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PREFACE

Loans have to be paid back one day. Had this been realized by all, how nice life would have
been on this Planet. It would not have prompted the poet to say “Neither be a Lender, nor a
Borrower Be.” Alas! Given the realities in life, this could remain at best a wishful thinking.

So their business is to lend and lend more. Their proficiency; skill; competency are all tested
in how much they lend and how much they RECOVER and how quickly. Suffice it would be
to state that this can be likened to the vigour and strength with which one goes about after
fully recovering from any ailment. It is agreed by al beyond doubt “Recovery” is essential
and get “recovery” is very essential.

We know right form the appraisal stage up to the actual repayment stage the banks need to be
careful. We also know that once the money is in the hands of a borrower, attitudinal changes
take place. The borrower, with some few exceptions may be, feels a bit more complacent as
after all it is not this “own money” which is at stake. Therefore an attempt is made here to
put all that we know already proper perspective.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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At outset, we would like to thank the institutions for having provided us with an opportunity
to carry out a project of this magnitude that helped me satisfy my curiosity as far as my area
of interest was concerned.
The essence of this project, i.e. its contents have been compiled with help of varied sources
of secondary database, but we would specially like to acknowledge the support, suggestions
and feedback received from my Project Guide-

1) Mr.K.P.S.Arya
AGM, Of RASMECCC
State Bank Of India, Rajkot

2) Mr.M.D. Raval
Manager of RASMECCC,
State Bank of India, Rajkot.

3) Mrs.Jyoti & Mr.Avinash Singh


Officer, RASMECCC,
State Bank Of India, Rajkot.

Also my faculty member Mr. Abhay Raja guide and suggest me about the project. A lot
of other people have also contributed directly and indirectly to completion of this project
would not have seen light of the day. Our hearts felt gratitude to all of them.

DECLARATION
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I the undersigned Mr.Mayank S. Shah, a student of MBA (Finance) Semester-III,
hereby declare that the project work presented in this report is my original work.

This work has not been previously submitted to any other university for any other
examination.

Date: 15 t h July,2008
Place: Rajkot

----------------------
(Mayank S. Shah)

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The most important problem that the Indian banks are facing is the problem of their NPAs. It
is only since a couple of years that this particular aspect has been given so much importance.
The banks have to overcome these difficulties properly in order to effectively counter the
competition faced by the foreign banks. With the framing of laws as per international
standards and setting up of Debt recovery tribunal we can say that steps have been taken in
this direction.

Banks in India have traditionally been saddled with very high Non-Performing Assets. The
banking sector was heading for a crisis in 2001 with NPA’s crossing a mammoth 64000
crores. Banks burdened with huge NPA’s faced uphill tasks in recovering then due to archaic
laws and procedures. Realizing the gravity of the situation the government was quick to
implement the recommendations of the Narsimham Committee and Andhuarjuna Committee
leading to the enactment of the SRESI ACT 2002.( Securitisation and Reconstruction of
Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act).

This Act gave the banks the much needed teeth to curb the menace of NPA’s. The non
performing assets (NPAs) of banks have at last begun shrinking. As reported from surveys, it
is understood that there has been substantial improvements in non performing assets and this
has been because of several measures such as formation of asset reconstruction companies,
debt restructuring norms, securitization, provisioning norms and prudential norms for income
recognition. The gross NPAs of the banking system are about 16 per cent of the total assets
of the nationalized banks as of 2000-01. This is against a global norm of about 5%. Hence
there is a long way to go before we can say that the NPA’s of our banks are under control.
The improvements in NPAs of individual nationalized banks have been in the order of 10%
to 20%, thanks to the various schemes and measures introduced. This paper addresses the
results we have achieved so far since the measures have been implemented and the thrust on

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measures that need to be taken to expedite recovery of NPAs. We also give our suggestions
as to how NPA retrieval can be made easy and in what way the NPA scenario is headed.
The problem is no doubt about recovery management where the objective is to find out about
the reasons behind NPAs and to create networks for recovery. Banks of Rajkot have been
considered where 21 executive have been approached with a structured question to elicit
information.

The crucial factor that decides the performance of banks now days is the spotting of non-
performing assets (NPA). NPAs are those loans given by a bank or financial institution
where the borrower defaults or delays interest or principal payments banks are now required
to recognize such loans faster and then classify them as problem assts.

As far as the study is concerned the following may be summarized.

Nearly 10% of the banks in Gujarat responded within a month for loan applications received
by them from their corporate clients. If was also found that 67 % of the banks used to
appraise loan proposals from their corporate clients with the viewpoint of recovery. In
Gujarat region it was found that about 62 % of the banker opined that there was a need to
evaluate the loan applications critically.

The respondents assigned highest weight to company’s current performance and the second
highest was assigned to company’s past performance. Around 10 % of the banks in Gujarat
recovered their dues on time from their corporate clients after maturity in Gujarat. The most
preferred measures were pervasion and legal action. The most common suggestion received
for improving the recovery system in Gujarat was regarding improving the judicial system
and delegating more power and autonomy to the banks.

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INDEX

Sr. Particular Page


No.
Preface 1

Acknowledgment 2

Declaration 3
4
Executive Summery
1. Introduction 8-15
 Early History of Bank 10
Type of Bank 12
14
Status wise bifurcation of Banks
2. About SBI
History
Awards & Recognition
Mission
Organization Structure
3. Survey & Research on NPAs
Research Plan
Introduction
Debt Recovery Problem
NPAs and Their Effects
Steps to solve NPAs
Tools for Managing NPAs

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Strategy for Prevention of NPAs
Non Legal Measure
4. SWOT Analysis
5. FUTURE PLAN
6. CONCLUSION
7. BIBLIOGRAPHY
8. ANNEXURE

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INTRODUCTION
The word ‘bank’ it derived from the word ‘bancus’ or ‘banque’ that is French.

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There was other of the opinion that the word ‘bank’ is originally derived from the German word
‘back’ meaning joint for which was Italianized into ‘banco’. But whatever be the origin of the word
bank as Prof. Rramchandra Rao says.” It would trace the history of banking in Europe from middle

ages.”

Generally, banks do the business of money they take deposits of moneys from
client and give loan to the person who has need of money. But in this age, for the
convenience of customer, banks provides some other services to their customer
such as bankers cheque, overdraft, internet banking, ATM facility, paying of bills,
credit card, telegraphic transfer, insurance, demat etc.

For a people, it is difficult to keep a very big amount of money in his house safely.
So, people save their money to bank. Bank gives loan to the person who has need of
money and gets higher interest on it than the interest of deposit. The margin
between the interest of loan and interest of deposit is the income of bank.

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EARLY HISTORY OF BANKING

As early as 2000 B.C. the Babylonians had developed a banking system. There is
evidence to show the temples of Babylon were used as banks. After a period of
time, there was a spread of irreligion, which soon destroyed the public sense of
security in depositing money and valuable in temples. The priests were longer
acting as financial agents. The Romans did minute regulations, as to conduct
private banking and to create confidence in it. Loan banks were also common in
Rome. From these the poor citizens received loans without paying interest, against
security of land for 3 or 4 years.

During the early periods, although private individual mostly did the banking
business, many countries established public banks either for the purpose of
facilitating commerce or to serve the government.

However, upon the revival of civilization, growing necessity forced the issued in
the middle of the 12 t h century and banks were established at Venice and Genoa. The
Bank of Venice established in 1157 is supposed to be the most ancient bank.
Originally, it was not a bank in the modern sense, during simply an office for the
transfer of the public debt.

In India, as early as the Vedic Period, banking, in most crude from existed. The
books of Manu contain references regarding deposits, pledges, policy of loans, and
rate of interest. True, the banking in those days largely mint money lending and
they did not know the complicated mechanism of modern banking.

This is true not only in the case of India but also of other countries. Although, the
business of banking is as old as authentic history, banking institutions have since

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than changed in character and content very much. They are developed from a few
simple operations involving the satisfaction of a few individual wants to the
complicated mechanism of modern banking, involving the satisfaction of capital
slowly seeking employment and thus providing the very life blood of commerce.

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TYPE OF BANKS
 Regional Rural Bank (RRB)
 Nationalized Bank
 State Bank Group
 Co-operative Bank
 Private Bank
 Foreign Bank

RESERVE BANK OF INDIA

The Hilton-young commission, appointed in 1926 has recommended the necessity


of centrally empowered institution to have effective control over currency and
financial transaction in the county. Accordingly, the Government had then passed
Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and established the Reserve Bank of India with
effect from 1 s t April 1935. The principal aim behind this was to organize proper
control over the currency management in the interest of country benefits and to
maintain financial stability. With this, the RBI mainly looks after the following
important functions:

 To keep effective control over creation of credits and currency supply


 To control the Banking transactions of Central and State Governments.
 To act as Central administered Authority of all other Banks in the country.
 To organize control over Foreign Currency Transaction.
 To assist for improvement in financial aspect of the country.

NATIONALISED BANKS

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The Banking Company Act establishes it in July 1969 by nationalization of 14
major banks of India. The sent percent ownership of the bank is of government of
India.

STATE BANK GROUP

The State Bank of India was established under the

State Bank of India Act, 1955, the subsidiary banks

under the State Bank of India (subsidiary Banks)

Act 1959. The Reserve Bank of India owns the

State Bank of India, to a large extent, and rest of the

part is some private ownership in the share capital

of State Bank of India. The State Bank of India

owns the subsidiary Banks.

OLD PRIVATE BANK

These banks are registered under Company Act, 1956. Basic Difference
between co-operative banks and private banks is its aim. Co-operative
banks work for its member and private banks work for earn profit.

NEW PRIVATE BANKS

These banks lead the market of Indian banking business in very

short period. Because of its variety services and approach to handle

customer and also because of long working hours and speed of

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services. This is also registered under the Company Act. 1956. Between old and new private sector

bank, there is wide difference.

FOREIGN BANKS

Foreign Bank means multi-countries bank. In case of India Foreign Banks are such Banks. Which

open its branch office in India and their head office is outside of India.

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STATUS WISE BIFURCATION OF
BANKS

They are divided into two groups:

 Scheduled Banks
 Non Scheduled Banks

SCHEDULED BANKS

In first schedule, government of India notifies the Primary Banks, which are licensed and whose

demand and time liability are not less than 50 crores in 1987.

Government of India notify the Primary banks, which are licensed and whose demand and time

liability are not less than 100crores can only qualify to be included in the second schedule since

1993.

A bank becomes scheduled when it fulfils the followings:


 A grade rating from RBI
 Demand and Time Liability over 100crores.
 Satisfy the RBI guidelines related to CRR and SLR
 As per the norms Priority Sector wise landing benefits of being a Scheduled co-
operative are described below:-
 RBI would provide Rediscounting facility at nominal rate
 RBI gives remittance facility at par

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The demerits of becoming a scheduled co-operative bank is that the bank will not get 0.5% subsidy

from RBI

The conferment of scheduled status on the banks has certain advantages like refinance facility,

directly industrial finance from Reserve Bank of India. Avail of Reserve Bank of India Remittance

facility scheme, accept deposits from local bodies, quasi-government organization, religious, and

charitable institutions, guarantees and cheques issued by Banks are accepted by Government

Departments. At the same time, it casts greater responsibility on the banks in the maintenance of

books of accounts and submissions of returns.

Scheduled banks in India

Scheduled Commercial Bank


Scheduled Co-operative Bank

NON-SCHEDULED BANKS

The banks, which are not applicable as per the criteria of Scheduled Banks, are
called as a Non-scheduled Banks. These are very small banks.

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STATE BANK OF INDIA

The origin of the State Bank of India goes back to the first decade of the nineteenth century with
the establishment of the Bank of Calcutta in Calcutta on 2 June 1806. Three years later the bank
received its charter and was re-designed as the Bank of Bengal (2 January 1809). A unique
institution, it was the first joint-stock bank of British India sponsored by the Government of Bengal.
The Bank of Bombay (15 April 1840) and the Bank of Madras (1 July 1843) followed the Bank of
Bengal. These three banks remained at the apex of modern banking in India till their amalgamation
as the Imperial Bank of India on 27 January 1921.

Primarily Anglo-Indian creations, the three presidency banks came into existence either as a result of
the compulsions of imperial finance or by the felt needs of local European commerce and were not
imposed from outside in an arbitrary manner to modernise India's economy. Their evolution was,
however, shaped by ideas culled from similar developments in Europe and England, and was
influenced by changes occurring in the structure of both the local trading environment and those in
the relations of the Indian economy to the economy of Europe and the global economic framework.

Bank of Bengal H.O.

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Establishment

The establishment of the Bank of Bengal marked the advent of limited liability, joint-stock banking
in India. So was the associated innovation in banking, viz. the decision to allow the Bank of Bengal
to issue notes, which would be accepted for payment of public revenues within a restricted
geographical area. This right of note issue was very valuable not only for the Bank of Bengal but
also its two siblings, the Banks of Bombay and Madras. It meant an accretion to the capital of the
banks, a capital on which the proprietors did not have to pay any interest. The concept of deposit
banking was also an innovation because the practice of accepting money for safekeeping (and in
some cases, even investment on behalf of the clients) by the indigenous bankers had not spread as a
general habit in most parts of India. But, for a long time, and especially up to the time that the three
presidency banks had a right of note issue, bank notes and government balances made up the bulk of
the invertible resources of the banks.

The three banks were governed by royal charters, which were revised from time to time. Each
charter provided for a share capital, four-fifth of which were privately subscribed and the rest owned
by the provincial government. The members of the board of directors, which managed the affairs of
each bank, were mostly proprietary directors representing the large European managing agency
houses in India. The rest were government nominees, invariably civil servants, one of whom was
elected as the president of the board.

