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SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY
MULTISERVICE PROCEDURES FOR SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.26
JUNE 1999 AIR LAND SEA APPLICATION CENTER
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
MULTISERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES
QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST Decide to Survive!
S U R V I V A L Size up the situation, surroundings, physical condition, equipment. Use all your senses Remember where you are. Vanquish fear and panic. Improvise and improve. Value living. Act like the natives. Live by your wits.
1. Immediate Actions a. Assess immediate situation. THINK BEFORE YOU ACT! b. Take action to protect yourself from nuclear, biological, or chemical hazards (Chapter IX). c. Seek a concealed site. d. Assess medical condition; treat as necessary (Chapter V). e. Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information. f. Sanitize area; hide equipment you are leaving. g. Apply personal camouflage. h. Move away from concealed site, zigzag pattern recommended. i. Use terrain to advantage, communication, and concealment. j. Find a hole-up site. 2. Hole-Up-Site (Chapter I) a. Reassess situation; treat injuries, then inventory equipment. b. Review plan of action; establish priorities (Chapter VI). c. Determine current location. d. Improve camouflage. e. Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand. f. Execute plan of action. Stay flexible!
Recommend inclusion of this manual in the aviator’s survival vest.
3. Concealment (Chapter I) a. Select a place of concealment providing (1) Adequate concealment, ground and air. (2) Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of communications (LOC). (3) Listening and observation points. (4) Multiple avenues of escape. (5) Protection from the environment. (6) Possible communications/signaling opportunities. b. Stay alert, maintain security. c. Drink water. 4. Movement (Chapters I and II) a. Travel slowly and deliberately. b. DO NOT leave evidence of travel; use noise and light discipline. c. Stay away from LOC. d. Stop, look, listen, and smell; take appropriate action(s). e. Move from one concealed area to another. f. Use evasion movement techniques (Chapter I). 5. Communications and Signaling (Chapter III) a. Communicate as directed in applicable plans/orders, particularly when considering transmitting in the blind. b. Be prepared to use communications and signaling devices on short notice. c. Use of communications and signaling devices may compromise position. 6. Recovery (Chapter IV) a. Select site(s) IAW criteria in theater recovery plans. b. Ensure site is free of hazards; secure personal gear. c. Select best area for communications and signaling devices. d. Observe site for proximity to enemy activity and LOC. e. Follow recovery force instructions.
................................ I-1 Shelters ....................... purpose......... I-3 CHAPTER II NAVIGATION Stay or Move Considerations .................................... 6...................... EVASION Planning.................................... 1.................................... evasion............................ II-1 Navigation and Position Determination ........S.. Virginia Navy Warfare Development Command Newport.................... Evasion...... 5................... and Recovery Note: This UNCLASSIFIED publication is designed to provide Service members quick-reference survival........................................................... Rhode Island Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center Maxwell Air Force Base..... Virginia Marine Corps Combat Development Command Quantico.. II-12 Summer Hazards ..... and user information........ Alabama 29 JUNE 1999 Survival................. application............... implementation plan........................................ II-10 River Travel.......... See Appendix B for the scope.... I-1 Camouflage ............. 8.. 7.... 3.............3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.................................... II-1 Travel Considerations........3 AFTTP(I) 3-2...... and Recovery Multiservice Procedures for Survival..... Army Training and Doctrine Command Fort Monroe........................... II-10 Ice and Snow Travel ........ and recovery information....................................... 4..................................................FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50...................................... II-12 iii ....................... I-3 Movement .................. II-11 Mountain Hazards .............. Evasion....... TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I 1..........26 FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50............26 U.... 2...................................................................... 4......... II-12 Dry Climates.... 3............................ 2.........
. Water Requirements ........ Nuclear Conditions .................................... III-2 Responsibilities............................................................ 3...................... VI-8 CHAPTER VII WATER 1...................... Food Procurement...................................................... IV-1 CHAPTER V MEDICAL Immediate First Aid Actions ............................................................................................................ III-1 2............................ IX-6 3........................ Food Preparation ............................................ II-13 CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV 1. IV-1 Site Selection................ Water Preparation and Storage. 4.............................................................................................................................. B-2 iv I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX A B ............................................................ VII-1 3............. Water Procurement ....... A-1 PUBLICATION INFORMATION .... 2................................................ 5.... 3........ VI-3 Fires ...... VI-1 Other Protective Equipment............... 4.............................................................................................. V-1 Common Injuries and Illnesses............................. VII-1 2.......... 2........................ Biological Conditions ....................... 3.................................................................. VI-2 Shelters .... II-13 10......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1...... V-15 Health and Hygiene ................................................. V-9 Plant Medicine...................................................... V-18 CHAPTER VI PERSONAL PROTECTION Priorities ..... RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING RECOVERY 1.......................................9........... Open Seas ........................................ 2..... 1...... IV-1 Recovery Procedures .................................. VIII-9 3................ IV-1 Site Preparation ... VI-1 Care and Use of Clothing ....... IX-7 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B THE WILL TO SURVIVE ................................ VIII-11 CHAPTER IX INDUCED CONDITIONS 1........... Food Preservation ......................................................... Signaling ................................... V-18 Rules for Avoiding Illness................................ Chemical Conditions ........................... Radio Communications (Voice and Data).................. 4.................................... 6................................................. VIII-1 2.......................................................................................................................................... IX-1 2...................... VII-7 CHAPTER VIII FOOD 1.................................. Tropical Climates ..
