UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE (CASS)
DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

ST 218: APPLIED STATISTICS 1

RESEARCH
FACTORS AFFECTING ORDINARY LEVEL PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL IN SHINYANGA REGION;
A CASE STUDY OF KAHAMA DISTRICT

MASSAWE, DEOGRATIUS. B REG NO: 2008-04-02858 B. A. ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS

SUPERVISOR: JOHN NDEGA

Contents
Acknowledgement ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Regional profile ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6 1.4 Purpose of the study ....................................................................................................................................................... 7 1.5.2 Specific objective .................................................................................................................................................. 7 1.5.1 General objective .................................................................................................................................................. 7 1.3 Problem statement ........................................................................................................................................................... 6 1.2 Background of the study ............................................................................................................................................... 6

CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

Abstract ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

CHAPTER TWO ......................................................................................................................................................................... 12 RESEARCH DESIGN ................................................................................................................................................................ 12 2.4 Research design ............................................................................................................................................................. 13 2.4.2 Sampling technique .......................................................................................................................................... 13 2.4.4 Library data collection .................................................................................................................................... 13 2.4.3 Data collection..................................................................................................................................................... 13 2.4.1 Area of Study and Targeted Population ................................................................................................. 13 2.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 12 2.2 Participants ...................................................................................................................................................................... 12 2.3 Qualitative and Quantitative methods .................................................................................................................. 12

1.9Literature review ......................................................................................................................................................... 10

1.8SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: ........................................................................................................................ 9

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the study ............................................................................................................................ 8

1.6 Research questions .......................................................................................................................................................... 8

1.5 Objectives of the study .................................................................................................................................................. 7

CHAPTER THREE..................................................................................................................................................................... 15

ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION, PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION ............................................................ 15 3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15 3.2 Research questions ....................................................................................................................................................... 15 2

2.5 Data coding and Analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 14

2.4.5 Fieldwork data collection .............................................................................................................................. 13

.3 The distance and transport facilities from school to home .......................................................................................................... 19 4.........................................2...................... 21 Recommendations ........................... 15 CHAPTER FOUR..... 19 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ....... 19 4.................................................................................................3................2......................................................... 18 3...............................................................................................................2 3............................................................................................................................. 17 REFERENCES .....................................................2...................................... 19 3 ...........................................................................................................................................................4 Poor attendance of students to school .......................2.......................2 Inadequate teaching and studying facilities .......................................................................................................................................................................1 Conclusion .................1 Low proportion of teachers to students ......... 16 3.................

the nice supervisor a student can have. roommates. Finally. I became interested in the question of why some schools pass more than others most of the times. Nyihogo secondary school. I noticed many fellow students saying. Mr. my friends. They made my research easier than I could think. L. I would like to express my special thanks and appreciation to my parents. Seeke secondary school and Nyashimbi secondary school will be a big faulty. I’m glad that I have had the opportunity to be one of those privileged to work with him. I love you all. and maybe also thought so myself. Mr Elevatus for showing me the way to achieve a good research when we were in the class and outside as well. John Ndega.Acknowledgement If I think of research as a journey. I owe my deepest gratitude to my supervisor. that public schools are among the schools which do not do better. you are the sunshine of my life! Deogratius B Massawe 4 . and others who I have not mention them for their fundamental support. Dr. my family. Without forget the coordinator and the teacher of the course (Applied Research I). His willingness and strictness made me brave and courageous as a result I complete my research as I dreamt to. His open-minded and extraordinarily positive attitude has been very important in my academic development. I wish to conduct another research with them or people like them. College of Arts and Social Science (CASS) and Department of Statistics for enabling this research. late Edwin Macha (my best brother). piece of advice and being concerned. During my studies. during and after conduction the research. conducting this research has been a wonderful and challenging experience. Matemba’s family. I would like also to thank the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). He has always listened and given an encouraging response and advice to the particular research idea and problems. before conducting. Nyasubi secondary school. Not taking this opportunity to appreciate the cooperation shown by teachers and students from Kishimba secondary school.

