ANSI C29.

11-1989 ( R I 996)

American National Standard

for Composite Suspension Insulators for Overhead Transmission Lines Tests

Secretariat: National Electrical Manufacturers Association 1300 North 17th Street, Suite 1847 Rosslyn, VA 22209

O Copyright 2001 by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association. All rights including translation into other languages, reserved under the Universal Copyright Convention, the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, and the International and Pan American Copyright Conventions.

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Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=PDVSA - Los Teques site 6/9986712011 Not for Resale, 04/20/2011 08:35:20 MDT

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without n the prior written permission of the publisher.``. The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and will in n o circumstances give an interpretation o f any American National Standard. and other criteria for approval have been met by Nationa] the standards developer. in the judgment of the ANSI Board of Standards Review. or using products.American quirements for due process. The procedures of the American National Standards Institute require that action be taken periodically to reaffirm. and that a concerted effort be made toward their resolution. Purchasers of American National Standards may receive current information on all standards by calling or writing the American National Standards Institute. Approval o f an American National Standard requires verification by ANSI that the re- Published by American National Standards Institute 1430 Broadway. New York 10018 Copyright O 1989 by American National Standards institute. revise.``. Printed in the United States of America A5C1189112 --`... Moreover. or procedures not conforming to the standards.`.``. CAUTION NOTICE: This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn a t any time. from manufacturing... processes.`.`.`--- Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=PDVSA . 04/20/2011 08:35:20 MDT . n o person shall have the right or authority t o issue an interpretation of an American National Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. their existence does not in any respect preclude anyone.. The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary. but not necessarily unanimity. or withdraw this standard. consensus.Los Teques site 6/9986712011 Not for Resale.`.-`-`. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered.`. purchasing.```. Standard Consensus is established when. i an electronic retrieval system or otherwise. Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority. h c All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form. Requests for interpretations should be addressed t o the secretariat or sponsor whose name appears on the title page of this standard.`. New York.. marketing.`.`.. substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests. whether he has approved the standards or not.

....... 2101 L Street........... DC 20037...Soffrin (Alt) K....... U....`..) Ti This standard comprises a manual of procedures to be followed in making tests to determine the characteristics of insulators used on electric power systems... with Vote) ..... Karcher W... Jagtiani J...... which is in charge of this work...`. At the time it approved this standard... Nicholls.`.Snyder Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`......... Buchanan Licensee=PDVSA . American National Standard for Wet-Process Porcelain Insulators . Amburgey J................. Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation .............. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ....`...........``.......... Davidson H. R. Nicholls A..... 04/20/2011 08:35:20 MDT ..-`-`..... Cook A... Spaulding A.... Kosakowski E.Los Teques site 6/9986712011 Not for Resale........ Department of the Army (Liaison.. National Electrical Manufacturers Association ..Pinkham N..... Kingsbury J.....but rather it sets forth a test method to be used in conjunction with insulator specifications... Labbe T......................Foreword ( h sForeword is not part of American National Standard C29..... Schwaim H...``. Secretary Organization Represented Name of Representative Association of American Railroads ...... White..... Bush G.....`..... Committee approval of the standard does not necessarily imply that all members voted for its approval...... Harap R.........Zimmerman G.Composite Suspension Insulators for Overhead Transmission Lines .. This new American National Standard is not an insulator specification......... Chairman N.11-1989.`..`.... Brown R. This standard was processed and approved for submittal to ANSI by Accredited Standards Committee on Insulators for Electric Power Lines...11-1989... Electric Light and Power Group ...``...S...Tests.... Marchbank D............ was prepared by Accredited Standards Committee C29... the C29 Committee had the following members: J......... Vice-chairman C......... Van Herk L....... ANSI C29. Harmon B... Representation Vacant) Bonneville Power Administration ..`..... Suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome..`--- Individual Members G. Spaulding.... They should be sent to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association........ C29... NW........ Washington. Baker J......```........ Carter R.......

deTourreil R. Gaibrois R. Chemey C.Los Teques site 6/9986712011 Not for Resale. Jagtiani G.`. Essig G. Karady B. Wheeler --`. had the following members: Robert Brown.``.. Robarge E. Harap R.`--- Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=PDVSA . which was responsible for the development of this standard. Lusk J..`..The C29 Working Group on Nonceramic Insulators.``. Kise A. 04/20/2011 08:35:20 MDT .`.`.... Harmon A..`.`. Knotos G. Akhtar H.`.`.```.-`-`. Brown E. Kingsbury J.``. Chairman A. Nicholls R.