(2) Selected area for evasion. (3) Following your evasion plan of action. Camouflage patterns (Figure I-1): (1) Blotch pattern. (4) Designated area for recovery. (3) Insect repellent (camouflage stick is least scented).Chapter I EVASION 1. (a) Temperate deciduous (leaf shedding) areas. (4) Gum and candy (smell is strong or sweet). (5) Tobacco (odor is unmistakable). c. b. b. Guidelines for successful evasion include(1) Keeping a positive attitude. (2) Slash pattern. (3) Neutral or friendly country or area. Planning a. (4) Being patient. (8) Staying out of sight. (a) Coniferous areas (broad slashes). (6) Conserving strength for critical periods. Camouflage a. 2. Where to go (initiate evasion plan of action): (1) Near a suitable area for recovery. (2) Shaving cream. or other cosmetics. (3) Apply personal camouflage. (b) Desert areas (barren). (2) Using established procedures. (2) Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy. after-shave lotion. d. (5) Drinking water (DO NOT eat food without water). Review the quick reference checklist on the inside cover. (7) Resting and sleeping as much as possible. The following odors stand out and may give an evader away: (1) Scented soaps and shampoos. Basic principles: (1) Disturb the area as little as possible. (c) Snow (barren). I-1 .
(4) Remember when using shadows. BLOTCH SLASH Figure I-1. (4) Light colored hair. (3) Head. (c) Grass (narrow slashes). berries. dirt. Position and movement camouflage follows: (1) Avoid unnecessary movement. Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on any remaining exposed areas. neck. I-2 . Camouflage Patterns c. hands. and the under chin. (2) Ears. (b) Change camouflage depending on the surroundings. or mask if available. Give special attention to conceal with a scarf or mosquito head net. d. May use blotched and slash together. netting. (3) Combination. or coloration methods.(b) Jungle areas (broad slashes). The insides and the backs should have 2 colors to break up outlines. collar. Use scarf. (c) DO NOT select vegetation from same source. change regularly. vegetation. netting. Use a hat. and charcoal. Personal camouflage application follows: (1) Face. (3) DO NOT over camouflage. (2) Take advantage of natural concealment: (a) Cut foliage fades and wilts. they shift with the sun. (d) Use stains from grasses.
I-3 . (6) Ensure overhead concealment. Break up the outline of the body. (2) Locate entrances and exits in brush and along ridges. (2) Use the military crest. etc. or (6) (7) (8) (9) Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off. (5) Take the direction finding threat into account before transmitting from shelter.pens).Small S . rough terrain. or reduced enemy activity. Shelters a.Secluded location (1) Choose an area (a) Least likely to be searched (drainages.Irregular shape S . (4) Conceal with minimal to no preparation. name tags. (5) Never expose shiny objects (like a watch. (b) With escape routes (DO NOT corner yourself). If travel is necessary (1) Mask with natural cover (Figure I-2).) and blends with the environment. b. ditches. Movement a. (3) Be wary of flash floods in ravines and canyons. bad weather. Locate carefullyeasy to remember acronym: BLISS. (c) With observable approaches. 4. and rocks to keep from forming paths to site. (3) Restrict to periods of low light.Low silhouette I . glasses. wind. Conduct observation from a prone and concealed position. 3. etc. B . Remove unit patches. A moving object is easy to spot. “V” of crotch/armpits. Use camouflage and concealment.Blend L . rank insignia.
weapons. Ground Movement (4) Avoid silhouetting (Figure I-3). aircraft. etc. troops. vehicles. animals. etc. troops. etc. (5) At irregular intervals (a) STOP at a point of concealment. Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel. (b) LOOK for signs of human or animal activity (smoke. wire. (c) LISTEN for vehicles. (d) SMELL for vehicles. aircraft.Figure I-2. tracks. I-4 . troops. animals. buildings. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight. fires.). roads.
(b) Scuff bark on logs and sticks. In snow country. leaves. (3) Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to its original position. d. Break up the human shape or recognizable lines.) (d) Mangle grass and bushes that normally spring back. (Cloth wrapped around feet helps muffle this. check clothing and equipment for items that could make noise during movement and secure them. or grass. and sticks. (4) DO NOT grab small trees or brush. (c) Make noise by breaking sticks. TRY NOT TO (a) Overturn ground cover. (This may scuff the bark or create movement that is easily spotted. (2) DO NOT break branches.) (5) Pick firm footing (carefully place the foot lightly but squarely on the surface to avoid slipping). this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route.Figure I-3. c. I-5 . rocks. Avoid Silhouetting (6) Employ noise discipline. Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route/zigzag) to camouflage evidence of travel. b. Some techniques for concealing evidence of travel follows: (1) Avoid disturbing the vegetation above knee level.
bend in road. (2) Go around chain-link and wire fences. cross tracks using a semi-pushup motion. Cross in a manner leaving your footprints parallel (cross step sideways) to the road. etc. (Trash or lost equipment identifies who lost it. (4) Cross roads after observation from concealment to determine enemy activity. align body parallel to tracks with face down. If impractical. (7) Secure trash or loose equipmenthide or bury discarded items. Cross at points offering concealment such as bushes. Go under fence if unavoidable. Repeat for the second track. downed logs. presenting as low a silhouette as possible (Figure I-4). passing under or between lower rails. go over the top. Penetrate obstacles as follows: (1) Enter deep ditches feet first to avoid injury. rocks. (b) Moving before and during precipitation allows tracks to fill in. I-6 . crossing at damaged areas. shadows. (Figure I-6). (3) Penetrate rail fences. (c) Traveling during windy periods.) (8) Concentrate on defeating the handler if pursued by dogs. and snowdrifts. look for electrical insulators or security devices. e. (Figure I-5) (5) Use same method of observation for railroad tracks that was used for roads.(6) Mask unavoidable tracks in soft footing by (a) Placing tracks in the shadows of vegetation. etc. (e) Patting out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old. (d) Taking advantage of solid surfaces (logs. Next. DO NOT touch fence.) leaving less evidence of travel.
Rail Fences Figure I-5. Road Crossing I-7 .Figure I-4.
1 may be electrified. Railroad Tracks WARNING: If 3 rails exist. I-8 .Figure I-6.
