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SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY
MULTISERVICE PROCEDURES FOR SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.26
JUNE 1999 AIR LAND SEA APPLICATION CENTER
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
MULTISERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES
QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST Decide to Survive!
S U R V I V A L Size up the situation, surroundings, physical condition, equipment. Use all your senses Remember where you are. Vanquish fear and panic. Improvise and improve. Value living. Act like the natives. Live by your wits.
1. Immediate Actions a. Assess immediate situation. THINK BEFORE YOU ACT! b. Take action to protect yourself from nuclear, biological, or chemical hazards (Chapter IX). c. Seek a concealed site. d. Assess medical condition; treat as necessary (Chapter V). e. Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information. f. Sanitize area; hide equipment you are leaving. g. Apply personal camouflage. h. Move away from concealed site, zigzag pattern recommended. i. Use terrain to advantage, communication, and concealment. j. Find a hole-up site. 2. Hole-Up-Site (Chapter I) a. Reassess situation; treat injuries, then inventory equipment. b. Review plan of action; establish priorities (Chapter VI). c. Determine current location. d. Improve camouflage. e. Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand. f. Execute plan of action. Stay flexible!
Recommend inclusion of this manual in the aviator’s survival vest.
3. Concealment (Chapter I) a. Select a place of concealment providing (1) Adequate concealment, ground and air. (2) Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of communications (LOC). (3) Listening and observation points. (4) Multiple avenues of escape. (5) Protection from the environment. (6) Possible communications/signaling opportunities. b. Stay alert, maintain security. c. Drink water. 4. Movement (Chapters I and II) a. Travel slowly and deliberately. b. DO NOT leave evidence of travel; use noise and light discipline. c. Stay away from LOC. d. Stop, look, listen, and smell; take appropriate action(s). e. Move from one concealed area to another. f. Use evasion movement techniques (Chapter I). 5. Communications and Signaling (Chapter III) a. Communicate as directed in applicable plans/orders, particularly when considering transmitting in the blind. b. Be prepared to use communications and signaling devices on short notice. c. Use of communications and signaling devices may compromise position. 6. Recovery (Chapter IV) a. Select site(s) IAW criteria in theater recovery plans. b. Ensure site is free of hazards; secure personal gear. c. Select best area for communications and signaling devices. d. Observe site for proximity to enemy activity and LOC. e. Follow recovery force instructions.
.............................. 6... 1........................ II-12 iii ................................... II-11 Mountain Hazards ................... II-10 River Travel...... 2.............. Evasion.... Alabama 29 JUNE 1999 Survival. Rhode Island Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center Maxwell Air Force Base..... Virginia Marine Corps Combat Development Command Quantico.. II-1 Travel Considerations.. I-3 Movement ........... 5... II-1 Navigation and Position Determination ........................ and user information............................ II-12 Summer Hazards ......... 8.................. 4.. 7............................ EVASION Planning...............................................................3 AFTTP(I) 3-2...........FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50..............26 FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.S........................... and Recovery Note: This UNCLASSIFIED publication is designed to provide Service members quick-reference survival............................................... 3.............................. II-10 Ice and Snow Travel ................................................. See Appendix B for the scope.............. and recovery information....... TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I 1............ II-12 Dry Climates....................................... 4.......... I-1 Camouflage ...... 3........ 2............................. and Recovery Multiservice Procedures for Survival. evasion......26 U................. I-3 CHAPTER II NAVIGATION Stay or Move Considerations ................................................................ Virginia Navy Warfare Development Command Newport............................................................... Army Training and Doctrine Command Fort Monroe..... I-1 Shelters ................................ application.................................3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.... purpose......................... implementation plan............. Evasion.
..... 1........................................................................................................................................................... IX-7 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B THE WILL TO SURVIVE ..............9.......... VI-8 CHAPTER VII WATER 1......... Open Seas ............. VI-1 Other Protective Equipment. IV-1 Site Preparation .................................................................................. VIII-1 2...................... Water Procurement ............................................. III-2 Responsibilities......... VIII-9 3................ II-13 CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV 1...................................... A-1 PUBLICATION INFORMATION ........... Biological Conditions ............. II-13 10....................................... Signaling ............. VII-7 CHAPTER VIII FOOD 1................................................... 1................................. V-9 Plant Medicine.......................................... 4............. 2....... Food Preservation ....................................... Tropical Climates ..................................... VI-2 Shelters .............. Food Preparation ............................................. V-18 CHAPTER VI PERSONAL PROTECTION Priorities .............................. VII-1 3........ IV-1 CHAPTER V MEDICAL Immediate First Aid Actions ................................................................................................................................................................. IV-1 Site Selection............................................................................................................................................................... III-1 2................................. IV-1 Recovery Procedures ....................................... Water Preparation and Storage. Nuclear Conditions .......................................... V-15 Health and Hygiene ....... 2.................... VI-1 Care and Use of Clothing ...... 6............. B-2 iv I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX A B . V-18 Rules for Avoiding Illness............... Food Procurement............................... V-1 Common Injuries and Illnesses........................ Radio Communications (Voice and Data)................................................................. 5................... 3............................................... VI-3 Fires ............................................................................... VIII-11 CHAPTER IX INDUCED CONDITIONS 1.................... Chemical Conditions ........ IX-1 2........................ Water Requirements .............................. RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING RECOVERY 1...... 4....................................................................... 4...... VII-1 2.............................................................................................. 2............................................................ IX-6 3. 3.................................. 3.....
(2) Selected area for evasion. (2) Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy. The following odors stand out and may give an evader away: (1) Scented soaps and shampoos. b. Planning a. Where to go (initiate evasion plan of action): (1) Near a suitable area for recovery. d. after-shave lotion. c. b. (7) Resting and sleeping as much as possible. (2) Using established procedures. (a) Coniferous areas (broad slashes). (3) Insect repellent (camouflage stick is least scented). (2) Slash pattern. Review the quick reference checklist on the inside cover. (c) Snow (barren). (3) Following your evasion plan of action. Camouflage a. Guidelines for successful evasion include(1) Keeping a positive attitude. 2. I-1 . (4) Gum and candy (smell is strong or sweet). Basic principles: (1) Disturb the area as little as possible. or other cosmetics. (4) Designated area for recovery. (3) Neutral or friendly country or area. (4) Being patient. Camouflage patterns (Figure I-1): (1) Blotch pattern. (5) Drinking water (DO NOT eat food without water).Chapter I EVASION 1. (8) Staying out of sight. (5) Tobacco (odor is unmistakable). (2) Shaving cream. (a) Temperate deciduous (leaf shedding) areas. (b) Desert areas (barren). (6) Conserving strength for critical periods. (3) Apply personal camouflage.
(3) DO NOT over camouflage. (4) Light colored hair. or coloration methods. d. (3) Head. Personal camouflage application follows: (1) Face. collar. and the under chin. or mask if available. Give special attention to conceal with a scarf or mosquito head net. (3) Combination. The insides and the backs should have 2 colors to break up outlines. netting. BLOTCH SLASH Figure I-1.(b) Jungle areas (broad slashes). they shift with the sun. (c) Grass (narrow slashes). vegetation. (c) DO NOT select vegetation from same source. (b) Change camouflage depending on the surroundings. change regularly. May use blotched and slash together. Use scarf. (4) Remember when using shadows. (2) Take advantage of natural concealment: (a) Cut foliage fades and wilts. dirt. and charcoal. hands. I-2 . Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on any remaining exposed areas. Use a hat. netting. neck. (2) Ears. berries. Camouflage Patterns c. Position and movement camouflage follows: (1) Avoid unnecessary movement. (d) Use stains from grasses.
(6) Ensure overhead concealment. or (6) (7) (8) (9) Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off. (5) Take the direction finding threat into account before transmitting from shelter. “V” of crotch/armpits. Use camouflage and concealment. Movement a. (2) Use the military crest. 4. wind. Conduct observation from a prone and concealed position. glasses. or reduced enemy activity. rough terrain. Shelters a. (3) Be wary of flash floods in ravines and canyons. I-3 . etc.Low silhouette I . and rocks to keep from forming paths to site. b.Secluded location (1) Choose an area (a) Least likely to be searched (drainages. A moving object is easy to spot. B .Small S . (b) With escape routes (DO NOT corner yourself). Locate carefullyeasy to remember acronym: BLISS. ditches. 3. Remove unit patches. (4) Conceal with minimal to no preparation. (c) With observable approaches. If travel is necessary (1) Mask with natural cover (Figure I-2). bad weather. Break up the outline of the body. (5) Never expose shiny objects (like a watch. name tags. rank insignia. (3) Restrict to periods of low light.pens).Blend L . (2) Locate entrances and exits in brush and along ridges.) and blends with the environment. etc.Irregular shape S .
wire. aircraft. etc. etc.). aircraft. (d) SMELL for vehicles. weapons. fires. Ground Movement (4) Avoid silhouetting (Figure I-3). (c) LISTEN for vehicles.Figure I-2. roads. Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel. animals. troops. tracks. (b) LOOK for signs of human or animal activity (smoke. troops. etc. vehicles. troops. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight. I-4 . animals. buildings. (5) At irregular intervals (a) STOP at a point of concealment.
or grass. (2) DO NOT break branches. Some techniques for concealing evidence of travel follows: (1) Avoid disturbing the vegetation above knee level. Avoid Silhouetting (6) Employ noise discipline. Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route/zigzag) to camouflage evidence of travel. (c) Make noise by breaking sticks.) (d) Mangle grass and bushes that normally spring back. (b) Scuff bark on logs and sticks. (Cloth wrapped around feet helps muffle this. (This may scuff the bark or create movement that is easily spotted. TRY NOT TO (a) Overturn ground cover.Figure I-3. Break up the human shape or recognizable lines. d. b. I-5 . rocks. check clothing and equipment for items that could make noise during movement and secure them. (3) Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to its original position. leaves. In snow country. c. and sticks.) (5) Pick firm footing (carefully place the foot lightly but squarely on the surface to avoid slipping). (4) DO NOT grab small trees or brush. this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route.
crossing at damaged areas. (b) Moving before and during precipitation allows tracks to fill in. rocks. look for electrical insulators or security devices. DO NOT touch fence. cross tracks using a semi-pushup motion. (c) Traveling during windy periods. Repeat for the second track. (7) Secure trash or loose equipmenthide or bury discarded items. passing under or between lower rails. e. (4) Cross roads after observation from concealment to determine enemy activity. (3) Penetrate rail fences. etc. Penetrate obstacles as follows: (1) Enter deep ditches feet first to avoid injury.) (8) Concentrate on defeating the handler if pursued by dogs. (Figure I-5) (5) Use same method of observation for railroad tracks that was used for roads. etc. I-6 . (Trash or lost equipment identifies who lost it. presenting as low a silhouette as possible (Figure I-4). Go under fence if unavoidable. align body parallel to tracks with face down. (d) Taking advantage of solid surfaces (logs.) leaving less evidence of travel. and snowdrifts. bend in road. (Figure I-6). Cross in a manner leaving your footprints parallel (cross step sideways) to the road. If impractical. (2) Go around chain-link and wire fences.(6) Mask unavoidable tracks in soft footing by (a) Placing tracks in the shadows of vegetation. (e) Patting out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old. go over the top. shadows. Next. Cross at points offering concealment such as bushes. downed logs.
