Omotosho Fatimah Olamide 030901135


The development of indigenous manpower to serve as the propelling force for national growth and development is no doubt a key to Nigeria’s socioeconomic and political development. Manpower utilization could be defined as “the existence of skilled and /or unskilled humans that need training or re-training to perform specific task in society”. Thus, manpower development could be seen as organizational specific. This is because it is largely a function of organizational manpower needed or job specification. That is, it could be viewed as the adaptation of the human resources available in the country to the needs, objectives and orientation of a given organization. There are organizational tools that can be used to achieve manpower development. The first method an organization has to adapt towards achieving this goal is by ensuring that a new employee is given the best orientation of his/her job functions and environment. This method is an integral part of recruitment exercise in that once an employee has been appointed, it is expected that that such an employee need to be positively oriented in line with the vision and aspiration of the organization for effective discharge of function. Other effective tools are on-the-job training, apprenticeship and vestibule training methods. This is a process through which knowledge and experience are acquired over time either formally or informally. On-the –job could take different forms such as coaching, job-rotation, in-house training and in-service training. Apprenticeship method involves acquisition of skills through extensive practice for over a period of time by the


can be reduced by good planning so the balance between demand and supply can be achieved and then maintained through readjustments and reassessment of both demand and supply sources. However.Under vestibule training method. analyzing it to help the decision makers to take more rational and applicable decisions. CHANLLEGES FACING MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA Poor Manpower Planning: Planning can be defined “as a process for providing a frequently updated framework of information decision making. the trainee practices his skill with identical equipment that he uses or he is expected to use at work. If employees are not adequately 2 . or both in particular kinds of manpower skills. Poor Reward System: In Nigeria. The data or information to be collected is usually about the supply sources of manpower as well as the demand. The focus of this paper is to unfold problems of manpower utilization and suggesting solutions to alleviate it in Nigeria. This problem is associated with the poor database that is needed for manpower planning in Nigeria both in rural and urban centers.trainee . This problem no doubt constitutes a major hindrance on effective manpower utilization in Nigeria. which is the most important and lasting element in the production process. youths are usually underpaid for their skills because there is excess supply of labour in the labour market. with the object of improving the utilization of resources “ Manpower planning is the process of collecting data about manpower. The probable future risk of having either surpluses or shortages. it is important to state that the lack of adequate emphasis on manpower development as a tool of development in Nigeria on the part of government as well as the organized private sector could not be far-fetched from the lack of understanding of both concepts and methods for manpower development in a Nigerian State.

Nigeria is an example of an over-populated country but there is a problem of manpower under –utilization. Nigerian lecturers are not well-rewarded relatively to other classes of labour which makes the best brains of the university neglect the lecturing as a career and rather engage in other labour sectors. Nigeria has a country suffers from unbalanced situation in their resources because the system governing the economic activities fails to work out the degree of balance between the different resources as well as the balance within each individual resource. Although. In the long run. it will serve as disincentive to work and development. Surplus and Shortage of Manpower: It may be mistakenly thought that Nigeria as an over-populated country must have abundance of labour. In each case a special situation can be created which determines the manpower structure of this country .rewarded for their jobs. although population data has been insufficiently accurate for planning purposes. Population growth can be a result of either natural increase that is through birth. But unfortunately Nigeria 3 . immigration control.Birth control. The resultant effect is that there will be untimely change of jobs by employees thereby eroding manpower long term development Population Growth: The paucity and unreliability of the demographic statistics of developing countries like Nigeria is well-known. the concept and measures of population change used by demographers in the developing countries are logically sound. For instance. or immigration flows from outside or inside the country. In quest to get highly paid job and good working conditions. However. the country and institutions would have lost brilliant and capable hands whose manpower would have been fully utilized to develop country. internal movements control and many other similar actions can be of great importance. employees will switch to any kind of job.

With this high increase immigration to urban areas. There is “get rich quickly” syndrome among the youths which inhibits skill development. Colonial Experience: There have been several arguments regarding the distortions in manpower development of national growth in Nigeria as a result of colonialism which was fashioned towards economic exploitation. Urbanization Crisis: This is as a result of rural-urban migration and natural population increase. In Nigeria. So mobilization and utilization of the labour force through reorganizing and reconstructing the supply sources to match the demand is an important step towards manpower utilization. does mean losses and wastage. otherwise they may go to work in jobs which are irrelevant to their skills and this. The younger generations are no longer interested in human capacity building. and as a consequence of that number of problems and difficulties have been created. the high rate of increase creates urban crisis in that economic growth rate in these areas has been much less than the population growth rates. Nigeria as a case study does have surpluses among educated labour simply because the manpower planners did not do their job properly-they only did the part of ‘education’. Therefore. But the job of the manpower planner is not only educating or training people. of course. but finding suitable employment for them. rural-urban immigration is high because government developmental policies do not give room for even development across the country. Surplus in some skills and shortage in others may also be found.manpower planner does not make provision for educating the active population leading to abundance of unskilled workers which could be interpreted as shortage of semi-skilled or skilled workers. youths prefer to engage in politics where there will be free access to public funds. The advent of colonialism led to the 4 . Corruption: High level of corruption in the country has been a detriment to manpower development. much human potential are not fully utilized because of overcrowding and congestion in urban areas. or both. rather.