. 5...................................................... Prototype Tests ...`...........`.`................................................................................ 3................ Design Tests ...................................................2 Verification of Dimensions....................................3 Housing Tracking and Erosion Test ....................................................................2 Design Tests .................................................... Scope and Application......................... 2................3 Sample Tests ................................... 4....4 Mechanical Load Test .................................... Routine Tests .......`..........................................................2 Visual Examination.....................................................................................................`.............. 2.......... Marking ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7...................................................................... 8....................................................... 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2................. 1.......................................... Figures Figure 1 Thermal Mechanical Test ....................................................................................................................................................... 3.......... Licensee=PDVSA ................................................................................ 8........2 Alternating-VoltageRated Dry Flashover Test ...... 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`..............```.................................... 8..6 Retest Procedure for Sample Tests ...................................``.........................................................................3 Verification of the Locking System ..``......................................`...................1 Lightning Critical-ImpulseFlashover Test ...1 Insulators and Parts ............................................................................Contents SECTION PAGE 1............3 Related Amencan National Standard .................................. Classification of Tests .........................................................................5 Galvanizing Test ........................................................................-`-`.......................... 10.............................................. 9..................3 Mechanical Terms...............................`......................................................... 9......4 Routine Tests ...........2 Application ...............1 Tests on Interfaces and Connection of End Fittings .........................4 Core Material Tests ........1 Mechanical Test ......................... 9............................................................ Definitions ............................. 4............... 1......................................1 Sample Selection..........``.... 3. 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 9 11 9................................................................................................ Figure 2 Electrodes for High-Voltage Test ............................................................ 3.... Sample Tests .............................. 7......................... Referenced and Related Standards..........2 Terms Related to Exposure .`..... 7............................................................ 6 ............................................................................................................................Los Teques site 6/9986712011 Not for Resale.................................................................................. 10....................................1 Scope ......... 4... 4.................................. 9............................................................................. 7..................................................................................................`--- 8 8 8 9 7... 9.....................................................................................................................................................................................1 Referenced American National Standards. Dimensions ....................................................... 10......3 Switching Critical-ImpulseFlashover Test ..............2 Core Time-Load Test ............. 2............. 9............................ 04/20/2011 08:35:20 MDT ....................................................................................................1 Prototype Tests .......................... 4........... 8................2 Other Referenced Standard ................

American National Standard for Composite Suspension Insulators for Overhead Transmission Lines Tests 1.`. Scope and Application 1. See 3. designed to evaluate the materials and construction of composite insulators.1. The standard includes definitions pertinent to composite insulators.``.. Inc.5 End Fittings.`.3 Related American National Standard.1 Insulators and Parts 3.. Lines with a Nominal Voltage Greater Than 1000 V. 04/20/2011 08:35:20 MDT . This standard is applicable to composite insulators used on transmission lines as suspension or tension insulators. 3.1 Referenced American National Standards.-`-`.```. Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms 3. Definitions NOTE: Definitions as given in this section apply specifically to the subjects treated in this standard. 3. This sheath is part of the housing. They are usually made of metal. It introduces a new category of tests called prototype tests. 3. ANSI C29.1. This standard is intended to be used in conjunction with the following American National Standards.. see ANSIAEEE 100-1984. This standard is also intended to be used in conjunction with Tests on Insulators of Ceramic Material or Glass for Overhead 3. When these standards are superseded by a revision approved by the American National Standards.``. A composite insulator is made of at least two insulating parts .`--- 1. The core is the internal insulating part of a composite insulator.. Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`.2 Core. This standard describes the tests to be prepared on composite insulators for applications above 70kV.`. End fittings transmit the mechanical load to the core. and defines the acceptance criteria for such tests.1. It is intended to carry the mechanical load.2 Other Referenced Standard.1 Scope.The standard listed here is for information only and is not essential for the completion of the requirements of this standard. Referenced and Related Standards 2. Techniques for High-Voltage Testing 2. .1. 3.`. It is equipped with end fittings.`.1-1988. 6 Licensee=PDVSA . Electrical Power Insulators. 'Available from the American National Standards Institute.1978. It may be equipped with weathersheds.. The housing is external to the core and protects it from the weather. intended to increase the leakage distance and to provide an interrupted path for water drainage.Los Teques site 6/9986712011 Not for Resale. projecting from the housing or sheath.3 Housing.1 for the definition of a composite insulator..1. the revision shall apply. IEC 383-1983.``. All hitherto published American National Standards in the C29 series are for insulators made of wet-process porcelain or toughened glass.a core and a housing.' 2.2 Application. ANSIDEEE 100-1984. Weathersheds are insulating parts. It consists mainly of glass fibers positioned in a resin matrix so as to achieve maximum tensile strength...`.`.1 Composite Insulator. Test Methods for ANSIDEEE 4.1.`. Prototype tests are expected to be be performed on representative samples but may be performed prior to the start of production.4 Weathersheds. Some designs of composite insulators employ a sheath made of insulating material between the weathersheds and the core. 2. For additional definitions.