there are poor teaching methods. 5 . there are no enough teaching facilities. poor working conditions. Among these factors. distant schools with poor transport and too many extracurricular activities at home and school. The data coding and analysis was facilitated by Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and Microsoft excel. provisions of incentives and improvement of teachers and students accommodation. The units of inquiry were students and teachers who were selected randomly (random sampling technique). Five secondary schools were studied with 125 respondents as a sample. the poor performance in ordinary level public secondary schools is caused by number of factors some of which are personal (specific) and others are general. So as to improve the quality of education in the Shinyanga. small number of teachers compared to students. The information obtained is presented in tables. Lake Zone and Tanzania at large. These are. Kahama district was used as a case study. there are number of suggestions came up from the study. This can be done by encouraging students to attend at school and reduce the unnecessary burden of work at home. (iv) There is the need to improving transportation to schools as well as improving housing so as to minimize the time lost from transportation. (ii) The government has to ensure the availability of enough teaching facilities such as laboratory equipment and books.Abstract The aim of this research was to analyse factors which lead to poor performance in public secondary school especially ordinary level in Shinyanga. The study findings show that. graphs and few narratives notes. (i) There is a need to increase the number teachers who are qualified and committed on their work. creating good working conditions such as improving the level of wages. The methods of data collection used in this research were interview and questionnaire. Also. (iii) Parents also are required to work hand in hand with teachers and students so as to improve the performance. Tanzania and to study the difficulties that students and teachers face in educational system. This will help teachers in their teaching activities and students in their studies hence improvement in the school performance in general.

It is densely populated and is agriculturally very productive. If the government succeeds to improve it.1 Regional profile Shinyanga region is largely rural lowland with seven districts. maize. sweet potatoes. 1. Shinyanga is among the regions which lag behind most of the times in education performance in Tanzania. the government puts more effort in improving the quality of education in the country.2 Background of the study The quality education is among the major issues all over the world. she said “…there are number of actions which have been taken to improve performance in the region.3 Problem statement In the 2009/2010 budget Education sector received the largest share of the budget after being allocated Tsh1. tobacco.7Trillion. millet. The government of Tanzania is aware of most these problems. Inhabitants of Shinyanga engage in subsistence and commercial faming. no enough teaching facilities. Hawa Mchopa (Kahama District Commissioner at the time) on speech to the public. sorghum. with rice. There is also diamond and gold mining which contribute largely to National income. lack of important studying 6 . there is little improvement. but I wonder…there is no improvement…. teachers. Mrs. cassava. cotton and animal husbandry as the main economic activities. The research concentrates on the performance of Ordinary level public secondary schools only.CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. Despite of this effort. students and parents can interact to change the situation. In Tanzania the quality of education is not good enough especially among the public ordinary secondary schools though the government of the United Republic of Tanzania puts more effort so as to improve it. In 2001. This shows that. Despite the regional efforts and country’s efforts. all sectors in the country will improve as well. Some of them are.” This research aims at finding the main causes of such poor performance in the region and how the government. Education in Tanzania especially Shinyanga region still lags behind compared to neighboring countries such as Kenya which pull back the quality of education in an area. 1.

1. The study took place in Kahama district in Shinyanga region as the case study. improve studying materials and teachers’ salaries as well as working conditions in general without forgetting to control students overcrowding in classes. improve students and teachers transportation facilities.5.2 Specific objective The specific objectives of this study are. • • • • • To assess how the proportion of teachers to students affects the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga To assess how the availability teaching and studying facilities the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga To assess how the distance and transport facilities from school to home the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga To assess how the attendance of students to school the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga To obtain suggested solutions to problems schools face from teachers and students 7 . the government of Tanzania must increase the number of teachers.materials. 1.5 Objectives of the study 1. poor transport facilities. 1. fewer number of teachers compared to students.4 Purpose of the study The main Objective of this research is to find out the factors affecting the quality of education in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga region. and to find out the solutions of the observed problems through researching. over-crowding in classes. low teachers’ salaries and poor teaching conditions in general.5. So as to improve the quality education.1 General objective The general objective of this study is to examine the main factors which negatively affect the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga and the solution to the problems. etc.

