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the process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world. How we see the world around us
Elements of perception
Sensation Absolute threshold Differential threshold Subliminal perception
The immediate and direct response of sensory organs to stimuli. A stimulus is any unit of input to any of the senses. Sensory receptors- the human organs that receive sensory inputs. All of these functions are called into played in the purchase, use and evaluation of consumer products
2. The Absolute Threshold:
The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation. Sensory adaption- getting used to certain sensation; becoming accommodated to a certain level of stimulation. Sensory adaption is a problem that concerns many national advertisers, they try to change their advertising campaign regularly to cut the advertising clutter, ensure that consumers note their ads and to increase sensory input.
3.The Differential Threshold
The minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli Also called just noticeable difference(j.n.d.). Weber s law states that the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different. The j.n.d between two stimuli is not an absolute amount, but an amount relative to the intensity of the first stimulus.
Marketing application of the J.N.D
Marketers need to determine the relevant j.n.d for their products for 2 different reasons: ± The negative changes are not readily discernible to the public . ± The product improvement are apparent to consumers without being wastefully extravagant.
An advertising message presented below the threshold of consciousness. A visual or auditory message that is allegedly perceived psychologically, but not consciously Stimuli that are too weak and too brief to be consciously seen or heard mat nevertheless be strong enough to be perceived by one or more receptor cells. E.g.: eat popcorn and drink coca-cola during movie.
The effectiveness of subliminal persuasion
Extensive research has shown no evidence that subliminal advertising can cause behavior changes Some evidence that subliminal stimuli may influence affective reactions
Aspects of perception
Consumer subconsciously exercise a great deal of selectivity as to which aspects of the environment/ stimuli they perceive. Means that people pay attention to only a small portion of stimuli to which they are exposed.
Stimuli selected based on 2 factors: - consumer s previous experience - Consumer s motives(needs, desires, interests, etc) Selection depends on the - Nature of stimulus - Expectations - Motives - Selective perception
Selective exposure consumer seek out messages which are pleasant, they can sympathize and reassure them of good purchases. Selective attention- consumers have a heightened awareness when stimuli meet their needs and prefer different messages and medium.
Perceptual defense - consumers subconsciously screening out of stimuli which are threatening. Perceptual blocking- consumers avoid being bombarded with stimuli by ± Tuning out: blocking such stimuli from conscious awareness. ± TiVo: enable viewers to skip over TV commercials.
The most basic principles of Gestalt psychology:
± Figure and ground ± Grouping ± closure
Figure and ground
People tend to organize perceptions into figure-and-ground relationships. The figure is appears to be well defined, solid, and in the forefront. The ground is usually indefinite, hazy, and continuous. Marketers usually design so the figure is noticed stimuli.
People group stimuli to form a unified impression or concept Grouping helps memory and recall.
People have a need for closure and organize perceptions to form a complete picture. Will often fill in missing pieces. Incomplete messages remembered more than complete.