Road Crossing I-7 .Figure I-4. Rail Fences Figure I-5.
I-8 . 1 may be electrified.Figure I-6. Railroad Tracks WARNING: If 3 rails exist.
Leave information at your starting point (in a non-combat environment) that includes (1) Destination. (3) Personal condition. have a known destination. 2.Chapter II NAVIGATION Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles. II -1 . (3) Using information provided in the map legend. Navigation and Position Determination a. cache. b. (2) Determine which direction to travel and why. (4) Convinced rescue is not coming. shelter. Stay or Move Considerations a. e. (2) Using the Rate x Time = Distance formula. food. (2) Are certain of your location. Consider the following for maps (in a combat environment): (1) DO NOT write on the map. and/or help. Leave only when (1) Dictated by the threat. (2) Route of travel. c. (4) Supplies available. (2) DO NOT soil the map by touching the destination. Consider the following if you decide to travel: (1) Follow the briefed evasion plan. Stay with the vehicle/aircraft in a non-combat environment. d. (b) Man-made checkpoints. (3) Can reach water. (a) Geographic checkpoints. and have the ability to get there. (3) Decide what equipment to take. (3) DO NOT fold in a manner providing travel information. (4) Using prominent landmarks. Note: These actions may compromise information if captured. (c) Previous knowledge of operational area. or destroy. 1. Determine your general location by (1) Developing a working knowledge of the operational area.
(4) Using a wristwatch to determine general cardinal direction (Figure II-2). Figure II-1. North is halfway between the 12 o’clock position and the hour hand. Point the 12 o’clock position on your watch at the sun. (2) Using stick and shadow method to determine a true north-south line (Figure II-1). (a) Digital watches.(5) Visualizing map to determine position. south. (c) Southern Hemisphere. (b) Northern Hemisphere. II -2 . and west) by (1) Using compass. Visualize a clock face on the watch. CAUTION: The following methods are NOT highly accurate and give only general cardinal direction. east. Point hour hand at the sun. Stick and Shadow Method (3) Remembering the sunrise/moonrise is in the east and sunset/moonset is in the west. South is halfway between the hour hand and 12 o’clock position. b. Determine cardinal directions (north.
end construction at sundown. or match). •Indicate north with a drawn arrow. Direction Using a Watch (5) Using a pocket navigator (Figure II-3) (a) Gather the following necessary materials: •Flat writing material (such as an MRE box). •Connect marks to form an arc. •Pen or pencil.To Determine North/South NORTHERN HEMISPHERE NORTH MID POINT SOUTH MID POINT HOUR HAND HOUR HAND SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE If on daylight saving time subtract one hour from actual time Figure II-2. •1-2 inch shadow tip device (a twig. II -3 .Using A Watch . nail. (c) Do the following during travel: •Hold navigator so the shadow aligns with mark of present time (drawn arrow now points to true north). (b) Start construction at sunup. •Mark tip of shadow every 30 minutes annotating the time. •Secure navigator on flat surface (DO NOT move during set up period). Do the following: •Attach shadow tip device in center of paper. Note: The shortest line between base of shadow tip device and curved line is a north-south line.
Orient the map by (1) Using a true north-south line (Figure II-5) (a) Unfold map and place on a firm. level nonmetallic surface. (b) Southern Cross is used to locate true south-north line. II -4 . Figure II-3. flat.1 week. Stars c. Figure II-4. (d) Remember the navigator is current for approximately CAUTION: The Pocket Navigator is NOT recommended if evading. Pocket Navigator (6) Using the stars (Figure II-4) the (a) North Star is used to locate true north-south line.
•Easterly (subtract variation from 360 degrees). Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating dial compass N N N Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating dial compass Figure II-5. (c) Rotate map and compass until stationary index line aligns with the magnetic variation indicated in marginal information. Orienting a Map Using a True North-South Line II -5 .(b) Align the compass on a true north-south line. •Westerly (add variation to 360 degrees).
(2) Using a compass rose (Figure II-6) (a) Place edge of the lensatic compass on magnetic north line of the compass rose closest to your location. (b) Rotate map and compass until compass reads 360 degrees. 180 Figure II-6. Star indicates magnetic line on EVC Chart. Map Orientation with Compass Rose II -6 .
(a) DO NOT use GPS for primary navigation. Determine specific location. (1) Global Positioning System (GPS). d. (d) Conserve GPS battery life. (2) Triangulation (resection) with a compass (Figure II-7). orient map using cardinal direction obtained by the stick and shadow method or the celestial aids (stars) method. f. Figure II-7. (d) Plot the LOP using a thin stick or blade of grass (combat) or pencil line (non-combat). Triangulation (a) Try to use 3 or more azimuths. (c) Select area providing maximum satellite reception. (3) Using point-to-point navigation. (2) Aligning north-seeking arrow with luminous line and follow front of compass. (e) Repeat steps (b) through (d) for other LOPs. e. (b) Positively identify a major land feature and determine a line of position (LOP). Route selection techniques follow: II -7 . (b) Use GPS to confirm your position ONLY. (c) Check map orientation each time compass is used. Use the compass for night navigation by (1) Setting up compass for night navigation (Figure II-8).(3) If there is NO compass.
Heading between 180 and 360 degrees. (3) Straight-line heading as follows: (a) Maintain heading until reaching destination. (b) Measure distance by counting the number of paces in a given course and convert to map units. II -8 .Setting the Compass for Night Travel Luminous Line North Seeking Arrow Stationary Index 64 Bezel Ring Each click of the Bezel Ring equals 3 degrees. Compass Night Navigation Setup (1) Circumnavigation. Heading between 0 and 180 degrees is divided by 3. Heading of 300 degrees = 20 clicks right. Figure II-8. Sum is number of clicks to the left of stationary index line. New sum is the number of clicks to the right from stationary index line. EXAMPLES Heading of 027 degrees = 9 clicks left. subtract heading from 360 then divide sum by 3. (2) Dogleg and 90 degree offset (Figure II-9). (b) Contour around obstacle to landmark. (c) Resume your route of travel. (a) Find a prominent landmark on the opposite side of the obstacle.
(a) Pick out landmarks on the heading and walk the trail of least resistance to a point. (c) Use pace count in conjunction with terrain evaluation and heading to determine location. 1200 paces per kilometer [average]). (5) Point-to-point is same as straight line. road or river). day/night travel. (b) Intentionally navigated to left or right of target so you know which way to turn at the linear feature. 900 paces per kilometer [average]. (b) On reaching a point. or example in rough terrain. establish another landmark and continue. (4) Deliberate offset is (a) Used when finding a point on a linear feature (that is.N W E 90 0 180 0 90 0 S 1 80 360 0 90 0 original heading O bstacle original heading plus 45 to heading 0 90 0 m inus 45 0 from original heading Figure II-9. •Distances measured by paces are approximate (example in open terrain. II -9 . Dogleg and 90 Degree Offset •One pace is the distance covered each time the same foot touches the ground. Adjust estimation of distance traveled against these factors to get relative accuracy when using a pace count. An individual’s pace varies because of factors such as steep terrain. or injured/uninjured condition.
etc. lakes. Avoid overdressing and overheating. Consider food and water requirements. not over or through them. take rest stops when needed. i. (4) Waterfalls. c. h. and personal safety. Stay near inside edge of river bends (current speed is less). b. Keep near shore. Consider using a flotation device when crossing rivers or large/deep streams. Consider the following for swamps. d. bamboo. Travel on trails whenever possible (non-combat). II -10 . e. Use a pole to move the raft in shallow water. Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with NO escape in the event of heavy rains. Maintain a realistic pace. damage. k. Go around obstacles. f. Travel in forested areas if possible. g. 4. j. log. It may be a primary mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment (use with caution if evading). Use flotation device (raft. lakes. Travel Considerations a. Take special care of feet (change socks regularly). River Travel River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. Pick the easiest and safest route (non-combat). and bogs if needed. (2) Sweepers (overhanging limbs and trees). g. (3) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. d. and unfordable rivers: (1) Circumnavigate swamps. pack imbalance. Use an oar in deep water. e. (3) Rapids (DO NOT attempt to shoot the rapids). Pack equipment to prevent loss.3. f. c. (5) Hazardous animals. b.). Watch for the following DANGERS: (1) Snags. a. (2) Travel downstream to find people and slower water.
Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted. (c) Heavy snow loading on ridge tops. (3) Poor visibility. (b) Trees without uphill branches (identifies prior avalanches). Figure II-10. Ice and Snow Travel Travel should be limited to areas free of hazards. (4) If caught in an avalanche. b. a. II -11 . (2) Bitterly cold winds.5. (2) Deep soft snow (if movement is necessary. make snowshoes [Figure II-10]). Obstacles to winter travel follow: (1) Reduced daylight hours (BE AWARE). Improvised Snowshoes (3) Avalanche prone areas to avoid: (a) Slopes 30-45 degrees or greater. do the following: (a) Backstroke to decrease burial depth. DO NOT travel in (1) Blizzards.