). as on ceramic insulators. 3. 7 --`.1 Prototype Tests.4 Chalking. 3.1(5) may vary up to 15% before the prototype tests must be repeated. after arcing. and method of attachment to the core (3) Having the same or greater housing thickness (4) Having the same or smaller ratio of S. 3. Examples of interfaces in composite insulators are as follows: (1) Glass fiber/impregnating resin (2) Filler/polymer (3) Core/housing (4) Weathershed/weathershed (5) Weathershed/sheath (6) Housinglend fittings (7) Core/end fittings 3.7 Hydrolysis. Chalking is a surface condition wherein some particles of the filler become apparent during weathering. Tracking is the formation of electrically conducting paths starting and developing on the surface of an insulating material.2 Routine Test Load (R. An interface is the surface between different materials. 3.1 Specified Mechanical Load (S.1(4). 4. It does not include the interface between the core and the end fitting.-`-`. These paths are conductive even under dry conditions. to the smallest core radial cross-sectional area between end fittings (5) Having the same core diameter The prototype test report shall include a drawing of the insulator tested.L. materials. localized. It can be uniform.. The R. and 4. 3.`. A class of insulators is defined as those: (1) Having a core and weathersheds of the same materials and method of manufacture (2) Having the end fittings of the same design.2.``. Classification of Tests 4.`.L. can occur on composite insulators.2.2 Design Tests.1 mm. Crazing is the formation of surface microfractures of depths up to 0. It can lead to electrical or mechanical degradation. The prototype tests are described in Section 7. 4.2 Treeing.2 Mechanical Design. 04/20/2011 08:35:20 MDT .. 4..2. or to another insulator. The coupling zone is the part of the end fitting that transmits the load to the line. 3.3 Sample Tests. 4.T.``..6 Cracking.`.1 Electrical Design.4). 3. the term “same” in 4. 3.M. The requirements are given in Section 8.T.).. or tree-shaped.`. with dimensions.`.2 Terms Related to Exposure 3.L. and method of manufacture. The S.```.L. When a composite insulator is submitted to the prototype tests.5 Crazing.L.``.`. commonly tree-shaped.3.M.`. These traces do not affect the operating characteristics of the insulator.1. Hydrolysis is a chemical process involving the reaction of a material with water in liquid or vapor form. is a load specified by the manufacturer that has to be verified during a Mechanical Load Test (see 9. They are to be made on insulators taken at random from a production lot. 4. The mechanical design of a composite insulator is defined by the following characteristics: (1) Core diameter (2) Method of attachment of the end fittings 4.2.4 Routine Tests.2.1(3).Los Teques site 6/9986712011 Not for Resale.1 Tracking. the results shall be considered valid for the whole class of insulators represented.. The electrical design of a composite insulator is defined by the following characteristics: (1) D y arcing distance r (2) Leakage distance (3) Weathershed inclination (4) Weathershed diameter (5) Weathershed spacing The electrical design tests shall be performed only once on insulators of a specific electrical design. Erosion is nonconductive loss of material from the insulating surface.M.1 mm.2.2. The microchannels can be either conducting or nonconducting and can progress through the bulk of the material until electrical failure occurs. It forms the basis for selection of an insulator. Treeing is the formation of microchannels within the material. forming a powdery surface.3.2..1. 4.`--- Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=PDVSA .6 Coupling Zone. materials. These tests verify the conformance of composite insulators to the requirement given in Section 9. The purpose of these tests is to verify those characteristics of a composite insulator which depend on its size and shape. These tests are for the purpose of eliminating insulators with manufacturing defects.`. The purpose of these tests is to verify the suitability of the prototype design. See Section 5 for tolerances on dimensions.3 Mechanical Terms 3. Shallow surface traces.L. These dimensions shall at a minimum include those dimensions that define a class.M. To allow for subsequent manufacturing or design variations. is a rating equal to 50% of the S.3. Cracking is any surface fracture of a depth greater than 0. to the tower.3 Erosion.2. Tracking can occur on surfaces in contact with air and also on the interfaces between insulating materials. 3.7 Interfaces.