(2) DO NOT soil the map by touching the destination. 1. (3) Using information provided in the map legend. (2) Determine which direction to travel and why. (4) Convinced rescue is not coming. Stay with the vehicle/aircraft in a non-combat environment. c. (2) Are certain of your location. e. (2) Using the Rate x Time = Distance formula. and/or help. or destroy. d. have a known destination. b. Determine your general location by (1) Developing a working knowledge of the operational area. (a) Geographic checkpoints. Stay or Move Considerations a. food. II -1 .Chapter II NAVIGATION Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles. cache. (4) Supplies available. shelter. Navigation and Position Determination a. Leave only when (1) Dictated by the threat. Consider the following if you decide to travel: (1) Follow the briefed evasion plan. (b) Man-made checkpoints. Consider the following for maps (in a combat environment): (1) DO NOT write on the map. Note: These actions may compromise information if captured. and have the ability to get there. (3) Can reach water. (4) Using prominent landmarks. (3) DO NOT fold in a manner providing travel information. 2. (3) Personal condition. (2) Route of travel. (3) Decide what equipment to take. Leave information at your starting point (in a non-combat environment) that includes (1) Destination. (c) Previous knowledge of operational area.
South is halfway between the hour hand and 12 o’clock position. and west) by (1) Using compass. east. CAUTION: The following methods are NOT highly accurate and give only general cardinal direction. II -2 . (a) Digital watches. Stick and Shadow Method (3) Remembering the sunrise/moonrise is in the east and sunset/moonset is in the west. (b) Northern Hemisphere. Point hour hand at the sun. south. Visualize a clock face on the watch.(5) Visualizing map to determine position. (4) Using a wristwatch to determine general cardinal direction (Figure II-2). Figure II-1. (c) Southern Hemisphere. North is halfway between the 12 o’clock position and the hour hand. Point the 12 o’clock position on your watch at the sun. b. Determine cardinal directions (north. (2) Using stick and shadow method to determine a true north-south line (Figure II-1).
•Pen or pencil. •Secure navigator on flat surface (DO NOT move during set up period). Do the following: •Attach shadow tip device in center of paper. •Connect marks to form an arc. end construction at sundown.To Determine North/South NORTHERN HEMISPHERE NORTH MID POINT SOUTH MID POINT HOUR HAND HOUR HAND SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE If on daylight saving time subtract one hour from actual time Figure II-2. Note: The shortest line between base of shadow tip device and curved line is a north-south line. II -3 . Direction Using a Watch (5) Using a pocket navigator (Figure II-3) (a) Gather the following necessary materials: •Flat writing material (such as an MRE box).Using A Watch . (b) Start construction at sunup. or match). •Mark tip of shadow every 30 minutes annotating the time. •1-2 inch shadow tip device (a twig. •Indicate north with a drawn arrow. (c) Do the following during travel: •Hold navigator so the shadow aligns with mark of present time (drawn arrow now points to true north). nail.
(d) Remember the navigator is current for approximately CAUTION: The Pocket Navigator is NOT recommended if evading. Orient the map by (1) Using a true north-south line (Figure II-5) (a) Unfold map and place on a firm. level nonmetallic surface. II -4 . Figure II-4. Figure II-3. (b) Southern Cross is used to locate true south-north line.1 week. Pocket Navigator (6) Using the stars (Figure II-4) the (a) North Star is used to locate true north-south line. flat. Stars c.
(b) Align the compass on a true north-south line. Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating dial compass N N N Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating dial compass Figure II-5. •Easterly (subtract variation from 360 degrees). Orienting a Map Using a True North-South Line II -5 . (c) Rotate map and compass until stationary index line aligns with the magnetic variation indicated in marginal information. •Westerly (add variation to 360 degrees).
180 Figure II-6. Star indicates magnetic line on EVC Chart.(2) Using a compass rose (Figure II-6) (a) Place edge of the lensatic compass on magnetic north line of the compass rose closest to your location. Map Orientation with Compass Rose II -6 . (b) Rotate map and compass until compass reads 360 degrees.
(2) Triangulation (resection) with a compass (Figure II-7). (b) Use GPS to confirm your position ONLY. e. (2) Aligning north-seeking arrow with luminous line and follow front of compass. orient map using cardinal direction obtained by the stick and shadow method or the celestial aids (stars) method. (b) Positively identify a major land feature and determine a line of position (LOP). (d) Plot the LOP using a thin stick or blade of grass (combat) or pencil line (non-combat). (e) Repeat steps (b) through (d) for other LOPs. (a) DO NOT use GPS for primary navigation. Determine specific location. (3) Using point-to-point navigation. (c) Select area providing maximum satellite reception.(3) If there is NO compass. Figure II-7. Route selection techniques follow: II -7 . Triangulation (a) Try to use 3 or more azimuths. (c) Check map orientation each time compass is used. Use the compass for night navigation by (1) Setting up compass for night navigation (Figure II-8). (1) Global Positioning System (GPS). d. f. (d) Conserve GPS battery life.
(c) Resume your route of travel. Sum is number of clicks to the left of stationary index line. New sum is the number of clicks to the right from stationary index line. EXAMPLES Heading of 027 degrees = 9 clicks left. (b) Contour around obstacle to landmark. II -8 . Figure II-8. Heading of 300 degrees = 20 clicks right. subtract heading from 360 then divide sum by 3. (3) Straight-line heading as follows: (a) Maintain heading until reaching destination. Heading between 0 and 180 degrees is divided by 3. (a) Find a prominent landmark on the opposite side of the obstacle. Compass Night Navigation Setup (1) Circumnavigation.Setting the Compass for Night Travel Luminous Line North Seeking Arrow Stationary Index 64 Bezel Ring Each click of the Bezel Ring equals 3 degrees. (b) Measure distance by counting the number of paces in a given course and convert to map units. Heading between 180 and 360 degrees. (2) Dogleg and 90 degree offset (Figure II-9).