Group Photograph of Central Board (1921)

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Business

The business of the banks was initially confined to discounting of bills of exchange or other
negotiable private securities, keeping cash accounts and receiving deposits and issuing and
circulating cash notes. Loans were restricted to Rs.one lakh and the period of accommodation
confined to three months only. The security for such loans was public securities, commonly called
Company's Paper, bullion, treasure, plate, jewels, or goods 'not of a perishable nature' and no interest
could be charged beyond a rate of twelve per cent. Loans against goods like opium, indigo, salt
woollens, cotton, cotton piece goods, mule twist and silk goods were also granted but such finance
by way of cash credits gained momentum only from the third decade of the nineteenth century. All
commodities, including tea, sugar and jute, which began to be financed later, were either pledged or
hypothecated to the bank. Demand promissory notes were signed by the borrower in favour of the
guarantor, which was in turn endorsed to the bank. Lending against shares of the banks or on the
mortgage of houses, land or other real property was, however, forbidden.

Indians were the principal borrowers against deposit of Company's paper, while the business of
discounts on private as well as salary bills was almost the exclusive monopoly of individuals
Europeans and their partnership firms. But the main function of the three banks, as far as the
government was concerned, was to help the latter raise loans from time to time and also provide a
degree of stability to the prices of government securities.

Old Bank of Bengal

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Major change in the conditions

A major change in the conditions of operation of the Banks of Bengal, Bombay and Madras
occurred after 1860. With the passing of the Paper Currency Act of 1861, the right of note issue of
the presidency banks was abolished and the Government of India assumed from 1 March 1862 the
sole power of issuing paper currency within British India. The task of management and circulation
of the new currency notes was conferred on the presidency banks and the Government undertook to
transfer the Treasury balances to the banks at places where the banks would open branches. None of
the three banks had till then any branches (except the sole attempt and that too a short-lived one by
the Bank of Bengal at Mirzapore in 1839) although the charters had given them such authority. But
as soon as the three presidency bands were assured of the free use of government Treasury balances
at places where they would open branches, they embarked on branch expansion at a rapid pace. By
1876, the branches, agencies and sub agencies of the three presidency banks covered most of the
major parts and many of the inland trade centres in India. While the Bank of Bengal had eighteen
branches including its head office, seasonal branches and sub agencies, the Banks of Bombay and
Madras had fifteen each.

Bank of Madras Note Dated 1861 for Rs.10

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Presidency Banks Act

The presidency Banks Act, which came into operation on 1 May 1876, brought the three presidency
banks under a common statute with similar restrictions on business. The proprietary connection of
the Government was, however, terminated, though the banks continued to hold charge of the public
debt offices in the three presidency towns, and the custody of a part of the government balances. The
Act also stipulated the creation of Reserve Treasuries at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras into which
sums above the specified minimum balances promised to the presidency banks at only their head
offices were to be lodged. The Government could lend to the presidency banks from such Reserve
Treasuries but the latter could look upon them more as a favour than as a right.

Bank of Madras

The decision of the Government to keep the surplus balances in Reserve Treasuries outside the
normal control of the presidency banks and the connected decision not to guarantee minimum
government balances at new places where branches were to be opened effectively checked the
growth of new branches after 1876. The pace of expansion witnessed in the previous decade fell
sharply although, in the case of the Bank of Madras, it continued on a modest scale as the profits of
that bank were mainly derived from trade dispersed among a number of port towns and inland
centres of the presidency.
India witnessed rapid commercialisation in the last quarter of the nineteenth century as its railway
network expanded to cover all the major regions of the country. New irrigation networks in Madras,

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Punjab and Sind accelerated the process of conversion of subsistence crops into cash crops, a portion
of which found its way into the foreign markets. Tea and coffee plantations transformed large areas

of the eastern Terais, the hills of Assam and the Nilgiris into regions of estate agriculture par
excellence. All these resulted in the expansion of India's international trade more than six-fold. The
three presidency banks were both beneficiaries and promoters of this commercialisation process as
they became involved in the financing of practically every trading, manufacturing and mining
activity in the sub-continent. While the Banks of Bengal and Bombay were engaged in the financing
of large modern manufacturing industries, the Bank of Madras went into the financing of large
modern manufacturing industries, the Bank of Madras went into the financing of small-scale
industries in a way which had no parallel elsewhere. But the three banks were rigorously excluded
from any business involving foreign exchange. Not only was such business considered risky for
these banks, which held government deposits, it was also feared that these banks enjoying
government patronage would offer unfair competition to the exchange banks which had by then
arrived in India. This exclusion continued till the creation of the Reserve Bank of India in 1935.

Bank of Bombay

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Presidency Banks of Bengal

The Presidency Banks of Bengal, Bombay and Madras with their 70 branches were merged in 1921
to form the Imperial Bank of India. The triad had been transformed into a monolith and a giant
among Indian commercial banks had emerged. The new bank took on the triple role of a commercial
bank, a banker's bank and a banker to the government.

But this creation was preceded by years of deliberations on the need for a 'State Bank of India'. What
eventually emerged was a 'half-way house' combining the functions of a commercial bank and a
quasi-central bank.

The establishment of the Reserve Bank of India as the central bank of the country in 1935 ended the
quasi-central banking role of the Imperial Bank. The latter ceased to be bankers to the Government
of India and instead became agent of the Reserve Bank for the transaction of government business at
centres at which the central bank was not established. But it continued to maintain currency chests
and small coin depots and operate the remittance facilities scheme for other banks and the public on
terms stipulated by the Reserve Bank. It also acted as a bankers' bank by holding their surplus cash
and granting them advances against authorised securities. The management of the bank clearing
houses also continued with it at many places where the Reserve Bank did not have offices. The bank
was also the biggest tendered at the Treasury bill auctions conducted by the Reserve Bank on behalf
of the Government.

The establishment of the Reserve Bank simultaneously saw important amendments being made to
the constitution of the Imperial Bank converting it into a purely commercial bank. The earlier
restrictions on its business were removed and the bank was permitted to undertake foreign exchange
business and executor and trustee business for the first time.

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Imperial Bank

The Imperial Bank during the three and a half decades of its existence recorded an impressive
growth in terms of offices, reserves, deposits, investments and advances, the increases in some cases
amounting to more than six-fold. The advances, the increases in some cases amounting to more than
six-fold. The financial status and security inherited from its forerunners no doubt provided a firm
and durable platform. But the lofty traditions of banking which the Imperial Bank consistently
maintained and the high standard of integrity it observed in its operations inspired confidence in its
depositors that no other bank in India could perhaps then equal. All these enabled the Imperial Bank
to acquire a pre-eminent position in the Indian banking industry and also secure a vital place in the
country's economic life.

Stamp of Imperial Bank of India

When India attained freedom, the Imperial Bank had a capital base (including reserves) of Rs.11.85
crores, deposits and advances of Rs.275.14 crores and Rs.72.94 crores respectively and a network of
172 branches and more than 200 sub offices extending all over the country.

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First Five Year Plan

In 1951, when the First Five Year Plan was launched, the development of rural India was given the
highest priority. The commercial banks of the country including the Imperial Bank of India had till
then confined their operations to the urban sector and were not equipped to respond to the emergent
needs of economic regeneration of the rural areas. In order, therefore, to serve the economy in
general and the rural sector in particular, the All India Rural Credit Survey Committee
recommended the creation of a state-partnered and state-sponsored bank by taking over the Imperial
Bank of India, and integrating with it, the former state-owned or state-associate banks. An act was
accordingly passed in Parliament in May 1955 and the State Bank of India was constituted on 1 July
1955. More than a quarter of the resources of the Indian banking system thus passed under the direct
control of the State. Later, the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act was passed in 1959,
enabling the State Bank of India to take over eight former State-associated banks as its subsidiaries
(later named Associates).

The State Bank of India was thus born with a new sense of social purpose aided by the 480 offices
comprising branches, sub offices and three Local Head Offices inherited from the Imperial Bank.
The concept of banking as mere repositories of the community's savings and lenders to creditworthy
parties was soon to give way to the concept of purposeful banking sub serving the growing and
diversified financial needs of planned economic development. The State Bank of India was destined
to act as the pacesetter in this respect and lead the Indian banking system into the exciting field of
national development

The Bank is actively involved since 1973 in non-profit activity called Community Services Banking.
All SBI branches and administrative offices throughout the country sponsor and participate in large
number of welfare activities and social causes. SBI business is more than banking because we touch
the lives of people anywhere in many ways. SBI commitment to nation-building is complete &
comprehensive.

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TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION

SBI’s Information Technology Programme aims at achieving efficiency in operations, meeting


customer and market expectations and facing competition. SBI achievements are summarized below:

FULL BRANCH COMPUTERISATION (FCBs): All the branches of the Bank are now fully
computerised. This strategy has contributed to improvement in customer service.

ATM SERVICES: There are 5290 ATMs on the ATM Network. These ATMs are located in 1721
centers spread across the length and breadth of the country, thereby creating a truly national network
of ATMs with an unparalleled reach. Value added services like ATM locator, payment of fees for
college students, multilingual screens, voice over and drawl of cash advance by SBI credit card
holders have been introduced.

INTERNET BANKING (INB): This on-line channel enables customers to access their account
information and initiate transactions on a 24x7, boundary less basis. 2225 branches, covering 555
centers are extending INB service to their customers. All functionalities other than Cash and
Clearing have been extended to individual retail customers. A separate Internet Banking Module for
Corporate customers has been launched and available at 1305 branches. Bulk upload of data for
Corporate, Inter-branch funds transfer for Retail customers, Online payment of Customs duty and
Govt. tax, Electronic Bill Payment, SMS Alerts, E-Poll, IIT GATE Fee Collection, Off-line
Customer Registration Process and Railway Ticket Booking are the new features deployed.

GOVT. BUSINESS : Software has been developed and rolled out at 7785 fully computerised
branches. Electronic generation of all reports for reporting, settlement and reconciliation of Govt.
funds is available.

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STEPS: Under STEPS, the bank's electronic funds transfer system, the Products offered are
eTransfer (eT), eRealisation (eR), eDebit (CMP) and ATM reconciliation. STEPS handles payment
messages and reconciliation simultaneously.

SEFT: SBI has launched the Special Electronic Fund Transfer (SEFT) Scheme of RBI, to facilitate
efficient and expeditious Inter-bank transfer of funds. 241 branches of our Bank in various LHO
Centres are participating in the scheme. Security of message transmission has been enhanced.

MICR Centre: MICR Cheque Processing systems are operational at 16 centre viz. Mumbai, New
Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Vadodara, Surat, Patna, Jabalpur, Gwalior, Jodhpur, Trichur, Calicut,
Nasik, Raipur, Bhubaneswar and Dehradun.

Core Banking: The Core Banking Solution provides the state-of-the-art anywhere anytime banking
for our customers. The facility is available at 1012 branches.

Trade Finance : The solution has been implemented, providing efficiency in handling Trade
Finance transactions with Internet access to customers and greatly enhances the bank's services to
Corporate and Commercial Network branches. This new Trade Finance solution, EXIMBILLS, will
be implemented at all domestic branches as well as at Foreign offices engaged in trade finance
business during the year.

WAN : The bank has set up a Wide Area Network, known as SBI connect, which provides
connectivity to 4819 branches/offices of SBI Group across 385 cities as at 31st March 2008. This
network provides across the board benefits by providing nationwide connectivity for its business
applications

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Directors on the Bank's Central Board
as on 31st December 2008

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Central Board Of State Bank Of India (As on 1st April 2008)

Sl.No. Name of Director Sec. of SBI Act, 1955


Shri O.P. Bhatt
1. 19(a)
Chairman
Shri S.K.Bhattacharyya
2. 19(b)
MD & CC&RO
3. Shri Suman Kumar Bery 19(c)
4. Dr. Ashok Jhunjhunwala 19(c)
.5 Dr. Deva Nand Balodhi 19(d)
6. Prof. Mohd. Salahuddin Ansari 19(d)
7. Dr.(Mrs.) Vasantha Bharucha 19(d)
8. Shri Arun Ramanathan 19(e)

ASSOCIATE BANKS

State Bank of India has the following seven Associate Banks (ABs) with controlling interest
ranging from 75% to 100%.

1. State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur (SBBJ)


2. State Bank of Hyderabad (SBH)
3. State Bank of Indore (SBIr)
4. State Bank of Mysore (SBM)
5. State Bank of Patiala (SBP)
6. State Bank of Saurashtra (SBS)
7. State Bank of Travancore (SBT)

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As on 31st march, 2008 the financial information of State bank of India is given as under

Financial Details RS (in crore)

Capital 631.47
Borrowings 51,727.41
Deposits 5,37,403.94
Investments 1,89,301.27
Advances 4,16,768.19
Profit 6,729.55

Source : balance sheet and profit and loss accounts schedule of state bank of
India from annual reports of year ending 31st march, 2008

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General Shareholder Information
Number of shareholders as on 30.9.2004 was 5.61 lacs. The shareholding pattern was as under.

SHARE HOLDERS PERCENTAGES


Reserve Bank of India 59.73 %
Non-residents (FIIs, OCBs, NRIs) 19.83 %
Banks, FIs including insurance companies 6.21 %
Mutual funds/UTI 6.47 %
Domestic companies/private corporate bodies/trusts 1.79 %
Resident individuals 5.97 %

5.97%
6.47%1.79%
6.21%

19.83% 59.73%

Res erve B ank of India


Non-res idents (F IIs , O C B s , NRIs )
B ank s , F Is inc luding ins uranc e c om panies
M utual funds /UTI
Dom es tic c om panies /private c orporate bodies /trus ts
Res ident individuals

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 31


MISSION

To retain the Bank’s Position as the Premier


Indian Financial Services Group, with world class
standards and significant Global business,
committed to excellence in customer, shareholder
and employee satisfaction and to play a leading role
in the expanding and diversifying financial services
sector while continuing emphasis, on its
development banking role.