716 Verification Tests. They shall all be completed within 48 hours. ? (0. The results shall be recorded in a test report. The insulator temperature shall be -2O’C to -25°C. consist of the sequence of tests described in 7. power frequency flashover voltage shall be obtained by averaging five flashover voltages on each of the three test specimens.M. the insulators shall be allowed to reach ambient temperature and the length shall again be measured using the same load as for the reference length.7. The insulators shall be submitted to thermal variations from -35’Cto +50’C while under a permanent . At the end of boiling.L. Each part may be performed independently on new test specimens..M.4. 712 Power Frequency Voltage Test.`. The verification tests .```. x is the dimension in millimeters. Marking ‘Each insulator shall be clearly and indelibly marked with the name or trademark of the manufacturer. the tests are only considered valid for insulators up to the length tested.04~ 1. No puncture shall occur..`.-`-`. 04/20/2011 08:35:20 MDT --`. Each impulse shall cause an external flashover of the test section..L. specimen shall be subjected to five sudden load releases. The dry . An impulse voltage with a front steepness of at least 1000 kV/microsecond shall be applied to each test section..5 S.5 mm.T. The flashover voltage shall be reached within 1 minute by increasing the voltage linearly from zero. 7 1 4 Thermal Mechanical Test.. when x S 300 mm ? (0.`.`. The routine test load shall be identified by the word “TEST”. If the test specimens have an insulating length equal to or less than 500 mm. Dimensions The following tolerances are allowed on all dimensions for which special tolerances do not apply. and 7. shall be loaded at ambient temperature to at least 5% of the S. The test report shall constitute the evidence of successful completion of the prototype tests.`.`. The electrode shall consist of a clip made of a copper strip approximately 20 mm wide and less than 1 mm thick.`--- . for 1 minute. The load shall be 30% of the S. when x 2 300 mm with a + maximum tolerance of 50 mm 6.. Three insulators shall be .L. The insulators . The tests may be conducted in any suitable medium. NOTE: The test may be interrupted for maintenance for a total duration of 4 hours.5) mm. Prototype tests are to be performed only once for each class of insulator.`. and are used to verify that the insulators have not been damaged by the previous tests..).1 through 7.M. If insulators less than 800 mm in length are tested. At the end of thermal cycling. visually.`. no clip is necessary. 7 1 3 Sudden Load Release Test. the insulators shall remain in the vessel until the water cools to approximately 50’C. Fittings 711 Test Specimen.6. the voltage may be applied between end fittings. the length of the insulators shall be measured.L. ANSIDEEE 4-1978.AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD C29..1. mens shall be kept immersed in boiling tap water for 42 continuous hours.. The insulation length (metal-to-metal spacing) shall be at least 800 mm in length to be valid for all lengths. This temperature shall be maintained until the verification tests start. This will be the reference length.M.. The end fittings and end weathershed geometry shall be representative of production insulators.1. No cracks are permitted..Los Teques site 6/9986712011 Not for Resale. .L. The electrode shall lie firmly on the housing between the weathersheds forming two approximately equal test sections. mechanical load of 0.. Each test section shall be stressed with 25 impulses of positive and 25 impulses of negative polarity. The insulators shall be subjected to the mechanical test of 10.3. The flashover voltage shall be corrected to standard conditions in accordance with 715 Water Penetration Test.. Each test . Prototype Tests Prototype testing is done in four parts as described in Sections 7.. The test specimens shall be fitted with a sharp-edged electrode. The test speci. and the routine test load (R. 5. The measurement accuracy shall be at least 0. 7162 Steep Front Impulse Voltage Test. During this time. 7.7.2...1 prior to testing.``. 7161 Visual.1. 71 Tests on Interfaces and Connection of End . tested.02% + 6) mm.6. The test specimens shall pass the tests in each part in sequence. the year of manufacture.11-1989 They are to be made on every insulator according to the requirements of Section 10. 8 Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=PDVSA .).. as shown in Figure 1 The time at each temperature shall be at least 8 hours per cycle.``.``. the specified mechanical load (S.3. The housing shall be inspected .