(4) Deliberate offset is (a) Used when finding a point on a linear feature (that is. or example in rough terrain. or injured/uninjured condition. 900 paces per kilometer [average]. (c) Use pace count in conjunction with terrain evaluation and heading to determine location.N W E 90 0 180 0 90 0 S 1 80 360 0 90 0 original heading O bstacle original heading plus 45 to heading 0 90 0 m inus 45 0 from original heading Figure II-9. II -9 . (a) Pick out landmarks on the heading and walk the trail of least resistance to a point. (5) Point-to-point is same as straight line. road or river). •Distances measured by paces are approximate (example in open terrain. (b) Intentionally navigated to left or right of target so you know which way to turn at the linear feature. day/night travel. establish another landmark and continue. Adjust estimation of distance traveled against these factors to get relative accuracy when using a pace count. Dogleg and 90 Degree Offset •One pace is the distance covered each time the same foot touches the ground. 1200 paces per kilometer [average]). (b) On reaching a point. An individual’s pace varies because of factors such as steep terrain.
Maintain a realistic pace. Travel in forested areas if possible. Take special care of feet (change socks regularly). b. a. Avoid overdressing and overheating. (5) Hazardous animals. take rest stops when needed. Travel Considerations a. River Travel River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. c. Use a pole to move the raft in shallow water. Use an oar in deep water. log. e. d. and personal safety. g. and unfordable rivers: (1) Circumnavigate swamps. II -10 . lakes. d. c. (2) Sweepers (overhanging limbs and trees). Consider using a flotation device when crossing rivers or large/deep streams. Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with NO escape in the event of heavy rains. f. Stay near inside edge of river bends (current speed is less). h. etc. f. Go around obstacles. Consider the following for swamps. Travel on trails whenever possible (non-combat). It may be a primary mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment (use with caution if evading).). (4) Waterfalls. Pack equipment to prevent loss. k. Pick the easiest and safest route (non-combat). and bogs if needed. lakes.3. i. j. g. (2) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. b. damage. Watch for the following DANGERS: (1) Snags. pack imbalance. Keep near shore. bamboo. 4. (3) Rapids (DO NOT attempt to shoot the rapids). e. Use flotation device (raft. (3) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. not over or through them. Consider food and water requirements.
Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted. (2) Deep soft snow (if movement is necessary. Figure II-10. (2) Bitterly cold winds. Improvised Snowshoes (3) Avalanche prone areas to avoid: (a) Slopes 30-45 degrees or greater.5. II -11 . (b) Trees without uphill branches (identifies prior avalanches). Obstacles to winter travel follow: (1) Reduced daylight hours (BE AWARE). (3) Poor visibility. (4) If caught in an avalanche. (c) Heavy snow loading on ridge tops. make snowshoes [Figure II-10]). do the following: (a) Backstroke to decrease burial depth. a. DO NOT travel in (1) Blizzards. Ice and Snow Travel Travel should be limited to areas free of hazards. b.
DO NOT travel unless certain of reaching the destination using the water supply available. •Snow banks extend over the ice. •Rivers or streams come together. Mountain Hazards a. b. (c) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. c. (a) Travel on trails when possible (non-combat). (c) When crossing frozen water. b. (c) Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in the event of heavy rains. and bogs if needed. (2) Swamps.(b) Move hand around face to create air pocket as moving snow slows. or using snowshoes. distribute your weight by laying flat. Lightning. Avoid areas prone to avalanches. Travel at dawn or dusk on hot days. (a) Weak ice should be expected where— •Rivers are straight. c. (5) Frozen water crossings. In sand dune areas— (1) Follow hard valley floor between dunes. lakes. Dry Climates a. Summer Hazards (see page II-10. 7. •Water vapor rising indicates open or warm areas. (a) Circumnavigate swamps. avoiding— (1) Deep sandy dune areas. (b) Travel in forested areas if possible. (b) Air pockets form when a frozen river loses volume. Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided. Travel Considerations. Avoid low areas. (2) Rough terrain. 6.) (1) Dense brush. items h through k. and unfordable rivers. (b) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. •Objects protrude through ice. Avoid ridge tops during thunderstorms. paragraph 3. lakes. Flash floods. II -12 . Avalanche. belly crawling. d. Follow the easiest trail possible (non-combat). c. 8.
Open Seas a. they may indicate a pitfall or trap. Sea anchor may be adjusted to make use of existing currents. (2) Inflate raft so it rides higher. (3) Try to get to the downwind side of natural shelter. Find trails— (1) Where 2 streams meet. Avoid obstacles like thickets and swamps. d. Using currents (1) Deploy sea anchor (Figure II-11). (2) Sit or lie down in direction of travel. 9. (6) Remain stationary until the storm is over. DO NOT climb over logs if you can go around them. (4) Cover the mouth and nose with a piece of cloth. e. f. (3) DO NOT sleep on the trail. Tropical Climates a. (Sail aids in making landfall. it may have spines or thorns (use gloves if possible). b. e. Avoid grabbing vegetation. (5) Protect the eyes. Travel only when it is light.(2) Travel on the windward side of dune ridges. (3) Sit up in raft so body catches the wind. (4) Exercise caution. the enemy uses the trails also. (2) Where a low pass goes over a range of hills.) II -13 . Using winds (1) Pull in sea anchor. While traveling trails (1) Watch for disturbed areas on game trails. Part the vegetation to pass through. (2) Sit low in the raft. b. 10. (3) Deflate the raft slightly so it rides lower in the water. c. (2) Use a walking stick to probe for pitfalls or traps. If a sandstorm occurs (1) Mark your direction of travel. (4) Construct a shade cover/sail (Figure II-12).
Figure II-11. Indications of land are (1) Fixed cumulus clouds in a clear sky or in a cloudy sky where all other clouds are moving. Shade/Sail Construction c. (3) Lighter colored reflection on clouds (open water causes dark gray reflections) (in the arctic). (2) Greenish tint in the sky (in the tropics). Making landfall. II -14 . Sea Anchor Deployment Figure II-12.