DR. KALAM TALKS ABOUT SBI PLAN AND MISSON

EW DELHI : President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam on Tuesday chalked out a seven-point action plan for
the State Bank of India (SBI) while urging the country's premier bank to create a Rs. 5,000-crore
venture capital fund and hike lending to the farm sector.

In his address at the SBI's Bicentennial Celebrations here, Mr. Kalam noted that within the next
three years, the bank should raise the credit to the farm and agro-processing sector from 10 to 20 per
cent of its total loan disbursal.

Agricultural growth, he said, was lagging behind while sectors such as manufacturing and services
were showing robust increases. A higher credit disbursal, he said, was essential to hike farm growth
to over four per cent as it was a vital requirement for increasing the overall Gross Domestic Product
growth to 10 per cent.

Unveiling his plan, Mr. Kalam asked the SBI to allocate Rs. 5,000 crores as venture capital from
2007-08 for the purposes of funding innovative scientists and technologists for speedier societal
transformation. This would include the development of ICT products, software development and
software services.

The President also advised the bank to create and nurture five rural development projects, on the
lines of the bio-fuel project and seaweed project, as it had the potential to provide employment to 50
lakh persons in the rural areas at the least.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 32


Mr. Kalam also asked the SBI to adopt and innovatively fund at least one lakh sick units in the
small-scale sector to infuse the latest technology and turn them into profitable ventures.

Another sector with great potential, Mr. Kalam said, was medical tourism in which the bank could
extend funds at competitive interest rates for setting up corporate hospitals which would also serve
the rural areas. Likewise, yet another sector for the bank's participation, he said, was infrastructure
development, including provision of 50 million quality houses with basic infrastructure in rural areas
in association with state and Central entities.

Turning to the plight of villagers caught in the ``vicious cycle of borrowing,'' Mr. Kalam asked the
SBI to adopt a ``villager-friendly'' banking system to free them from the clutches of money-lenders.

Mr. Kalam also lamented that hassle-free loans were being extended by the SBI to students of only
the best engineering colleges, medical colleges and business schools. ``I would request the SBI to
examine the possibility of providing loans to students who would like to pursue science and
commerce as a career," he said.

Besides, ways should be found to fund the education of those meritorious students who could not get
admission to top engineering, medical and B-schools owing to stringent competition, Mr. Kalam
said.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 33


SBI has bagged SBI is placed
the awards for at 70th in Top
“Most Preferred The only
Indian Bank 1000 Banks
Bank” and “Most Survey by
preferred brand” to find a
place in the Banker
for home Loan in
Fortune Magazine, July
CNBC Awaaz
Global 500 2007, (up
Consumer from 107 last
List
Awards in year)
August 2007

Today, SBI/SBI
SBI ranked 6 th
CAP is the No.1 in
in the No.1 mergers &
Economics syndicator of Acquisition
Times Market domestic debt Deals (31
Cap List, (up in Asia Deals of US $
from 50 last Pacific 19.8bn)
year) REGION. .

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 34


SBI is No 1 Readers
provider of digest May
AGRI SBI is market 07 Golden
Finance and Leader in Award for
No. 1 in financing being
Credit SSIs with a among the
Linking of market share two most
Rs 9.35 lacs of 29% trusted
SHGS banks in
India

Business
3rd in the Standard has
Economic Awarded the
Up gradation of
Times brand Best Banker of
ratings by citi
Equity Ranking the Year Award
group/ Morgan
Top 50 most to Shri
Stanley
trusted service O.P.Bhatt for his
Moodys’s S&P
brands in the initiative to
service sector reenergize the
Bank

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 35


Asian centre for
CNN IBN corporate
network 18 has Governance &
selected shri. Sustainability and
O.P.Bhatt as Indian Merchants
Indian of the Chamber has
Year Business awarded the
2007 for showing Transformational
how a public Leader Award 2007
sector behemoth to Shri O.P.Bhatt
can flex its for leadership,
muscle in the charisma,
ferociously inspiration and
competitive intellectual
Banking sector stimulation for the
entire SBI team

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 36


CHAIRMAN

DMD (I & MA)


DMD & CCO (Located at Hyderabad)

DMD RURAL & AGRI


DMD & CFO BUSINESS GROUP

DMD CORPORATE
DMD & CDO STRATEGY & NEW
BUSINESS

CHIF ECONOMIC
DMD (IT) ADVISOR

CVO

MD & GE MD & GE DMD & GE DMD & GE


(CB) (NB) (TRESASURY (ASSOCIATES
& MARKETS & SUBSIDIARIES

DMD: DEPUTY MANAGING CCO: CHIEF CORPORATE


DIRECTOR OFFICER
CFO: CHIEF FINANE CB: CORE BANKING
OFFICER

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 37


NB: NON BANKING IB: INTERNATIONAL BANKING

State bank of India has been facing great rivalry and major competition with other public sector
banks and some of private commercial banks. State bank of India has many banks as art rival. Some
of its art rival.

List of major competitors of SBI

I. ICICI Bank
II. Bank of Baroda
III. Canara Bank
IV. Punjab National Bank
V. Bank of India
VI. Union Bank of India
VII. Central Bank of India
VIII. HDFC Bank
IX. Oriental Bank of Commerce.
Here especially some of the public sector and private sector banks are giving hardcore
competition to the state bank of India. So let us have some of the best banks which is also
mentioned above and mentioned below in detail.

ICICI BANK

ICICI bank stands for Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India. This ICICI bank
is one of the heavyweight banks of private sector of India. It is providing the core
competition to the state bank of India. Especially in lending money, Investment.

But in profit making state bank of India is standing ahead. And when and where social
responsibility of concern state bank of India is heading high than any other banks in India

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 38


HDFC BANK

HDFC stands for Housing Development and Finance Corporation ltd. This is also one of the
leading banks of India in private sector. This bank is also providing hardcore competition to
all the banks as well as state bank of India

But we mention earlier that state bank of India is ahead in banking India. So HDFC bank has
to work hard to reach at the milestone achieved by state bank of India.

BANK OF BARODA

Bank of Baroda is also one of the leading public sector banks in India. Bank of Baroda is
known as BOB. This PSU bank is also providing the tough competition to all other banks in
India. The BOB bank is very renowned banks of India today. It is very changed and very
professionally working public sector banks

BOB has got professional in recent time so. It has to work very hard to achieve position and
reputation which are achieved by State Sank of India.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 39


NAME MARKET SHARE IN
OF DEOPSITS AND ADVANCES
BANK (%)

STATE BANK OF INDIA 30.32 %


HDFC BANK 3.01 %
UCO BANK 3.05%
CENTRA BANK OF INDIA 3.45 %
UNION BANK OF INDIA 4.23 %
BANK OF BARODA 5.10 %
BANK OF INDIA 5.28 %
PUNJAB NATIONAL BANK 6.45 %
CANARA BANK 6.51 %
ICICI BANK 10.33 %
OTHER BANKS 22.27 %
TOTAL 100%

STATE BANK OF
MARKET SHARE INDIA
HDFC BANK

UCO BANK
23% 31%
CENTRA BANK OF
INDIA
10% UNION BANK OF
3%3% INDIA
7% 6% 5% 5% 4%3%
BANK OF BARODA

BANK OF INDIA

PUNJAB NATIONAL
BANK

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 40


⇒ HOUSING LOAN:
Home is where the heart is! At SBI, we understand this better than most – the toil and sweat that goes into
building/ buying a house and the subsequent pride and joy of owning one. This is why our Housing loan
schemes are designed to make it simple for you to make a choice at least as far as financing goes!

Eligibility

Minimum age 21 years as on the date of sanction

Steady source of income

Loan Amount

• Applicant/ any one of the applicants are aged over 21 years and upto 45 years – 60 times Net Monthly
Income (NMI) or 5 times Net Annual Income (NAI), subject to aggregate repayment obligations not
Exceeding 57.50% of NMI/ NAI

• Applicant(s) aged over 45 years of age– 48 times NMI or 4 times NAI, subject to aggregate
repayment obligations not exceeding 50%of NMI/ NAI

Margin

Purchase/ Construction of a new House/ Flat/ Plot of land: 15%


Purchase of an existing House/ Flat: 15%
Repairs/ Renovation of an existing House/ Flat: 20%

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 41


HOUSING LOAN – INTEREST RATES:

Interest rates

Floating interest rates (linked to State Bank Advance Rate – SBAR):


(SBAR: 12.75%)
Tenure Rate of Interest (p.a.)
Upto 5 years 2.00% below SBAR Minimum 10.75%
Above 5 and upto 10 years 1.50% below SBAR Minimum 11.25%
Above 10 and upto 15 years 1.50% below SBAR Minimum 11.25%
Above 15 and upto 20 years 1.00% below SBAR Minimum 11.75%

Fixed interest rates:

Tenure Rate of Interest (p.a.)*


Upto 5 years 11.50%
Above 5 and upto 10 years 11.75%

Maximum Repayment Period

• For applicants upto 45 years of age: 20 years


• For applicants over 45 years of age: 15 years

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 42


⇒ CAR LOAN
Move ahead in life with SBI Car Loans! If you have been putting off purchasing that car, we invite you to
go through our Car Loans scheme.

Low interest rates, easy repayment options, total transparency, Low processing charges, finance to include
vehicle registration charges, insurance and one time road tax.

Well, what are you waiting for? Just step in to any of our branches (more than 6000) that offer Car Loans
or our Personal Banking Branches and give wheels to your desire!

You can apply for an SBI Car Loan to purchase:

• A new car, jeep, Multi Utility Vehicle (MUV) or SUV (any make or model)
• An old car / jeep / MUV /SUV (not more than 5 years old). (any make or model)

Eligibility

To avail an SBI Car Loan, you should be

• Individual between the age of 21-65 years of age.


• A Permanent employee of State/Central Government, Public Sector Undertaking,
Private company or a reputed establishment
• A Professionals or self-employed individual who is an income tax assesses or
• A Person engaged in agriculture and allied activities.
• Net Annual Income Rs. 75,000/- and above.

Salient Features

Loan Amount

There is no upper limit for the amount of a car loan. It is limited only by your repaying capacity. A maximum
loan amount of 2.5 times the net annual income can be sanctioned. If married, your spouse’s income could
also be considered provided the spouse guarantees the loan The loan amount includes finance for one-time road
tax, registration and insurance!

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 43


Margin

New/used vehicles 10-15% when loan is upto Rs.6 lacs


20-30% when loan exceeds Rs.6 lacs

Repayment

You enjoy the longest repayment period in the industry with us. Repayment period for new vehicles:
Maximum of 84 months

Repayment period for old vehicles: Up to 84 months from the date of original purchase of the vehicle.

SCHEME FOR LOAN FOR TWO WHEELERS


Existing Interest Rate Revised Interest Rate
Structure w.e.f. 31.03.2008 Structure w.e.f. 27.06.2008
Floating Rate of Interest 12.25% p.a. 12.75% p.a.
Fixed Rate of Interest 12.50% p.a. 13.00% p.a.

NOTE: All these interest rates are subject to change, without notice .
The revised interest rates are applicable only on fresh deposits and renewal of maturing deposits.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 44


⇒ EDUCATION LOAN:
A term loan granted to Indian Nationals for pursuing higher education in India or abroad where admission
has been secured.

Eligible Courses

All courses having employment prospects are eligible.

• Graduation courses/ Post graduation courses/ Professional courses


• Other courses approved by UGC/Government/AICTE etc.

Amount of Loan

• For studies in India, maximum Rs. 10 lacs


• Studies abroad, maximum Rs. 20 lacs

Interest Rate
• For loans upto Rs. 4 lakh 10.50% p.a.
• For loans above Rs. 4 lakh 11.50% p.a.

Repayment Tenure

Repayment will commence one year after completion of course or 6 months after securing a job, whichever is earlier.

Repayment Period
Place of Study Loan Amount
in Years
Up to Rs. 7.5 lacs 5-7
In India
Above Rs. 7.5 lacs 5-10
Up to Rs. 15 lacs 5-7
Abroad
Above Rs. 15 lacs 5-10

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 45


Security

Amount Studies In India Studies Abroad


Upto Rs. 4 lacs No Security No Security
Third Party
Above Rs. 4 lacs to Rs. 7.50 lacs Third Party Guarantee
Guarantee
Tangible Collateral
Above Rs. 7.50 lacs to Rs. 10 lacs(India)/ Tangible Collateral security of suitable
security for full
Rs. 15 lacs(Abroad) value of loan or third party guarantee
value of loan
Tangible Collateral security for full
Rs 15 lacs to Rs. 20 lacs ___
value of loan

Margin

• For loans up to Rs.4.0 lacs : No Margin


• For loans above Rs.4.0 lacs:
o Studies in India: 5%
o Studies Abroad: 15%

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 46


(1) Learning & Development

Bank has taken up several key initiatives to motivate and retain its manpower. In order to channelize
the energy created by the Parivartan campaign, the Bank has launched a Landmark exercise for
creation of the new Vision Mission & Values statement which will be in place shortly. Young
officers are being encouraged to take-up management education by way of sponsorship tie-up with
the S. P. Jain Institute of Management. 50 officers have been enrolled in the programme on a trial
basis. Bank is strong in the areas of training & development through 4 apex level training colleges
and 45 learning centres across the country. ‘e-learning’ project has been launched to enable any
where, anytime learning.

