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Sek Men Sains Muzaffar Syah

9.1

Explain Thermionic emission is the process of emission of electrons from a heated


thermionic metal’s surface.
emission
 Metal consists of a large number of electrons which are free to move.
 At room temperature, the electrons are free to move but remain inside
the metal.
 The electrons cannot escape at the surface because they are held back
by the attractive forces of the atomic nucleus.
 If the metal is heated at a high temperature, some of the free electrons
may gain sufficient energy to escape from the metal.

What is  Thermionic emissions can be used to produce a continuous flow of


cathode electrons in a cathode ray tube. These electrons can be made to
rays? move at a high speed in a vacuum tube.
 The vacuum tube is an evacuated glass tube with a positive
electrode called anode and a negative electrode called cathode.
 When the cathode is connected to the anode by a high voltage
supply, the electrons are accelerated at a high speed from the
cathode to the anode.

 The beam of electrons moving from the cathode to the anode is


called cathode rays.

Cathode rays can be used in picture tube of a television, a cathode ray


Describe oscilloscope and the visual display on a radar screen.
the
properties The properties of cathode rays can be summarized:
of 1. Negatively charged particles called electrons.
cathode 2. Travel in straight lines and cast sharp shadows.
rays 3. Travel at very high speed and have kinetic energy.
4. Can cause fluorescence. (A process where the kinetic energy of
the electrons is converted into light energy)
5. Deflected by electric and magnetic fields.

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Activity 1: To Investigate the properties of electron streams in a Maltese cross cathode ray tube.

Maltase cross tube

Observation

Procedure Observation Explanation Conclusion

6V heater The shadow is formed Light rays travel in a


supply is by the ray from the ___________ line
connected ________ __________

6V heater The shadow is Cathode rays travel in a _______


supply and 3 formed by the ______ line.
kV power _______ Cathode rays cause __________.
supply are Cathode rays carry ________
connected energy and converts to
_________ energy when they hit
the screen.

Cathode rays can be deflected by


A bar magnet The _________ force ________ fields.
is brought is produced because The Fleming’s ______-hand rule
close to the the cathode rays is used to determine the direction
cathode rays carry a _________ of motion.

1. In diagram (a) the shadow of the Maltese cross is not deflected by any magnetic field. In
diagrams (b) and (c), two magnets are placed by the side of the bulb. Draw the shadow of the
cross in (b) and (c) to show how the shadow of the Maltese cross is deflected.

(b)
(a) (c)

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Activity 2: Investigate the properties of cathode rays in an electric field by using a deflecting
cathode ray tube

1. Connect the deflecting cathode ray tube to


the 6.0 V ac power supply
2. Connect the anode and cathode to EHT
power supply.
3. Connect the deflecting plates using a
separate EHT.
(a) Top plate is connected to the positive EHT
and lower plate is connected to the
negative terminal EHT.
(b) Top plate is connected to the negative EHT
and lower plate is connected to the positive terminal EHT.

Procedure Observation Explanation Conclusion


6V heater supply and
3 kV power supply
are connected

6V heater supply and


3 kV power supply
are connected
and also 1000 V
power supply is
connected to the
metal plates
6V heater supply and
3 kV power supply
are connected
and also 1000 V
power supply is
connected to the
metal plates in
reverse

Types of motion of the cathode rays in a cathode rays tube

Region Types of energy


PQ : Cathode to
anode
QR: Anode to screen

Region Types of Motion


P : Anode

QR: Anode to cathode


and screen

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A cathode ray oscilloscope (C.R.O) is an instrument that converts


Describe electronic and electrical signals to a visual display.
the  The graph produced consist of a horizontal axis which is normally a
Cathode function of time, and a vertical axis which is a function of the input
Ray voltage.
Oscillo-  The components in a cathode ray tube consists of a vacuum glass tube
scope with an electron gun, a deflection system for deflecting the electron
beam and a fluorescent coated screen.

Describe the function of the cathode ray oscilloscope, CRO

 The electron gun is used to produce a narrow beam of electrons.


Electron Is heated when current flows through it. It is used to heat up
gun the cathode.
Heated cathode emits electrons through the process of
thermionic emissions.

Control the number of electrons in the electron beams.


The more negative the grid, the fewer the electrons are
emitted from the electron gun and the less the brightness of
the bright spot on the screen.
To focus the electrons into a beam and to attract electrons
from the area of the control grid.
To accelerate the electron beam towards the screen.

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 The deflection system allows the electron beam to be deflected from its
straight-line path when it leaves the electron gun.
Deflecting
 Y-plates is to move the electron beam vertically up and down the screen
System
when an input voltage is applied across it.
No input voltage
The electron beam does not
deflect and the bright spot
is at the centre

+ve voltage is applied, the


electron beam deflect
upward. The bright spot
moves to the top.

