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DESIGN OF EHV SUBSTATION AT FACT UDL

A Project Report
Submitted by
Arunkumar M.P
Bijesh K.B
Jijo Francis
Lipin A.K

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for award of the degree of Bachelor of


Technology in Electrical & Electronics Engineering

FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (FISAT)

Angamaly-683577, Ernakulam

MAHATMA GANDHI UNIVERSITY


Kottayam-686560
May 2011
DESIGN OF EHV SUBSTATION AT
FACT UDL

A Project Report
Submitted by
Arunkumar M.P
Bijesh K.B
Jijo Francis
Lipin A.K

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology
in Electrical & Electronics Engineering

FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (FISAT)

Angamaly-683577, Ernakulam

Affiliated to

MAHATMA GANDHI UNIVERSITY


Kottayam-686560
May 2011
FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (FISAT)

Mookkannoor (p.o), Angamaly-683577

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report titled DESIGN OF EHV SUBSTATION AT
FACT UDC submitted by Jijo Francis, towards partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics
and Instrumentation Engineering is a record of bonafide work carried out by them
during the academic year 2007 –2011.

Internal Guide Head of the Department


Name Ms. Sreeja Dr. Pailo Paul
Designation Lecturer Asst. professor
Department of EEE Department of EEE
FISAT FISAT

Place: Mookkannoor

Date:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First we would like to express our sincere thanks to God Almighty for giving us
enough strength to complete our project successfully

We have unique pleasure in thanking our teacher Ms. Sreeja for her unflinching
devotion and help, which led us to completion of this project.

We place on record our sincere thanks to our external guide Mr. Gopala Krishnan,
Assistant Engineer, FEDO Department, FACT in providing necessary guidance and
back up throughout the whole course of our project.

The project that we did at FACT (UDL DIVISION) was quiet inspiring and we
gained a lot of knowledge. We do hope that this project would be of help to other
electrical students.
ABSTRACT

The major requirement of a power system to an industry is a well designed


electrical system with stability and minimum interruption. This project deals with
the design of electrical system of FACT Udyogamandal division which lies under
continuous process category. The contract demand is 16MVA. Hence in this project
the design of substation and its auxiliaries, earthing, etc are carried out in detail.

This project deals with the design of an 110KV, 20 MVA Industrial type outdoor
substation. The main source of power in this substation is from a 16MW turbo
generator and KSEB supply. The KSEB supply is taken from the nearby parent
station through over head XPLE cables. Since all connections are made using over
head cables, lighting arresters are used.

The existing 110KV substation is installed in 1947. The installed capacity of the
circuit breakers is 250MVA. But, now the fault level of 110KV systems is 5445MVA.
So the circuit breakers used cannot withstand fault level. Two 12.5/20 MVA
transformers are used.
CONTENTS

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION……………………………….……1

Chapter 2 SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM…………………….…….2

Chapter 3 FAULT LEVEL CALCULATION……….………….4

Chapter 4 EARTHING RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT…...7

Chapter 5 SUBSTATION…………………………………….….13

Chapter 6 SUBSTATION COMPONENTS……………………17

Chapter 7 CONCLUSION………………………………..………40

Chapter 8 REFERENCES…………………………..……………41
INTRODUCTION
Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)

1. INTRODUCTION

A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system,


where voltage is transformed from high to low, or the reverse, or many other important functions.
Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plant and consumer, and
may be changed in voltage in several steps.

A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage while decreasing the current,
while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage while increasing the current for domestic and
commercial distribution. The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system
became a grid. The first substations were connected to only one power station where the
generators were housed, and were subsidiaries of that power station.

For economical transmission and distribution, higher voltage should be achieved as follows. But
the consumers do not use very high voltages such as, 220KV, 110 KV etc. So they must be
transformed into low voltages by means of transformers in sub-stations. Thus, a substation may
be called as link between the generating stations and consumers.

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SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
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FAULT LEVEL CALCULATION
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3. FAULT LEVEL CALCULATION


Kalamassery fault level = 3600 MVA

25% future expansion = 4500 MVA

10% voltage Regulation = 5445 MVA

Base MVA = 100 MVA

Source Impedance =

= 1.8365

Length of ACSR = 5.1 Km


Ohmic impedance of the conductor = √
= √
= 0.6458/km
= 0.6458 5.1=3.29Ω

%Z= = = 2.72%

% impedance of 110 KV bus at UDL = 1.8365 +2.72 = 1.8365+2.72


= 4.5565

Fault level = = 2194.67 MVA

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Fault current = = 11.53KA


% Impedance of 20 MVA Transformer = 15.6%

% Impedance of 100 MVA base = = 78

% Impedance of 11 KV side of Transformer = 78+4.5565 = 82.5565

Fault level of 11 KV side of Transformer = 21.13 / √ = 6.365 KA

3.1 DESIGN OF SUBSTATION

Earth Resistivity 4 spike method


Earth Resistance 10mm distance - 0.03 Ω
5m distance - 0.45 Ω
Earth pit - 0.31 Ω

P, C, are shorted and is connected to the earth pit. P2 & C2 are connected to the two terminals
which are connected to the 2 electrodes which are at 20m distances.

