and carries out a conventional torpedo engagement.

The remote control subsystem will provide the capability to control an LSM field from the surface, air or submarine platform. By using communication links between mines to pass targeting data, the minefield can use far fewer weapons than a standard minefield.

An underwater acoustic modem that communicates with low probability of intercept transmissions to either buoyed surface modems with RF uplink receiver/ transmitters, submarines or UUVs with underwater modems, will be incorporated into the top of Ihe LSM. The functions of the remote control subsystem will include tum on/off with confirmation, auto turn olf after preset time delay and command sterilisation for recovery, or to allow the passage of friendly forces.

The weapon will operate in depths between 45 and 182 m and rests on the seabed with the encapsulated torpedo in the vertical position.

Operational status

Science and technology demonstration programme ongoing.


Raytheon Company, Naval & 'Maritime Integrated Systems, Portsmouth, Rhode Island.

Naval Coastal Systems Station, Panama City, Florida.



Type Seabed mine.


The current stock of sea mines consists of the Mk 56 (the Mk 52, 55, and 57 having been withdrawn from service). The sensitivity enables the mine to react to a submarine proceeding at 3 kt. The Mk 56 embodies a target counter (up to 30) and a preset arming delay ranging from one hour to 90 days. The Mk 56 features a stainless steel casing and was specifically designed lor use against high-speed, deep diving submarines. The mine is fitted with a nose fairing and box fins to ensure a stable attitude during flight.

Operational status

Developed in 1948, these mines were used extensively in Ihe Vietnam War and this family of mines is now obsolete, although a number may still remain in the US inventory. The Mk 52 was also manufactured in Germany.

The Mk 56 first became operational in 1966. All mines in these categories except the Mk 56 have been completely removed from the inventory but some may remain in storage for emergency use.



Type: Mk 56 Mod 0, aircra -Iaio moored mine Length: 2,900 mm

Diameter: 570 mm

Weight: 909 kg

Charge: 164 kg HBX-3

Operating depth: 366 m

Actuatiion: total field, dual hannel magnetic, acoustic/magnetic



Arr-launcned seabed mine:

Mk '62,63,64 am 65 Quickstrike series


The Quickstrike seabed I 1970s, embraced a family usi ng different size cases mechanisms. The four me, and 65. The last of these (M production by Aerojet Tech the 2,000 Ib (900 kg) class,

Quickstrike mines are to and targets have to approa use existing Mk 80 series G mines are deployed priman launch the weapons. Four TOO Mk 70 (magnetic/sei fuze); and TOO Mk 57 (mag' pressure fuze).

This family of mines is (bombs and torpedoes). Ar 1983) which is not a bomb bomb and contains the elfl been deployed with the U! marketed by SEI.

ne development programme, initiated in the early f mines based on modified general purpose bombs ut with common target detection and classification bers of the Qulckstrike family are the Mks 62, 63, 64 65 Mod 0) is in the 2,000 Ib (900 kg) class and is in full ystems in Sacramenta, California. The Mk 64 is also in -ased on a Mk 84 2,000 Ib bomb.

shallow water deployment (to approximately 100 m) 1 to within a few hundred feet for it to act. The mines bomb cases as well as a new mine case. Quickstrike :by aircraft, but surfaoeships or submarines can also pes of Target Detection Device (TOO) are used: the 11IC fuze); TOO Mk 71 (pressure/magnetic/seismic Jtic/seismic fuze) and TOO Mk 58 (magnetic/seismic/

ased primarily on conversion of existing ordnance rxceptlon is the Mk 65 mine (approved for service in .onverslon. It has a thinner case than the equivalent tive underwater PBX explosive. The Mk 65 has now Navy and is in service with the Italian Navy being

Operational status

In service with US forces. It reported that over 4,BOO of these types of mine have been supplied to the US for ss.


Type: Mk 62, aircraft-laid S9 aed mine Length: c 2,200 mm

Diameter: 273 mm

Weight: 227 kg

Charge: 89 kg H6 explosive

Fuze: TDO Mks 57, 58, 700 71 Operating Depth: 100 m Actuation: mag netic and pr isurs

Type: Mk 63, aircraft-laid se. Jed mine Length: c 3,000 mm

Diameter: 350 mm

Weight: 454 kg

Cnarge: 202 kg H6 exptosiv.

Fuze: TDO Mks 57, 58, 70 0 71 Operating depth: 100 m Actuation: magnetic and pn sure

Type: Mk 64, aircraft-laid sea ed mine Length: 3,800 mm

Diameter: 460 mm

Weight: 908 kg

Charge: 429 kg H6 explosive Fuze: TDD Mks 57, 48,70 or '1 Operating depth: 100 m

Aclu,ation: magnetic or magi itic/pressure

Type: Mk 65, submanne/airc 1ft-laid seabed mine Length: 3,250 mm

Diameter: 740 mm

WelgM: 1,086 kg

Charge: 908 kg PBX 103

Fuze: TOO Mk 57 or 58

Operating depth: 100 m

Actuation: magnetic and pre sure and combined magnetic/pressure


Frequency Engineering t.abo, tories, Farmingdale, New Jersey.


J, ies Underwater Warfare Systems 2004-2005

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