which are all found in Kahama district in Shinyanga region. still it had bureaucratic procedures in making it functional. 8 . Tanzania. Seeke secondary school and Nyashimbi secondary school. there was a high shortage in facilities like: transportation facilities. Other limitations (drawbacks) faced by the researcher are:  Low cooperation.6 Research questions (i) Does the proportion of teachers to students affects the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? (ii) Does the availability teaching and studying facilities the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? (iii)Does the distance and transport facilities from school to home the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? (iv) Does the attendance of students to school the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? 1. a setup CD for SPSS Program and a computer to facilitate data analysis.7 Scope and Limitation of the study The research covers only one district in which five schools with a total of 125 respondents were used to collect data as the representative (sample) of the region. Other districts were excluded in the sample due to limitation in time and fund.  Permission problem. which to the large extent was inadequate. Though the paper was given out late. some respondents in the area of study (especially students) were intentionally giving out wrong information so as to hide the truth of their schools without thinking of the effects of doing so. some respondents in the area of study were not cooperative to the Researcher in accepting to fill or answer the questionnaire especially teachers thinking that they are wasting their time. The secondary schools from which data were collected were Kishimba secondary school. Nyasubi secondary school.All necessary funds came out from the researcher’s Pocket. There was a problem in getting the permit paper from the university which helps in recognition of the researcher and the research done.  Shortage of facilities. Nyihogo secondary school.1.  Wrong information.

Enlightening teachers with a sense of concern for increasing student’s interest in studying and by doing so the performance of the student will be higher.8SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: This study on the factors affecting the performance of ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga region will help • • • • • Ministry of education in Policy formulation which will try to solve the problem of poor performance of ordinary level public secondary schools in the country.1. Investors to invest more in education by building more schools which are relatively cheaper to solve the problem of overcrowding in classes and produce more text books and other learning materials so as to solve the great shortage of teaching and learning materials. teachers and students to know their contribution in the schools performance and to know their responsibility on improving the quality of education. 9 . To remind the Government on improvement on teachers conditions such as improvement of teachers’ salaries housing and other working conditions. The parents.

Yoder (2002) found that “A large range of rationales exist for community schools in Africa. rather than formulating and testing alternative solutions. Though public schooling has long been a practice in many countries. First. deploy. Fourth. preparation. retention. Another goal of community schools focuses on improving governance. However. and retain teachers.” Mulkeen. and retention but offers a relatively weak basis for guiding policy and program development for four reasons. They increase access to education where the government does not have the resources to do so and are often seen as more relevant to local development needs than public schools.1. Third. 10 . A. there is relatively little literature that explores the recruitment. there is a lack of longitudinal research that tracks the longterm effects and consequences of interventions aimed at improving the teaching force. much of the literature tends to be descriptive of particular country efforts to attract. the idea of alternative education as a development strategy is relatively new and is often seen as a response to failing public education systems. community schools are seen as one way to implement educational decentralization. A few evaluations and even fewer syntheses of information on public schools exist. Community schools are seen as cost-effective (comparable or even better instructional services for less money) and community participation is expected to improve educational quality and increase student achievement. much of the literature focuses on clarifying the dimensions of the problem. performance. In addition. et al (2007) observed that attention in the literature on secondary teachers focuses on problems of teacher supply. School personnel become accountable to communities when communities manage schools.9Literature review Public/Community schools are currently an important part of the educational landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and are frequently held up as successful educational interventions in developing countries trying to reach universal access to basic education and improve education quality. Finally. Many models attempt to make programs more attractive to children by supporting interactive and student-centred teaching methods. but often lacks solid evidence of the effectiveness of the approaches being described. developing local democratic organizations such as school management committees. particularly in relation to the changing roles of principals in response to decentralized authority and to principals’ expanding role as instructional leaders within their schools. Miller-Grandvaux Y and K. information on public schools in Africa especially Tanzania is lacking. Second. and professional preparation of secondary principals. some of the stronger research has been conducted within projects and is reported only in project documents that are difficult to retrieve.