2.M. but the coupling zone may be modified to avoid failure of the end fittings.2. 7..3 Power Frequency Voltage Test. Two insulators or test specimens shall be tested.T.2.. 7. The power frequency flashover voltages shall be determined once more for each specimen using the procedure given in 7.`--- .```. whichever is less..2.1 Test Specimen. Each test specimen shall be individually subjected to 80% of its average flashover voltage as determined in 7.1. (2 0. The tensile load shall be increased rapidly but smoothly from O to 75% of the expected mechanical failing load.5 S.1.`.3. The end fittings shall have a grip to the core that is representativeof production insulators.. The applied voltage shall be equal to the value obtained by dividing the leakage distance of the test specimen by 34.to-metal spacing) shall not be less than 800 mm or the longest length to be manufactured.3 Housing Tracking and Erosion Test 7. and then shall be gradually increased to failure in a time of 30 to 90 seconds.`.2. Three test specimens shall be subjected to a tensile load of 60% of the average failing load obtained in 7. 7.-`-`.`.`.2. Failure shall be by fracture or complete pull-out of the core.L. 04/20/2011 08:35:20 MDT --`. The voltage shall be maintained for 30 minutes.`. the electrode used to form the test sections shall be removed.``. 7.1 Test Specimen.R. The specimen length shall be chosen such that the leakage distance falls between 484 mm and 692 mm.Los Teques site 6/9986712011 Not for Resale.`.3 Core Time Load Test.``. with 9 Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=PDVSA .2 Core Time-Load Test 7. Three of the test specimens shall be tested in tension. The insulation length (metal. This load shall be maintained for 96 hours without failure.6. Six insulators shall be tested.2.1.. 7..`.``. The average flashover voltage for each test specimen shall be at least 90% of the value determined in 7.L. No puncture shall occur and the temperature of the shank measured immediately after the test shall not be more than 20'C above ambient.1.`. Failure of an end fitting within the coupling zone shall require testing of additional test specimens until three core failures (fracture or complete pull-out) are obtained..) '' I I L I 71 TIME IN HOURS - AIR TEMPERATURE 'C TIME IN HOURS - r THERMAL TEST CYCLES Figure 1 Thermal Mechanical Test Following the test.2.2 Determination of the Average Failing Load of the Core.6.