(2) HRMS

For leveraging technology in employee management area, the Bank has started automation of its HR
processes through SAP-ERP-HRMS software. Once fully implemented, it will not only create a
central repository of all employees data but also will make available a variety of services, like online
request submission and viewing of individual data etc. to all the employees across the State Bank
group on an online ‘real time’ basis. HRMS will bring efficiency in HR operations and help the
Management in making employee related decisions faster. Pensioners of SBI, IBI and Associate
Banks will also form a part of this initiative and their pension will be processed through HRMS.

(3) Personnel Management

The Bank has launched Performance Linked Incentive Scheme for the Branch
managers/AGMs(Region)/ DGMs(Module) and Team Incentive Scheme for the staff members of the
Branch. The incentive scheme was launched with the aim of enthusing and motivating the staff
members of the Branch so that the bank is placed in a position to face the competition unleashed due
to liberalization of economy and maintain its lead over others. The scheme has been successful in
enthusing the staff and garnering Business for the Bank.

(4) Employees Share Purchase Scheme (SBI ESPS-2008)

The Bank also launched Employees Share Purchase Scheme along with the Rights issue with the
Objective of providing incentive to Eligible Employees, to stimulate their efforts towards the
continued success of the Bank and to provide a Means to attract, reward and retain talent in the
Bank, to reward eligible employees as also to encourage equity ownership by them. The price was
fixed at Rs.1590/- (the face value of 1 share is Rs.10/-) per equity share. The Scheme Opened on
28.03.2008 and closed on 30.04.2008.

(5) Industrial Relations

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 47


 A number of HR initiatives such a payment of Performance linked incentives to staff,
rationalisation of promotion policies and improvement in various staff loan schemes were
taken up during the year. Such initiatives have helped in increasing the motivation level of
staff significantly.

 To meet requirement of staff for an ongoing branch expansion programme, separate


recruitment exercises were undertaken to recruit clerical staff for metro/urban centers,
rural/semi urban centers and also for marketing. This also helped in reducing the age profile
of staff and posting of younger staff at the front line.

 The process of consultation and discussion with both the staff and officers federations
continued during the year.

 The industrial relations climate of the Bank remained cordial during the year.

(6) Staff Strength

The Bank had a total strength of 1,79,205 on the 31st March, 2008. Of this, 32.23% are officers,
42.87% clerical staff and the remaining 24.90% were sub-staff.

(7) Implementation of Persons with disabilities (PWD) Act 1995

Our Bank provides reservation to persons with disabilities (PWDs) as per the guidelines of the
Government of India and section 33 of the PWD Act 1995. The total number of persons with
disabilities who were employed as on 31.03.2008 was as follows:

(8) Representation of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes

As on the 31st March, 2008, 34802 (19.42%) of the Bank’s total staff strength, belonged to
Scheduled Caste and 11460 (6.30%) belonged to Scheduled Tribes. In order to effectively redress
the grievances of the SC/ST employees, Liaison Officers have been designated at all administrative
offices of the Bank. Senior officials of the Bank hold regular meetings at periodic intervals with the
representatives of SC/ST Welfare Federation and SC/ST Welfare Association at Corporate Centre,
LHOs and Zonal Offices. The Bank conducts workshops on reservation policy for SCs/STs/OBCs.
So also, pre recruitment and pre-promotion training programmes are conducted by the Bank to
enable SC/STcandidates to achieve the prescribed standards to effectively compete with other
candidates.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 48


TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 49
Research Plan

(A) Defining the Problem:

“Non performing Assets in banking Industry” has become a subject


of intense importance and discussion. It has assumed greater
significance in the world of banking and banks. It has become a
barometer of the health of banks and discussions on any bank is
incomplete without the mention of NPA, NPA has now become
heart of the banking Industry, which in turn, is the heart of
finance and economy of a nation.

Assets of a bank, generally, consist of cash investment, loans and advances, fixed assets and
miscellaneous assets. The resources of a bank are deployed in these assets. The resources consist
of capital and reserves, deposits, borrowings and other liabilities. These liabilities are carried at a
cost and hence its deployments into various assets should generate enough income to service the
cost of the liabilities. In other words, the assets in which the liabilities are deployed should
perform in such a way that it generate income to cover the cost of resources and also a surplus,
which is a profit of the bank, Thus the performance of assets reflects the health of the banking
industry.

Earlier, the buzzword in the banking industry was deposits as it is the basic raw material for the
banking industry. The status of the bank was, determined on the volume and size of its deposits.
The career of bankers used to depend on the level of deposits achieved by him. Banks were not
bothered about the performance of their assets. But from 1991, a sea change was made in the
way income of banks was recognized. With the first generation economic and finance sector
reforms coming into being, the method of income recognition in

the banking sector was changed from accrual basis to cash basis. An income will be carried to
profit and loss account only of it is realized in cash in 90 days. This was like a bolt from blue for
deposit – happy bankers. All along, they were simply doing an accounting exercise in debiting a
loan account and credit the income account without bothering to see whether it is actually paid

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 50


by the borrower or not. Thus the performance of an asset was defined for the first time in Indian
Banking Industry.
This change of income recognition compelled the banks to unrecognized the income if the
interest is not received in cash from the borrowers. Not only is this, depending upon the quality
of the assets, various provisions now required to be made on such non performing assets. This
had compelled many large banks to declare loss for the first time in history of banking. This had
ominous portents for the entire banking industry. This also resulted in dwindling flow of credit
of trade and industry.

Thus NPA has the potential to directly affect the economy of the country. Many big nations like
Japan are suffering from this disease of high NPA’s. Our country also now having a large
portion of bank credit locked in NPA’s and hence NPA is receiving greater importance of NPA’s
, that we thought to select it as a subject for Grand Project.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 51


1 Research Problem

To study the state of recovery management.

2 Research Objective

 To identify reasons that lead to Standard assets of the bank becoming NPAs

 To Suggesting Strategy to recovery Non Performing Assets and prevention of


further NPAs

3 Research Methodologies

(1) Sample Design

• The target population consists of State bank of India of Rajkot.

• The sample size comprise of Twenty one Executives of State bank of India of
Rajkot.

(2) Collection of Data

A structured questionnaire was prepared to elicit information form the respondents.


Secondary data collection was done through data available from Books, Bank Register
and Bank system.

(3) Sampling Method

The research was done using Simple Random Sampling.

(4) Data Analysis

The analysis of primary data is done with the help of computerized statistical tools.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 52


Introduction

The crucial factor that decides the performance of banks nowadays is the spotting of non-
performing assets (NPA). NPAs are those loans given by a bank of financial institution where
the borrower defaults of delays interest of principal payments.

Banks are now required to recognize such loans faster and then classify them as problem
assets. Close to 16 percent of loans made by Indian banks are NPAs-very high compared to 5
percent in advanced countries.

Banks are not allowed to book any income from NPAs. Also, they have to provide for these
NPAs, or keep money aside in case they can’t collect from the borrower, which affects their
profitability adversely.

Classification of NPAs

In April 1992, it was decided to implement the Narsimham Committee’s recommendations on


financial sector reforms in a phased manner over a three-year period commencing from the
financial year 1992-93. Income Recognition, Assets Classification and Provisioning (IRAC)
norms were introduced with a view to reflect a true picture of financials of Banks on the basis
of their booking the income on actual basis than on accrual basis and also classify assets
according to the level of risks attached to them. The criteria for classification is :

Performing/Standards Assets: Loan assets in respect of which interest and principal are
received regularly are called standard or performing assets. Standard assets also include loans
where arrears of interest and / or of principal do not exceed 90 days as at the end of a financial
year. No provisioning is required for such loans.

According to RBI (NPAs) :- Any loan repayment or interest thereof that is delayed beyond
90 days has to be identified as an NPA. NPAs are further sub-classified into sub-standard,
doubtful and loss assets:

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 53


Sub-standard Assets: Sub-standard assets are those that are non-performing for a period not
exceeding two years. Also, in cases where the loan repayment is rescheduled, RBI has asked
banks to recognize the loans as sub-standard at least for one year.

Doubtful Assets: Loans which have remained non-performing for a period exceeding two
years and which are not considered as loss assets are known as doubtful assets. Major portions
of assets under this category relate to ‘sick’ companies referred to the Board for Industrial and
Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) and waiting finalization of rehabilitation packages.

Loss Assets: A loss asset is one where loss has been identified but the amount has not been
written off wholly or partly. In other words, such an asset is considered uncollectible. There
may be some salvage value.

Provision for NPAs

The RBI has also laid down provisioning rules for the non-performing assets. This means that
banks have to set aside a portion of their funds to safeguard against any losses incurred on
impaired loans. Banks have to set aside 10 percent of sub-standard assets as provisions. The
provisioning for doubtful assets is 20 percent and for loss assets it is 100 percent.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 54


Debt Recovery Problems

(1) To identify assets and properties of borrowers and guarantors is a difficult exercise. Even
when banks get the decrees, execution may be difficult as the exact position of borrower’s/
guarantor’s properties may not be known .i.e. whether it is unencumbered, in good physical and
financial condition etc.

(2) Constraints of time and adequate staff to supervise and follow-up the large number of
accounts that are often scattered over wide areas, also hinders recovery effort. At times inadequate
transport and roads also hinders recovery effort. At times inadequate transport and roads also make it
difficult to reach borrowers.

(3) Despite the good intentions, it will depend on how fast the measures are implemented. Since
their introduction in 1994, DRTs have not been able to make a sound impact due to the lethargy on
the implementation front. Unless the Government takes concrete and speedy measures to strengthen
the Tribunals and streamline the legal systems, the DRTs will amount to deferring the NPA problem.

(4) As against 50 to 60 Judges in High Courts, the Act provides for only one presiding Officer
for each Tribunal. The appellate Tribunal has suggested that when the number of pending cases
exceeds 2000, Government should appoint another Presiding Officer. This suggestion needs to be
acted upon quickly to prevent further delay in the settlement of cases. Further, the Tribunals need to
have their own permanent staff instead of depending mainly on persons who are on deputation.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 55


(5) Legal Methods-present scenario

Delay in disposing of the cases (10 to 20 years) are prohibitive and expensive appeals
further delay the process of awarding decree. Also the interest is only 6% p.a. simple on
principal.

Suggestions

(a) Need for a time frame for disposal of cases.

(b) For non payment of bank decretal dues parties to be put in civil imprisonment
without fail.

(c) Misuse of hypothecated securities to be treated as an offence punishable on


the lines of Sec 138 of N.I. Act with 2 years rigorous imprisonment.

(6) Statutory powers

Empowering banks to acquire assets for disposal without intervention of courts. (sec. 29 of
State Financial Act.) This would work as deterrent against intentional defaulters.

(7) Lok Adalats

(a) Establishing Lok Adalats in all States.

(b) To be made compulsory for both borrowers and banks for settlement of smaller loans
(present limit 5. Lac)

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 56


(8) BIFR (Board of Infrastructure and finance reconstruction )

(a) Relook into functioning of BIFR- whether objectives achieved since the ratio of cases
registered and cases dismissed/winding up was only 49% in 1996.
(b) Increase in number of benches-Housing separate benches for major cities like
Mumbai, Chennai.
(c) Time frame for rehabilitation (6 months).

(d) Reference to BIFR should be prerogative of banks.

(e) Prevent unscrupulous/dishonest promoters taking shelter under BIFR.

(9) In the case of immovable property, recovery continues to be a problem even where the court
decree of certificate has been passed. While the Act provides for attachment and sale of property
after the court decree has been issued there is no provision to prevent a borrower from disposing off
the property while the suit is still on. DRT Act empowers Recovery Officers to recover the debt
through attachment and sale of movable or immovable property of the defendant but does not
explicitly mention how to enforce hypothecation, mortgage, etc.

(10) There are instances where the borrower has mortgaged the same property to
Several banks and availed facilities with predetermined criminal intention to
Cheat the banks with false and fabricated documents.

(11) Valuation reports of properties are inflated to suit the needs of the borrowers.

(12) Several problems have been faced by the banks while obtaining shares as
Collateral security. As the shares are not transferred in the name of the
Bank, Ultimately the matter has to be taken to the Company Law Board
(CLB) for Redressed, which, not to mention, consumes very much time.

Why assets become NPAs?

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 57


A several factors are responsible forever increasing size of NPAs in PSBs. The Indian
banking industry has one of the highest percent of NPAs compared to international levels. A
few prominent reasons for assets becoming NPAs are as under:
• Poor credit appraisal system. Lack of vision/fore slightness while
sanctioning/reviewing or enhancing credit limits.
• Lack of proper monitoring and follow up measures.
• Reckless advances to achieve the budgetary targets.
• Lack of sincere corporate culture. Inadequate legal provisions on foreclosure and
bankruptcy.
• Change in economic policies/environment.
• Non transparent accounting policy and poor auditing practices.
• Lack of coordination between Banks/FIs.
• Directed lending to certain sectors.
• Failure on part of the promoters to bring in their portion of equity from their own
sources or public issue due to market turning unfavorable.
• Abolition of license raj and tough competition in the liberalized Indian economy.