Kalole S. to justify or to qualify a statement. in which examinations questions are asked. These include organizational. some of the sentences are incomprehensible. In addition. Participation in such activities affects learner’s concentration in school hence poor performance. the problem of students’ overconfidence (in Kiswahili) can easily be addressed. The language. Mlama (1979) observed that poor condition of families deprive children of their basic needs and others to the extent of (learners) being necessitated to engage them in money earning activities during free times. classroom climate is very important for students’ performance. One possible means of doing this is through the use of National Examination Council subject panellist evaluation report. Also. Many markers indicated that they face problems in marking candidates` essays because of frequent mistakes. Classroom climate is the atmosphere or mood in which interactions between teacher and students take place (Borick. they fail to grasp the content knowledge presented in the English language. spelling. Therefore. 1987) 11 . revealed that while the problem of teachers and students’ incompetence (in English) requires the overhaul of the whole education system.The problem of English language as the teaching language has also contributed to poor performance in secondary schools. require the students to predict. He said what is known about the learners’ experience needs and aspirations and interest must be blended with facts and knowledge found in books to produce a sufficient level of motivation. This might invariably be the cause of the candidates` failure. all the English markers admitted that the English syllabus (1997) is not well designed to guide the teacher especially a new teacher in the field. Finally. tenses and sentence construction. Borick (1988) pinpointed motivation and classroom management as factors affecting performance. due to candidates` poor language competence.

quantitative method was used. participants and methods involved in the research process. data collection. area of the study. 21 from Nyihogo secondary school. techniques. sampling technique. in knowing the effect of teaching methods. SECONDARY SCHOOL Kishimba Nyihogo Nyasubi Nyashimbi Seeke TOTAL STUDENTS 25 21 20 20 24 110 TEACHERS 3 3 3 3 3 15 TOTAL 28 24 23 23 27 125 2.1 Introduction This chapter shows the research procedures. Due to the nature of the problem both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. For example. 2. The combination of qualitative and quantitative methods made the research process successful because the methods facilitated the exhaustion of required data.3 Qualitative and Quantitative methods One of the goals of the present study was to examine the factors affecting the performance of public secondary school in Shinyanga region. The respondents are clearly shown on the table below.2 Participants There were 125 participants or respondents in this research who are distributed as follows. 20 from Nyasubi secondary school. 25 students from Kishimba secondary school. 12 . In this research there was 125 respondents selected randomly in 5 schools in Kahama district. 15 teachers 3 from each from school. the qualitative method was used and when evaluating the ratio of teachers to students.CHAPTER TWO RESEARCH DESIGN 2. 24 from Seeke secondary school and 20 from Nyashimbi secondary school.

This technique was firstly used to select one district to represent the whole region. This was used to select targeted population that is ordinary level public secondary schools and excluding other schools. Then.2. The first is purposive sampling technique.4. The main libraries visited were the libraries of the University of Dar es salaam and the Shinyanga regional library. 2. The information concerning the study to be conducted was extracted from the library and from the internet. Kahama district was chosen from this sampling technique. five schools were chosen as a sample.5 Fieldwork data collection In the fieldwork data collection different methods were used.2 Sampling technique There are two sampling techniques which were used in the research process. Kishimba secondary school Nyihogo secondary school Nyashimbi secondary school Seeke secondary school and Nyasubi secondary school 2. 2. The first stage was library data collection and the second was the fieldwork data collection. These methods are interview and questionnaire design.1 Area of Study and Targeted Population The study took place in Kahama district in Shinyanga region. The targeted population was all Ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga region but due to time and cost Kahama district was chosen as the case study and only five secondary schools represented the region.4. 2. similar method was used in selecting public secondary schools.4 Research design 2.4. which are. So. The second sampling technique is simple random sampling technique. Tanzania.4 Library data collection This stage of data collection was done before going to the field.4.3 Data collection The data in this study was collected in two stages. 13 .4.