-ve voltage is applied, the


electron beam deflect
downward. The bright spot
moves to the bottom

a.c voltage is applied, the


electron beam deflects up
and down. The bright spot
moves up and down to form
a bright vertical trace on the
screen

 The function of the X-plates is to sweep the electron beam across the screen
horizontally from left to right at a steady speed.

 The fluorescent screen is coated on the inside surface with some fluorescent
material such as phosphor or zinc sulfide.
 When electron beam strikes the screen, the material becomes glows. This
Fluorescent enables a bright spot to appear whenever an electron beam strikes the
Screen screen.
 The moving electrons have kinetic energy. When this electrons strikes the
screen, the fluorescent coating on the screen converts the kinetic energy of
the electrons into light energy.

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Application 1. Measuring potential difference


of CRO 2. Measuring short intervals
3. Displaying wave forms

Describe the working principle of the cathode ray oscilloscope, CRO

Control knob Function


Power switch Control the power supply
Focus  Control the sharpness of the bright spot
 Connected to the focusing anode
 The sharpness of the bright spot is also affected by the brightness
Brightness  To control brightness or intensity of the bright spot
 Connected to the control grid
 Brightness level should be set as low as possible to obtain a clear and
sharp trace
X-shift  To adjust the horizontal position of the bright spot on the screen
 Connected to the X-plates
Y-shift  To adjust the vertical position of the bright spot or the trace displayed
 Connected to the Y-plates
Y gain  To control the magnitude of the vertical deflection of the bright spot or the
(volts / div) trace displayed on the screen by adjusting amplitude
 Connected to the Y-plates
Time-base  To control the magnitude of the horizontal deflection of the bright spot or
(time/div) the trace displayed on the screen by adjusting the frequency
 Connected to the X-plates
X-input A terminal to connect the voltage to the X-plates
Y-input A terminal to connect the voltage to the Y-plates
AC/DC switch  To select the type of input received
 When the switch is at DC position, the a.c and d.c voltages will be
displayed
 When the switch is at AC position, only the a.c voltage will be displayed.
Any signals of d.c voltage will be blocked by a capacitor in the CRO
Earth  To disconnect the input voltage at the Y-plates and to earth the input
terminal

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Activity 3: Display wave forms and measuring voltage from a DC source using a CRO

 Set the vertical gain of the CRO to 0.5 V/div.Turn off the
time base.
 Connect a battery to the Y-input
 Observe the display on the CRO screen and measure
the DC voltage.
 Reverse the terminals of the battery and repeat step 4.
 Turn on the time base. Observe the display on the CRO
screen
 Reverse the terminals of the battery and observe again

Observation
No input Turn off time base
Connected to a dry cell Reversed the dry cell
connections

Turn on time base


Connected to a dry cell Reversed the dry cell
connections

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Activity 4: Use a CRO to display and measure the voltage of a AC voltage supply

 Set the vertical gain of the CRO to 0.5 V/div.


 Connect an AC current of 2 V to the Y-input
 Observe the display on the screen
 Reverse the terminals of the AC input and
observe again

Observations
Time-base off Time-base on

Measure Potential Difference using the C.R.O

DC voltage = [displacement of the bright spot x [ the selected range from the zero position]
of the Y-gain control]

DC voltage with the time-base off DC voltages with the


time-base on

(a) (b)
(c) (d)
What is the value of the dc voltage in figure (a) and What is the value of the dc voltage in
(b) if the Y-gain control is 1 V/div? figure (c) and (d) if the Y-gain control is
0.5 V/div?

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Peak ac = [Height of vertical trace from x [ the selected range voltage the zero
position] of the Y-gain control]

Y-gain = 2 V/div
Height of vertical trace from zero
position =

Peak ac voltage =

Measure Short Time Intervals using the C.R.O

 The time-base is set to 1 ms/div


 It means I div = 0.001 s
 The number of div is counted between two
crests of a wave
 The short time interval between pulses =
Multiplying the number of division by the
time-base

Length between 2 signals = … div

Time base is set = 10 ms/div

Time taken, t =

Solve
Solve Problems
problems based
based onon
thethe C.R.O
CRO display
display
Example 1
Diagram 1 shows a trace produced by an ac
power supply which is connected to Y-input
of an CRO setting at 20 V/div and 5 ms/div.
Calculate:
(a) Period
(b) Frequency
(c) Peak voltage

Diagram 1

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Example 2
Diagram 2 shows a trace produced by an a.c
power supply connected to a CRO with the
time base is switched of. The Y-gain is set to
20 V/div. Find the peak voltage.

diagram 2
Example 3
Diagram 3 shows a wave produced by an audio generator
displayed the screen of a CRO. The length between the two
crests is 3 cm.
(a) If the time-base is set to 5 ms/div, find the frequency.
(b) What is the period of the wave?
(c) When the frequency of the wave is double, what is the
length between the two crests?