Avoid ridge tops during thunderstorms. Follow the easiest trail possible (non-combat). •Water vapor rising indicates open or warm areas. (5) Frozen water crossings. b. (c) Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in the event of heavy rains. lakes. or using snowshoes. •Objects protrude through ice. (b) Air pockets form when a frozen river loses volume. •Rivers or streams come together. Avalanche. (a) Travel on trails when possible (non-combat). belly crawling. Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided. Dry Climates a. (a) Circumnavigate swamps. lakes. c. II -12 . Mountain Hazards a. 7. Avoid areas prone to avalanches. 8. paragraph 3. c.) (1) Dense brush. (2) Swamps. Summer Hazards (see page II-10. and unfordable rivers. (2) Rough terrain. Avoid low areas. (c) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. Flash floods. (c) When crossing frozen water. Travel Considerations. distribute your weight by laying flat.(b) Move hand around face to create air pocket as moving snow slows. avoiding— (1) Deep sandy dune areas. and bogs if needed. Travel at dawn or dusk on hot days. 6. In sand dune areas— (1) Follow hard valley floor between dunes. (b) Travel in forested areas if possible. items h through k. c. Lightning. •Snow banks extend over the ice. (b) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. (a) Weak ice should be expected where— •Rivers are straight. DO NOT travel unless certain of reaching the destination using the water supply available. d. b.
e. (3) Sit up in raft so body catches the wind. (4) Exercise caution. 9. b. Using winds (1) Pull in sea anchor. f. (Sail aids in making landfall. (2) Inflate raft so it rides higher. (3) DO NOT sleep on the trail. Using currents (1) Deploy sea anchor (Figure II-11).) II -13 . 10. Travel only when it is light. (5) Protect the eyes. they may indicate a pitfall or trap. Tropical Climates a. (2) Sit or lie down in direction of travel. Avoid grabbing vegetation. (6) Remain stationary until the storm is over. (4) Construct a shade cover/sail (Figure II-12). (4) Cover the mouth and nose with a piece of cloth. (2) Use a walking stick to probe for pitfalls or traps. (3) Deflate the raft slightly so it rides lower in the water. c. Avoid obstacles like thickets and swamps. Find trails— (1) Where 2 streams meet. the enemy uses the trails also. If a sandstorm occurs (1) Mark your direction of travel. (3) Try to get to the downwind side of natural shelter. (2) Sit low in the raft. While traveling trails (1) Watch for disturbed areas on game trails. Part the vegetation to pass through. (2) Where a low pass goes over a range of hills. e. Sea anchor may be adjusted to make use of existing currents. d. it may have spines or thorns (use gloves if possible). Open Seas a. DO NOT climb over logs if you can go around them.(2) Travel on the windward side of dune ridges. b.
(2) Greenish tint in the sky (in the tropics). (3) Lighter colored reflection on clouds (open water causes dark gray reflections) (in the arctic). Indications of land are (1) Fixed cumulus clouds in a clear sky or in a cloudy sky where all other clouds are moving. Shade/Sail Construction c. Making landfall. II -14 . Sea Anchor Deployment Figure II-12.Figure II-11.
(5) Use the sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength if thrown from raft. (3) Secure all gear to body before reaching landfall. (11) Select a landing point.(4) Lighter colored water (indicates shallow water). (5) The odors and sounds. (b) Roar of surf/bird cries coming from one direction. (12) After selecting a landing site (a) Face shoreward. (c) Parallel shoreline and attempt landfall at a point further down shore. II -15 . (6) Directional flights of birds at dawn and at dusk. (a) Swim shoreward in the trough between waves. (7) Try to make landfall during the lull between the sets of waves (waves are generally in sets of 7. from smallest to largest). (b) Assume a sitting position with feet 2 or 3 feet lower than head to absorb the shock of hitting submerged objects. (6) Wear footgear and at least 1 layer of clothing. (10) If caught in the undertow of a large wave— (a) Remain calm and swim to the surface. (a) Avoid places where waves explode upon rocks. (a) Odors from swamps and smoke. Swimming ashore (1) Consider physical condition. (b) Find a place where waves smoothly rush onto the rocks. (c) After it passes. (9) In high surf. work shoreward in the next trough. (2) Use a flotation aid. (b) Lie as close to the surface as possible. (b) When the seaward wave approaches. d. (a) Swim forward on the back of a wave. face it and submerge. (b) Make a shallow dive just before the wave breaks to end the ride. (4) Remain in raft as long as possible. (8) In moderate surf.
(4) Head for gaps in the surf line. (c) Deploying a sea anchor for stability. Rafting ashore (1) Select landing point carefully. small flows. (3) Keep raft inflated and ready for use. Making sea ice landings on large stable ice flows. (1) Use paddles to avoid sharp edges. (b) Using paddles to maintain control.e. and disintegrating flows are dangerous (ice can cut a raft). Icebergs. CAUTION: DO NOT deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral. (3) Land on the lee (downwind) side of islands or point of land if possible. (2) Use caution landing when the sun is low and straight in front of you causing poor visibility. II -16 . (4) Weight down/secure raft so it does not blow away. (5) Penetrate surf by— (a) Taking down most shade/sails. f. (2) Store raft away from the ice edge.
d. g. (3) Follow plans/orders for on/off operations. etc.Chapter III RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING Inventory and review the operating communications and signaling equipment. Radio Communications (Voice and Data) a. space blanket. e. (7) If transmitting in the blind. (8) Use terrain masking to hinder enemy direction finding. c. Combat. III-1 .). Transmissions. (1) Use concealment sites (combat) that optimize line of site (LOS). vegetation. Listening (use reception times in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces). Use data burst if available. (2) Keep it with you to supplement radio communications. (1) Turn off locator beacon. (2) Face recovery asset. Make initial contact as soon as possible or as directed in applicable plans/orders. If no immediate contact. (3) Keep antenna perpendicular to intended receiver (Figure III-1). (6) Move after each transmission (ONLY in combat. if possible). Locate spare radio and batteries (keep warm and dry). (4) DO NOT ground antenna (that is finger on antenna or attaching bolt. (5) Keep transmissions short (3-5 seconds maximum). instructions of all 1. then as directed in applicable plans/orders. (1) Ensure locator beacon is operational. (2) Follow standing plans for on/off operations to conserve battery use. f. b. Non-combat. ensure a clear LOS towards the equator.
Radio Transmission Characteristics 2. Signaling a.100% 91% 91% 60% 31% 24% 41% 65% Signal Strength/ Operator Orientation 1% Top cone of silence 30-50% 900 30-50% 100% Main lobe Main lobe 100% 30-50% 90 0 30-50% Bottom cone of silence 1% Cut-away Sideview of Antenna Power Distribution Figure III-1. (3) Extend over raft's edge before activating. (1) Prepare early (weather permitting). III-2 . Pyrotechnic signals. (2) Use as directed in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces.
(2) Use as directed by recovery forces. (2) Location. branches. (3) Size (large as possible) and ratio (Figure III-3). (1) Use as directed by recovery forces. (3) Cover when not in use. Signal mirror (Figure III-2). c. use only with confirmed friendly forces. (3) Conserve battery life. parachute). (1) Prepare early. (b) Natural use materials that contrast the color and/or texture of the signaling area (rocks. Note: Produces one residual flash when turned off. (b) Provide concealment from ground observation. III-3 . (2) If no radio. (a) Maximize visibility from above.b. signal paulin. Pattern signals (use as directed in applicable plans/orders). Strobe/IR lights. (1) Materials: (a) Manmade (space blanket. stomped grass). brush. Sighting Techniques Note: Make a mirror from any shiny metal or glass. d. consider filters and shields. Figure III-2.
(3) May be used to color snow. Figure III-4. (5) Contrast (use color and shadows). (1) DO NOT waste in rough seas or fast moving water. Size and Ratio (4) Shape (maintain straight lines and sharp corners).Figure III-3. (2) Conserve unused dye by rewrapping. Sea dye marker. III-4 . (6) Pattern signals (Figure III-4). Signal Key e.
f. (Figure III-5) (3) Use signal mirror to sweep horizon. Smoke Generator III-5 . whistle. Figure III-5. Non-combat considerations: (1) Use a fire at night. voice. (4) Use audio signals (that is. and weapons fire). (2) Use smoke for day (tires or petroleum products for dark smoke and green vegetation for light smoke).
Assess evidence of human activity at/near the site (in combat). (3) DO NOT approach recovery vehicle until instructed. c. ground. 2. Mentally review recovery methods (aircraft.). Stay concealed until recovery is imminent (in combat). Be prepared to authenticate as directed in applicable plans/orders. flat and level). d. etc. Maintain communication with recovery forces until recovered. Pack and secure all equipment. etc. IV-1 . (3) Number in party/medical situation.). size. Secure loose equipment that could be caught in rotors/propellers. If no radio. Recovery Procedures a. b. a ground-to-air signal may be your only means to effect recovery. free of obstructions. Responsibilities a. d. c. 4. Site Selection a. c. (4) Signal devices available. obstacles. if practical (approximately 150 feet diameter. 3. be prepared to report— (1) Enemy activity in the recovery area. (2) Secure weapons and avoid quick movement. For a landing/ground recovery— (1) Assume a non-threatening posture. b. b. b. (4) Beware of rotors/propellers when approaching recovery vehicle. Prepare signaling devices (use as directed or as briefed). boat. Locate several concealment sites around area (in combat). c. Plan several tactical entry and exit routes (in combat). Establish radio contact with recovery forces (if possible). Locate area for landing pick-up. e. especially on sloping or uneven terrain. Site Preparation a. Follow recovery force instructions.Chapter IV RECOVERY 1. (2) Recovery site characteristics (slope. Assist recovery force in identifying your position.
(2) Follow the procedures in "d" above. vigorous cable shake. (7) DO NOT become entangled in cable. (5) Ensure cable is in front of you. Figure IV–1. (4) Put safety strap under armpits. (8) Use a thumbs up. (6) Keep hands clear of all hardware and connectors. or radio call to signal you are ready. Follow crewmember instructions. e.d. if available (glasses or helmet visor). For nonhoist recovery (rope or unfamiliar equipment)— (1) Create a “fixed loop” big enough to place under armpits (Figure IV-3). (10) DO NOT assist during hoist or when pulled into the rescue vehicle. (2) Allow metal on device to contact the surface before touching to avoid injury from static discharge. For hoist recovery devices (Figures IV-1 and IV-2)— (1) Use eye protection. (3) Sit or kneel for stability while donning device. Rescue Strap IV-2 . (9) Drag feet on the ground to decrease oscillation.
Figure IV-2. Forest Penetrator IV-3 .
Step 1 Step 2 Figure IV–3. Fixed Loop IV-4 .
Chapter V MEDICAL WARNING: These emergency medical procedures are for survival situations. and feel for air exchange. listen. Determine responsiveness as follows: (1) If unconscious. Obtain professional medical treatment as soon as possible. (c) Open the airway by lifting the chin (Figure V-1). Figure V-1. 1. Immediate First Aid Actions Remember the ABCs of Emergency Care: Airway Breathing Circulation a. arouse by shaking gently and shouting. Chin Lift V-1 . (d) Look. (b) Roll victims onto their backs. (2) If no response— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body.
(f) If breaths still blocked. paragraph 1d. V-2 . You may cause more tissue damage and increase bleeding. (c) Pinch victim’s nostrils closed. b. (5) If breathing difficulty is caused by chest trauma. continue (c) through (f) until successful or exhausted. (h) Try 2 slow breaths again. (i) If the airway is still blocked. •Place a fist between breastbone and belly button. Control bleeding as follows: (1) Apply a pressure dressing (Figure V-2). (b) Roll victim on side (drains the mouth and prevents the tongue from blocking airway). •Check for chest rise each time. you may shorten and secure the object. For travel. (g) Sweep with finger to clear mouth. (2) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use direct pressure over the wound. CAUTION: DO NOT remove an impaled object unless it interferes with the airway. (4) If victim is unconscious. (b) Cover victim's mouth with your own. refer to page V-7. Treat Chest Injuries. start mouth to mouth breathing: •Give 1 breath every 5 seconds. remove any blockage. but breathing— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. reposition airway. try again. give 5 abdominal thrusts: •Straddle the victim. •Thrust upward to expel air from stomach. (b) Elevate the wounded area above the heart. (e) If breaths are blocked.(3) If victim is not breathing— (a) Check for a clear airway. (d) Fill victim’s lungs with 2 slow breaths. (j) With open airway.