5. The questions covered some important issues like. 2. availability of teaching and studying facilities. number of teachers and students.4. inspection and coding were undertaken. The final phase in the data collection process is to convert the observations and measurements you have made about for a computer to understand.1 Questionnaire A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.2.4. social services and extracurricular activities. The response options for a closed-ended question should be exhaustive and mutually exclusive. Editing being a process of examining data and enabled the researcher to detect errors and omission of and to correct those where it was possible. An interview can be structured or unstructured. 14 .2 Interview This is the method of data collection where by an interviewer asks questions to the respondent and record the answers given out by the respondent. whereas a closed-ended question has the respondent pick an answer from a given number of options.The data collected were coded and analyzed by using Statistics Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft excel. An open-ended question asks the respondent to formulate his own answer. A distinction is made between open-ended and closed-ended questions. During data collection 16 questions were addressed to 125 respondents including 15 teachers. In this study both methods were used so as to collect the addition information which did not questionnaire was not able to capture. The questionnaire consisted of both open and closed ended questions.5. transport problem. 110 students to answer them. 2.5 Data coding and Analysis At the end of data collection. manual editing.

one chemistry teacher and one biology teacher while there are more than one hundred students in each class. the data collected and coded by SPSS and Microsoft excel are analyzed. The analysis showed that there are some common factors affecting the performance of ordinary level public secondary schools but also there are specific factors to each school. In the average. figures and graphical form. the students do not perform well.2 Research questions (i) Does the proportion of teachers to students affects the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? (ii) Does the availability teaching and studying facilities the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? (iii)Does the distance and transport facilities from school to home the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? (iv) Does the attendance of students to school the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? 3. The study shows that. The findings are presented in tabular form.2. 15 . one physics teacher. INTERPRETATION.1 Low proportion of teachers to students The overall results show that public secondary schools in Shinyanga face the problem of low proportion of teachers to students. PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION 3. For example. one teacher in public schools studied teaches 317 students per day. Kishimba secondary school has one teacher mathematics teacher.1 Introduction In this chapter. all schools have one teacher in every science subject who teaches from form one to form 4. 3. The teachers are over burdened and as the result. This is very small proportion of teachers to students. which in result leads to poor performance of public schools.CHAPTER THREE ANALYSIS. interpreted and presented.

Teachers Teachers freshers form6 leavers non form6 leavers moved teachers non moved teachers Figure 1: Teachers (a) (b) This proportion can be surprising but number of teachers considered in this study is those full time teachers and those who are employed. 3. Is there enough studying material in your school? 100.00% 0.00% Yes No I don’t know Figure 2: Studying materials 16 . This can be well seen from figure 1 above. moved from one school to the other and 93% of them were form six leavers.00% 80. The results show unavailability of library. 41% of the total part time teachers. laboratory and other teaching and studying materials such as books have caused the performance to be very poor.2.00% 20.00% 60.00% 40. The month in which this study were conducted. unavailability of enough teaching and studying facilities affect the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga.2 Inadequate teaching and studying facilities Through interviewing the Researcher found that.

motor cycle.00% 20. 78. the study shows that. the school suffers from the problem inadequate studying materials without forgetting the absence of laboratory and library. the study shows that. 3. the long distance from school to home and poor transport facilities have negative impact on the performance of ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga. Means of transportation from home to school 80. The students have to walk more than 9 kilometres in average daily. said that. The figure 3 below shows the percentage of those who use bicycle. most of the public secondary schools in Kahama district are day schools and they are cited very far from homes. There are some students who use bicycle to go to school but majority (69.00% 60. This lost time could be used for studying purposes if the students could be residing near to school.From figure 2.00% car motor cycle bicycle foot Figure 3: Means of transportation The student loose more than four hours just going and returning from school daily. the good performance is hindered due to these also. there is no enough teaching material in their schools. it has been discovered that. 17 . This discourages them from producing good notes for their students. all the teachers who responded to the questions asked. Also. the students get tired when they return home and fail to have private studies at home.6% of the students respondent negatively to the question “is there enough studying material in your school?” This shows that. Hence.8%) walk on foot.00% 40.2. Also. car and those who walk on foot to school.00% 0.3 The distance and transport facilities from school to home The study also reveals that. In the study.