3.2 SITE SELECTION

Main points to be considered while selecting the site for EHV Sub-Station are as follows:

i) The site chosen should be as near to the load center as possible.


ii) It should be easily approachable by road or rail for transportation of equipments.
iii) Land should be fairly leveled to minimize development cost.

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iv) Source of water should be as near to the site as possible. This is because water is
required for various construction activities; (especially civil works, earthing and for
drinking purposes etc.)
v) The sub-station site should be as near to the town/city but should be clear of public
places, aerodromes, and Military/police installations.
vi) The land should be have sufficient ground area to accommodate substation
equipments, buildings, staff quarters, space for storage of material, such as store yards
and store sheds. With roads and space for future expansion.
vii) Set back distances from various roads such as National Highways, State Highways
should be observed as per the regulations in force.
viii) While selecting the land for the substation preference to be given to the Govt. land
over private land.
ix) The land should not have water logging problem.
x) The site should permit easy and safe approach to outlets for EHV lines.

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EARTH RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT
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4. EARTH RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT

4.1 RESISTIVITY

r = = = 20.93

4.2 EARTH GRID AREA CALCULATIONS

(Ac) 2 = If (tc.λr.rr. 104/TCAP) / ln (1 + (Tm-Ta) (K0 + Ta))


Where, If = Fault current = 25980 A

Tc = Fault current duration = 1 Sec


lr = Efficient of thermal expansion = 0.00423
rr = Soil resistivity = 20.93Ωm
TCAP = Thermal capacity / unit volume in J/cm3 0c = SH SW 4.184
= 4.184 0.114 07.8 = 3.749
Where, SH = Specific heat
SW = Specific weight
TM = Maximum allowable temp in 0C
= 6200C
Ta = Ambient temp in 0C
= 500C
K0 = = 216.64

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Tr = reference temperature for material constant = 200C

Earth grid area, Ac2


= 25.980 (1 0.00423 x104 20.93/3.749) / ln (1 + (620-50) / (216 + 50))
= 533501.28m2
Ac = 730.41m2
By including earth satellite earth mat the area of the earth grid can be increased to
: 875 m2 (35 25)

4.3 DESIGN

4.3.1 Conductor size:


Ondor clonk’s formula provides a reasonable method to compute the area of cross section of
electrode for earthing.

A = I√ x √

Where, A = Area of iron section in m2


I = rms current in amps
Tm = Max allowable temp in 0C
Ta = Ambient Temperature in 0C

Max allowable temp for steel in 6200C for welded joint and 3100C for bolted joints.
The formula is simplified as: A = KI √

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4.3.2 Initial design

Assume a preliminary layout of 21m x 18m grid with equally spied conductors and shown in
figure with spacing D = 15 m, grid burial depth h = 0.75m

23

31

Ground rod Grid conductor

4.4 Grounding mat design:


Considering further expansion, fault current for the design procedure as 259804.
For grounding mat and welded joint are to be provided.
Area of cross section = A = KI√ = 0.0122 25980√ = 317m2
Area of 40 mm diameter Rod = 40 317 = 1257 m2
Hence area of cross section is sufficient.
Earth mat is designed at a normal spacing of 15m between conductors. As per initial design
length of earth grid including down rods = 36220m
No: of towers is assumed as 3 and lower foot resistance as 10Ω
Resistance of three towers = 10/3 = 3.33Ω
Total resistance of line = Resistance of tower + Resistance of ground wire

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Resistance of ground wire is assumed as 3Ω
Total resistance of one line = 3.33 + 3 = 6.33 Ω
Total resistance of two lines together = 6.33/2 = 3.165 Ω
The resistance of the earth grid may be calculated as R = (r/4r) +(r/L)
r = 20.93 Ωm

R = Radius of the equivalent surface of the grid


= √ =√ = 16.68m

R = (20.93/4 16.68 + 20.93/36220) = 0.31Ω


Value of electrode resistance = 1/ [(1/0.31) + (1/3.165)] = 0.28
For fault current of 25980 A in 110Kv bas grid ground return current = 0.357 0.28 11530 =
1152.54A
Minimum length of ground conductor required:
L = Km Ki r Ig √ / (116 + 0.174 Cs rs )
Where,
K = 1/2 [ln [[D2 / 16 h.d] + – [h / 4d]] + [Kit / Kh] (2n – 1)]
D = spacing of conductor = 15m
d = diameter of conductor = 0.04m
h = depth of buried conductor = 0.75m

n=√ = 16

Ki = 0.656 + 0.172 16 = 3.4


Kit =1
Kh =√ = 1.322
Km = 0.677

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Mini grid length L = = 87.03m

4.5 EARTHING CONDUCTOR SIZE REQUIRED FOR LV SIDE

Soil resistivity = 20.93Ωm

Permeable current density (for 3sec) for copper = 118A/mm2

Fault current = 6.365 KA

Earthing conductor size required = = 53.94mm2

4.6 Tolerable step voltage

E step actual = Ks r Ig/L

Ks = (1/ ) [(1/2h) (1/Dh) + (1/D)] = 0.255

E step actual = 0.255 3.4 20.93 1152.54/36220


= 0.58v

E touch actual = Km x Ki x r x Ki x Ig/ L


= 0.677 3.4 20.938 1152.54 / 36220 =1.53V

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4.6.1 Safe let go touch voltage


E touch let go = (R3 + R2Fp)/ Ib
Rbe Human body, R = 1000Ω (assumed)
R2Fp = Contact resistance of two feet in parallel = 1.5 Cs x rs
Ib = Safe let go current = 0.009 A (assumed)
E touch let go = (1000 + (1.5 1 3000) 0.009) = 49.5V

To establish a value of sustained current within the limit of let go value of body current.
49.5 V ≥ Km x Ki x Cs x rx Tsust/ L
Isust = 49.5
Hence ground relays clearing ground fault current must be set for a mini pick up value less than
260A.

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SUBSTATION

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5. SUBSTATION
The substation may be defined us “on assembly of apparatus which transforms the characteristics
of electrical energy from one form to another, say for example from alternating current to direct
current or from one voltage to another.” For economical transmission, higher and higher voltages
should be achieved. At present normal voltages are 66KV, 110K.V and 220 KV; however 440KV
will be used for the national grid system in future.

The consumers do not use such high voltages and so it must be transformed to low
voltages by means of substation. Transformation may take place in several stages in sequence
starting at the generating plant where the voltage is increased for transmission purposes and is
then progressively reduced to the voltage required for household or industrial use. Thus a
substation may be called as link between the generating stations and the consumer. The
distribution voltages generally used in practice are 6.6 KV, 11KV and 33KV.

Substations or switching stations arc integral part of transmission system, and function as
a connection or switching point for transmission lines, substation feeders, generating circuits and
step up and step down transformers. Substations of voltages 66KV to 400 KV are termed as EHV
substations. Above 500 KV, they come under the terminology of UHV system.

Substations generally contain one or more transformers and have switching, protection
and control equipment. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt ay short circuits
or overload currents that may occur on the network.

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In a large substation, circuit breakers arc used to interrupt any short-circuits or overload
currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use autorecloser circuit
breakers or fuses for protection of branch circuits.
A typical substation will contain line termination structures, high-voltage switchgear, one or
more power transformers, low voltage switchgear, surge protection, controls, grounding
(earthing) system, and metering. Other devices such as power factor correction capacitors and
voltage regulators may also be located at a substation. Substations may be on the surface in
fenced enclosures, underground, or located in special-purpose buildings. High-rise buildings may
have indoor substations. Indoor substations are usually found in urban areas to reduce the noise
from the transformers, for reasons of appearance, or to protect switchgear from extreme climate or
pollution conditions. Where a substation has a fence, it must be properly grounded to protect
people from high voltages that may occur during a fault in the transmission system. Earth faults at
a substation can cause ground potential rise at the fault location.

An important function performed by a substation is switching, which is the connecting and


disconnecting of transmission lines or other components to and from the system. Switching events
may be "planned" or "unplanned". A transmission line or other component may need to be de-
energized for maintenance or for new construction: for example, adding or removing a
transmission line or a transformer. To maintain reliability of supply, no company ever brings
down its whole system for maintenance. All work to be performed, from routine testing to adding
entirely new substations, must be done while keeping the whole system running. Perhaps more
importantly, a fault may develop in a transmission line or any other component. Some examples
of this: a line is hit by lightning and develops an arc, or a tower is blown down by a high wind.
The function of the substation is to isolate the faulted portion of the system in the shortest
possible time.

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5.1 VARIOUS PHASE OF SUBSTATION DESIGN

5.1.1 Planning
Planning includes the determination of the needed capacity, evaluation of alternative methods of
service, selection of the service voltage and required facilities and the related financial
requirements. This stage concludes with a contract between the utility and the plant.

5.1.2 Design
This stage includes the developments of detailed engineering drawings, finalizing of facility
requirements, building documentation and specifications for the facilities and then changes
required. This stage concludes with the lifting of construction contracts. This stage is the detailed
following up to all the works in the planning by using the preliminary single line diagram
developed and agreed upon in the planning stage. From this and other related design parameters
developed in the planning stage, detailed design and engineering drawings and specifications
along with construction cost estimates are developed.

5.1.3 Construction
This includes the construction and energizing the substation facilities.

5.1.4 Operation
This includes the development implementation and the documentation of the procedures for
operating and maintaining the substation. These procedures are typically developed during the
design and construction stages and completed prior to energizing the substation.

