Plasma Antenna


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Introduction Features of Plasma antenna Working Comparison between Plasma antenna and Traditional antenna Advantages Disadvantages Applications Conclusion References

Plasma is a gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. Plasma – the fourth aggregate state of matter was identified by an English physicist Sir William Crooks in 1879.   . If further energy is added to a gas it becomes ionized and passes over into the Plasma state – a fourth  state of matter. The presence of a non-negligible number of charge carriers makes the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields.What is Plasma ?  By supplying energy the states of matter changes: from solid to liquid and from liquid to gas.

Contd……  Plasma has properties quite unlike those of solids.      Energy / Temperature Ions Molecule Molecule (excited) Molecular fragment (high energy) Free electron . liquids. or gases and is considered be a distinct state of matter.

. decreasing interference and boosting the functionality. they become conductor and can transmit and receive radio Signal . When these Plasma tube is energized. It uses ionized gas instead of metal conducting element of conventional antenna to transmit and receive signals. In this plasma discharge tubes are used as the antenna element.What is Plasma Antenna? Plasma antenna are Radio frequency antenna that employ plasma as a guiding medium for electromagnetic radiation.

the plasma antenna returns to its previous state.When they are deenergized they revert to non conducting element and do not reflect radio probing signals. Plasma can only exist while the gas is kept very hot. in which cold gas is non conductive. . as soon as the heat source is shut off. but the signal emitted or received by the antenna disappears only when the plasma cools down. Plasma antenna can be streed electronically.

This technology has advanced to provide unique antenna designs for applications ranging from general broadcast of radio frequency signals for public use to complex weapon systems. Since the gas is ionized only for the time of transmission or reception.  .  This is a fundamental change from traditional antenna design that generally employs solid metal wires as the conducting element. ringing and associated effects of solid wire antenna design are eliminated.  Ionized gas is an efficient conducting element with a number of important advantages.What is plasma antenna technology?  Plasma antenna technology is that which employs ionized gas enclosed in a tube as conducting element.

Features Of Plasma Antenna  Plasma antenna has the ability to focus a signal beam easily and to communicate signals in very short pulses.  A second fundamental distinguishing feature is that after sending a pulse the plasma antenna can be deionized. . Ringing and the associated noise of a metal antenna can severely limit capabilities in high frequency short pulse transmissions.  One important feature of Plasma antenna is that the gas ionizing process can manipulate resistance. eliminating the ringing associated with traditional metal elements. which could prove extremely useful in the areas of digital communications and radar.

bandwidth.   . length of plasma column. radius of glass tube. Plasma Antenna are reconfigurable for frequency. Plasma Antenna can transmit and receive from same aperture provided the frequencies are widely separated.Contd……  Changes in the ion density can result in instantaneous changes in bandwidth over wide dynamic range. gain.

or solid state plasma.  An ionized region. in silicon using electronically controlled devices (plasma diodes) that are positioned between closely spaced metalized surfaces which constrain the beam. .How does Plasma antenna works?  A plasma antenna generates localized concentrations of plasma to form a plasma mirror which deflects an RF beam launched from a central feed located at the focus of the mirror. can be generated  The plasma can be freely moved by switching groups of plasma diodes on and off that follow the desired geometry of the reflector.

the silicon disc (ie Si wafer) can act as a cylindrical lens.    The resulting pattern of plasma diodes forms a rosette of overlapping reflectors only one of which is active (i.e. to form a lens or reflector system that enables the RF energy to be collimated.  In some realizations. This enables the beam to be steered quickly without the need for mechanical motion. Working of Plasma antenna is shown in the figure: . reflecting) at any one time.

Diagram showing working of Plasma antenna .

Conventional metal antennas can pick up various noises. or interference that bounce of the surrounding metal objects. 2.from Traditional Antenna? Plasma Antenna Traditional Antenna 1. because of electrons are in a free state inside the hot gas. . Solid metal antenna can function because electrons move freely in the metal conductor. 1. 2. Plasma antenna greatly reduces the effects of interference. Electronic movement is made even more easily inside the plasma antenna.

Traditional antenna are less efficient. more in weight and larger in size. 4. low in weight       and smaller in size.Contd…. 3. 4. Plasma antenna can be switched on and off easily. 3. . Traditional antenna can’t be easily switched on and off.. Plasma antenna are efficient.

Some types of Plasma antenna    Selectable Multibeam Antenna  Multiple Tube Plasma Antenna .

Advantages of Plasma antenna         High gain Low interference Low latency Wide bandwidth Affordable Compact and light weight Maintainace free Modular .

Disadvantages of Plasma antenna As follow Plasma volumes must be stable and repeatable. . Ionizer adds weight and volume. Higher ionization energy than for a tube. Ionizer increases power consumption.

-Low Cost  for the network owner.      . Network Equipment Providers and Systems Integrators Network Operator Public Safety Networks Sensing Defense In Microwave Communication Plasma Antenna Provide Ease for realignment of long range directional antennas. space and homal appliances.Applications of Plasma Antenna  Plasma antenna has a number of applications in defense.

the research has produced many novel antennas using standard fluorescent tubes and these have been characterized and compare favourably with their metal equivalents. the plasma column can be made to exhibit many of the same characteristics of a metal whip antenna . Antennas constructed of metal can be big and bulky. The fact that metal structures cannot be easily moved when not in use limits some aspects of antenna array design. This can be ionized by the application of a strong RF field at the base of the column. and are normally fixed in place. To date. . Conclusion The plasma antenna is constructed using a hollow glass column which is filled with plasma. There are many potential advantages of plasma antenna. Once energized.


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