(11) Select a landing point. (b) Lie as close to the surface as possible. (10) If caught in the undertow of a large wave— (a) Remain calm and swim to the surface. (5) Use the sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength if thrown from raft. (a) Odors from swamps and smoke. (b) Make a shallow dive just before the wave breaks to end the ride. (b) Roar of surf/bird cries coming from one direction. d. (12) After selecting a landing site (a) Face shoreward. (2) Use a flotation aid. (6) Wear footgear and at least 1 layer of clothing. II -15 . (8) In moderate surf. (a) Avoid places where waves explode upon rocks.(4) Lighter colored water (indicates shallow water). (b) When the seaward wave approaches. (9) In high surf. work shoreward in the next trough. (a) Swim shoreward in the trough between waves. (c) Parallel shoreline and attempt landfall at a point further down shore. Swimming ashore (1) Consider physical condition. from smallest to largest). face it and submerge. (6) Directional flights of birds at dawn and at dusk. (b) Assume a sitting position with feet 2 or 3 feet lower than head to absorb the shock of hitting submerged objects. (c) After it passes. (3) Secure all gear to body before reaching landfall. (a) Swim forward on the back of a wave. (7) Try to make landfall during the lull between the sets of waves (waves are generally in sets of 7. (4) Remain in raft as long as possible. (5) The odors and sounds. (b) Find a place where waves smoothly rush onto the rocks.
(1) Use paddles to avoid sharp edges. and disintegrating flows are dangerous (ice can cut a raft). (3) Land on the lee (downwind) side of islands or point of land if possible. (c) Deploying a sea anchor for stability. f. (4) Head for gaps in the surf line. (5) Penetrate surf by— (a) Taking down most shade/sails. Making sea ice landings on large stable ice flows. (b) Using paddles to maintain control. small flows. CAUTION: DO NOT deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral. (3) Keep raft inflated and ready for use.e. (4) Weight down/secure raft so it does not blow away. (2) Store raft away from the ice edge. (2) Use caution landing when the sun is low and straight in front of you causing poor visibility. Rafting ashore (1) Select landing point carefully. II -16 . Icebergs.
d. space blanket. Make initial contact as soon as possible or as directed in applicable plans/orders. (2) Follow standing plans for on/off operations to conserve battery use. (7) If transmitting in the blind. Combat. (4) DO NOT ground antenna (that is finger on antenna or attaching bolt. Radio Communications (Voice and Data) a. Locate spare radio and batteries (keep warm and dry). (2) Keep it with you to supplement radio communications. Non-combat.Chapter III RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING Inventory and review the operating communications and signaling equipment. e. (8) Use terrain masking to hinder enemy direction finding. (2) Face recovery asset. III-1 . Listening (use reception times in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces). Use data burst if available. if possible). etc. (1) Turn off locator beacon. (6) Move after each transmission (ONLY in combat. (3) Follow plans/orders for on/off operations. ensure a clear LOS towards the equator. (1) Use concealment sites (combat) that optimize line of site (LOS). f. (5) Keep transmissions short (3-5 seconds maximum).). then as directed in applicable plans/orders. c. b. instructions of all 1. Transmissions. g. vegetation. If no immediate contact. (1) Ensure locator beacon is operational. (3) Keep antenna perpendicular to intended receiver (Figure III-1).
Pyrotechnic signals.100% 91% 91% 60% 31% 24% 41% 65% Signal Strength/ Operator Orientation 1% Top cone of silence 30-50% 900 30-50% 100% Main lobe Main lobe 100% 30-50% 90 0 30-50% Bottom cone of silence 1% Cut-away Sideview of Antenna Power Distribution Figure III-1. (3) Extend over raft's edge before activating. Signaling a. (2) Use as directed in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces. (1) Prepare early (weather permitting). III-2 . Radio Transmission Characteristics 2.
(1) Materials: (a) Manmade (space blanket. branches. Figure III-2. Signal mirror (Figure III-2). (2) Location. (b) Provide concealment from ground observation. consider filters and shields. III-3 . stomped grass). brush. (a) Maximize visibility from above. (3) Conserve battery life. (2) If no radio. Pattern signals (use as directed in applicable plans/orders). parachute). (3) Size (large as possible) and ratio (Figure III-3). Note: Produces one residual flash when turned off. (2) Use as directed by recovery forces. use only with confirmed friendly forces. Strobe/IR lights. (1) Prepare early. c. (b) Natural use materials that contrast the color and/or texture of the signaling area (rocks.b. Sighting Techniques Note: Make a mirror from any shiny metal or glass. d. (3) Cover when not in use. signal paulin. (1) Use as directed by recovery forces.
Sea dye marker. (2) Conserve unused dye by rewrapping. Figure III-4. Signal Key e. (1) DO NOT waste in rough seas or fast moving water.Figure III-3. III-4 . (6) Pattern signals (Figure III-4). (3) May be used to color snow. Size and Ratio (4) Shape (maintain straight lines and sharp corners). (5) Contrast (use color and shadows).
(Figure III-5) (3) Use signal mirror to sweep horizon. Smoke Generator III-5 . voice. and weapons fire). Figure III-5. Non-combat considerations: (1) Use a fire at night.f. (4) Use audio signals (that is. whistle. (2) Use smoke for day (tires or petroleum products for dark smoke and green vegetation for light smoke).
obstacles. Mentally review recovery methods (aircraft.). free of obstructions. Plan several tactical entry and exit routes (in combat). Locate area for landing pick-up. 2. Follow recovery force instructions. Stay concealed until recovery is imminent (in combat). size. Recovery Procedures a.). (4) Signal devices available. Be prepared to authenticate as directed in applicable plans/orders. boat. d. c. c. If no radio.Chapter IV RECOVERY 1. b. etc. Site Preparation a. b. Responsibilities a. Prepare signaling devices (use as directed or as briefed). if practical (approximately 150 feet diameter. IV-1 . etc. Maintain communication with recovery forces until recovered. d. ground. (2) Recovery site characteristics (slope. (3) DO NOT approach recovery vehicle until instructed. e. c. Site Selection a. Locate several concealment sites around area (in combat). (3) Number in party/medical situation. b. (2) Secure weapons and avoid quick movement. flat and level). Assess evidence of human activity at/near the site (in combat). be prepared to report— (1) Enemy activity in the recovery area. (4) Beware of rotors/propellers when approaching recovery vehicle. c. 3. especially on sloping or uneven terrain. 4. b. a ground-to-air signal may be your only means to effect recovery. Pack and secure all equipment. Assist recovery force in identifying your position. For a landing/ground recovery— (1) Assume a non-threatening posture. Secure loose equipment that could be caught in rotors/propellers. Establish radio contact with recovery forces (if possible).