it has been discovered that. attend tuitions.2. As table 1 show. Moreover.4 Poor attendance of students to school The researcher found that most of the classes. the classes with poor attendance are associate poor performance. the higher classes believe more in tuition teachers than school teachers. face the problem of poor performance as well. in average. But after taking a simple investigation within schools (as Table 1 shows). which have poor students’ attendance. this poor attendance goes with poor performance. Among the reasons for this is. poor attendance in classes may be one of the reasons to poor performance of the public schools in Shinyanga. about 82% of the students attend classes in public schools. This means that. So. the higher classes have poor attendance. the poor attendance to school has the negative impact on schools’ performance in general.3. Table 1: Overall average performance and attendance 2008 Attendance 90% 93% 76% 69% 2009 Performance Attendance 72% 96% 73% 91% 64% 79% 60% 65% 2010 Performance Attendance 80% 91% 76% 94% 67% 72% 56% 66% Form 1 Form 2 Form 3 Form 4 Performance 75% 81% 60% 59% In this study. and some of those who do not attend classes. it is shown that. 18 .

the schools are located very far from homes as a result. the students and some teachers take much time in travelling from home to school. The researcher found that most of the classes. The trained teachers who are sent in the region are not enough due to some reasons. unavailability of enough teaching and studying facilities affect the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga. as the results. The study also reveals that. The results show unavailability of library. Also. they quit due to poor working conditions. lack of teachers and students going to tuition centers instead of school. which have poor students’ attendance. 4. All this causes. This will help teachers in their teaching activities and students in their studies hence improvement in the school performance in general. This means that. they are very few and second. This is because. first.2 Recommendations (i) There is a need to increase the number teachers who are qualified and committed to their work. the long distance from school to home and poor transport facilities have negative impact on the performance of ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga. the performance goes down. This might be cause by family problems. provisions of incentives and improvement of teachers and students accommodation. 19 .CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 4. Also. the poor attendance to school has the negative impact on schools’ performance in general. (ii) The government has to ensure the availability of enough teaching facilities such as laboratory equipment and books. Through interviewing the Researcher found that. face the problem of poor performance as well. which in result leads to poor performance of public schools. laboratory and other teaching and studying materials such as books have caused the performance to be very poor. have been found in the study. creating good working conditions such as improving the level of wages. long distance from home to school. the poor transportation (no school buses and other school vehicles) has caused the students to walk on foot for about 9 kilometres daily.1 Conclusion The overall results show that public secondary schools in Shinyanga face the problem of low proportion of teachers to students.

(iii) Parents also are required to work hand in hand with teachers and students so as to improve the performance. This can be done by encouraging students to attend at school and reduce the unnecessary burden of work at home. (iv) There is the need to improving transportation to schools as well as improving housing so as to minimize the time lost from transportation. 20 .

World Bank Working Paper No. Mulkeen A. D. NECTA (National Examinations Council of Tanzania) 1993a: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Examinations Results and Candidates` Responses to CSEE (1992) Questions. et al (2007): Recruiting.A. 21 .DaresSalaam: Ministry of Education. Idama. Yoder (2002): A Literature Review of Community Schools in Africa. Washington.C. Washington.REFERENCES Kalole S:“Language Problems in Tanzania Secondary Schools. Ndabi and Albert N. D. Dar es Salaam: NECTA. Report: Daniel M. Retaining. Experience in Answering Essay and Summary Questions in the Certificate of Secondary Education Examination” Unpublished paper Miller-Grandvaux Y and K.S. M. USA MoEC (Ministry of Education and Culture) 1997a: English Language Syllabus for Secondary Schools Form 1-6. 99.C. U. and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful