Ship Chandlers are those saddled with the responsibility of providing supplies and services to Vessels in Nigerian Ports. Supplies could range from provisions (foodstuff), crude oil, engine oil, water, engine spare parts, materials and whatever other supplies the Captain of the Ship may require. Ship chandling activities date back to the inception of building a boat that became hollow and needed to sail; somebody had to supply them. When men started to navigate the globe in the middle ages, the business of chandling now became a highly technical and specialized industry. There is an international body that is responsible for regulating ship chandling all over the world. The International Ship Suppliers Association, (ISSA) which was formed in 1955. What kind of people can be involved in ship chandling? All categories of people can be involved; as far as the individual has a license from the customs. Though most are either retired seamen or have been involved in one maritime business or the other. To become involved in ship chandling activities, you apply to the customs; get a license to practice and the license is renewable every year. Qualifications for a ship chandler There are no special qualifications; but there is the need for a ship chandler to be educated. This is because of communication. You have to communicate with the Captains, calculations have to be made, parts have to be decoded when requisitions are sent. Decoding enables you know what they want before you begin to make quotations; but generally, a graduate or HND holder in any profession, is satisfactory. Profitability of the business The Chandling business is an important aspect of the maritime sector that the government is underrating; but about the richest. The ship chandler is the strength of the Vessel. At the point when the ship owner wants to purchase a Vessel, the ship chandler must come into the picture. He handles the logistics as regards oil, provisions, the service of the life raft, the radar, the engines, everything to make the ship sail smoothly. However, the ship chandling profession is one that has not really been harnessed yet in Ghana. Anything can get damaged on a ship It could be the engines or oil and the only person to supply is the ship chandler. Any service the Captain requires? The ship chandler is the person licensed by the government through the Board of Customs, to deliver such services and make supplies to the ship on our territorial waters. It is a very lucrative profession. What does it take to start a ship chandling business? The first step is to apply to the Customs, fill the forms, and if the requirements are met after filling the forms. The Company seeking to start the business must be a limited liability Company and must be incorporated. Initially, it used to be an enterprise but now for the applicants own good, it is advisable to have a limited liability Company. The Challenges of Ship Chandling. The ship chandler is faced with the challenge of getting the jobs. This is because the business is mostly transacted via the internet unlike when you had to go from one ship to another scouting for a job. It is an added advantage if you are a member of the International Ship Suppliers Association (ISSA). This is because ISSA would advertise your company s name on the internet and make contact or job offers would be made and accepted via the internet. Another challenge here is that business is done with

But for any international law to be effective with regards to this. strongly anchored in equity and justice. In the early days. especially where the vessel s movement is not straight forward. freight (charterers) and Hull (ship owner). is entitled to receive contribution from other parties. For instance. The ability to meet up with such demands could be very tedious. The next person to call is the ship chandler! to make all these things available within a specified time before the ship leaves. or on the cold room system and the ship is going to move in 4 or 5 hours time. to back up ship chandlers. The essential ingredients are an extra ordinary sacrifice or expenditure reasonably incurred.someone you don t know and the only means of communication is by e-mail. the container leasing company is now recognized as an important fourth party. The sacrifice or expenditure must be intentional and must also be for the benefit of the entire adventure. Available documents show that there was evidence of records of the practice of General Average as far back as 60 A. Steps taken to protect all parties to the adventure is referred to as the General Average act. This accounts for its universal appeal and acceptance in virtually every maritime nation. The common safety of all three parties must be threatened by a peril. The ability to meet these time-based requirements effectively. ISSA has regulations as regards how long a ship owner can hold on to your money. This is because business is done without physical contact. A ship can be at the Port and an order comes from the owners to go and effect repairs on the radar system. There is also lack of accessibility to funds. By definition. This implies that the sacrifice or expenditure must be extra ordinary and not something which the claimant is required normally to do or something arising out of the terms of contract. it could be arrested. The ship owner usually holds on to the money for 30 to 60 days. Salvage occurs when a salvor comes to the assistance of maritime property in time of peril. a ship could be leaving Nigeria to Ghana and suddenly an order comes from the ship owner that the ship should go to Spain! It is then the chief officer will work out the logistics. it must first be domesticated here. D. The Ship Chandler is also faced with a challenge of getting his money after supply. is a key challenge. That is why the government should come in and act as security. confirm if they have enough food on board. oil etc. and if such ship should come to the Country. The banking industry has not really looked into ship chandling activities and how lucrative it is. The owner of the property sacrificed or the party who incurred the expenditure on behalf of the others in a General Average. Some requisitions can be as large. They can give support to the ship chandler by lowering their interest rates which are too high unlike their counter parts abroad where the rates are very low. there is a General average act when an extra ordinary sacrifice or expenditure is deliberately and reasonably incurred in time of peril for the safety preservation of the interest of parties involved in the common adventure. GENERAL AVERAGE PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE General Average is basically a very simple concept. in proportion to the value of their properties saved. Also the ability to perform on the part of the ship chandler is also another major challenge. General Average is believed to have originated from the practice of Phoenician traders of old. check if there is enough water to take them that far considering the distance is longer. namely: cargo. Usually there are three parties involved in an adventure. much of General Average was probably concerned with throwing some goods over . independent of contract. With the development of modern shipping and the increasing use of containerization.

He would also convince the other merchant whose goods were saved. The ship owner being convinced of the soundness of this. which were sacrificed to save the ship. the Vessel encounters very heavy weather. Merchant A is delighted to receive his cargo in reasonable good condition whilst merchant B is told that his goods had been thrown overboard to avoid the Vessel and its contents being sunk by the waves. Naturally merchant B would be angry and point out that as a result of the sacrifice of his goods. . the ship became easier to handle and manages to successfully complete the voyage. which threatens to sink the ship. let us imagine a sail ship on the Mediterranean filled sixty bales of produce consigned to two merchants. As an example. would find it necessary to arrange some monetary compensation for his goods. The two merchants go to the Port to collect their produce. The master decides to make the ship lighter and throws out thirty bales of produce. to share his goods with the less fortunate merchant. During the voyage. As a result of this sacrifice. thirty bales a piece. the other merchant hand received his cargo and also the ship owner had managed to save his ship.board to lighten the Vessel.

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