or radio call to signal you are ready. (8) Use a thumbs up. (5) Ensure cable is in front of you.d. Follow crewmember instructions. (7) DO NOT become entangled in cable. (6) Keep hands clear of all hardware and connectors. e. (2) Allow metal on device to contact the surface before touching to avoid injury from static discharge. if available (glasses or helmet visor). (10) DO NOT assist during hoist or when pulled into the rescue vehicle. (2) Follow the procedures in "d" above. (4) Put safety strap under armpits. vigorous cable shake. Figure IV–1. (3) Sit or kneel for stability while donning device. For nonhoist recovery (rope or unfamiliar equipment)— (1) Create a “fixed loop” big enough to place under armpits (Figure IV-3). (9) Drag feet on the ground to decrease oscillation. Rescue Strap IV-2 . For hoist recovery devices (Figures IV-1 and IV-2)— (1) Use eye protection.
Forest Penetrator IV-3 .Figure IV-2.
Step 1 Step 2 Figure IV–3. Fixed Loop IV-4 .
Chapter V MEDICAL WARNING: These emergency medical procedures are for survival situations. (2) If no response— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. (d) Look. and feel for air exchange. 1. Determine responsiveness as follows: (1) If unconscious. (b) Roll victims onto their backs. Chin Lift V-1 . listen. arouse by shaking gently and shouting. Immediate First Aid Actions Remember the ABCs of Emergency Care: Airway Breathing Circulation a. Obtain professional medical treatment as soon as possible. Figure V-1. (c) Open the airway by lifting the chin (Figure V-1).
(4) If victim is unconscious. reposition airway. continue (c) through (f) until successful or exhausted. •Place a fist between breastbone and belly button. (j) With open airway. b. (b) Cover victim's mouth with your own. (i) If the airway is still blocked. (b) Roll victim on side (drains the mouth and prevents the tongue from blocking airway). •Thrust upward to expel air from stomach. refer to page V-7. For travel. Treat Chest Injuries. but breathing— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. You may cause more tissue damage and increase bleeding. (e) If breaths are blocked. V-2 . try again. Control bleeding as follows: (1) Apply a pressure dressing (Figure V-2). start mouth to mouth breathing: •Give 1 breath every 5 seconds. (f) If breaths still blocked. (b) Elevate the wounded area above the heart. (h) Try 2 slow breaths again. you may shorten and secure the object. (c) Pinch victim’s nostrils closed.(3) If victim is not breathing— (a) Check for a clear airway. paragraph 1d. remove any blockage. •Check for chest rise each time. (2) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use direct pressure over the wound. CAUTION: DO NOT remove an impaled object unless it interferes with the airway. (g) Sweep with finger to clear mouth. give 5 abdominal thrusts: •Straddle the victim. (5) If breathing difficulty is caused by chest trauma. (d) Fill victim’s lungs with 2 slow breaths.
Application of a Pressure Dressing V-3 .Figure V-2.
(3) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use a pressure point between the injury and the heart (Figure V-3). (b) Maintain pressure for 6 to 10 minutes before checking to see if bleeding has stopped.
Figure V-3. Pressure Points
(4) If a limb wound is STILL bleeding— CAUTION: Use of a tourniquet is a LAST RESORT measure. Use ONLY when severe, uncontrolled bleeding will cause loss of life. Recognize that long-term use of a tourniquet may cause loss of limb. (a) Apply tourniquet (TK) band just above bleeding site on limb. A band at least 3 inches (7.5 cm) or wider is best. (b) Follow steps illustrated in Figure V-4. (c) Use a stick at least 6 inches (15 cm) long. (d) Tighten only enough to stop arterial bleeding. (e) Mark a TK on the forehead with the time applied. (f) DO NOT cover the tourniquet. CAUTION: The following directions apply ONLY in survival situations where rescue is UNLIKELY and NO medical aid is available. (g) If rescue or medical aid is not available for over 2 hours, an attempt to SLOWLY loosen the tourniquet may be made 20 minutes after application. Before loosening— •Ensure pressure dressing is in place. •Ensure bleeding has stopped •Loosen tourniquet SLOWLY to restore circulation. •Leave loosened tourniquet in position in case bleeding resumes.
1. Wrap a wide band around the injured limb. Tie with a square knot.
2. Pass a stick, bayonet or scabbard through the tourniquet knot.
3. Tighten tourniquet by turning stick just enough to stop arterial bleeding.
4. Bind free end of the stick to keep tourniquet from unwinding.
Figure V-4. Application of a Tourniquet
(d) Lift untapped side of dressing as victim exhales to allow trapped air to escape. Treat chest injuries. (1) Sucking chest wound. Results from blunt trauma when 3 or more ribs are broken in 2 or more places. V-7 . (b) Prevent tongue from blocking airway. and sweaty skin. (2) Flail chest. (6) Place very weak or unconscious victim on side. (4) Maintain normal body temperature. (d) Shelter from the elements. (c) Monitor breathing and check dressing. (c) Insulate from ground. d. (c) Anxiety or mental confusion. may cause victim to gasp for breath. may cause sucking sound. (a) Immediately seal wound with hand or airtight material. (Shock is difficult to identify or treat under field conditions.c. cool. This occurs when chest wall is penetrated. as necessary. (3) Treat underlying injury. (2) Maintain circulation. Treat shock. (a) Remove wet clothing. may create bloody froth as air escapes the chest. •DO NOT give fluids to an unconscious victim.) (1) Identify by one or more of the following: (a) Pale. (d) Decreased urine output. (b) Fast breathing and a weak. this will— (a) Allow mouth to drain. fast pulse. (b) Give warm fluids. •DO NOT give fluids if they cause victim to gag. It may be present with or without visible injury. (b) Tape airtight material over wound on 3 sides only (Figure V-5) to allow air to escape from the wound but not to enter. The flail segment is the broken area that moves in a direction opposite to the rest of chest during breathing. (5) Place conscious victim on back.