Figure V-2. Application of a Pressure Dressing V-3 .
(3) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use a pressure point between the injury and the heart (Figure V-3). (b) Maintain pressure for 6 to 10 minutes before checking to see if bleeding has stopped.
Figure V-3. Pressure Points
(4) If a limb wound is STILL bleeding— CAUTION: Use of a tourniquet is a LAST RESORT measure. Use ONLY when severe, uncontrolled bleeding will cause loss of life. Recognize that long-term use of a tourniquet may cause loss of limb. (a) Apply tourniquet (TK) band just above bleeding site on limb. A band at least 3 inches (7.5 cm) or wider is best. (b) Follow steps illustrated in Figure V-4. (c) Use a stick at least 6 inches (15 cm) long. (d) Tighten only enough to stop arterial bleeding. (e) Mark a TK on the forehead with the time applied. (f) DO NOT cover the tourniquet. CAUTION: The following directions apply ONLY in survival situations where rescue is UNLIKELY and NO medical aid is available. (g) If rescue or medical aid is not available for over 2 hours, an attempt to SLOWLY loosen the tourniquet may be made 20 minutes after application. Before loosening— •Ensure pressure dressing is in place. •Ensure bleeding has stopped •Loosen tourniquet SLOWLY to restore circulation. •Leave loosened tourniquet in position in case bleeding resumes.
1. Wrap a wide band around the injured limb. Tie with a square knot.
2. Pass a stick, bayonet or scabbard through the tourniquet knot.
3. Tighten tourniquet by turning stick just enough to stop arterial bleeding.
4. Bind free end of the stick to keep tourniquet from unwinding.
Figure V-4. Application of a Tourniquet
(d) Decreased urine output. •DO NOT give fluids to an unconscious victim. may cause sucking sound. fast pulse. Treat chest injuries. The flail segment is the broken area that moves in a direction opposite to the rest of chest during breathing. (b) Fast breathing and a weak. (c) Monitor breathing and check dressing.) (1) Identify by one or more of the following: (a) Pale. (b) Tape airtight material over wound on 3 sides only (Figure V-5) to allow air to escape from the wound but not to enter. (Shock is difficult to identify or treat under field conditions. this will— (a) Allow mouth to drain. (c) Insulate from ground. cool. may create bloody froth as air escapes the chest. (4) Maintain normal body temperature. and sweaty skin.c. (1) Sucking chest wound. (2) Maintain circulation. (3) Treat underlying injury. (5) Place conscious victim on back. Results from blunt trauma when 3 or more ribs are broken in 2 or more places. (2) Flail chest. This occurs when chest wall is penetrated. d. (b) Prevent tongue from blocking airway. (6) Place very weak or unconscious victim on side. •DO NOT give fluids if they cause victim to gag. (d) Shelter from the elements. (a) Remove wet clothing. may cause victim to gasp for breath. (b) Give warm fluids. V-7 . as necessary. (d) Lift untapped side of dressing as victim exhales to allow trapped air to escape. (a) Immediately seal wound with hand or airtight material. Treat shock. It may be present with or without visible injury. (c) Anxiety or mental confusion.
and constrictive clothing.Figure V-5. jewelry. but necessary to prevent the possible development of pneumonia). (1) Control bleeding. (3) If fracture penetrates the skin— V-8 . (b) Have victim keep segment still with hand pressure. sprains. and dislocations. e. (2) Remove watches. (a) Encourage deep breathing (painful. Sucking Chest Wound Dressing (a) Stabilize the flail segment as follows: • Place rolled-up clothing or bulky pad over site. (c) Roll victim onto side of flail segment injury (as other injuries allow). (b) DO NOT constrict breathing by taping ribs. • Tape pad to site • DO NOT wrap tape around chest. (3) Fractured ribs. Treat fractures.
(10) Apply cold to acute injuries. (15) Loosen bandage or reapply splint if no pulse is felt or if swelling occurs because bandage is too tight.(a) Clean wound by gentle irrigation with water. (a) DO NOT use continuous cold therapy. arm-to-chest). V-9 . (12) Wrap with a compression bandage after cold therapy. opposite leg. NOT in straight position. (2) Remove watches. (7) Attach with strips of cloth. (b) Apply dressing over wound. (c) Compression. (11) Use 15 to 20 minute periods of cold application. etc. (13) Elevate injured area above heart level to reduce swelling. (c) Avoid cooling that can cause frostbite or hypothermia. (14) Check periodically for a pulse beyond the injury site. (b) Body parts (for example. (8) Keep the fractured bones from moving by immobilizing the joints on both sides of the fracture. (1) Cool the burned area with water. (a) Rest. stiff materials from equipment. jewelry. Hand should look like it is grasping an apple. (b) Avoid aggressive cooling with ice or frigid water. (6) Improvise a splint with available materials: (a) Sticks or straight. (b) Repeat 3 to 4 times per day. parachute cord. (4) Position limb as normally as possible. (5) Splint in position found (if unable to straighten limb). (d) Elevation. If fracture is in a joint. (e) Stabilization. immobilize the bones on both sides of the joint. Burns. 2. constrictive clothing. (a) Use immersion or cool compresses. (9) Use RICES treatment for 72 hours. CAUTION: Splint fingers in a slightly flexed position. Common Injuries and Illnesses a. (b) Ice.
•Check after 12 hours. (2) Heat exhaustion (pale. seizures. (a) Prevent with improvised goggles. Eye injuries. (1) Sun/snow blindness (gritty. improvise a small swab. charred material that will cause burned areas to bleed. skin is hot and flushed [sweating may or may not occur]. (c) Use cool compresses to reduce pain.(3) DO NOT remove embedded. Figure VI-2. (Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt [if available] to each quart of water. sweating. (4) Cover with sterile dressings. (b) If foreign body is not removed by irrigation. c. and cardiac arrest can occur. Moisten and wipe gently over the affected area. (a) Irrigate with clean water from the inside to the outside corner of the eye. and possible reduction in vision caused by sun exposure). •Replace patch for another 12 hours if not healed. (b) Drink water.) (b) Treat by patching affected eye(s). patch eye for 24 hours and then reattempt removal using steps (a) and (b). cool skin). (c) If foreign body is STILL not removed. (3) Heat stroke (victim disoriented or unconscious. (1) Heat cramps (cramps in legs or abdomen). fast pulse). (c) Protect from further heat exposure. (b) Drink water. b. (a) Rest in shade. Heat injury. (6) Avoid moving or rubbing the burned part. page VI-3. (7) Drink extra water to compensate for increased fluid loss from burns. Shock.) (8) Change dressings when soaked or dirty. (See Chapter VI. moist. burning sensation. Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt per quart. (2) Foreign body in eye. (a) Rest. V-10 . CAUTION: Handle heat stroke victim gently. (5) DO NOT use lotion or grease.
and circulation. sleeping bags. breathing. • Intense shivering with impaired ability to perform complex tasks leads to— • •Violent shivering.) (b) Maintain airway. difficulty speaking. DO NOT rub frozen tissue. • •Cover top of head. •Put on dry clothing (if available). DO NOT thaw frozen tissue. (Avoid overcooling. (c) Frostbitten areas are deeply frozen and require medical treatment. and toes are affected first. Remember to cool the groin and armpit areas. V-11 . d. •Areas will feel cold and may tingle leading to— • •Numbness that progresses to— • ••Waxy appearance with stiff skin that cannot glide freely over a joint. (b) Protect victim from the environment as follows: •Remove wet clothing. repeated freezing and thawing causes severe pain and increases damage to the tissue. or shelter. jerky movements go to— ••••Coma. then frostbite is present. • •Insulate from above and below. fingers. sluggish thinking go to— • ••Muscular rigidity with blue. •Prevent further heat loss. nose.(a) Cool as rapidly as possible (saturate clothing with water and fan the victim). puffy skin. (b) Frostnipped areas rewarm with body heat. respiratory and cardiac failure. •Warm with blankets. If body heat WILL NOT rewarm area in 15 to 20 minutes. Cold injuries: (1) Frostnip and frostbite— (a) Are progressive injuries. •Ears. (2) Hypothermia— (a) Is a progressive injury. CAUTION: In frostbite.
CAUTION: Handle hypothermia victim gently. f. V-12 . DO NOT use your mouth to create suction. Skin tissue damage. Skin becomes wrinkled as in dishpan hands. armpits. (a) Change body positions frequently. Snakebite. (f) DO NOT apply creams or ointments. (a) Remove constricting items. (e) Keep area dry. (b) Minimize activity. Skin tissue will be sensitive. (1) Nonpoisonous. (d) Loosen boots. CAUTION: This snakebite treatment recommendation is for situations where medical aid and specialized equipment are not available. (b) Pat dry. and open to air. etc. (c) Dry socks and shoes. e. cover with a dressing. cuffs. (c) DO NOT cut the bite site. (2) Saltwater sores. (b) Keep sores dry. DO NOT rub. (a) Avoid walking on affected feet. warm.neck. • •Place heat packs in groin. to improve circulation.. (d) DO NOT open or squeeze sores. (2) Poisonous. and around • •Avoid causing burns to skin. Keep feet protected. Avoid overly rapid rewarming which may cause cardiac arrest. (c) Use antiseptic (if available). (1) Immersion injuries. Clean and bandage wound. (d) Clean bite with soap and water. Rewarming of victim with skin-to-skin contact by volunteer(s) inside of a sleeping bag is a survival technique but can cause internal temperatures of all to drop. •Warm central areas before extremities.
(d) Apply a steroid cream (if available). (1) Stings. h. g. (3) Change bandages as needed. (2) Use iodine tablet solution or diluted betadine to prevent or treat infection. (a) Immerse affected part in hot water or apply hot compresses for 30-60 minutes (as hot as victim can tolerate). (b) Remove jewelry and watches. artificial respiration may be required (page V-1. (2) Keep covered to prevent scratching. paragraph 1c). (e) DO NOT rub area with sand. (a) Flush wound with salt water (fresh water stimulates toxin release). Check for pulse below the overwrap. (c) Remove tentacles and gently scrape or shave skin. Marine life. V-13 . (j) For conscious victims. (f) Splint bitten extremity to prevent motion. (2) Punctures. (g) DO NOT use urine to flush or treat wounds. (1) Keep wound clean. (f) Treat for shock. i. The intent is to slow capillary and venous blood flow but not arterial flow. (i) Construct shelter if necessary (let the victim rest).(e) Overwrap the bite site with a tight (elastic) bandage (Figure V-6). Infection. (c) Treat for shock as needed. (g) Treat for shock (page V-7. (h) Position extremity below level of heart. force fluids. Use soap (if available). (1) Wash with large amounts of water. Skin irritants (includes poison oak and poison ivy). paragraph 1a). (b) Cover with clean dressing.
Compression Bandage for Snake Bite V-14 .Figure V-6.
(4) Treatments. •Pour cooled tea on burned areas to ease pain. (2) Sources. (2) Sources. •Apply compress to burned area. (1) Drink extra water. and parasites. Apply cool compresses or soak affected part to relieve itching and promote healing. inflammation. (b) Leach out the tannin by soaking or boiling. Wash affected areas with tea to ease itching. (It may relieve symptoms by absorbing toxins. skin problems. (d) Lice and insect bites. •Moisten bandage with cooled tannin tea. (1) Medical uses. acorns. Tannin solution prevents infection and aids healing. common plantain. b. (3) Eat charcoal. (3) Drink extra water. 3. sprains. colds. Drink strong tea solution (may promote voiding of worms).) k. (b) Diarrhea. and sore throat (aspirin-like qualities). and worms. Dysentery and diarrhea. banana plants. V-15 . acorns. Found in the outer bark of all trees. •Increase tannin content by longer soaking time. dysentery. pain. dysentery. diarrhea. Constipation (can be expected in survival situations). Make a paste by mixing fine charcoal particles with water. Burns. fever. •Replace depleted material with fresh bark/plants. (3) Preparation. and blackberry stems. Tannin.j. (1) DO NOT take laxatives. Plant Medicine a. (a) Burns. (a) Place crushed outer bark. strawberry leaves. Aches. (2) Exercise. or leaves in water. (1) Medical uses. (2) Use a liquid diet. (c) Skin problems (dry rashes and fungal infections). Willow and aspen trees (Figure V-7). Salicin/salicylic acid.
abrasions. (b) Drink tea made from leaves for vitamin and minerals. (a) Use sap to tenderize tough meat. (b) Prepare tea as described in paragraph 3a(3). stings. (c) Use warm. and stings. (2) Source. Fruit of the papaya tree (Figure V-7). There are over 200 plantain species with similar medicinal properties. buds. •Apply pulpy mass over injury. diarrhea. vitamins. d. or cambium for symptom relief. sores. (a) Brew tea from seeds. (1) Medical uses. c. (c) Make poultice. (3) Preparation. (c) Make poultice of leaves. wounds. •Make a pulpy mass. (b) Drink tea for colds and sore throat. Papain. Digestive aid. (4) Treatments. The common plantain is shown in Figure V-7. Itching.(3) Preparation. (b) Eat ripe fruit for food. buds. (c) Use poultice to treat cuts. •Crush the plant or stems. (3) Preparation. moist layer between the outer bark and the wood) of willow or aspen. V-16 . •Hold in place with a dressing. Common plantain. (a) Drink tea made from seeds for diarrhea or dysentery. (1) Medical uses. meat tenderizer. and dysentery. (b) Gather milky white sap for its papain content. (c) Avoid getting sap in eyes or wounds. (2) Source. and a food source. (b) Brew tea from leaves. and minerals. (a) Gather twigs. burns. or cambium layer (soft. moist poultice for aches and sprains. (4) Treatments. (4) Treatments. (a) Chew on twigs. (a) Make cuts in unripe fruit.
(b) Cook and eat green bloom spikes. vitamins. Typical Aspen leaf edible young leaf shoot C. Wounds. (c) Collect yellow pollen for flour substitute. (d) Peel and eat tender shoots (raw or cooked). Plantain Figure V-7. Typical Willow leaf 6-16 inches tall edible pollen B. Cattail ground level edible rootstalk D. (2) Source. (b) Use plant for food. and minerals.e. (a) Apply poultice to affected area. Cattail plant found in marshes (Figure V-7). inflammations. and an excellent food source. (a) Pound roots into a pulpy mass for a poultice. Papaya . (4) Treatments. (1) Medical uses. boils. Common Cattail. A. sores. (3) Preparation. Useful Plants V-17 E. burns.
netting. Wash hands before preparing food or water. (4) Clean and protect feet. (Use white ashes. Prevent and control parasites. b. (3) Cleanse mouth and brush teeth. (c) Use clean finger to stimulate gum tissues by rubbing. Purify all water obtained from natural sources by using iodine tablets. (d) Use adhesive tape/mole skin to prevent damage.) (2) Comb and clean debris from hair. and clothing. Eat varied diet. Prevent insect bites by using repellent. (a) Check body regularly. (d) Gargle with salt water to help prevent sore throat and aid in cleaning teeth and gums. (2) Wash clothing and use repellents. c. (3) Use smoke to fumigate clothing and equipment. fleas. or loamy soil as soap substitutes. Dry wet clothing as soon as possible. bleach. Exercise daily. b. (a) Use hardwood twig as toothbrush (fray it by chewing on one end then use as brush). dry. Health and Hygiene a. (c) Check frequently for blisters and red areas. sand. (1) Check body for lice. or boiling for 5 minutes. h.4. and massage. 5. Stay clean (daily regimen). g. (b) Pick off insects and eggs (DO NOT crush). V-18 . (1) Minimize infection by washing. (a) Change and wash socks (b) Wash. Rules for Avoiding Illness a. (b) Use single strand of an inner core string from parachute cord for dental floss. Locate latrines 200 feet from water and away from shelter. ticks. etc. d. Try to get 7-8 hours sleep per day. e. c. f. Clean all eating utensils after each meal.
e. Keep clothing dry to maintain its insulation qualities (dry damp clothing in the sun or by a fire). f. VI-1 . 2. (2) Use a hat to regulate body heat. (4) Build Fire. If you fall into the water in the winter— (1) Build fire. then accomplish individual tasks accordingly. When fully clothed. (2) Layers create more dead air space. (3) Wear a hat when in direct sunlight (in hot environment). Evaluate available resources and situation. NOT drinking water. g. (2) Dry clothing before dark to prevent hypothermia. First 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct survival shelter according to selection criteria. (1) Use salt water. (1) Tight clothing restricts blood flow regulating body temperature. b. the majority of body heat escapes through the head and neck areas. Priorities a. Second 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct necessary tools and weapons. (3) Establish multiple survival signals. Dampen clothing when on the ocean in hot weather. Avoid overheating. (1) Remove layers of clothing before strenuous activities.Chapter VI PERSONAL PROTECTION 1. (2) Procure food. d. (3) Finish drying clothing by fire. c. Keep entire body covered to prevent sunburn and dehydration in hot climates. (2) Remove wet clothing and rewarm by fire. Never discard clothing. Care and Use of Clothing a. c. Wear loose and layered clothing. (2) Procure water. b.
especially at foot of bag. VI-2 . (c) Tape. (2) Allow wet clothes to freeze. Keep clothing clean (dirt reduces its insulation qualities). (3) Repair when necessary by using— (a) Needle and thread. (3) Break ice out of clothing. (2) Wash clothing whenever possible. (b) Safety pins. j. 3. Improvised foot protection (Figure VI-1). (1) Cut 2 to 4 layers of cloth into a 30-inch square. Other Protective Equipment a. (1) DO NOT sit or lie directly on the ground.h. vines. If no fire is available— (1) Remove clothing and get into sleeping bag (if available). (3) Center foot on triangle with toes toward corner. or tuck into other layers of material. (6) Secure by rope. (2) Fold into a triangle. (5) Fold side corners. (2) Air and dry daily to remove body moisture. etc. (1) Fluff before use. Examine clothing frequently for damage. i. over the instep.. Sleeping bag. one at a time. tape. Figure VI-1 Improvised Foot Wear (4) Fold front over the toes.
etc. (2) Improvise by cutting small horizontal slits in webbing. Gaiters (Figure VI-3). dry grass. and scratches (wrap material around lower leg and top of boots). Shelters Evasion considerations apply. Sun and Snow Goggles c. dry moss. bark. leaves. or similar materials. Gaiters 4. a. Figure VI-2. (3) Avoid natural hazards: VI-3 . Figure VI-3. snow. Site selection. b. (2) Available food and water. Used to protect from sand. (1) Near signal and recovery site.(3) Improvise with available material. Sun and snow goggles (Figure VI-2). insects. (1) Wear in bright sun or snow conditions.
(b) Air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using an open flame inside enclosed shelters. Snow Trench. (b) Drainage and dry river beds except in combat areas. (1) Immediate shelters. insulated shelter. Figure VI-4. Immediate Shelters (2) General shelter. (3) Thermal A Frame. Temperate climates require any shelter that gives protection from wind and rain. (a) Snow is the most abundant insulating material. (c) Avalanche areas. Types. VI-4 . Snow Cave. Note: As a general rule. unless you can see your breath.(a) Dead standing trees. your snow shelter is too warm and should be cooled down to preclude melting and dripping. Cold climates require an enclosed. (Figures VI-5 through VI-7). (4) Location large and level enough to lie down in. Find shelter needing minimal improvements (Figure VI-4). b.
Figure VI-5. Thermal A Frame Figure VI-6. Snow Trench VI-5 .
(b) For thermal protection. (1) Have entrance 45-90 degrees from prevailing wind. a minimum of 2 layers of material suspended 12-18 inches above the head is required. (5) Elevated platform shelter (Figure VI-9). (2) Cover with available material. Shelter construction. (a) To reduce the surface temperature. elevated shelter for protection from dampness and insects. See Figure VI-10 for an example. arrange them in layers starting at the bottom with each layer overlapping the previous one. c. Tropical/wet climates require enclosed.Figure VI-7. Hot climates require a shade shelter to protect from ultraviolet rays (Figure VI-8). the shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches). White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material). VI-6 . (a) If natural materials are used. Snow Cave (4) Shade shelter.
Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter Figure VI-9.Figure VI-8. Shingle Method VI-7 . Elevated Platform Shelter Figure VI-10.
dry moss. poncho. blankets. dawn. damp. Fire building. (3) Blankets. or parachute material. (1) Heat sources: (a) Matches or lighter. (8) Snow. (3) Use fires at times when the local populace is cooking. d. or during inclement weather. Shelter construction materials: (1) Raft and raft parts. ground using— (1) Raft or foam rubber from vehicle seats. (5) Bark peeled off dead trees. a. (2) Boughs. 5. leaves. Bed construction.— (b) If using porous material like parachute. broad leaves. • Use additional layers in heavy rain. or dry moss. (4) Sheet of plastic or plastic bag. The 3 essential elements for starting a fire are heat. (e) Pyrotechnics. (6) Boughs. (9) Sand and rocks. (2) Vehicle or aircraft parts. Evasion considerations: (1) Use trees or other sources to dissipate smoke. (2) Use fires at dusk. e. etc.• Stretch as tight as possible • Use a 40–60 degree slope. (7) Grass and sod. fuel. Fires CAUTION: Weigh hazards and risks of detection against the need for a fire. (c) Sparks from batteries. (b) Flint and steel (experiment with various rocks and metals until a good spark is produced). (d) Concentrated sunlight (use magnifying glass or flashlight reflectors). b. etc. and oxygen. Construct a bed to protect from cold. VI-8 . such as flares (last resort).
(2) Fuel is divided into 3 categories: tinder. this method is difficult to master and requires a lot of time to build the device. Friction Method Note: If possible. (To get tinder to burn hotter and longer. and fuel. VI-9 . aircraft fuel. (Gather large amounts of each category before igniting the fire. Chapstick. Figure VI-11.) (a) Tinder. etc. or knife.(f) Friction method (Figure VI-11). insect repellant. Without prior training. not the wax). • Plastic spoon. Tinder must be very finely shaved or shredded to provide a low combustion point and fluffed to allow oxygen to flow through. saturate with Vaseline.) Examples of tinder include— • Cotton. kindling. fork. • Candle (shred the wick. carry a fire-starting device with you. • Foam rubber.
VI-10 . (1) Tepee fire (Figure VI-12). etc. Use the tepee fire to produce a concentrated heat source for cooking. • Dry dung. lighting. Fires are built to meet specific needs or uses. Gradually add larger kindling until arriving at the size of fuel to burn. Figure VI-12. •Pitch. or signaling. •Dry grasses. (c) Fuel. to dry out wet wood. Examples of fuel include— • Dry hardwood (removing bark reduces smoke). Kindling must be small enough to ignite from the small flame of the tinder. Tepee Fire (2) Log cabin fire (Figure VI-13).•Dry bark. Types. •Petroleum products. (b) Kindling. •Gun powder. c. Use the log cabin fire to produce large amounts of light and heat. and provide coals for cooking. • Bamboo (open chambers to prevent explosion).
Figure VI-14. Use fire reflectors to get the most warmth from a fire. Sod Fire and Reflector VI-11 .Figure VI-13. Log Cabin or Pyramid Fires (3) Sod fire and reflector (Figure VI-14). Build fires against rocks or logs. CAUTION: DO NOT use porous rocks or riverbed rock—they may explode when heated.
(4) Dakota fire hole (Figure VI-15). These are very efficient. Improvised Stove VI-12 . Use the Dakota fire hole for high winds or evasion situations. Dakota Fire Hole (5) Improvised stoves (Figure VI-16). Figure VI-16. Figure VI-15.
(6) Melted water from new sea ice. Water Requirements Drink extra water. injury. (4) Sea water. (a) DO NOT eat ice or snow. heat. lakes. b. • Causes minor cold injury to lips and mouth. (2) Precipitation (rain. (4) Ground water (when no surface water is available) (Figure VII-2). (d) Presence of swarming insects indicates water is near. Exertion. snow. (3) Blood. Water sources: (1) Surface water (streams. Minimum 2 quarts per day to maintain fluid level. • Lowers body temperature. sleet) (FigureVII-1). Water Procurement a. (e) Bird flight in the early morning or late afternoon might indicate the direction to water. DO NOT drink— (1) Urine. (c) “V” intersecting game trails often point to water. or an illness increases water loss. (5) Alcohol. and springs). dew. (5) Snow or ice. (b) Drainages and low-lying areas. • Induces dehydration. (a) Abundance of lush green vegetation. VII-1 . 2.Chapter VII Water 1. (2) Fish juices. (3) Subsurface (wells and cisterns). Note: Pale yellow urine indicates adequate hydration.
Water Indicators VII-2 . Water Procurement Figure VII-2.Figure VII-1.
• Place between layers of clothing.(b) Melt with fire. (a) Water available in survival kits. • Drink as much as possible. Old Sea Ice or Icebergs OLD SEA ICE NEW SEA ICE Bluish or blackish Milky or grey Shatters easily Does not break easily Rounded corners Sharp edges Tastes relatively salt-free Tastes extremely salty VII-3 . • Speed the process by adding hot rocks or water. • Collect dew off raft. • DO NOT place next to the skin. (b) Precipitation. Water Generator (6) Open seas. • Catch rain in spray shields and life raft covers. • Stir frequently to prevent damaging container. • Use waterproof container. Figure VII-3. (c) Melt with body heat. (d) Use a water generator (Figure VII-3). (c) Old sea ice or icebergs (Table VII-1). Table VII-1.
• • Pour into hand to check smell. • • For evasion situations. Leaning Tree •Banana plants. cut off 6 inches of opposite end. • • Produce most water at night. • • If juice is clear and water like. color. • •Shake and listen for water. Figure VII-4. • • Tap before dark. bore into the roots and collect water. water will flow again. •Leaning Tree. Cloth absorbs rain running down tree and drips into container (Figure VII-4). VII-4 . • Vines (Figure VII-5A). • • When water flow stops. • Old bamboo. •Water trees (avoid milky sap). • • Cut bark (DO NOT use milky sap). cut as large a piece of vine as possible (cut the top first). •Plants with hollow sections can collect moisture. • •Bore hole at bottom of section to obtain water. (b) Vegetation. (a) All open sources previously mentioned. and taste to determine if drinkable. • • DO NOT touch vine to lips. Let sap stop running and harden during the daytime.(7) Tropical areas.
Figure VII-6. Along the coast.• •Cut out entire section to carry with you. • Green bamboo (Figure VII-5B). •Beach well. Figure VII-5 A and B. Beach Well VII-5 . obtain water by digging a beach well (Figure VII-6). • •Filter and purify. Water Vines and Green Bamboo CAUTION: Liquid contained in green coconuts (ripe coconuts may cause diarrhea).
(a) Solar still (Figure VII-7).(8) Dry areas. (b) Vegetation bag (Figure VII-8). Vegetation Bag (c) Transpiration bag (Figure VII-9). Figure VII-7. •Water bag must be clear. Solar Still Figure VII-8. VII-6 . •Water will taste like the plant smells.
Figure VII-9. Filtration. Transpiration Bag Figure VII-10. b. Filter through porous material (sand/charcoal). (2) Purify all other water. Seepage Basin 3. CAUTION: DO NOT use poisonous/toxic plants in vegetation/ transpiration bags. VII-7 .(d) Seepage basin (Figure VII-10). (1) Water from live plants requires no further treatment. Purification. Water Preparation and Storage a. (a) Boil at least 1 minute.
(c) Water purification tablets. (2) Put in clear container and expose to the sun’s ultraviolet rays to kill bacteria. (4) Flotation gear. To prevent contamination. Potable Water. use a clean. (1) Trash bag. d. (3) Section of bamboo. to aerate. covered or sealed container. c. obtain water from a clear. Follow instructions on package. (b) Pour from one container to another to improve taste VII-8 . and fast running source (if possible). Storage. cold. (1) If water cannot be purified. clean. (2) Prophylactic.
VIII-1 . (1) Mammals can be found where— (a) Trails lead to watering. (b) At ant and termite mounds. and bedding areas. Procurement techniques. (c) On ponds. lakes. (b) Droppings or tracks look fresh. (2) Birds can be found by— (a) Observing the direction of flight in the early morning and late afternoon (leads to feeding. (5) Insects are found— (a) In dead logs and stumps. (1) Snares— (a) Work while unattended.Chapter VIII FOOD 1. Food Procurement a. watering. (b) Listening for bird noises (indication of nesting areas (3) Fish and other marine life locations (Figure VIII-1). Figure VIII-1. and slow moving streams. b. feeding. Fishing Locations (4) Reptiles and amphibians are found almost worldwide. Sources and location. and roosting areas).
and bedding areas. (d) Placement of snares (set as many as possible). preventing reopening.(b) Location: •Trails leading to water. and the animal’s escape. feeding. • Make noose opening slightly larger than the animal's head (3-finger width for squirrels. Figure VIII-2. fist-sized for rabbits). •Use funneling (natural or improvised) (Figure VIII-5). •Use a figure 8 (locking loop) if wire is used (Figure VIII-3). • •Once tightened. •Avoid disturbing the area. •Mouth of dens (Figure VIII-2). • To construct a squirrel pole (Figure VIII-4) use simple loop snares. Snare Placement (c) Construction of simple loop snare. •Use materials that will not break under the strain of holding an animal. VIII-2 . the wire locks in place.
Figure VIII-3. Locking Loop Figure VIII-4. Funneling VIII-3 . Squirrel Pole Figure VIII-5.
(See Figure VIII-7 for fishing procurement methods. (f) Trap. (d) Pole. Figure VIII-6. (3) Twist stick (Figure VIII-6). (2) Noose stick (easier and safer to use than the hands). VIII-4 . (d) Be ready to kill the animal. (c) Remove the animal from the den. (a) Insert forked stick into a den until something soft is (b) Twist the stick. it may be dangerous. line. Procurement Devices (4) Hunting and fishing devices. (c) Slingshot.) (a) Club or rock. and hook. binding the animal's hide in the fork.met. (b) Spear. (e) Net.
•Flabby skin. (g) DO NOT eat fish eggs or liver (entrails). (f) DO NOT eat fish with— •Spines. (i) Avoid cone-shaped shells (Figure VIII-8). Procurement Methods (5) Precautions: (a) Wear shoes to protect the feet when wading in water. (d) DO NOT secure fishing lines to yourself or the raft. •Sunken eyes. (e) Kill fish before bringing them into the raft. (c) Kill animals before handling. •Pale. VIII-5 . Animals in distress may attract the enemy.Figure VIII-7. •Unpleasant odor. (b) Avoid reaching into dark holes. (h) Avoid all crustaceans above the high tide mark. •Flesh that remains dented when pressed. slimy gills.
paralysis. blindness and possible death in a few hours. •Scorpions. Terebra shell Figure VIII-8. Cone-Shaped Shells of Venomous Snails (j) Avoid hairy insects. •Poisonous spiders. •Ticks. such as— •Flies. (k) Avoid poisonous insects. swelling. (l) Avoid disease carrying insects. VIII-6 . •Mosquitoes. for example: •Centipedes. the hairs could cause irritation or infection.Cone shell Warning! These snails can sting and cause acute pain.