NPAs and Its Effects

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 58


• NPAs are drag on profitability of Banks because besides provisioning, Banks are
also required to meet the cost of funding these unproductive assets.
• NPAs reduce earning power of assets. Return on assets (ROA) also gets affected.
NPAs carry risk weights of 100% (to the extent it is uncovered). Hence, they block
capital for maintaining capital adequacy.
• As NPAs do not earn any income, they adversely affect capital adequacy ratio
(CAR).
• No recycling of funds.
• NPAs also attract cost of capital for maintaining capital adequacy ratio. Capital cost
involves dividend for Tier I capital and Interest for Tier II capital.
• Carrying NPAs require incurring of cost of capital adequacy and cost of funds
blocked in NPAs. PSBs are incurring around as high as 11% of their earnings as
operating cost for monitoring and recovering NPAs every year.
• NPAs demoralizes the operating staff.
• Regulatory and credit rating agencies abroad are also not comfortable with the high
level of NPAs of Indian Banks.
• New Branch license are also not given to the Banks that have high level of NPAs.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 59


Information of Collecting the Data

• Detail of Borrower
• Reason of Due amount
• Reason for become NPAs
• Commitment of Borrowers
• Utilisation of Fund
• Awareness of Loan
• Detail of Loan

We personally contact to each and every defaulter and collect the whole data which mention here for
more information we attach Questionnaire here.

Collection of data is the essential part of the research. As possible as we collect the more data, view
of customer, their opinion their problem and analysis those things and try give them better
satisfaction bank as well as customer.

Data collect and bifurcate in different category as per their loan, which I mentioned earlier, Home
loan, Personal Loan, Education Loan, Vehicle Loan and SBF.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 60


For our Summer Project we got permission in RASMECCC Department of State Bank of India,
Rajkot. Our department is a Process department. But our main work is to Survey and Recovery the
NPAs.

This is a Head Office and they provide us Data of NPAs account. State Bank of India have a 6
Branch in Rajkot. We got a Combine data of whole branch

Six Branch

• Jagnath Plot.
• Bhaktinagar.
• Marketing Yard
• Commercial Branch
• Main Branch
• Lakhaji Raj

Our Survey on P- Segment of Loan

• Education Loan
• Personal Loan
• Home Loan
• Vehicle Loan
• SBF

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 61


I have provided near about 250 Account but only 150 NPAs account person can
cover and their list are under.

No.Of Edu.Loan Home Personal Vehicle SBF


Borrowe Loan Loan Loan
rs
151 29 48 44 17 13

LOAN PROFILES
SBF 13 9%
Edu Loan
Vehicles 29 19%
Loan 17
11%
Per.Loan Home Loan
44 29% 48 32%

Edu Loan Home Loan Per.Loan Vehicles Loan SBF

Here, As per above chart if we see that we find that Home loan having more
Defaulter. No. of Borrower in Home Loan is 48 and Percentage is 32 %.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 62


Amount of Loan
No.Of Total Amount Total Amount Recovery
Borrowers Of Loan of O/S
151 6,07,89,228 1,17,96,076 30,88,732

Total O/S,
12000000 11796076
10000000

8000000

6000000 Total O/S


Recovery
4000000 Recovery,
3088732
2000000

0
Total O/S Recovery

During my Summer Project I recovered Rs.30,88,732 and it’s a 26 % of the


total Debt.

Account Become Regular


NO. of Defaulter Regular %
151 63 42%

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 63


RECOVERY FROM BORROWERS

Edu.Loan Per.Loan Home Loan Vehicle SBF Total


Loan
13,80,900 113.800 7,72,550 3,90,512 4,30,970 30,88,732

Am ou n t R ec o v er
SB F 14%
V e hic le s
Loan 13%
P e r.L o a n 4 %
E d u.L o a n
44%
Hom e Loan
25%

E d u.L o a n H o m e L o a n P e r.L o a n V e hic le s L o a nS B F

Here, as per above chart more amount in Education loan amount is Rs.13,80,900 and
percentage is 44%.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 64


EDUCATION LOAN

No. of Loan Amt. O/s Amt. Recover Amt. %


Borrowers
29 2,67,41,533 27,69,046 13,80,900 49.86%

HOME LOAN

No. of Loan Amt. O/S Amt. Recover Amt. %


Borrowers
48 1,94,43,624 65,63,936 7,72,550 11.76%

PERSONAL LOAN

No. of Loan Amt. O/S Amt. Recover Amt. %


Borrowers
44 31,96,000 11,28,844 113,800 10.08%

SBF
No. of Loan Amt. O/s Amt. Recover Amt. %
Borrowers
13 69,37,250 11,03,276 4,30,970 39.06%

VEHICLE LOAN

No. of Loan Amt. O/S Amt. Recover Amt. %


Borrowers
17 35,69,821 7,63,758 3,90,512 51.11%

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 65


As per above show that more amount is recovery from Education Loan Rs.13,80,900 but if
we see the recover by more share from vehicles loan that 51.11 %.

 What steps have been taken so far to solve NPAs


Problems?

Banks need to have better credit appraisal systems so as to prevent new NPAs from occurring.
However, once NPAs do come into existence, the problem can be solved only if there is
enabling legal structure, since recovery of NPAs often requires litigation and court orders to
recover stuck loans. With long-winded litigation in India, debt recovery takes very long time.

Banks are now working on utilizing the services of Debt Recovery Tribunals to solve this
problem. The government has also mooted the suggestion of an Asset Reconstruction Company,
which will be specialized agency set up for rehabilitating revivable NPAs (say, salvaging
projects which are inherently sound) and recovering funds out of unrevivable NPAs.

Other Strategies
 Fixing up of budgets for profits and recovery rather than for advances. Budget oriented
approach, at times leads to release of credit facilities without ensuring compliance of
covenants of sanction. A suitable mechanism could be drawn at each Bank level to
provide monetary benefits/recognition to the operating staff particularly for recovery in
NPAs/write off cases.

 Project with old technology should not be considered for finance.

 Large exposure on big corporate/single project should avoid.

 There is a need to shift in PSBs approach from collateral security to viability of the
project and intrinsic strength of promoters.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 66


 Up gradation of credit skills of the operating staff working in advances department.

 Timely sanction/release to avoid time and cost overruns.

A fresh look at Recovery Problem


Basically each branch engaged in lending has to plan for recovery of loans disbursed by
it. The manager should be familiar with the prospects of recovery through internal and
external factors. Knowledge about willful defaulters is equally important. Thus three
pronged strategy is necessary.

(A) RECOVERY : INTERNAL SOURCES

(a) Computation of demand

Guidelines suggest that repayment of installments of loans should be fixed in such


manner, which will coincide with the harvesting of crops or sale of milk or any other
farm output proposed to be produced through the bank loan. The demand for crop loans
or for installment of term loans should therefore be computed in a manner conducive to
the income flow.

(b) Appraisal of loan application and pre-sanction surveys

During the initial processing of the proposal, it has to be ensured that the repayment
program for an item\equipment is fixed in accordance with the guidelines prescribed by
R.B.I. Awareness about R.B.I. guidelines should be increased at the branch level.

(c) Recovery camps

The central idea of recovery camp is to bring a maximum number of persons together at
one place and repay the loans. The recovery camps in addition to effecting recovery
create a proper climate for recovery.

(d) Non-banking business day

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 67


This day should be utilized fully for field visits and contact with the borrowers

(e) Compromise proposals

In genuine cases, the banks can consider compromise proposal and a lot depends upon
the initiative of the branch manager in utilizing this facility.

(f) Conversions/rescheduling of loans

There are guidelines for the operating staff of the banks for conversion./rescheduling of
loans in the areas affected by natural calamities. Crop loans can be made repayable over
period of one year in the event of crop loss.

(g) Integration of recovery in branch budgeting

Recovery targets should be fixed at the time of settlement of branch business budget.

(B) RECOVERY: EXTERNAL SOURCES

Wherever the states have enacted laws on the pattern of the Talwar Model Bill, support
of the government machinery can be enlisted accordingly.
If the branches prepare village-wise action plans in this regard, it will be still appropriate
for the agencies to have a concerted effort towards recovery.
The branches may also compile detailed position of defaulters and share the same with
the convener banks and government authorities periodically.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 68


(C) TACKLING DEFAULTERS

To prevent willful default, comprehensive and discrete enquiries, therefore, should be


made before disbursing loans to farmers. Some of the banks have already devised
systems of maintaining village dossiers, which comprise names of farmers who do not
have good reputation. A non-willful defaulter is one who generally follows a good
cropping pattern and is co-operative to developmental functionaries. He generally cares
for his own farming business. On the other hand, a willful defaulter has an attitude of
non-co-operation to developmental functionaries.

In present times, when willful default has gained social acceptability, the branches can
initiate steps for devising schemes for giving recognition to good borrowers in various
meetings or functions organized by the branches. Further the problems of good borrowers
can be studied and their credit needs immediately met. By doing so, a culture of prompt
repayment may develop in the villages and doing so would simultaneously discourage
willful default.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 69


1) HEALTH CODE SYSTEM

The RBI introduced HCS in banks in 1985-86, this system provide the following
information:-
 Regarding the Health of individual advances.
 The quality of credit portfolio and
 The extent of doubtful or bad advances in relation to total advances.

The RBI, since 1985, requires all commercial banks in India to provide information indicator
the quality of individual advances in the following eight categories:

1) Satisfactory: Conduct is satisfactory the account of the borrowing firm is in order in all
respect and its safety is not in doubt.

2) Irregular: Occasional irregularity is observed but the safety of the loan is not in question.

3) Sick Viable: Loan to sick units that are under nursing through the revival programmed.
The units, though currently sick, are viable.

4) Sick Non Viable: The irregularities continue to persist and there are no immediate
chances of accounts becoming regular.

5) Advances Recalled: Such loan accounts where repayment is highly doubtful and nursing
is not considered worthwhile, in case of such advances decision is taken to recall them.

6) Suit Filed account: Loan account where the recovery proceedings have been initiated.

7) Decreed Debts: Loan accounts where the recovery proceeding have been completed.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 70


8) Bad and Doubtful: Loan accounts where the recovery of dues debts has become doubtful
on accounts of shortfall in value of security.

The RBI has classified problem loans with the banks in three categories.

(i) Advances classified as Bad and Doubtful by the bank [ Health Code No. 8]
(ii) Advances where suits were filed/ decrees obtained. [HC No.6 & 7].
(iii) Those advances with Major undesirable features [HC No.4 & 5 ].

EVALUATION OF HCS

Though the HCS provide for classification of assets it does not provide what action to take
regarding the improvement of quality of such assets.

 Diversion of funds [as in 1 above] is the single most prominent reason. Moreover,
reversionary trends developing during expansion/diversification phase and failure to raise
capital/debt from public issue is also an important factor.

 Internals factors [No.4 above] of business failure, inefficient management etc., are next
important in the creation of NPA.

 External factors [No.3 above] are the next in importance,

 Time/cost overrun during the project implementation stage leading to liquidity strain.

 Other factors in their order of prominence are government policy changes, willful default,
fraud etc. and lastly deficiencies on the part of banks in the form of delay in release of limits
etc.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 71


2) SETTLEMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEES:

To tackle chronic NPA’s in priority sector RBI had come out with a one time measure
constitution of Settlement Advisory Committees (SACs) by banks. This was to promote
compromise settlement in small sector viz., SSI small business including trades, agricultural
and personal segments, Bankers need to appreciate the fact that compromise settlement is an
effective and accepted non legal remedy for recovery in chronic NPA. According the
scheme, applicable to NPA accounts which are at least 3 years old at 31-03-1999, was
effective up to 30 sept. 2000. There is a case for extending the deadline and matching these
guidelines applicable for compromise settlement in medium and large sectors.

EVALUATION

ADVANTAGES TO BORROWER

1) Settling for a lower payout than the contracted one, scaling down of dues.
2) Releasing assets charged to the bank
3) Saving time, energy and expense on defending the inevitable legal case.
4) Keeping avenues of bank finance open for further development needs.
5) Restoring status/position in the market/society, avoiding stigma of being branded as a
borrower who is litigant type.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 72


ADVANTAGES TO THE BANK

1) Concept of time value of money i.e. “a bird in hand is worth two in bush”. The money
realized early could be invested/lent to earn.

2) Realisation of securities is difficult stocks, machinery have high incidence of depreciation


and obsolescence on taking possession, storage, safety thereof poses a problem and also
involves cost for a longer period. Even in cases where court receiver/commissioner is
appointed, assets do not realized fast value of mortgaged agricultural land properties located
in rural, semi-urban areas is difficult to realize and no bidder comes forward when the
property is put to auction. This is precisely the reason why many decrees obtained by the
banks have merely remained on paper for want of effective execution thereof.

3) To maintain the image of “development banker”, compromises, which involve sacrifices,


can be pursued only if both the parties to the settlement perceive latent gain in the process of
bargain.

3) CORPORATE DEBT RESTRUCTURING (CDR) :


A need was felt to create a special agency to facilitate debt restructuring
because there has been some hesitancy on the part of banks and
financial institutions to implement RBI guidelines on debt restructuring.
Recently a three-tier body, viz., CDR has been set up to coordinate
corporate debt restructuring programme. It is yet to be operationalised
CDR consists of Forum, group and Cell. While the forum evolves broad
policy-guidelines the group takes decisions on the proposals
recommended by the Cell. Initially the borrower approaches his Lead

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 73


Bank/ FI with a request to restructure debt, which in then puts up the
proposal to the cell. The CDR covers only multiple banking accounts
enjoying credit facilities exceeding Rs. 20 crore. Cases of DRT BIFR and
willful defaults, doubtful and loss accounts and suit filed cases are outside
the purview of the CDR. Thus, standard and Sub-

standard accounts are only eligible to seek CDR Shelter. If 75% of the secured creditors
agree to the rehabitation plan, it is lending on the other banks/FIs.