OPTIONS FOR EFFECTIVE MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA The options for effective manpower development in Nigeria could be viewed from socioeconomic and political perspectives: 1. So it is not only teaching or training people to a job-any job. it follows that system must be reasonably well regarded to the production requirements of the economy. this problem account for a lack of adequate attention given to labour as a critical part of the production process in Nigeria. the manpower planner has to look at priorities and the resources available to decide the actions needed. And “since one of the functions of educational system in a society is to provide its work force with the abilities required for productivity. These actions will be dependent upon identifying: 5 .but to provide them with the knowledge needed for production requirements. This factor has manifested itself in poor funding of education over the years. The Ministry of Education should see to the fact that educational systems are designed meet the requirements and future needs. 2. and which is in our case providing useful knowledge to generate and strengthen the economy. As a result. Training and Education: There is no doubt that improvement in the quality of people as productive agents has to be one of the main objectives of any development plans.integration of the Nigerian economy into World Capitalist System thereby placing minimum premium on labour by the colonial government no doubt has persisted in the post-colonial Nigerian State. disparity or class in manpower development between the rich and the poor. Poor Political Leadership: Closely related to the problem of colonial experience as a problem of colonial experience in Nigeria is a poor political leadership which is further deepening the problem of manpower development in Nigeria.

Wage Regulatory Body: Government should ensure that wages rates are fixed for all labour to prevent exploitation of labour by employees. 4. The principal critical shortages of skilled manpower in each sector of the economy. and analysis of the reasons for such shortages. The agency can also plan to narrow the gap within the manpower structure that is between different categories. These programs can be for all ranges of skills. The Nigerian Directorate for Employment needs to play a greater role in manpower utilization. and reasons for the surplus. The role of manpower planner is not to plan for having adequately trained labour only. c. employees will be encouraged to devote their time to a particular skill.a. The setting of forward targets for human resources development based upon reasonable expectations of growth In realization of this objective. by training and retraining schemes. but to create suitable opportunities for them to use their skills. b. When there is wage rate control. The rate at which youths change jobs will be reduced and every able-body will be interested in developing and utilizing his/her manpower in a particular area of interest. the Federal Office of Statistics and Manpower Planning Board should put all hands on deck in collecting reliable data on all kinds of skills in the labour force present in Nigeria. both of trained manpower as well as unskilled labour. 3. The surpluses. Switching 6 .

5. In the case of Nigeria where youths have left neglected agricultural sector for industrialized sector. This could be done both internally and externally. basically on the contribution of the organization in enlarging the confidence of its workers through manpower development. These training can benefit the whole economy through rebalancing both industrial agricultural sectors. the ministry in charge of youths and employment and other relevant agencies should ensure that retraining facilities are put in place for those who are engaged in industry and those who are left behind in the agricultural sector to substitute the emigrant farmers. 6. 7.certain numbers from one category to another or from sector to another is another important job manpower planner can do to fulfill the needs. The need for government to be persuasive in making organizations embraces well designed policies at improving the development of manpower in Nigeria. The option of an enhanced regulatory capability on the part of government for effective enforcement of manpower policies. new equipment and new seeds. 7 . As a matter of fact. This is quite indispensable based on the need to ensure quality manpower development irrespective of sex. organizations should be made to see reasons why a careful manpower development plan should form part of plans and objectives for the year. the success of organizations should not only be measured in terms of the magnitude of profit through the adoption of outdated personnel administration technique. This can be done by training the farmers to use new methods. but. Internally. ethnic affiliation to mention a few. class. This point could best be appreciated considering the liberal nature of most government policies which tend to snowball into elitist benefit in terms of policy outcome.

RELEVANCE OF MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA a. With minimal level of corruption in Nigeria. b. Moreover. Law should not be above anyone. manpower development is central to solving the present problem of poverty in Nigeria. 8. vocational education. Thus. it involves the building of capacity and harnessing the state’s human resource which constitute a sine-qua-non for development. Fight against Corruption: Government should act more on campaign against corruption. Poverty Alleviation: It has been argued that effective poverty alleviation scheme must involve the development and utilization of local problems. 8 . EFCC and ICPC should ensure that people found guilty are punished severely.The external factor involves the contribution of organizations to the development of manpower through financial support meant to boost adult education. Economic Development: The relevance of manpower development in Nigeria could be related to economic development. no matter class or tribe. Political Stability: There is no doubt that a country which fails to adequately develop her manpower would be doing so at the expense of her socio-economic and political stability. The youths whose skills are not developed are the objects of political unrest. c. more attention will be paid to manpower development as that will be the major component of economic growth in the country. and specialized research institutes. This is because manpower development captures the actual meaning of development in that it is people centered.

D 1964. Parnes: “Manpower Analysis in Educational Planning” [in: H.M. pp7380] G. political instability and economic underdevelopment. Parnes ‘ Planning Education for Economic and Social Development’.S.E. pp. 9 . Oxford 1976. Against this background. it is important to conclude that manpower development as a concept and method should be used as a tool for development in Nigeria. Manpower Management: A Hand book for Personnel Managers and Students of Administration.532-3 Lawal MM 2006. Meier.C. REFERENCES: H.S. Paris O.CONCLUSION This paper have been able to relate what could be referred to as manpower underdevelopment to socio-economic and political problems in Nigeria by looking at such factors as poverty. 3rd ed. “Leading issues in Economic Development”.

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