(2) Avoid plants with the following characteristics: Note: Using these guidelines in selecting plants for food may eliminate some edible plants. fine hairs. nausea. (i) Plants with shiny leaves. (a) Before testing for edibility.) requires more than 24 hours to test. etc. Plant Foods. these guidelines will help prevent choosing potentially toxic plants. bark. (b) Test only 1 part of 1 plant at a time. (f) Grain heads with pink. test all others before eating. Two good examples are green apples and wild onions. Even after testing food and finding it safe. bulbs. purplish. (Aggregate berries such as black and dewberries are always edible. (a) Milky sap (dandelion has milky sap but is safe to eat and easily recognizable). (g) Beans.) (k) Almond scent in woody parts and leaves. or seeds inside pods. (1) Selection criteria. or cramps. ensure there are enough plants to make testing worth your time and effort. (e) Bulbs (only onions smell like onions).c. (j) White and yellow berries. (c) Mushrooms and fungus. (b) Spines. eat in moderation. VIII-7 . (d) Umbrella shaped flowers (hemlock is eliminated). however. (c) Remember that eating large portions of plant food on an empty stomach may cause diarrhea. these guidelines may help determine edibility. Bracken fern fiddleheads also violate this guideline. stems. Each part of a plant (roots. Prickly pear and thistles are exceptions. DO NOT waste time testing a plant that is not abundant. (h) Old or wilted leaves. and thorns (skin irritants/contact dermatitis). leaves. or black spurs. Before using the following guide use your evasion chart to identify edible plants: Note: If you cannot positively identify an edible plant and choose to try an unknown plant.
(1) Test only 1 part of a plant at a time. thoroughly chew a pinch and hold it in your mouth for 15 minutes (DO NOT SWALLOW). take NOTHING by mouth EXCEPT purified water and the plant you are testing. (11) If nothing abnormal occurs.d. (7) Select a small portion of a single part and prepare it the way you plan to eat it. If no ill effects occur. (3) Smell the food for strong acid odors. CAUTION: Test all parts of the plant for edibility. test for contact poisoning by placing a piece of the plant on the inside of your elbow or wrist. (12) If no ill effects occur. (10) If there is no reaction. and flowers). The sap or juice should contact the skin. (6) During testing. Usually 15 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction. Wait another 8 hours. (8) Before placing the prepared plant in your mouth. eat ¼ cup of the same plant prepared the same way. Some plants have both edible and inedible parts. place the plant on your tongue and hold it for 15 minutes. Test procedures. smell alone does not indicate a plant is edible or inedible. NEVER ASSUME a part that proved edible when cooked is edible raw. (2) Separate the plant into its basic components (stems. Remember. the plant part as prepared is safe for eating. If any ill effects occur during this period. The same part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals. VIII-8 . (4) DO NOT eat 8 hours before the test and drink only purified water. roots. rinse out your mouth with water. test the part raw before eating. swallow the food and wait 8 hours. (9) If after 3 minutes there is no reaction on your lip. buds. touch a small portion (a pinch) to the outer surface of your lip to test for burning or itching. If any ill effects occur. (5) During the 8 hours you abstain from eating. induce vomiting and drink a water and charcoal mixture.
(a) One cut skinning of small game (Figure VIII-9). liver. a. Cook unripe fruits and discard seeds and skin. •Avoid rupturing the intestines. •Open the abdominal cavity. Figure VIII-9. rather than color. During evasion. Food Preparation Animal food gives the greatest food value per pound. 2. and kidneys) and all meaty parts of the skull. you may not be able to cook. Small Game Skinning VIII-9 . Cook underground portions when possible to reduce bacterial contamination and ease digestion of their generally high starch content. 2. Ripe tropical fruits should be peeled and eaten raw. ripe fruits. is the best indicator of ripeness. tongue. (1) Mammals. Softness. Concentrate your efforts on leafy green plants. (c) If preserving the meat. (b) Wash when ready to use. Butchering and skinning.CAUTION: 1. and eyes. •Save inner organs (heart. (d) Unused or inedible organs and entrails may be used as bait for other game. remove it from the bones. and above ground ripe vegetables not requiring significant preparation. •Remove the intestines. brain. (a) Remove the skin and save for other uses. 3.
crawfish. and internal organs. (2) Baking. (a) Gut soon after killing. Saltwater fish may be eaten raw. (3) Fish. (c) Remove entrails.) (b) Recommend cooking grasshopper-size insects. (d) Remove gills to prevent spoilage. thoroughly cook all wild game. VIII-10 . mussels. (a) Wrap in leaves or pack in mud. (6) Fruits. snails. (4) Birds. CAUTION: Dead insects spoil rapidly. (1) Boiling (most nutritious method of cooking—drink the (a) Make metal cooking containers from ration cans. freshwater fish. (b) Discard skin. (a) Scale (if necessary) and gut fish soon after it is caught. and most nuts can be eaten raw.(2) Frogs and snakes. (5) Insects. CAUTION: To kill parasites. b. cook food. (c) Skin or pluck them. head with 2 inches of body. (a) Skin. (b) Drop heated rocks into containers to boil water or broth). Cooking. clams. (d) Skin scavengers and sea birds. (b) Protect from flies. (b) Insert knifepoint into anus of fish and cut open the belly. DO NOT save. and scavenger birds. (b) Bury food in dirt under coals of fire. (The rest is edible. (a) Remove all hard portions such as the legs of grasshoppers or crickets. berries.
(a) Shake shelled nuts in a container with hot coals.(3) Leaching. particularly in shady areas or along streams. Drying and smoking removes moisture and preserves food. VIII-11 . (1) Long term. (c) Wrap food in absorbent material such as cotton and re-wet as the water evaporates. boiling water is sometimes best. (2) Cut or pound meat into thin strips. •If bitter. (b) Earth below the surface. Refrigerating. and taste the plant. (4) Roasting. Some nuts (acorns) must be leached to remove the bitter taste of tannin. (b) Frozen food will not decompose (freeze in meal-size portions). •Discarding water. (3) Remove fat. repeat process until palatable. (b) Roast thinly sliced meat and insects over a candle. they produce soot giving the meat an undesirable taste. c. (b) Second method: •Boil. c. (a) Food buried in snow maintains a temperature of approximately 32 degrees F. Keeping an animal alive. pour off water. •Crushing and pouring water through. Cold water should be tried first. is cooler than the surface. 3. (4) DO NOT use pitch woods such as fir or pine. (1) Use salt to improve flavor and promote drying. Food Preservation b. (a) Food wrapped in waterproof material and placed in a stream remains cool in summer months. however. (2) Short term. Use one of the following leaching methods: (a) First method: •Soaking and pouring the water off.
e. Protecting meat from animals and insects. (1) Wrapping food. (d) Wrap soft fruits and berries in leaves or moss. (b) Place meat in fabric or clothing for insulation. (c) Ensure all corners of the wrapping are insect proof. crabs. (a) Hang meat in the shade. (b) Wrap pieces individually.d. (a) Wrap before flies appear in the morning. (a) Use clean material. it attracts unwanted animals. Soft material acts as insulation helping keep the meat cool. (b) Cover during daylight hours to protect from insects. and shrimp in wet seaweed. (3) Packing meat on the trail. VIII-12 . (2) Hanging meat. (d) Carry shellfish. (c) Place meat inside the pack for carrying. DO NOT store food in the shelter.
Nuclear Conditions CAUTION: Radiation protection depends on time of exposure. Figure IX-1. (3) Avoid detection and capture. Protection. distance from the source. (a) Seek existing shelter that may be improved (Figure IX-1). BIOLOGICAL. a. Immediate Action Shelter IX-1 .Chapter IX INDUCED CONDITIONS (NUCLEAR. and shielding. AND CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS) 1. (1) FIND PROTECTIVE SHELTER IMMEDIATELY! (2) Gather all equipment for survival (time permitting).
then enlarge for comfort (Figure IX-2). Improvised Shelter IX-2 . Parachute or other suitable material Wind Enough room to work 3 Feet Minimum Figure IX-2. dig a trench or foxhole as •Dig trench deep enough for protection. •Cover with available material.follows: (b) If no shelter is available.
7 inches Cinder Block 5.3 inches One thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2.8 inches 2. Allow no more than 30 minutes exposure on 3d day for water procurement.3 inches Ice 6. keep warm. 3 or more feet of earth. (6) Foxhole 4 feet deep (remove topsoil (2) Storm/storage cellars within 2 feet radius of foxhole lip). SHELTER: Pick. •Water in pipes/containers in abandoned buildings. RADIATION SHIELDING EFFICIENCIES Iron/Steel Brick Concrete Earth . give close attention to fingernails and hairy parts. 5 minutes unsheltered is maximum! (4) Basements. wells. IX-3 .(4) Radiation shielding efficiencies (Figure IX-3). Keep handkerchief/cloth over mouth and nose. and rest. (3) Culverts. SHELTER SURVIVAL: Keep contaminated materials out of shelter. Rinse and /or shake wet clothing. (a) Water sources (in order of preference): •Springs. Bad Weather: Shake strongly or beat with branches. Good Weather: Bury contaminated clothing outside of shelter (recover later). Brief exposure (30 minutes maximum) Brief exposure (1 hour maximum) Figure IX-3.8 inches Snow 20.0 inches 2. Priority: (1) Cave or tunnel covered with (5) Abandoned stone/mud buildings.3 inches 3. as soon as possible. sleep. No Water: Wipe all exposed skin surfaces with clean cloth or uncontaminated soil. DO NOT look at fireball! Remain prone until blast effects are over. Radiation Shielding Efficiencies (5) Leave contaminated equipment and clothing near shelter for retrieval after radioactive decay. DO NOT wring out! PERSONAL HYGIENE: Wash entire body with soap and any water. Present minimal profile to direction of blast. Cover exposed body parts.2 inches Wood (Soft) 8. DO NOT smoke! 4-6 3-7 8 DAILY RADIATION TIME TABLE for NO RATE METER 9-12 2-4 hours exposure per day Complete isolation 13 Normal movement. (6) Lie down. or underground sources are safest. Improvise goggles. •Snow (6 or more inches below the surface during the fallout). Substance: (1) Water. b. Additional thickness added to any amount of thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. Fallout/dusty conditions--keep entire body covered. NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS: Fall flat.