5.1.5 Site testing


Site testing should be done to determine the load-bearing strength of the ground. While
preliminary testing can be performed at an early stage, it is more useful if a plot plan layout is
available and equipment weights are known.

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The testing is generally performed by specialized soil boring and test companies.
Soil boring companies can sufficient test boring to determine the deign parameters for foundation
needed for the utility's incoming towers, circuit breakers, transformers and the plant's primary
switch gear building. Land that has been filled even 15 or 20 years ago may not have developed
sufficient load bearing capabilities, installing caissons or piles to support the foundation may be
necessary, especially for a large substation.

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SUBSTATION COMPONENTS

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6. SUBSTATION COMPONENTS

6.1 POWER TRANSFORMERS


A transformer has been defined by ANSI/IEEE as a static electrical device, involving no
continuously moving parts, used in electric power systems to transfer power between circuits
through the use of electromagnetic induction. The term power transformer is used to refer to those
transformers used between the generator and the distribution circuits and are usually rated at 500
kVA and above. Power systems typically consist of a large number of generation locations,
distribution points, and interconnections within the system or with nearby systems, such as a
neighboring utility.

Figure 1.1: POWER TRANSFORMER

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The complexity of the system leads to a variety of transmission and distribution voltages. Power
transformers must be used at each of these points where there is a transition between voltage
levels. Power transformers are selected based on the application, with the emphasis towards
custom design being more apparent the larger the unit. Power transformers are available for step-
up operation, primarily used at the generator and referred to as generator step- up (GSU)
transformers, and for step-down operation, mainly used to feed distribution circuits.

Power transformers are available as a single phase or three phase apparatus. The construction of a
transformer depends upon the application, with transformers intended for indoor use primarily
dry-type but also as liquid immersed and for outdoor use usually liquid immersed.

Two number power transformers each of 12.5 /20 MVA ratings at the 110 KV substations shall
be provided. The transformer shall be ONAN / ONAF type. On load tap changer shall be
provided for voltage variation up to -10% to 10%. Necessary primary protection shall be
provided for the protection of the transformer. The transformer shall be provided with the
forced air cooling system with suitable enhanced 'MVA' capacity. Adequate provision shall be
there for connecting 1000A, XLPE cable to secondary terminals.

Power transformers are usually the largest single item in a substation. For economy of service
roads, transformers are located on one side of a substation, and the connection to switchgear is by
bare conductors. Because of the large quantity of oil, it is essential to take precaution against the
spread of fire. Hence, the transformer is usually located around a sump used to collect the excess
oil. Transformer that are located and a cell should be enclosed in a blast room.

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6.1.1. Selections of transformers

Load = 15MW

Full load current = = 1231.61A



Starting current = 7
The Transformers should provide the starting current also ;
The transformers should provide this much current primary side
Transformer voltage on secondary side is 11 KV
Transformer Rating = 11 √ = 23.465MVA
30% future expansion = 30.509 MVA

Two 20MVA 110/11KV Transformer is selected.

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Maker TELK-TRANSFORMER WITH ON-
LOAD TAP-CHANGER
Transformer Specification Ref. No. 2026-1977
IS
Maker’s Sl. No. 120270-2
Type SALOCR
Form 3NYCP
Year of Manufacture 1988
Rated KVA HV 12500/20000
LV 12500/20000
Volts – no load HV 110000 V
LV 11000 V
Amperes HV 65.7/105.1
LV 657 / 1051
Type of cooling ONAN / ONAF
Impedance Voltage (20MVA base) 15.60%
HV/LV
Phases HV 3
LV 3
Frequency C/S 50 Hz
Vector Symbol YNynO
Transportation Mass 24000 Kg
Un-tanking Mass 20000 Kg
Mass of oil 9495 Kg
Total Mass 41000 Kg
Oil liters 10550 Liters
Air Circulation 8 x 90 m3 / min

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POSITION HV CONNECTION HV VOLTS HV CURRENT
1 1N–15 116600 99.2
2 IN-14 114950 100.6
3 IN-13 113300 102
4 IN-12 111650 103.5
5 IN-11 110000 105.1
6 IN-10 108350 106.1
7 IN-9 106700 108.4
8 IN-8 105050 10.1
9 IN-7 103400 111.8
10 IN-6 101750 113.6
11 IN-5 100100 115.5
12 IN-4 98450 117.4
13 IN-3 96800 119.4

6.2 SWITCHING EQUIPMENTS

The design of the high-voltage substation must include consideration for the safe operation and
maintenance of the equipment. Switching equipment is used to provide isolation, no load
switching, load switching, and/or interruption of fault currents. The magnitude and duration of the
load and fault currents will be significant in the selection of the equipment used. System
operations and maintenance must also be considered when equipment is selected. One significant
choice is the decision of single-phase or three-phase operation. High-voltage power systems are
generally operated as a three- phase system, and the imbalance that will occur when operating
equipment in a single- phase mode must be considered.
The main classes of equipment are as follows:
 Isolators
 Switches
 Fuse-switch combinations
 Circuit breakers
 Earthing switches

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6.2.1 CIRCUIT BREAKER


Circuit Breaker is equipment which can make or break a circuit at all conditions i.e. no load, full
load and short-circuits conditions.
6.2.1.1 Principles of Operation
A circuit breaker consists of a fixed and moving contact called electrodes. These contacts remain
closed under normal operating conditions. It will open automatically when the system becomes
faulty. When the fault occurs on any part of the system, the moving contacts are pulled apart by
some mechanism, contacts of the circuit breaker are separated under fault condition, and an arc is
formed between them. The current in this circuit unable to continue until the discharge stops. The
production of are not only delays the current-interruption process but it also generates a large
amount of heat which may cause damage to the system or to the breaker, itself. Therefore the
main problem in a circuit breaker is to extinguish the arc within the shorted possible time. So that
heat generated by it may not reach a dangerous value.

6.2.1.2 Circuit Breaker Rating


1. Breaking capacity
2. Making capacity
3. Short time rating.

6.2.1.3 Breaking Capacity


It is the current that a CB is capable of breakable at a given recovery voltage and under specified
conditions, (e.g. power factor, rate of re-striking voltage)
Breaking capacity in MVA = √3 × breaking current × rated voltage.

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6.2.1.4 Making capacity


The peak value of the current during the first cycle of current wave after closure of Circuit
Breaker is known as making capacity.
Making capacity : 2.56 × Symmetrical breaking capacity.

6.2.1.4 Short time rating


It is the period for which the CB is able to carry fault current while remaining closed.

Figure 1.2: CIRCUIT BREAKER

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6.2.1.5 Classification of Circuit Breakers

The circuit breaker can be classified according to the voltage below 100V are called Low voltage
Circuit Breaker, and above 1000V are called High Voltage Circuit Breakers.
Circuit Breaker’s are classified according to the medium of are extinction. It is shown below.
(a) Air break CB
(b) Oil CB
(c) Air blast CB
(d) Sulphur hexa fluoride CB (SF6)
(e) Vacuum CB.

6.2.1.6 Sulphur hexa fluoride (SF6) Circuit Breaker


The SF6 CB’s are used for high voltage service. The SF6 gas is used as the arc quenching
medium. The SF6 is an electronegative gas and gas a strong tendency to absorb free electronics.
The contacts of the breaker are opened in a high pressure flow of SF6 gas and arc is struck
between them. The conducting free electronics in the arc are rapidly captured by the gas to form
relatively immobile negative ions. The decreasing conducting electronics in the are quickly
increase ions. The decreasing conducting electronics in the arc quickly increase the insulation
strength to extinguish the arc.

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6.2.1.7 Construction of SF6 Breaker
SF6 circuit breaker consists of two parts namely:
(i) The interrupt unit (ii) the gas system.

i) The Interrupt Unit:


This consists of fixed contacts which comprise a set of current carrying fingers and an arising
probe. When the breaker is in the closed position, the fingers make contact round the
circumstance of moving contact which has the arising probe enclosed within its hollow end. The
contacts are surrounded by interrupting nozzles and a blast shield which controls are displacement
and movement of the hot gas. The moving contact is in the form of hollow nozzle sliding in a
second set of spring loaded fingers. Side vents in the moving contact allow the high pressure gas
into the main tank.
As soon as the moving contact is withdrawn from the fixed contacts, an arc is drawn between the
moving nozzle and the arcing probe. As the contacts move further apart, the arc is extended and
attenuated. It is finally extinguished by the gas flow from high pressure to the low pressure
system.
ii) The gas-system:
The closed circuit gas system is used in SF6 circuit breakers. Since the gas pressure is very high,
lot of care is to be taken to prevent gas leakages at joints by providing perfect sealing. The low
and high pressure system are filled with low pressure alarm and a set of lock-out switched which
gives a warning the moment the gas pressure drops below a certain value, because otherwise there
will be reductions in the dielectric strength and are generating ability of the breaker is endangered.
If the damaged limit is reached, the safety devices immobile the Circuit Breaker, the over-riding
safety devices see to it that a fault in the control circuit does not permit compressor to build up
excessive pressure in the high pressure reservoir or continue to pump gas into the atmosphere in
the event of a major leak. The gas is stored in the high pressure chamber at 16 atmosphere.

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Whereas the gas pressure on the low pressure side is 3 atmospheres. There temperature is 20oC. In
order to prevent liquidification of the gas in the high pressure chamber at low temp, heater is
fitted in the high pressure chamber. A thermostat is set to switch on when the ambient temp falls
below 16oC.

6.2.1.8 SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT RATING


The short circuit current rating determines the minimium size of cable conductor to
be used:
Fault level for 11KV = 121.13 MVA

Isc = = 6.365 KA

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As per table
Mini cable size for secondary side is 70mm2.
Current rating of 11KV XLPE (cable)
As per tables:
For secondary side 3 runs of 3 core – 70mm2 (cable)

Primary Circuit breaker for 110/11KV 20MVA Transformer:

The full load secondary current is = = 1049.73 KA


Primary current is = 104.97 A


Thus, SF6 CB is selected (3150A)

FEEDER CIRCUIT BREAKER


Make Crompton Greaves Everyday
Solutions
Type Gas circuit breaker 120-SFM-328
Year of manufacture 2006
Rated voltage 145 kV
Rated Frequency 50 Hz
Rated Normal Current 3150 A
Rated making Capacity 100 kAp
Rated Short circuit breaking 40 kA
capacity
Rated short time current 40 kA
Rated lighting impulse withstand 650 kVp
voltage
First pole to clear factor 1.5
Rated opr. Seq 0--.3Sec – Co – 3 Min – CO
Rated Gas Pressure 7 Kg /cm2 –g (at 200C)
Gas Wt 8 Kg
Total weight 1550 Kg

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Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)

TRANSFORMER CIRCUIT BREAKERS


Make Crompton Greaves Nasik, INDIA
Type GAS CIRCUIT BREAKER 120 –
SFM – 32A
Year of manufacture 1990
Rated Voltage 145 kV
Rated Frequency 50 Hz
Rated Normal Current 3150 A
Rated Making Capacity
Rated Short Circuit Breaking 31.50kA
Capacity
Rated short time current 31.5 kA for 3 seconds
Rated lighting impulse withstand 650 kVp
voltage
First pole to clear factor 1.5
Rated opr. Pressure (Air) 15 Kg/Sq CM
Rated Gas Pressure 5 Kg / cm2 – g (at 200C)
Gas Wt 9 Kg
Total Weight 2000 Kg

6.2.2 ISOLATORS

Isolators are disconnecting switches which operate under no load conditions. It doesn’t have any
specified current breaking capacity making capacity. Isolators are sued in addition to circuit
breakers, while opening a circuit, the circuit breaker is opened first, then Isolator. While closing a
circuit the Isolator is closed first then the circuit breakers. Isolators are necessary on supply side
of circuit breakers in order to ensure isolation of the circuit breaker from live parts for the purpose
of maintenance.

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Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)

Isolator design is considered in the following aspects:


• Space Factor
• Insulation Security
• Standardization
• Ease of Maintenance
• Cost

Some types of isolators include:


• Horizontal Isolation types
• Vertical Isolation types
• Moving Bushing types

6.2.2.1 Working

Isolators used in power system are generally 3 pole Isolator. The 3 pole Insulators have 3 identical
poles. Each pole consists of two or three Isolator posts mounted on a fabricated support. The
conducting parts are supported on the Insulator posts. The conducting part consists of conducting
Cu or AI rod, fixed and moving contacts. During the opening operation the conducting rod swings
apart and Isolation is obtained. The simultaneous operation of the 3 poles is obtained by
mechanical interlocking of the 3 poles.

The operating mechanism is manual plus one of the following.


a. Electrical motor mechanism
b. Pneumatic mechanism.

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Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)

6.2.2.2 TYPES OF ISOLATORS


According to the constructional details the Isolators are classified as:

1. HORIZON BREAK CENTRE ROTATING DOUBLE BREAK ISOLATOR


In this type, there are 3 Insulator stacks per pole, the two on each side are fixed and one of the
centers is rotating type. The central Insulator stack cans wing about its vertical axis through about
90o. The fixed contacts are provided on the top of each of the Insulator stacks on the side. The
contact bar is fixed horizontally on the central Insulator stack. In closed position, the contact shaft
connects the two fixed contacts. While opening, the central stack rotates through 90o and the
contacts shaft swings horizontally giving a double break. The Insulators are mounted on a
galvanized, rolled steel frame. The 3 poles are interlocked by means of steel shaft.

2. PANTOGRAPH ISOLATION
These types of Isolators are preferred for rotted voltages 420KV and above. While closing the
linkages of pantograph are brought nearer by rotating the insulator column, in closed position two
arms of the pantograph close on the overhead station bus bar giving a grip. The current carried by
the upper bus bar to the lower bus bar through the conducting arms of the pantograph.
While opening the rotating Insulator column is rotated about its axis. Thereby the pantograph
blades collapse in vertical plane and vertical Isolator is obtained between the line terminal and
pantograph upper terminal. The Insulator covers less floor area. Each pole can be located at a
suitable point in a plane at desired angle with the bus axis.

3. VERTICAL BREAK TYPE


These are outdoor air break disconnecting switches and are designed for all out door applications
including isolation of circuit breakers, transformer banks, lighting arrestors and line sections.
Horizontal upright mounted switched can be equipped with crossing horns for interruptions of
small currents such as line charging or transformer magnetizing currents.

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Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)

4. EARTHING SWITCH

Earthing switch is connected between the line conductor and normally it is open when the line is
disconnected, the earthing switch is closed so as to discharge the energy trapped in capacitance or
inductance of the line. Though the line is disconnected, there is some voltage on the line to which
the capacitance between the line and earth is charged. This voltage is significant to high voltage
system. Normally, the earthing switches are mounted on the frame of Isolator.
These are essentially off load devices although they are capable of dealing with small charging
currents of Bus bars and connections. The design of isolators is closely related to the design of
substations.

Figure 1.3: ISOLATOR

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Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)

To carry out maintenance on particular items of plant, it is necessary to provide isolating


switches on each of the circuits to which the plant is connected. Except for outdoor installations,
these normally operate under no load conditions ensured by suitable interlocks. Outdoor isolators
for the higher voltages may however have to break the significant transformers magnetizing and
line charging currents. Earthing switches are also needed commonly in preference to temporary
earth connections. With indoor cubicle mounted or metal clad switchgear the isolators may be
simple knife switches that are incorporated in the structure and interlocked with the circuit
breaker; alternately, with a clad gear they make the form of plugs through which the circuit
breaker is connected to the bus bars and feeder, the circuit breaker being drawn out horizontally
or lowered vertically to effect isolation.

FEEDER ISOLATORS WITH EARTH SWITCH


Make GR POWER SWITCH GEAR LTD,
JEEDIMETLA, HYDERABAD,
500055
Type DB
KV Rating 123
Current Rating 1600A
Year of manufacture 2005
Impulse Voltage 550 kV peak
Short time current for 1 sec 26.24 kA rms
Operating Mechanism Motor
Control voltage 110V DC
Drive 3f, 415V, AC, 1500 RPM, Induction
Motor

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Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)

6.3 CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

Current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents. Current transformers are
also known as instrument transformers. When current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to
measuring instruments, a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional
to the current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording
instruments. A current transformer also isolates the measuring instruments from what may be
very high voltage in the primary circuit.

Figure 1.4: CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power
industry. Like any other transformer, a current transformer has a primary winding, a magnetic
core, and a secondary winding. The alternating current flowing in the primary produces a
magnetic field in the core, which then induces current flow in the secondary winding circuit.
A primary objective of current transformer design is to ensure that the primary and secondary
circuits are efficiently coupled, so that the secondary current bears an accurate relationship to the
primary current. The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times
around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured.

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Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)

The CTs primary circuit therefore consists of a single turn of conductor, with a secondary of
many hundreds of turns. The primary winding may be a permanent part of the current
transformer, with a heavy copper bar to carry current through the magnetic core. Window-type
current transformers are also common, which can have circuit cables run through the middle of an
opening in the core to provide a single-turn primary winding. When conductors passing through a
CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) opening, slight inaccuracies may occur.
Current transformers are basically used to take the readings of the currents entering the
substation. This transformer steps down the current from 800 amps to 1 amp. This is done
because we have no instrument for measuring of such a large current. The main use of this
transformer is (a) distance protection; (b) backup protection; (c) measurement.
Current transformer LV side
Type 132 kV CT
Core 1 core 2 core 3
Ratio (A/A) 800/1 400/1 800/1 400/1 800/1 400/1
Sec. Conn: 1S1-1S2 2S1-2S3 3S1-3S3
Accuracy class: 0.2 5P 10 PS
Burden (VA): 30 15 NA
Highest system
Voltage: 145 kV insulation burn 275 kV/ 65014 Vp

FEEDER CURRENT TRANSFORMER -1 (FCT -1)


Ring Winding Transformers
Make Brown Boveri – Stromwandler
Type TMRg 110
Year of Manufacture 1957
Voltage 110/220kV
Ratio 300 -1 50 – 75 - /1/1/1
Power 60VA
Class 0.5 & S20
1 Therm 23/12/6
1 Dyn 60/30/15

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Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)

TRANSFORMER CT s (TCT -4)


Make Transformer and Electrical Kerala
Ltd – TELK
Manufacturing No. 220104
Sl No. 1R, 2R, 3R
PO No. 1910211 Dt: 21/1/95
Type NPOULVZ – R
Basic Ins Level 230/550kV
Rated Voltage 126kV
Frequency 50Hz

6.4 VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

 There is a step down transformer, which step down the high voltage to a value that can be
measured using the measuring instruments in the control room.

 This has an additional core for the carrier communication.

 The CVT are connected between phase and ground in parallel to the circuit

Figure 1.5: CVT

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Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)

6.5 BUS BAR


Used to interconnect the loads and sources of electrical power.
It connects generator and main transformer in power plant
Material used: Copper or Aluminum
Size of bus bar is used to determine maximum amount of current passed.

6.5.1 Bus bar sizing calculations


Short time rating of ACSR Zebra conductor

I=A√
x
ln [ ]

Where,
I = RMS Current in KA = 25.98 KA
(ACSR Zebra conductor)
r20 = R20 a/1
R20 = 0.06079Ω/ Km
a = 4.275 cm2
l = 1Km
r20 = 2.598 micro Ω cm
Ko = 230
I = 37.38 KA, which is greater than 25.98 KA specified.

Hence section of ACSR zebra conductor is safe.

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Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)

6.6 LIGHTNING ARRESTOR

A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems to protect the insulation on the
system from the damaging effect of lightning. Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) have been used for
power system protection since the mid 1970s. The typical lightning arrester also known as surge
arrester has a high voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a lightning surge or switching
surge travels down the power system to the arrester, the current from the surge is diverted around
the protected insulation in most cases to earth.

Figure 1.6: LIGHTNING ARRESTOR

These lightening arrestors are used to prevent the lightening from damaging the instruments in
the substation. Lightening arrestors are the instrument that are used in the incoming feeders so
that to prevent the high voltage entering the main station. This high voltage is very dangerous to
the instruments used in the substation. Even the instruments are very costly, so to prevent any
damage lightening arrestors are used.

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Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)
The lightening arrestors do not let the lightening to fall on the station.
If some lightening occurs the arrestors pull the lightening and ground it to the earth. In any
substation the main important is of protection which is firstly done by these lightening arrestors.
The lightening arrestors are grounded to the earth so that it can pull the lightening.

6.6.1 WHAT EXACTLY DOES A LIGHTNING ARRESTOR DO?

 It does not absorb the lightning


 It does not stop the lightning
 It does divert the lightning to ground
 It does clamp (limit) the voltage produced by the lightning
 It only protects equipment electrically in parallel with it.

6.6.2 Selection of lighting arrestor

When an arrestor connected between phase and earth it is a 3 system, the rated voltage must be
equal to or greater than the highest RMS value of power frequency voltage which can be applied
to it under normal and abnormal condition of operation including fault. Conduction of risk of
damage is to be avoided.

System Voltage = 110KV

Rated arrestor voltage = 1.1 x 110 x 0.8 (coefficient of earthing)

= 96.8 KV

Standard rating available = 96KV

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Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)
Rated frequency = 50 Hz

Power frequency spark voltage = 1.5x rated arrest voltage

= 1.5 x 96 KV = 144 KV

Electrical & Electronics Engineering 39


CONCLUSION
Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)
7. CONCLUSION

The 66kV substation that is designed in this project is strictly based on the design procedures
accepted by the authorities. The intense care was taken through the whole procedure to ensure
protection for the equipment as well as the personnel in case of any failure or over current which
are possible to appear in the power system. The circuit breakers and the protective relays are
assigned for these purposes with proper design. The protective signs and symbols are also
employed for the workers to take precaution against failures. First of all a proper site to the
substation has to be identified such that some basic requirements have to be satisfied. From the
purely economic point of view, a major EHV substation would necessarily be of the outdoor type.
There should be enough space for the further developments of the plant because in future even
higher capacity may be needed to fulfill the power requirements. In order to protect the whole
plant from lightning, the lightning arresters and the earthing screens are provided above the
substation with suitable design criteria. These devices are capable to withstand the high current
due to lightning and also to pass this current safely to the earth without altering the present active
supply system. The other important equipments in the substation such as transformers, bus bars,
switch gear, potential transformers and current transformers, fuses, cables earth wires, batteries
etc are designed as per the requirements of the power system. The main objective of earthing is
protection from short circuits and over voltages that may occur in the power system due to many
reasons. A properly designed earthing system can protect the entire equipments and person that
comes under that specific power network. For proper designing of a power system, a deep
knowledge about the various faults that occur in the power system is necessary. Earthing is
considered as the one of the most important step in the design of a typical substation because the
proper earthing ensures the reliability of power supply- without many faults also ensures the
safety of the equipments as well as the personnel, So intense care has to be taken while designing
an earthing system for an extra high voltage substation.

Electrical & Electronics Engineering 40


REFERENCES
Federal Institute of Science And Technology (FISAT)

8 REFERENCES

[1] IEEE RED DATA BOOK, 1993

[2] NEWNESS ELECTRICAL ENGINEER’S HAND BOOK, D.F.WAENE, SECOND


EDITION.

[3] ISO MANUAL ELECTRICAL SYSTEM STUDY AND FAULT LEVEL


CALCULATION BY FEDO.

[4] POWER GENERATION OPERATION ANDCONTROL BY ALLEN JWOOD AND


BRUDE T W WOLLENBERG.

[5] ISO MANUAL FOR EARTHING AND SYSTEM STABILITY CALCULATION BY


FEDO.

[6] STD 80-2000 IEEE GUIDE FOR SAFETY

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