e. (c) Roll victim onto side of flail segment injury (as other injuries allow). Treat fractures. and dislocations. jewelry. (b) Have victim keep segment still with hand pressure. (b) DO NOT constrict breathing by taping ribs. (1) Control bleeding. and constrictive clothing. • Tape pad to site • DO NOT wrap tape around chest. (3) If fracture penetrates the skin— V-8 . Sucking Chest Wound Dressing (a) Stabilize the flail segment as follows: • Place rolled-up clothing or bulky pad over site. (2) Remove watches. sprains.Figure V-5. (3) Fractured ribs. but necessary to prevent the possible development of pneumonia). (a) Encourage deep breathing (painful.
(b) Apply dressing over wound. (b) Repeat 3 to 4 times per day. V-9 . (b) Body parts (for example. (c) Avoid cooling that can cause frostbite or hypothermia. (d) Elevation.(a) Clean wound by gentle irrigation with water. immobilize the bones on both sides of the joint. stiff materials from equipment. Common Injuries and Illnesses a. (a) Rest. (7) Attach with strips of cloth. (11) Use 15 to 20 minute periods of cold application. (1) Cool the burned area with water. NOT in straight position. (2) Remove watches. (8) Keep the fractured bones from moving by immobilizing the joints on both sides of the fracture. 2. (6) Improvise a splint with available materials: (a) Sticks or straight. parachute cord. (a) Use immersion or cool compresses. (4) Position limb as normally as possible. (a) DO NOT use continuous cold therapy. If fracture is in a joint. (14) Check periodically for a pulse beyond the injury site. CAUTION: Splint fingers in a slightly flexed position. Burns. jewelry. constrictive clothing. (9) Use RICES treatment for 72 hours. etc. (10) Apply cold to acute injuries. (c) Compression. (b) Avoid aggressive cooling with ice or frigid water. (b) Ice. (5) Splint in position found (if unable to straighten limb). opposite leg. Hand should look like it is grasping an apple. arm-to-chest). (e) Stabilization. (13) Elevate injured area above heart level to reduce swelling. (15) Loosen bandage or reapply splint if no pulse is felt or if swelling occurs because bandage is too tight. (12) Wrap with a compression bandage after cold therapy.
fast pulse). page VI-3. (7) Drink extra water to compensate for increased fluid loss from burns. improvise a small swab. c. (b) Drink water. Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt per quart. (b) If foreign body is not removed by irrigation. (6) Avoid moving or rubbing the burned part.) (b) Treat by patching affected eye(s). (a) Prevent with improvised goggles. patch eye for 24 hours and then reattempt removal using steps (a) and (b).) (8) Change dressings when soaked or dirty. (c) Protect from further heat exposure. Heat injury. and cardiac arrest can occur. sweating. (a) Rest. (b) Drink water. b. (a) Rest in shade. Moisten and wipe gently over the affected area. (c) If foreign body is STILL not removed. and possible reduction in vision caused by sun exposure). (See Chapter VI. moist. (Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt [if available] to each quart of water. (5) DO NOT use lotion or grease. seizures. (a) Irrigate with clean water from the inside to the outside corner of the eye. •Check after 12 hours. skin is hot and flushed [sweating may or may not occur]. Figure VI-2. (4) Cover with sterile dressings. (1) Heat cramps (cramps in legs or abdomen). Shock. CAUTION: Handle heat stroke victim gently. (1) Sun/snow blindness (gritty. (c) Use cool compresses to reduce pain.(3) DO NOT remove embedded. (2) Foreign body in eye. Eye injuries. V-10 . •Replace patch for another 12 hours if not healed. (3) Heat stroke (victim disoriented or unconscious. charred material that will cause burned areas to bleed. cool skin). burning sensation. (2) Heat exhaustion (pale.
fingers. •Warm with blankets. respiratory and cardiac failure. • Intense shivering with impaired ability to perform complex tasks leads to— • •Violent shivering. CAUTION: In frostbite. •Put on dry clothing (if available). •Areas will feel cold and may tingle leading to— • •Numbness that progresses to— • ••Waxy appearance with stiff skin that cannot glide freely over a joint. •Ears. or shelter. (b) Frostnipped areas rewarm with body heat. sleeping bags. • •Insulate from above and below.) (b) Maintain airway. then frostbite is present. difficulty speaking. •Prevent further heat loss. nose. V-11 . (Avoid overcooling. jerky movements go to— ••••Coma. and toes are affected first. d. and circulation. Cold injuries: (1) Frostnip and frostbite— (a) Are progressive injuries. repeated freezing and thawing causes severe pain and increases damage to the tissue. breathing. puffy skin. • •Cover top of head. If body heat WILL NOT rewarm area in 15 to 20 minutes.(a) Cool as rapidly as possible (saturate clothing with water and fan the victim). DO NOT thaw frozen tissue. (b) Protect victim from the environment as follows: •Remove wet clothing. (2) Hypothermia— (a) Is a progressive injury. DO NOT rub frozen tissue. sluggish thinking go to— • ••Muscular rigidity with blue. Remember to cool the groin and armpit areas. (c) Frostbitten areas are deeply frozen and require medical treatment.
and open to air.neck. Clean and bandage wound. Snakebite. (a) Avoid walking on affected feet. cuffs. (f) DO NOT apply creams or ointments. and around • •Avoid causing burns to skin. (d) Loosen boots. (a) Remove constricting items. (2) Poisonous.. DO NOT use your mouth to create suction. f. Skin tissue will be sensitive. (e) Keep area dry. cover with a dressing. CAUTION: Handle hypothermia victim gently. CAUTION: This snakebite treatment recommendation is for situations where medical aid and specialized equipment are not available. (d) DO NOT open or squeeze sores. • •Place heat packs in groin. (b) Pat dry. DO NOT rub. (c) Dry socks and shoes. e. to improve circulation. (c) Use antiseptic (if available). armpits. (c) DO NOT cut the bite site. Keep feet protected. (a) Change body positions frequently. (1) Nonpoisonous. warm. Skin tissue damage. •Warm central areas before extremities. (d) Clean bite with soap and water. (1) Immersion injuries. V-12 . (b) Minimize activity. etc. Skin becomes wrinkled as in dishpan hands. Rewarming of victim with skin-to-skin contact by volunteer(s) inside of a sleeping bag is a survival technique but can cause internal temperatures of all to drop. Avoid overly rapid rewarming which may cause cardiac arrest. (2) Saltwater sores. (b) Keep sores dry.