Diagram 3

Example 4
An aircraft is detected from a radar station. The two
transmitted signal Y and reflected signal, X are displayed
on the screen of a CRO.
Diagram 4 shows a wave form displayed on the screen of
a CRO. The time-base is set at 50 ms/div and the speed
of the signal in air is 3 x 108 ms-1 .
Calculate the distance of the aircraft detected from the
radar station at that time.
Diagram 4

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TUTORIAL 9.1 3. The diagram shows a waveform is


displayed on the screen of a CRO when
1. Which diagram shows the correct an a.c. power l is connected to Y-input of
movement of an electron beam in an the CRO .The time-base is switched off
electric field? (2005)

What is the peak voltage of the


alternating current when the Y-gain of
the CRO is adjusted at 20 V cm-1?
A 80.0 V
B 56.6 V
C 40.0 V
D 28.3 V
E 15.9 V

4. The diagram shows a waveform from a


2. The diagram shows the trace on the of a signal is displayed on the screen of a
CRO when an a.c. power supply is CRO.
connected to the Y-input of the CRO.

What is the frequency of the signal


Which of the following tracing is formed when the time-base switch is adjusted at
on the screen when the a.c. power 20 ms cm-1?
supply is replaced by a dry cell? A 12.5 Hz
B 25 Hz
C 50 Hz
D 100 Hz
E 200 Hz

5. The diagram shows a waveform is


displayed on the screen of a CRO. The
distance between two successive peaks
is 3 cm.

What is the distance between two


successive peaks when the frequency of
the waveform is doubled?
A 0.75 cm B 1.50 cm
C 3.00 cm D 4.50 cm
E 6.00 cm

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6. The diagram shows a waveform is STRUCTURE QUESTIONS


displayed on the screen of a CRO when a
moving an a.c. power supply is 8. The diagram shows a cathode-ray tube.
connected to Y-input of the CRO. The
frequency of the alternating current is
200 Hz.

What is the time taken from A to B?


-3
A 5 x 10 s
-3
B 7.5 x10 s
-2
C 1.0 x 10 s
-2
D 5.0 x 10 s
-2
E 7.5 x 10 s
(a) What is the thermionic emission
7. The figure shows a waveform obtained meant?
on the screen of CRO at an airport radar
station. The point M and N indicate the ..............................................................
time transmission to an aero plane and
time of receiving the reflected signals by ..............................................................
the radar station .
[ Time-base control setting of the CRO = (b) What is the function of anode A?
-1
5 ms cm , the speed of light = 3 x 10 8
m s -1 ] ..............................................................

..............................................................
(c) Explain why the tube must be a
vacuum tube?

..............................................................

..............................................................

..............................................................

(d) What will happen to the electrons


when
(i) the current flows through the
What is the distance between the radar filament is increased.
station and the aero plane.
......................................................
A 600 km
B 1500 km ......................................................
C 300 km (ii) the voltage of 5 KV power
D 100 km supply is increases.
E 50 km
......................................................

......................................................

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(d) The time-base switch of the CRO is


(iii) the switch is closed. on.
Draw the waveform in the space
...................................................... below when the Y-input of the CRO
is connected to
...................................................... (a) a dry cell

(e) What happen to the energy


possesses by the electrons when
they hit the screen of the cathode-
ray tube?

..............................................................

..............................................................

9. The diagram shows the construction of a (ii) a transformer


simple cathode-ray oscilloscope.

(e) Give two advantages use the CRO to


determine the potential difference
(a) State the name and the function compare to the voltmeter.
of component P .
..............................................................
..............................................................
..............................................................
..............................................................
.............................................................
(b) The filament can be heated by d.c.
or a.c. power supply. Explain why? ..............................................................

..............................................................

..............................................................

(c) Explain how is the control grid


control the brightness the screen?

................................................................

..............................................................

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10. The diagram shows a waveform obtained (b) Draw the waveform display on the
from an a.c. power supply connected to screen of the CRO in figure below
Y-input of a CRO. when

(i) the time-base switch is off.

(ii) the time-base switch is on and


the a.c. power supply is
replaced by a d.c. generator.

(a) What is

(i) the frequency the current?

(i) the peak voltage of the current?

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