The housing material may be removed from the core but removal is not mandatory. 7.`.4 f O .s. No puncture or surface flashover is allowed.``. composed of 1 gram of fuchsin in 100 grams of methanol.11-1989 the result expressed in kV. Six samples shall be cut from an insulator.``. . 7. The contaminant shall be sodium chloride (NaCl) and deionized water.4. The length of the samples shall be 10 mm 5 0.4 Evaluation.2 Test Chamber. 04/20/2011 08:35:20 MDT .4. cut from an insulator. The dye.2 Water Diffusion Test 7. The volume of the test chamber shall not exceed 10 cubic meters. The cut ends shall be clean and parallel.`..3.1 Test Specimen. The water may not be recirculated. 7. The balls shall be of the same diameter and in the range of 1 mm to 2 mm. but removal is not mandatory. A turbo sprayer or room humidifier of constant spraying capacity shall be used as the water atomizer.4. One test specimen shall be tested vertically and one test specimen tested horizontally. The test specimen shall be fitted with end fittings representative of those used in production.```. No weathershed punctures are allowed.Los Teques site 6/9986712011 Not for Resale.`--- Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=PDVSA .. They shall be cut 90 degrees to the axis of the core with a diamondcoated circular saw blade under cool running water. 7. The cut ends shall be clean and parallel. The specimen mounting shall be in accordance with 3.`.-`-`.`. After boiling.4.`.s. The test specimen shall be cleaned with deionized water before starting the test.s.1% by weight NaCl in a glass container for 100 hours f 0.4 Evaluation.`. 7.1-1988. The samples shall be placed on a layer of steel or glass balls in a glass vessel with the 8. Erosion is not allowed to reach the core. The length of the specimens shall be 30 mm Ie 0.. 'Interruptions for inspection purposes shall not be counted in the test duration. the specimens shall be removed from the water and their surfaces dried with filter paper. The specimens shall be placed between the electrodes and the voltage increased at a rate of approximately 1 kV per second to a value of 12 kV where it shall remain for 1 minute.1 Test Specimen.5 hours. 1 (See Note 1) 5 to 10 pm 20'C f 5'C 10 kg/m3t 0.4. Ten samples shall be fibers vertical. The current during the whole test shall not exceed 1 mA r. The maximum voltage drop permitted is 5% when the test circuit is loaded with a resistive current of 250 mA root-mean-square (r. The specimens shall be boiled in deionized water with 0.2..1 3 Evaluation.m.AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD C29.4.4. shall cause an overcurrent trip-out.).5 mm. No tracking is allowed. This test is to be performed on one insulator in accordance with ANSIDEEE 4-1978.``.be maintained for a 1000-hour duration of the test: Water flow rate Size of droplets Temperature NaCl content of water 0.4 Core Material Tests 7. 7.2. The surfaces of the specimens shall be cleaned with isopropyl alcohol and filter paper immediately before boiling.1 Dye Penetration Test 7.3 Test Conditions.1. 8. There shall be a clearance of at least 200 mm between the roof of the chamber and a test specimen and a clearance of at least 100 mm between the walls and a test specimen. The housing material may be removed from the core.5 mm. The following test shall begin within 3 hours of removal of the specimens from the salt water.3. 7. They shall be cut 90 degrees to the axis of the core with a diamond-coated circular saw blade under cool running water.5 kg/m3 NOTES: 'The water flow rate is.defined in liters per hour per cubic meter volume of the test chamber. 7.1 of ANSI C29.2 Prestressing.m.m. the specimens shall be removed from the salt water and placed into tap water in a glass container at room temperature for at least 15 minutes. except that the upper surface of the 10 --`.2. Each interruption shall not exceed 15 minutes. is poured into the vessel until its level is 2 mm to 3 mm above the top of the balls...4. oval is not mandatory. The test arrangement is shown in Figure 2. An aperture of not more than 80 square centimeters shall be provided for natural exhaust air. 7.`.3. The length of the samples shall be 10 mm k 0 5 mm.2. The cut surfaces shall be smoothed with a 180-grit abrasive cloth. Only one core material may be boiled at one time. The following conditions shall.3 Test. Design Tests Design tests are performed on full insulators. It shall not spray directly onto the test specimen.2 Test.4. No more than three overcurrent trip-outs are allowed.`. A current of 1 ampere r.1. Immediately before the test. 7. The time for the dye to rise through the samples by capillarity shall be more than 15 minutes..1 Lightning Critical-Impulse Flashover Test. The cut surfaces shall be smoothed with a 180-gritabrasive cloth.