The CDR is a voluntary system on debtor creditor agreement and inter-creditors agreement.
No banker/ borrower can take recourse to any legal action during the stand-still period of 90-
180 days. Lastly CDR will observe the RBI Guidelines on Debt Restructuring issued in
March 2001. While the arrangements under CDR seem to be feasible from the debt
restructuring perspective, its success depends upon the cooperation extended by borrowers
and bankers, on one hand, and understanding among banks and FIs on the other. Doubts are
raised about the implementation of these agreements taking into the present working of the
loan consortium arrangement.

CDR though is not directly linked with NPA recovery, is aiming at preserving viable
corporate affected by certain internal and external factors, and minimizing the losses to the
creditors and other stakeholders through a restructuring programme. Even though the CDR
system will be applicable only to standard and sub-standard accounts potentially viable cases
of NPA, are also to get priority.

EVALUATION:

The mechanism will be more effective if accepted by 75 % of term lending institution and 75
% of bank, which provide working capital instead of 75 % of total lenders.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 74


(4) LOKADALATS

These are voluntary agencies created by the state government to assist in matter of loan
compromise cases involving an amount upto Rs. 5 lakhs may be referred Lok Adalat. The
scheme includes all NPA a/cs. Both suit filed and mensuit filled MCS Lokadalats meet at
different places for the convenience if banks and borrowers on the given date of the
lokadalats meeting, both the banker and borrower should be present. After looking into the
evidence and listening to both parties, the lokadalats works out an acceptable compromise.
Thereafter, lokadalat issues a recover certificate, which will enable the bank in obtaining
decree from the concerned court. This arrangement shortens the period in obtaining a court
decree, which is normally awarded after taking a much longer period. Along with this, efforts
should be made to give wide publicity to the scheme, besides educating both banks and
borrowers about Lokadalats.

EVALUATION

Merits-

• There are no court fees involved when fresh disputes are referred to it.
• It can take cognizance of any existing suit in the court as well as look into and adjudicate
upon fresh dispute
• If no settlement is arrived at the parties can continue with the court proceedings
• Its decree has legal status and is binding.
• In view of this unique advantage the government is thinking of strengthening them and
raising the monetary limit set for referred cases

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 75


Demerits-

• It is observed that banks have not taken adequate advantage of Lokadalats for
compromise settlement of their NPAs
• No cut off date is suggested since Lokadalat is an on going process. But this may
contribute to increasing delays in settlement of cases.
• Most Lokadalats should be set up in different parts of country to set up the recovery
procedures.

(5) DEBT RECOVERY TRIBUNALS

The MOF has taken a number of steps to strengthen the DRTs. Banks and FIs now can
nominate one nodal officer for each DRP. There is a suggestion for setting up co-ordination
committees for DRTs a Debt Recovery Appellate Tribunal with representations from major
banks and financial institutions.

In the context of recovery from NPAs, DRTs are assuming great importance since efforts are
to set up mere DRTs during this year and also to strengthen them. Though the recovery
through DRTs is at present less than two percent of the claim amount, banks FIs have to
depend heavily on them, efforts are as to amend the recovery Act to assign more power to
DRT. More importantly, the borrowers tendency to challenge the verdict of the Appellate
tribunal in the High court to seek natural justice needs to be checked. Otherwise, early
recovery efforts through DRTs would be futile. Secondly, training of residing officers of
Tribunals about the intricacies of banking practices is very essential. Further, the number of
Recovery officer has to be enhanced in every DRT for effective recovery. Finally, banker

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 76


and FIs have to come forward to provide liberal help to DRTs to equip them in terms of
infrastructure, manpower,etc.

It has been announced in the Union Budget for 2001-02 that the Govt. has decided to set up 7
more DRTs during 2001-02 in addition to the existing 22 DRTs, 5 Appellate Tribunals to
facilitate bank to quickly recover their dues from borrowers. Besides, the Govt. has proposed
to bring in legislation for facilitating foreclosure and enforcement of securities in case o
default so as to enable banks and financial institutions to realize their dues.

EVALUATION

 11 new DRTs are being opened over the last 2 years


 7 more DRTs are in pipeline
 DRTs are facing an uphill task with the number of cases
 The amount involved is increasing at alarming rate in the value of burgeoning NPA. The
cases involving Rs. 7705.32 crore are still pending. In Mumbai DRTs out of the total
amount of Rs. 1677.60 crore involved only Rs. 397.43 crore was recovered.
 There is a huge demand supply mismatch among the DRTs. The requirement is far higher
than the number of DRTs available. The number of settlement cases is high in Mumbai
and there is shortage of man power in Mumbai DRTs.
 The RBI guidelines, which stipulates that apresiding officer in a DRT cannot settle more
than 800 cases in a year, constraints the operations of DRTs.
 There is inadequacy of trained staff and their lack of exposure to the judicial system acts
as a hindrance.
 There needs speeding up of recovery procedures.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 77


6) CIRCULATION OF INFORMATION ON DEFAULTERS

The RBI has put in place a system for periodical circulation of details of willful defaults of
borrowers of banks and financial institutions. This serves as a caution list while considering
requests for new or additional credit limits from defaulting borrowing units and also from the
directors /proprietors / partners of these entities. RBI also publishes a list of borrowers (with
outstanding aggregating Rs. 1 crore and above) against whom suits have been filed by banks
and FIs for recovery of their funds, as on 31st March every year. It is our experience that
these measures had not contributed to any perceptible recoveries from the defaulting entities.
However, they serve as negative basket of steps shutting off fresh loans to these defaulters. I
strongly believe that a real breakthrough can come only if there is a change in the repayment
psyche of the Indian borrowers.

7) RECOVERY ACTION AGAINST LARGE NPAS

After a review of tendency in regard to NPAs by the Hon'ble Finance Minister, RBI had
advised the public sector banks to examine all cases of willful default of Rs 1 crore and
above and file suits in such cases, and file criminal cases in regard to willful defaults. Board
of Directors are required to review NPA accounts of Rs.1 crore and above with special
reference to fixing of staff accountability.

On their part RBI and the Government are contemplating several supporting measures
including legal reforms, some of them I would like to highlight.

8) ASSET RECONSTRUCTION COMPANY:

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 78


An Asset Reconstruction Company with an authorised capital of Rs.2000 crore and initial
paid up capital Rs.1400 crore is to be set up as a trust for undertaking activities relating to
asset reconstruction. It would negotiate with banks and financial institutions for acquiring
distressed assets and develop markets for such assets.. Government of India proposes to go in
for legal reforms to facilitate the functioning of ARC mechanism.

EVALUATION

 The ARCs will assist in cleansing the Balance Sheet of the weaker as well as potential
weak banks.
 It will also try to identify possible conceptual glitches and legal infirmities in the
arrangement.
 It is to be noted that given the inadequacies of SICA, BIFR, DRT’s foreclosures and
other recovery processes, an ARC may find it difficult to lead a viable existence.
Therefore, simultaneously it is required to make radical changes in bankruptcy and
recovery laws and procedures.
 Under this scheme the banks liabilities will get transferred from one bank to another. The
total liability to the banking system would remain unchanged.

9) CREDIT INFORMATION BUREAU

Institutionalisation of information sharing arrangements through the newly formed Credit


Information Bureau of India Ltd. (CIBIL) is under way. RBI is considering the
recommendations of the S.R.Iyer Group (Chairman of CIBIL) to operationalise the scheme
of information dissemination on defaults to the financial system. The main recommendations
of the Group include dissemination of information relating to suit-filed accounts regardless
of the amount claimed in the suit or amount of credit granted by a credit institution as also
such irregular accounts where the borrower has given consent for disclosure. This, I hope,
would prevent those who take advantage of lack of system of information sharing amongst

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 79


lending institutions to borrow large amounts against same assets and property, which had in
no small measure contributed to the incremental NPAs of banks.

10) PROPOSED GUIDELINES ON WILLFUL DEFAULTS/DIVERSION


OF FUNDS

RBI is examining the recommendation of Kohli Group on willful defaulters. It is working out
a proper definition covering such classes of defaulters so that credit denials to this group of
borrowers can be made effective and criminal prosecution can be made demonstrative
against willful defaulters.

11) CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

A Consultative Group under the chairmanship of Dr. A.S.Ganguly was set up by the Reserve
Bank to review the supervisory role of Boards of banks and financial institutions and to
obtain feedback on the functioning of the Boards vis-à-vis compliance, transparency,
disclosures, audit committees etc. and make recommendations for making the role of Board
of Directors more effective with a view to minimizing risks and over-exposure. The Group is
finalizing its recommendations shortly and may come out with guidelines for effective
control and supervision by bank boards over credit management and NPA prevention
measures. The report of the group is now published and discussed in another page.

12) SPECIAL MENTION ACCOUNTS - ADDITIONAL PRECAUTION AT


THE OPERATING LEVEL

In a recent circular, RBI has suggested to the banks to have a new asset category - `special
mention accounts' - for early identification of bad debts. This would be strictly for internal
monitoring. Loans and advances overdue for less than one quarter and two quarters would
come under this category. Data regarding such accounts will have to be submitted by banks
to RBI.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 80


However, special mention assets would not require provisioning, as they are not classified as
NPAs. Nor are these proposed to be brought under regulatory oversight and prudential
reporting immediately. The step is mainly with a view to alerting management to the
prospects of such an account turning bad, and thus taking preventive action well in time. An
asset may be transferred to this category once the earliest signs of sickness/irregularities are
identified. This will help banks look at accounts with potential problems in a focused manner
right from the onset of the problem, so that monitoring and remedial actions can be more
effective. Once these accounts are categorised and reported as such, proper top management
attention would also be ensured.

Borrowers having genuine problems due to temporary mismatch in funds flow or sudden
requirements of additional funds may be entertained at the branch level, and for this purpose
a special limit to tide over such contingencies may be built into the sanction process itself.
This will prevent the need to route the additional funding request through the controlling
offices in deserving cases, and help avert many accounts slipping into NPA category.

Introducing a `special mention' category as part of RBI's `Income Recognition and Asset
Classification norms' (IRAC norms) would be considered in due course.

13) ONE TIME SETTLEMENT POLICY (OTS) :

INTRODUCTION:

The Corporation has been providing financial assistance to small and medium scale units.
While sufficient precaution is being taken at the time of appraisal of projects, disbursement
of loans and follow-up, yet some projects fail to generate adequate resources to repay dues
and lead to defaults. Some of these units can be revived and rehabilitated with need base
relief and concessions by the Corporation. However, at times, units are not in a position to
revive due to, long term problems and structural deficiencies. It would be appropriate for
Corporation to find an exit route as early as possible. Compromise/ One Time Settlement has
been found to be an effective tool of recovery in such stressed cases.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 81


(1) O.T.S. POLICY- AN OVERVIEW

A comprehensive policy of One Time Settlement was approved by the Board of Directors in
March, 1999 and the same was implemented by Corporation with effect from 1st April, 1999
vide circular No.A-1 dated 31st March,1999, which contained detailed guidelines and
formats. The main purpose of the policy was to liquidate NPAs in time bound manner, which
had grown to Rs.597 Crores, and constituted 45.56% of the total loan outstanding of
Corporation. Subsequently, a need was felt to revise the policy based on the feed back
received from the field functionaries and in order to further accelerate the pace of reduction
in NPAs through compromise/ settlement. The policy did not have the provisions for
settlement especially in the cases where disbursement was made after 31st March 1995. A
revised OTS policy was considered and approved by the Board of Directors in its meeting
held on 15th September 2001. The duly approved OTS policy was implemented by the
Corporation vide Circular No.37/ 2001-02 dated 9th October, 2001.

(2) OBJECTIVE OF NEW OTS POLICY:

 The revised policy is designed to provide an effective frame work to tackle old and
more chronic cases of D-2 and Loss assets categories, which have been the growing cause of
concern for the Corporation.

 The total NPAs inD-1, D-2 and Loss assets categories are Rs.589.13 Crores, therefore, the
target of settling cases of Rs.150 Crores per year for next three years would be the main
objective of this OTS policy.

 The criteria/ basis of calculation of OTS amount in old and chronic cases of D-1, D-2 Assets
categories have been revised to encourage the staff to settle more cases under OTS than sale
U/s 29 of the SFCs' Act.,. This will considerably reduce the fresh accretion of loss assets,
which have shown an increasing trend in last 2 years.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 82


 The revised policy will provide an effective tool to settle large number of cases under OTS
with special emphasis on settling cases which are in possession of the Corporation for more
than 5 years.

 The operational procedure have been streamlined to remove unnecessary hassles and delays
in settling cases. The policy provides more delegation of power to operating staff and to
bring transparency in decision making at all levels.

Is evaluating Indian Banks performance a rather straightforward issue? The answer is an


absolute No. The Banks performance can judge from the following parameters.

 Behaviour of their stock prices.


 NPA’s.
 C/D Ratios
 ROIC
 ROCE
 P/E Ratio
 ROE
 Book Value
 RONW.

These parameters can be applied after the bank has posted its financial performance & hence are
not preventive or proactive measures. As the traditional tools of NPA management have not
proved to be satisfactory on the parameters of credit monitoring, follow up procedures,
preventing an assets from becoming non performing as well as timely settlement & recovery of
non performing loans, an attempt is made to bring out some untraditional techniques as well as
to reengineer the existing practices and improving them so as to bring the performance of Indian
Banks in tune with the international practices.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 83


1) SLIPPAGE MANAGEMENT

A) Process of Slippage
Any performing assets does not turn into non-performing overnight. The “Performing Asset”
passes through a relatively lengthier period of 2 quarters, in some cases seven-months, after
becoming due but before slipping down to the dangerous red band of non performing assets.
During this journey, every asset is giving out certain signals for warning the banker that
something bad is about to happen.
B) Slippage signals.

Depending upon the type of credit facility and nature of business these distress signals may
look like:

 Non Payment of the very first installment in case of term loans.