(c) Avoid. •Skin carefully to avoid contaminating the meat.). •Plants whose edible portions grow underground (for example. •Edible portions growing above ground that can be washed and peeled or skinned (bananas. (2) Food. leaving at least 1/8 inch of meat on the bone. •Water from below the surface (DO NOT stir up the IX-4 . wash and wipe containers before use. water). or above ground plants that are not easily peeled or washed. •Filtering through earth removes 99 percent of radioactivity. etc. •Avoid animals that appear to be sick or dying. cut meat away from the bone. •Aquatic food sources (use only in extreme emergencies because of high concentration of radiation). pools. (b) Water preparation (Figures IX-4 and IX-5). apples. (a) Processed foods (canned or packaged) are preferred. turnips.•Use a seep well. Wash and remove skin. fruits. •Before cooking. (d) Plant foods (in order of preference). etc. •Purify all water sources. carrots. (b) Animal foods. •Streams and rivers (filtered before drinking). •Smooth skinned vegetables. etc.). •Shells of all eggs (contents will be safe to eat). •Discard all internal organs. ponds. •Cook all meat until very well done. potatoes. •Milk from animals. •Lakes.
Figure IX-4. Filtration Systems, Filtering Water
Figure IX-5. Filtration Systems, Settling Water
c. Self-aid: (1) General rules: (a) Prevent exposure to contaminants. (b) Use personal hygiene practices and remove body waste from shelter. (c) Rest, avoid fatigue. (d) Drink liquids. (2) Wounds. (a) Clean affected area. (b) Use antibacterial ointment or cleaning solution. (c) Cover with clean dressing. (d) Watch for signs of infection. (3) Burns. (a) Clean affected area. (b) Cover with clean dressing. (4) Radiation sickness (nausea, weakness, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of hair, radiation burns). (a) Time is required to overcome. (b) Rest. (c) Drink fluids. (d) Maintain food intake. (e) Prevent additional exposure. 2. Biological Conditions a. Clues which may alert you to a biological attack follow: (1) Enemy aircraft dropping objects or spraying. (2) Breakable containers or unusual bombs, particularly those bursting with little or no blast, and muffled explosions. (3) Smoke or mist of unknown origin. (4) Unusual substances on the ground or vegetation; sick looking plants or crops. b. Protection from biological agents follow: (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Bathe as soon as the situation permits. (3) Wash hair and body thoroughly with soap and water. (4) Clean thoroughly under fingernails. (5) Clean teeth, gums, tongue, and roof of mouth frequently.
c. Survival tips for biological conditions follow: (1) Keep your body and living area clean. (2) Stay alert for clues of biological attack. (3) Keep nose, mouth, and skin covered. (4) Keep food and water protected. Bottled or canned foods are safe if sealed. If in doubt, boil food and water for 10 minutes. (5) Construct shelter in a clear area, away from vegetation, with entrance 90 degrees to the prevailing wind. (6) If traveling, travel crosswind or upwind (taking advantage of terrain to stay away from depressions). 3. Chemical Conditions a. Detecting. (1) Smell. Many agents have little or no odor. (2) Sight. Many agents are colorless: (a) Color. Yellow, orange, or red smoke or mist. (b) Liquid. Oily, dark patches on leaves, ground, etc. (c) Gas. Some agents appear as a mist immediately after shell burst. (d) Solid. Most solid state agents have some color. (3) Sound. Muffled explosions are possible indications of chemical agent bombs. (4) Feel. Irritation to the nose, eyes, or skin and/or moisture on the skin are danger signs. (5) Taste. Strange taste in food or water indicates contamination. (6) General indications. Tears, difficult breathing, choking, itching, coughing, dizziness. (7) Wildlife. Presence of sick or dying animals. b. Protection against chemical agents follows: (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Avoid contaminated areas. (a) Exit contaminated area by moving crosswind. (b) Select routes on high ground. (c) Avoid cellars, ditches, trenches, gullies, valleys, etc. (d) Avoid woods, tall grasses, and bushes as they tend to hold chemical agent vapors.
Self-aid in chemically contaminated areas. (3) Keep food and water protected. (2) If a chemical defense ensemble is not available— (a) Remove or tear away contaminated clothing. Burying. (b) Follow antidote directions when needed. Tips for the survivor: (1) DO NOT use wood from a contaminated area for fire. •Neutralizing. (4) DO NOT use plants for food or water in contaminated areas. or animals).(e) Decontaminate body and equipment as soon as possible by— •Removing. (c) Improvise a breathing filter using materials available (T-shirt. (1) If a chemical defense ensemble is available— (a) Use all protective equipment.). etc. (b) Rinse contaminated areas with water. dead fish. (2) Look for signs of chemical agents around water sources before procurement (oil spots. foreign odors. fabric. IX-8 . handkerchief. Warm water. d. Pinch-blotting. •Destroying. c.
I will trust in my God and in the United States of America. (b) Creating strength and trust in one another. environment. depression. forgetfulness. Group dynamics of survival include— (1) Leadership. (3) Faith in America. illness. Psychology of Survival a. and propensity to make mistakes). (5) Combat psychological stress by— (a) Recognizing and anticipating existing stressors (injury. fatigue. A-1 . b. (c) Favoring persistency in overcoming failure. (d) Facilitating formulation of group goals. (3) Develop a realistic plan. anxiety. death. and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. (c) Identifying signals of distress created by stressors (indecision. isolation). c. withdrawal. anger). carelessness. responsible for my actions. (b) Attributing normal reactions to existing stressors (fear. 1. Strengthen your will to survive with— (1) The Code of Conduct. (2) Keep a positive attitude. guilt. (5) Thoughts of return to family and friends. hunger. Preparation— (1) Know your capabilities and limitations. (2) Taking care of your buddy. (2) Pledge of Allegiance. (4) Reassuring and encouraging each other. (4) Anticipate fears.Appendix A THE WILL TO SURVIVE ARTICLE VI CODE OF CONDUCT I will never forget that I am an American fighting for freedom. (3) Working as a team. good organization. and cohesiveness promote high morale: (a) Preventing panic. (4) Patriotic songs. boredom.
(5) Try to have worship services. repeat them to yourself and to your God. and rescue. wisdom. e. With other survivors— (1) Identify or appoint a religious lay leader. h. b. (4) Pray for each other. strength. or others. or hymns. (2) Love for family and self. clergy. Remember scripture. Use self-control. verses. (c) Accepting suggestions and criticism. d. j. Pray for your God’s help. A-2 . Worship without aid of written scripture. Forgive— (1) Yourself for what you have done or said that was wrong. f. (2) Give thanks that God is with you. c. Identify your personal beliefs. (3) Hope comes from a belief in heaven and/or an after-life. i. (3) Never lose hope. (4) Never give up. (2) Those who have failed you. l. Trust. Collect your thoughts and emotions. Meditate. Praise God and give thanks because— (1) God is bigger than your circumstances. g. (1) Talk to your God. 2. k. (b) Organizing according to individual capabilities. Remember past inner sources to help you overcome adversity. (2) God will see you through (no matter what happens). (4) Pray for protection and a positive outcome. (3) Ask for God’s help. (1) Faith and trust in your God.(5) Influencing factors are— (a) Enforcing the chain of command. (3) Share scriptures and songs. (2) Discuss what is important to you. Spiritual Considerations a.
(6) Write down scriptures and songs that you remember. A-3 . (7) Encourage each other while waiting for rescue. remember— (a) Your God loves you. (b) Praise your God.
US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). B-1 . techniques. Scope This UNCLASSIFIED multiservice tactics. The Army will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Army training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commander. validate the information. Distribution is in accordance with the Department of Army Form 12-99-R. 2. 4. and recovery information. Purpose This publication provides Service members a quick reference. Application The target audience for this publication is any Service member requiring basic survival. Implementation Plan Participating Service command offices of primary responsibility (OPRs) will review this publication. and procedures publication is designed to assist Service members in a survival situation regardless of geographic location. evasion. and recovery information. evasion. weatherproof. regulations. and reference and incorporate it in Service and command manuals. pocket-sized guide on basic survival. and curricula as follows: Army. 3.Appendix B Publication Information 1.
The Marine Corps will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Marine Corps training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commanding general. The Navy will incorporate these procedures in US Navy doctrinal and training publications as directed by the commander. Air Force units will validate and incorporate appropriate procedures in accordance with applicable governing directives. and procedures. command and control (C2) organizations. The TRADOC-MCCDC-NWDC-AFDC Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Center developed this publication with the joint participation of the approving Service commands. ALSA will review and update this publication as necessary. appropriately reflected in joint and Service publications. Distribution is in accordance with Marine Corps Publication Distribution System. personnel.Marine Corps. Send comments and recommendation directly to— B-2 . Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC). Key your comments to the specific page and paragraph and provide a rationale for each recommendation. We encourage recommended changes for improving this publication. 5. User Information a. Distribution is in accordance with Air Force Instructions 33-360. will likewise be incorporated in revisions to this document. Air Force. responsibilities. c. US Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC). facilities. Changes in Service protocol. This publication reflects current joint and Service doctrine. b. Navy. Distribution is in accordance with Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures Desk Guide and Navy Standing Operating Procedures Publication 409.
firstname.lastname@example.org ALSA ALSA Center ATTN: Director 114 Andrews Street Langley AFB.navy.af.af.mil B-3 .mil Air Force HQ Air Force Doctrine Center ATTN: DJ 216 Sweeney Boulevard Suite 109 Langley AFB VA 23665-2722 DSN 754-8091 COMM (757) 764-8091 E-mail Address: afdc.Army Commander US Army Training and Doctrine Command ATTN: ATDO-A Fort Monroe VA 23651-5000 DSN 680-3153 COMM (757) 727-3153 Marine Corps Commanding General US Marine Corps Combat Development Command ATTN: C42 3300 Russell Road Quantico VA 22134-5001 DSN 278-6234 COMM (703) 784-6234 Navy Commander Navy Warfare Development Command (Det Norfolk) ATTN: ALSA Liaison Officer 1530 Gilbert Street Norfolk VA 23511-2785 DSN 262-2782 COMM (757) 322-2782 E-mail: ndcjoint@nctamslant. VA 23665-2785 DSN 575-0902 COMM (757) 225-0902 E-mail: alsadirector@langley.
SMITH Rear Admiral. RHODES Lieutenant General.58. USN Commander Navy Warfare Development Command TIMOTHY A. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center This publication is available on the Army Doctrinal and Training Digital Library (ADTDL) at http://155. . USA Commander Training and Doctrine Command J. ABRAMS General.This publication has been prepared under our direction for use by our respective commands and other commands as appropriate.58. JOHN N. J. USMC Commanding General Marine Corps Combat Development Command B. KINNAN Major General.217. E.
and U. 1 March 1996 Air Force Distribution: F DISTRIBUTION: Active Army.S. Army National Guard.26 29 JUNE 1999 By Order of the Secretary of the Army: ERIC K. .FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center *Supersedes: AFPAM 36-2246. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number 110906. KINNAN Major General. HUDSON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army By Order of the Secretary of the Air Force: TIMOTHY A. SHINSEKI General. requirements for FM 21-76-1.3 *AFTTP(I) 3-2. United States Army Chief of Staff Official: JOEL B.
MARINE CORPS: PCN 14400006800 .
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