5 of ANSI/IEEE 4-1978. 9. The specimen mounting shall be in accordance with 18. the diameters of the electrodes must be ih increased.-`-`..`.3. 9.3 Verification of the Locking System. 04/20/2011 08:35:20 MDT . This test is to be performed only when the intended service voltage is in excess of 300 kV phase-tophase. The insulators in the sample shall be checked for dimensions against the dimensions on the manufacturer’s drawing. 8.3.11-1989 HIG H-VOLTAGE ELECTRODES MADE OUT OF BRASS 50 m m 64 m m Y 30 m m lr 0. Figure 2 Electrodes for High-Voltage Test energized electrode shall be 100 to 200 mm from the connection point of the lower end fitting. The specimen mounting shall be in accordance with 3.2 Alternating-Voltage Rated Dry Flashover Test.3 Switching Critical-Impulse Flashover Test.`.``.2 Verification of Dimensions.`--- Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=PDVSA . The diameter of the elect~od*smust be at least 20 m m greater than that of the samples..`.3 or 18.. 11 9. the tolerances given in Section 5 shall apply. This test is to be performed on one insulator in accordance with ANSIDEEE 4-1978.2 of IEC 383-1983. It is to be performed on one insulator in accordance with 2. The insulators shall be selected from the lot at random. right to make the selection. the specified samples shall be tested for disengagement force of the cotter key.Los Teques site 6/9986712011 Not for Resale.``. Sample Tests 9.`. the retest procedure of 9.2. 8. The purchaser has the --`.`. Tests Verification of dimensions Verification of locking system Mechanical load test Galvanizing test Number of Samples 7 3 4 3 In the event of a failure of the sample to satisfy a test..```.. The insulators shall be subjected to the applicable sample tests.1 Sample Selection. If tolerances are not given on the drawing.``.5 m m I NOTE: For samples w t large diameters.AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD C29.`.2..`.1 of ANSI C29.1-1988.6 shall be applied. It shall be between 111 and 667 newtons force for three locking-to-unlocking operations. except that the upper surface of the energized electrode shall be 100 to 200 mm from the connection point of the lower end fitting.1..`. For ball and socket insulators.

`.L.``.AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD C29.L.M. The retesting shall comprise the test in which failure occurred. The load shall then be increased until the insulator fails.M.11-i989 9. Both the average thickness value for each individual specimen and the average of the entire sample shall equal or exceed the following: Average of Entire Sample (mil) Hardware (except nutshlts) Nutshlts Average of Individual Specimen (mil) 3. If 100% of the S. The historical failure loads shall justify the manufacturer’s choice of S. The color of the insulator shall be approximately as specified on the drawing.`. 10. preceded 10.`..2 Visual Examination.M.`--- . a new sample equal to twice the quantity originally submitted to that test shall be subjected to retesting.-`-`. The specified size of sample shall be tested in accordance with Section 6 of ANSI C29. The retesting shall comprise the test in which failure occurred. Routine Tests Routine tests are to be performed on every insulator produced. 04/20/2011 08:35:20 MDT --`. the complete lot is considered as not complying with this standard.1 1.6 Retest Procedure for Sample Tests. The mounting of the metallic parts shall be in conformance with the manufacturer’s drawing.`.``.L. Every insulator shall withstand for at least 10 seconds a tensile load equal to or greater than the R. 10. the remainder of the for 90 seconds. The failure load shall be recorded. the complete lot is considered as not complying w t the standard and shall ih be withdrawn for examination by the manufacturer..`.`.Los Teques site 6/9986712011 Not for Resale.T.`.4 Mechanical Load Test. Five to ten measurements shall be uniformly and randomly distributed over the entire surface. If only one insulator or metal part fails to comply with the requirements of a sample test.5 Galvanizing Test. rating.`.7 by those tests that may be considered as having influenced the results of the original test.. The test is passed if no failure occurs.4 21 . the load shall be sustained at S. 3.. The sample insulators shall be subjected to a tensile load that shall be increased rapidly but smoothly from zero to 75% of the S. 9. in a time between 30 and 90 seconds.1-1988..```. preceded by those tests that may be considered as having influenced the results of the original test.is reached in less than 90 seconds.M.L. The number then selected shall be three times the first quantity chosen for tests.M.. If any insulator fails during the retesting. 12 Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=PDVSA . The following imperfections shall be acceptable on the insulator surface: Superficial defects of area less than 25 square millimeters (the total defective area not to exceed 2% of the total insulator surface) and depth less than 1 mm. and then gradually be increased to the S.L.``. 9. If two or more insulators or metal parts fail to comply with any of the sample tests or if any failure occurs during the retesting.L..1 Mechanical Test.

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