 Non-submission of stock statements in time.


 Cheque drawn on the account are bouncing.
 Credits into the cash credit account are not sufficient to meet the debits in the account.
 The overdue bill is lying unpaid;
 Installments are irregular.
 Amount paid is not fully covering the principal and interest debited.
 No regular operations in the cash credit account.
 Bank has information that party is not doing the business;
 Post-sanction inspection report speaks of diversion and misutilization;
 There has been a natural calamity in the borrower’s village.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 84


C) How to act on the Slippage Signals?

Once there signals start to come in, the banker is supposed to act immediately. There is no
point in waiting with the feeling that there are few more months for the 2 quarter cut-off and
things may turn all right before that, any symptom unattended would lead to major
complications. Steps taken at the initial stage itself would help to keep the accounts
performing and the costly slippage would never happen. The NPA reduction techniques like
replacement; nursing may be attempted while the accounts are still in the performing
basket by continuous monitoring of the individual assets. This type of constant & continuous
surveillance requires co-operation & attention from all concerned in a branch. Any one-shot
measure like “recover camps” can at best be of supplementary native and may never be a
permanent solution.

D) Journey from NPA to PA

While the journey, from the 6-month bottom but within the PA basket- to the top would be
easier it would certainly be costly, difficult and time consuming form of NPA to PA. This
uphill task usually is very difficult and such assets cannot be brought back to the PA
basket immediately; there needs to be an ‘isolation’ period of one year after which only the
asset will become eligible for classification under PA category. During this critical period it
has to perform continuously. This is like a patient who has been admitted to the intensive
care unit (ICU) is not sent back home immediately after bringing him out of ICU; he will be
kept in the non- critical area for further observation, before his final discharge. Hence, the
action before Slippage assumes further significance in cases of bringing back the NPA to PA.

E) What if “Slippage Management” Fails?

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 85


Even after careful management of assets before Slippage, if some assets cross the band to
become NPA, then there is no other alternative except to arrange for “fire-fighting”. This
post-incidence measure, again, needs to be undertaken on war footing. It will not be prudent
to wait any further at this stage as any time lag is going to cost the bank very dearly because
some of these assets may become doubtful inviting a more provisioning.

2) INCREASED PROPORTION OF NON-FUND BASED BUSINESS

When deregulation is thinning the margins, it is necessary to go in for non-fund based


business, which will increase the non-interest income of the branch. Non-fund based business
involves no fund at all but a good service and a marketing strategy to capture the customers
is needed. It also helps the branch in promoting fund-based business. Non-fund based
business activities generally include following services.

 Safe custody of customer’s valuables


 Issuing letters of credit/guarantee
 Remittance of funds: Mail transfer
 Credit card related service
 Gift Cheque/ Travelers’ Cheque
 Locker service

There are other services also like underwriting, guarantee, merchant banking and other
agency services, etc. but for small branches and rural branches increase in volume of these
facilities can boost their profile. The problem is that the rural people are not aware of these
services but by creating awareness the branch can reap the benefit. At present the non-
interest income of the rural branches forms a very insignificant proportion of total income.
This can be increased with little efforts.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 86


3) TURNAROUND STRATEGIES FOR LOSS MAKING BRANCHES
This will need a well-designed profit plan. It must be ensured that each and every branch of
the bank is viable on its won and that is possible when each and every branch starts
evaluating each business transaction from profit angle.

(A) DEPOSITS

The main source of profit comes from remunerative deposits. The deposit portfolio includes
savings bank current and time deposits. The deposit mix decides the cost of funds. It is found
that in some of the branches the deposit growth is either stagnant or it has a deposit of Rs.
50/60 lacs over a period of 5 to 6 years. To keep the cost of funds low, the efforts should be
to canvas low cost current and savings bank deposits. In rural branches agriculture income is
seasonal and most of the agriculture based customers keep the money idle and spend only in
specific exigencies. If this sector is approached just in time then the savings bank deposits
can be mobilized in large volumes. In this contest, one home one account has been a
successful strategy to woo the customer. What is more important is the timing for deposit
mobilization. But the best way to augment the deposits is by improving customer service. A
satisfied customer is the best ambassador of a branch. The “customer meets” can be utilized
to popularize the various deposits schemes so that they could suggest suitable schemes to
customers. In addition, special letters cab be sent to customers on regular basis inviting their
help to improve the business growth.

(B) MANAGEMENT OF ADVANCES PORTFOLIO

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 87


Advances portfolio is another vital area for making the branch profitable. The branch has to
find out the industry-wise exposure to determine the extent of NPAs in different category.
This will help them in concentrating their efforts in the area s where the percentage of NPAs
is on the low side. Moreover, it is observed that the advances of Bank are not picking up to
the desired level. The branch should concentrate on retail lending i.e. canvassing car loans,
consumer durables and housing finance, etc. Earlier the banks were giving small loans for
middle/upper class people. Housing finance is one such area where there is tremendous scope
and the percentage of NPAs in this sector is negligible. Moreover, the rate of interest is quite
attractive which will increase the yields on advances and hence would enhance the
profitability. On the whole branch should analyses its credit portfolio and gradually increase
credit delivery to earn better profits. It is in the interest of both and banks to stimulate credit
delivery.

4) ABC ANALYSIS

The deposit mobilization and credit expansion takes place simultaneously. But at the same
time credit administration to keep NPAs under control has to be effective. ABC analysis of
the over dues by categorizing the overdue accounts should be done according to the quantum
of overdue whereby more attention can be paid on such chronic accounts. Segregation of
over dues where the quantum of expected recovery is high and the branch is willing.

5) BANKS SHOULD ADOPT U.S. GAAP FOR NPAs

The RBI has permitted strong banks to adopt the U.S. GAAP mode of accounting to dial with
NPAs. The U.S. GAAP follows Discounted Cash flow approach towards valuation of
securities while Indian Banks follow Market Value approach in making valuation of secured
part of loans. Primary reasons for the differences between U.S. GAAP and Indian method is
in provisioning aspects for NPAs .RBI requires banks to determine and report NPAs at book
value net of all write-offs and provisions. Under U.S. GAAP norms, banks are require to
determine NPAs based on the evaluation of the willingness and ability of the borrower to
repay and estimate the realizable part thereof, based on the underlying collateral and /or the
underlying cash flows of the borrower. In a move towards internationally best accounting

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 88


practices and to ensure greater transparency RBI has adopted 90 days NPA norms. Therefore
banks are suggested to make provisions for this and chalk out an action plan for this.

6) CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT

This is an approach to manage the credit portfolio and is a proactive approach to requirement
of lower CAR as risk weighted assets are reduced. This will reduce the need recapitalization
of Indian PSBs and pouring of doles of funds which would otherwise be applied by the Govt.
for developmental purpose.

NPAs are the legacy of the past and credit risk management is action in the present for the
future, it is concerned more with the quantity of the credit portfolio before default. It
involves

 Selection-Borrowers financial condition, profitability cash flows, industry,


collateral, etc.
 Limitation-It ensures that individual or group borrower concentrated is not very
large and the regulations or the banks themselves prescribe exposure limits.
 Diversification- It is related to limitation and is based on the age-old principle of
not putting all the eggs in one basket.

Following formula is evolved

EL = PD X LGDX EAD

EL = expected loss
PD = probability of default
LGD = loss given default
EAD = exposure at default

Suppose there is a bank X which has only AAA obligators and a bank Y with BBB obligators
in its portfolio. The AAA obligator does not default within a year horizon, so the PD=0
whereas the average PD for a bond issued by a BBB obligor is 0.25% for bank X, the EL are
zero for one year. For bank Y, assuming the loss given default to be 50% and the EAD to be
Rs. 100 crore, the EL would be 100 x 0.0025 x 0.5 = Rs. 125000. The level of EL could vary
from 0 to 250000 on an identical portfolio size depending on the quality of obligators. Thus

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 89


EL can be viewed as normal cost of doing business and it indicates the average or mean loss
on the credit portfolio.

MERITS:

 The above approach represents international best practices.


 It is a more disciplined way of analyzing credit risk.
 Helps in quantifying risk.
 It captures the risk of entire credit portfolio as contrasted with the Asset by
asset or standalone approach.
 It measures additional risk arising due to increased exposure to a borrower/s.
 This forces the bank to adopt internal ratings based approach to credit risk

8) CREDIT DERIVATIVES

A more risk sensitive standardized approach towards capital adequacy of Banks is credit
derivatives, credit derivatives allow the transfer of risk between the markets participate
without the underlying transaction changing hands A credit derivative works much like an
insurance policy. If a bank thinks it it’s over exposed to a particular borrower or to a
particular industry it can transfer the credit risk by, purchasing a credit risk derivative. The
main credit derivatives products are swaps, options and forwards. In a credit default swap
one party (protection seller) receives a premium at pre-set intervals in consideration for
guaranteeing defaults in payments as envisaged in the credit contract.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 90


A credit-spread option is and option on the spread between the yields earned on the assets.
The option provides a pay off whenever the spread exceeds some level (the strike spread).A
credit spread forward is obtained by combining a call option and a put option. It is similar to
a normal forward except that the underlying is the spread.

In addition to the above financial engineering is used to structure more complicated deals on
these basic building blocks. These allow the credit risk manager to achieve specific return
profiles and gain value by taking on unlikely risk scenarios.
EVALUATION

Merits-

• It ensures safety and soundness of banks.

• Banks can fort the first time earmark explicit capital to cover operational risk.

• It is possible to unbundled the credit risk from loans, bonds and derivatives and sell different
form in market

• Credit derivative instruments facilitate liquidity, transparency and price discovery of the
underlying assets

• It can open up new business opportunities for the players like credit rating agencies and
insurance firms, provides new investments options for institutional investors like mutual
funds, investment banks/corporate (both as hedgers and speculators), optimize risk return and
capital allocation functions.

Demerits-

• Highly complex and sophisticated approach restricts its universal application in the emerging
and developing markets kike India where the banks continue to be the major segment in
financial intermediaries and would be facing considerable challenges in adopting all the
proposals.

• Non availability of past default data.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 91


• Difficulties in measuring default probabilities and pricing the derivatives products.

• Lack of liquid secondary market for audit derivatives.

• Unresolved regulatory, netting and capital adequacy issues

REQUIREMENTS

 Easy availability of skilled personnel in both finance and information


technology sectors.

 Experiments with various credit risk modeling techniques for Indian banks.

 In a nutshell, it is difficult to conceive an integrated risk management


framework for Indian banks without derivative product to hedge against credit risk.
The introduction of credit derivatives could make hitherto dormant credit market
liquid, vibrant and broad based. Whether or not our banks are able to implement the
international norms within the prescribe timeframe (20040, its essential to know the
nature and magnitude of credit risks that Indian banks ate now exposed to and the risk
capital requirement thereof.

9) LEGAL RECOURSE:

 Updating of certain statues: The legal framework within which banks have to
operate and particularly manage the recovery of their dues from the borrowers is far from
adequate. For understandable reasons many legal provisions have, infect a positive bias
favoring the debtor who has been seen as the weaker party and therefore in need of
protection. Unfortunately, these very well intentioned provisions cause an immense load
(and backlog of cases) on legal system, making lending a hazardous operation for banks.
These provisions need to be amended urgently and some new enactment is called for in
order to cater to the requirements of the changed and far more complex current economic
and business environment.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 92


 Legalizations on bankruptcy or foreclosure: Legislation to empower banks to
realize the property charged without court intimation, as in case of State Financial
Institutions.

 Creditors right to change the management to companies in the event of


default/warring signals : Though this requires certain amendments to existing statues,
such a notification should be made to have a far-reaching impact on the health of the
industry, as it will enable re-orientation of the management towards the right perspective
for turning around the company.

 Opening more DRT’s and DRAT’s

 Strengthening DRT set-up : Bench of presiding officers, more recovery officers


with adequate infrastructure.

 Mandatory honor of commitment by Government in respect of advances


guaranteed by them.

10) CIRCULATION AND PUBLISHING OF LIST OF DEFAULTERS:

Currently the RBI circulars among banks and financial institution the list of defaulters, which
is found useful in avoiding willful defaulters. The RBI has defined a willful defaulter for the
first time. It has provided the broad parameters for identification of willful defaulters whose
list will be circulated among banks and financial institutions. Auditors of companies have to
report in their certificate about diversion of funds if any. In addition, on Jan 30, 2001, credit
information Bureau (CIB) was set up to provide critical data required by any credit
institution before arriving at credit decision. State Bank Of India, HDFC, Dun and Bradstreet
and Trans Union set up CIB jointly, It will collect information from its members and make it
available to any credit institution on demand. CIB is yet to be operationalised. Its success
depends upon cooperation extended by the members in supplying the required information
on timely basis.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 93


Moreover it is also suggested that the banks should publish the list of defaulters in the news
paper or blacklist them and circulate the list to all other banks so that no other banks would
give any sort of advance to the blacklisted customer. Also this action will generate prompt
payment among the defaulters as the information is made public.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 94


 S Strength
 W Weakness
 O Opportunity
 T Threat

 Strength

 Years of Experience…………..Century

 Experienced Employee

 Large Network

 Huge ATM Network

 Government Support

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 Safety and Security of Money

 Transparency in Charges

 Large income from Loan interest

 Less interest rate of loan with low charges

 Weakness
 Lake of Young Employee

 Rigid work culture

 Physical environment & Ambience

 Excessive Documentation

 Bureaucracy

 Less knowledgeable employee

 Less control on employee

 Poor technology

 Poor recovery system

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 96


 Opportunity

 Constant fear in the minds of customers towards private bank.

 Even expanding rural, urban & International Market.

 Fraud and cheating with customer from private banking.

 Dissatisfy from private banking.

 So much hidden charges of private banks.

 Nationalizes bank more reliable and trustworthy.

 Threats

 Shifting customer’s preference towards private banks.

 Private bank providing more facilities at lower charges.

 Quick Dynamic employees and greater technological product.

 Young stare are attract towards private bank because of speedy and
upgrade technology.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 97


 Proper Co Ordination and Communication between Bank and Customer

 Time to time follow up to customer and their Guarantors

 Properly check all the documents

 Proper Valuation of their Assets

 Strict to recovery Steps

 When first installment will be due at that time Bank have to inform to customer
regarding his due installment

 Whole Terms and Condition explain to customer at the time of sanction the

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 98


loan

 Advance reminder for repayment to customer

 Give target to recover the debt amount.

 Provide Commission as a motivation to employee who put there effort for


reduce the NPAs.

NPA Reduction Mantra

Banks :

• Do not give money, lend it.


• What matter is what for you finance and not what against?
• Borrower accounts need real time monitoring, not post mortem.
• An NPA account need out necessarily mean that
the borrowing company is Unviable or sick.
• Try to identify and bridge viability gaps of industrial units.
• Many sick units need nourishment in the form
of fresh dose of loans to regain health.
• One time Settlement with willful defaulters may
be good mathematics but bad Banking.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 99


• Always follow basic lending norms.
• Put credit decisions on fast track.

RBI /Government:

• Loans failures due to mollified credit decisions


warrant fixation of Accountability.adical legal reforms to expedite proceedings.

• Say no loan waivers.

• If a unit can’t exist let it exits.

• Facilitate mergers and acquisition involving sick units.

The banks also need to conduct a comprehensive review of their advances portfolio and
designate all branches which have more than 50 % of their total advances as NPAs as
exclusive recovery branches and freeze further lending until the NPAs are salvaged.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 100


TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 101
FUTURE PLAN

INNOVATIONS & INITIATIVES:


Bank has successfully initiated various measures toward widening its SHG network. To list a few
examples:

A) Sensitisation of staff: Bank’s aim is to sensitise the entire staff from Manager to
Messenger working in rural and semi-urban branches towards the programme.

B) Special training programmes in SHGs are being conducted at 54 training centres of the
Bank in the country apart from State Bank Institute of Rural Development,
Hyderabad.

C) Close liaison with NGOs: Operating functionaries at branch level and region level
are in close contact with NGOs in their area to take the movement ahead. For the
purpose, regular meetings are arranged with the NGOs and their support is solicited.

D) SHG cells: Special SHG cells have been opened at major branches.

E) Lending to NGOs / Federations of SHGs: Lending to credible NGOs/ Federations of


SHGs on selective basis for on lending to SHGs is being encouraged.

F) Sahayog Niwas: SBI has launched its Housing Loan product ‘SAHAYOG NIWAS’
meant for SHG members. Under the scheme formulated keeping the socio economic
conditions of villages insight, housing loans are given to the SHG members without
any mortgage of house / land. Response to this product is very encouraging.

G) SBI Life- Shakti: SBI Life, our insurance subsidiary, is the first to introduce a life
insurance scheme, especially designed for SHG members. Special feature of the
scheme is that entire premium amount paid by the member is refunded after maturity,
i.e., 10 years.

H) Rural training institutes: To help the rural youth to stand on their feet, two RUDSETI
type training institutes have been established at Gulbarga and Gadag in Karnataka
State, to impart training in self employment to youth free of cost.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 102


I) SBI staff as SHPI: The main role of formation and nurturing of SHGs have been played
by NGOs who, apart from their fundamental role of social service, also aim to make
the poor economically self sufficient. But in SBI, our committed work force is not
lagging behind and a number of committed staff members have worked hard to form
and nurture SHGs on their own.

J) Appreciation by Government: A number of our branches / Circles have also received


commendation and appreciation from various State Governments for doing excellent
job in SHG-Bank Credit Linkage programme.

K) NABARD felicitated 15 SHGs at a function organized in New Delhi on 13th September


2005.The function was presided over by the Hon’ble Union Finance Minister. Out of
total 15 SHGs felicitated, 4 were financed by our branches, one each from Orissa,
Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Uttaranchal.

L) Samanwita: Bank has sponsored and financially supported NGO ‘SAMANWITA’ in


collaboration with Government of Orissa for supplementing the process of socio
economic upliftment of the tribals and the downtrodden in the poorest and most
backward Kandhamal district of Orissa State where 52% of the population is that of
tribals. Core activities performed by Samanwita are empowerment of people through
promotion of SHGs, especially women SHGs and development of human resources.

M) SHPI status: State Bank of India is the first Commercial Bank to which NABARD has
recently given SHPI status.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 103


FUTURE PLANS
SBI has set for itself an ambitious target of credit linking 1 million SHGs up to March 2008.

The Bank has started to leverage our vast SHG network for various services beyond credit delivery.

FINANCIAL INCLUSION FUTURES PROSPECT

Scheme for Financial Inclusion by extension of banking services through Business Facilitators/
Business Correspondents

Objective
To extend Micro Finance services for uplifting the poor.
 To extend banking facilities in untapped / unbanked areas through the use of existing
branch network and new technology in combination with outsourcing.

2. Eligible entities
a) Business Facilitator Model:
NGOs
Farmer’s Clubs
Functional cooperatives
Community based organizations
I.T. enabled rural outlets of corporate entities
Well functioning Panchayats
Rural Multipurpose Kiosks / Village Knowledge Centers
Agri Clinics / Agri Business Centers
Krishi Vigyan Kendras
KVIC / KVIB units
Post Offices
Insurance agents
Social organizations
Any other entity, as may be specified by RBI from time to time.

However, it would be desirable to identify such entities which have presence and activity throughout
the Circle/State.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 104


b) Business Correspondent Model:

NGOs / MFIs set up under the Indian Societies / Trust Acts


 Societies registered under Mutually Aided Cooperative Societies(MACS) Act or the
Cooperative Societies Acts of States
Section 25 companies
Post Offices

3. Scope of activities

a) Business Facilitator Model:

The scope of activities to be undertaken by the Business Facilitator will include:

Identification of potential customers and activities


 Collection and preliminary processing of loan applications / account opening forms
including verification of primary information / data
 Processing and submission of loan applications / account opening forms to the Bank
Cross-selling of our other financial products (Insurance, etc.)
Post-sanction monitoring and follow-up for recovery
 Promoting and nurturing Self Help Groups (SHGs) / Joint Liability Groups (JLGs)
 Creating awareness about savings and other products and education and advice on
managing money and debt counseling

b) Business Correspondent Model:

In addition to the activities listed under the Business Facilitators Model, the scope of activities to be
undertaken by the Business Correspondents will include:

Opening of deposit accounts.


 Collection and payment of small value deposits and withdrawals (not exceeding
Rs.10,000/- in each case).
 Disbursal of small value loans (not exceeding Rs.10,000/-) and obtaining prescribed
documents.
Recovery of principal / collection of interest.
Furnishing of mini account statements and account information.
 Selling insurance / mutual fund products / pension products / any other third party
product.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 105


 Receipt and delivery of small value remittances / other payment instruments (not
exceeding Rs.10,000/-).
Payment / Receipt in respect of e-governance activities
Railway ticketing and
 Any other service on behalf of the Bank, duly authorized by the appropriate authority

FUTURE PLANS AND STRATEGIES:

1) New Businesses:

The Corporate strategy and New Business Group has been created to focus on emerging
opportunities. The Bank plans to enter into the areas of merchant acquisition, payment
solutions, Private Equity, Infrastructure Fund, Venture Capital, Pension Funds Management,
General Insurance and Financial Planning & Wealth Management.
2) Rural Business :

 Plan to credit-link 2.63 lac SHGs thus surpassing our mission of credit- linking 1 million
SHGs by March 2008.
Tie-up with around 20,000 internet kiosks during next 24 months.
 Under Financial Inclusion initiatives, to cover 1 lac villages in 24 months.
We plan to issue 10 million SBI Tiny Cards by March 2009.
Developing alternate delivery channel through:
Business Facilitators
Business Correspondents

3) Corporate Accounts Group (CAG):

CAG will be focusing more on the fee-based income in future.


 Institutional Accounts Group formed for focusing on Banks and Financial Institutions.
 CAG to offer more technology-supported products to meet the market expectations and
offer total range of products and services to our corporate customers, under one roof.

4) Treasury Group:

Bank in its pursuit to provide better returns to its customers and shareholders is in the process of
launching derivative embedded products to help customers utilise the new RBI dispensation to
manage their risks and earnings more effectively.

The need and demand for these products is expected to grow as more and more sectors become
exposed to the global economy. The Bank is in readiness to bring home to its customers the benefit
of the new products and opportunities.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 106


Note: As required by RBI vide circular dated 20.4.2007, the Bank has deducted the Loss on
Revaluation of Investments from Other Income. This was earlier included in Provisions &
Contingencies. Accordingly, previous year figures have been regrouped wherever necessary.

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 107


CONCLUSION

We are happy to getting opportunity to part of State Bank of India and also get opportunity
to tackle the NPAs Account.

During Our Summer Training we meet 150 clients of bank and get their opinion the their
problems. So, According to that duration we would like to conclude that, Account become
NPAs in many way sometimes, Sometimes technical problem, Some times personal problem
but these all problem will be solved by few precautions which earlier we mentioned.

In any financial institution, NPAs are inevitable in the loan portfolio. But efforts should be
made to maintain a reasonable level of NPAs. Keeping in mind the RBI plan to introduce the
concept of “One quarter” for identification of NPAs by 2004, it is a high time to go in for
recovery drive on a war-footing. While doing so, prevention of NPAs should not be
forgotten. These are the major challenges before banks which have gone in for VRS. But
sincerity and hard work along with professional approach on the part of bank management
may help in the fulfillment of challenges. Towards this end, banks have to go long way.

If the nationalized commercial banks desire to stand in competition with the private sector
banks and the foreign banks, they should over a period of time, be in a position to bring
down NPAs to manageable proportion. Moreover, the government should take measures to
facilitate the efforts of the banks in the recovery of the loans which currently taken

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 108


inordinately long time. If willful defaulters to delay the repayment of the loan use the BIFR
proceedings the relevant legal provision should be appropriately amended. The fact that the
NPAs are gradually going down generates hope about the future of the banks, though we
should keep in mind another simple fact that in absolute amount, this has not happened.

Web Sites:-

 www.sbi.co.in (Date-30/6/08)
 www.rbi.org.in (Date - 1/7/08)
 www.google.com (Date - 1/7/08)

Books:-
 NGB Business bulletin (Date-10/7/08)
 Indian Financial System (Date-12/7/08)

Magazine & Journals:-

 The Financial Express (Date- 5/7/08)


(India’s Best Banks)

 Tata Mc Graw Hill (Date- 6/7/08)


(Accounting & Finance 2007-08)

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 109


TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 110
Questionnaire

General Information
1) Name of the Borrower:-____________________________________________________

2) Loan A/C No. :-____________________________________________________

3) Address :-____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Ph.No. (R)_____________________(O)______________________

4) Education : - □ Graduate
□ Under Graduate
□ Post Graduate
□ Others

5) Occupation :-□ Business


□ Professional
□ Employee Govt / Non Govt.
□ Others

6) Guarantor’s Name & Add.:- _____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

7) Amount of Loan :-_____________________________________________________

8) Annual Income :-_____________________________________________________

TNRCMS MAYANK SHAH 111


9) Name of Salary Disbursing
Authority :-______________________________________________________

10) Other Credit :-______________________________________________________

11) Date of Loan :-______________________________________________________

12) Purpose of Loan :-______________________________________________________

Factors of becoming A/c NPA

(1) Borrower’s Related Factors

13) Installment Amount :-___________________________________________________

14) When Repayment Commence:-Yes/No_____________________________________________

15) How many Installment :-__________________________________________________

16) Due date of Installment :-___________________________________________________

17) Reason for Due date of


Amount :-___________________________________________________

18) Discuss when your First


Installment Default :-Yes / No.___________________________________________

Utilization of bank loan

19) Any Notice received for


Recovery :-___________________________________________________

20) Personal contribution :- □ Telephonic contact


□ Personal visit

Awareness of Implications of Non Payment of Installments

21) Do you Know the penal Interest will be


Charged for non-payment of installments on Due date :-
_______________________________________________________

22) Do you know that the bank can recover the loan by resorting to:
□ Bank’s right to enforce criminal proceedings. YES/NO
□ Do you know that bank can initiate recovery by sale of mortgaged

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Property without filing a suit YES/NO
□ Attachment of salary: YES/NO
□ Publication of your name as defaulter: YES/NO
□ sharing of the information among other banks which will affect :
your credibility YES/NO

Plan of Action to Regularize the Loan

23) When Will you meet Asset verification official RASMECC


□ Week
□ Month
□ More then Month

24) When will you Repay the due amount


□ Week
□ Month
□ More then Month

(2) Factors Related to Bank

25) Project cost :-_______________________________________________________

26) Time taken in sanction


& Distribution of
Loan :-______________________________________________________

27) Whether Asset


Created from bank
Loan : - Yes /No

28) Income generation


From the project :-_______________________________________________________

29) Whether reminder Send by bank for the Non payment :- Yes/No, If yes then ,
□ Notice
□ Telephonic call
□ Personal visit

30) Whether guarantor is Inform about the Default :- Yes/no

(3) Other factors

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31) Natural calamities :-___________________________________________

32) Govt. Policy :- __________________________________________

33) Personal Hazards :-_________________________________________ __

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