(a) Flush wound with salt water (fresh water stimulates toxin release). paragraph 1c). (g) DO NOT use urine to flush or treat wounds. (1) Keep wound clean. (2) Keep covered to prevent scratching. (2) Use iodine tablet solution or diluted betadine to prevent or treat infection. (1) Wash with large amounts of water. (c) Remove tentacles and gently scrape or shave skin. (b) Remove jewelry and watches. g. force fluids. (f) Treat for shock.(e) Overwrap the bite site with a tight (elastic) bandage (Figure V-6). artificial respiration may be required (page V-1. (e) DO NOT rub area with sand. (f) Splint bitten extremity to prevent motion. (b) Cover with clean dressing. (a) Immerse affected part in hot water or apply hot compresses for 30-60 minutes (as hot as victim can tolerate). Skin irritants (includes poison oak and poison ivy). (c) Treat for shock as needed. (d) Apply a steroid cream (if available). i. (h) Position extremity below level of heart. paragraph 1a). (3) Change bandages as needed. (1) Stings. Check for pulse below the overwrap. h. (g) Treat for shock (page V-7. Marine life. (2) Punctures. V-13 . Use soap (if available). The intent is to slow capillary and venous blood flow but not arterial flow. (j) For conscious victims. (i) Construct shelter if necessary (let the victim rest). Infection.
Figure V-6. Compression Bandage for Snake Bite V-14 .
and worms. •Replace depleted material with fresh bark/plants. (2) Use a liquid diet. •Apply compress to burned area. (1) Medical uses. Willow and aspen trees (Figure V-7). V-15 . (b) Diarrhea. Tannin. strawberry leaves. 3. (3) Drink extra water. •Moisten bandage with cooled tannin tea. (1) Drink extra water. acorns. Plant Medicine a. Burns. pain. (4) Treatments. (2) Sources. (3) Preparation.) k. dysentery. (2) Exercise. •Increase tannin content by longer soaking time. fever. Apply cool compresses or soak affected part to relieve itching and promote healing. Salicin/salicylic acid. Dysentery and diarrhea. (a) Burns. skin problems. •Pour cooled tea on burned areas to ease pain. (It may relieve symptoms by absorbing toxins. b. (1) DO NOT take laxatives. Tannin solution prevents infection and aids healing. Constipation (can be expected in survival situations). (1) Medical uses.j. (3) Eat charcoal. dysentery. (c) Skin problems (dry rashes and fungal infections). (b) Leach out the tannin by soaking or boiling. (a) Place crushed outer bark. Aches. diarrhea. (2) Sources. or leaves in water. (d) Lice and insect bites. Wash affected areas with tea to ease itching. inflammation. sprains. acorns. colds. common plantain. and sore throat (aspirin-like qualities). and blackberry stems. Make a paste by mixing fine charcoal particles with water. Drink strong tea solution (may promote voiding of worms). Found in the outer bark of all trees. and parasites. banana plants.
(3) Preparation. and minerals. buds. c. (4) Treatments. (1) Medical uses. (4) Treatments. •Make a pulpy mass. wounds. Digestive aid. abrasions. diarrhea. vitamins. or cambium layer (soft. •Hold in place with a dressing. (c) Make poultice of leaves. Itching. and a food source. Common plantain. Papain. •Crush the plant or stems. (1) Medical uses. (c) Use poultice to treat cuts.(3) Preparation. (b) Gather milky white sap for its papain content. (b) Eat ripe fruit for food. (c) Use warm. d. stings. and stings. (a) Drink tea made from seeds for diarrhea or dysentery. (a) Make cuts in unripe fruit. (3) Preparation. (4) Treatments. Fruit of the papaya tree (Figure V-7). The common plantain is shown in Figure V-7. (b) Brew tea from leaves. (a) Gather twigs. burns. and dysentery. (a) Chew on twigs. meat tenderizer. (c) Avoid getting sap in eyes or wounds. (b) Drink tea for colds and sore throat. (c) Make poultice. There are over 200 plantain species with similar medicinal properties. buds. •Apply pulpy mass over injury. (2) Source. (b) Prepare tea as described in paragraph 3a(3). (b) Drink tea made from leaves for vitamin and minerals. (2) Source. (a) Brew tea from seeds. V-16 . or cambium for symptom relief. moist poultice for aches and sprains. moist layer between the outer bark and the wood) of willow or aspen. sores. (a) Use sap to tenderize tough meat.
Plantain Figure V-7. Cattail plant found in marshes (Figure V-7). Typical Willow leaf 6-16 inches tall edible pollen B. (b) Cook and eat green bloom spikes. (c) Collect yellow pollen for flour substitute. and an excellent food source. Useful Plants V-17 E. (a) Pound roots into a pulpy mass for a poultice. (b) Use plant for food. Cattail ground level edible rootstalk D. Common Cattail. (1) Medical uses. vitamins. Typical Aspen leaf edible young leaf shoot C. A. (2) Source. Wounds. Papaya . boils. (3) Preparation. sores. (4) Treatments. burns. (d) Peel and eat tender shoots (raw or cooked).e. inflammations. (a) Apply poultice to affected area. and minerals.
(d) Use adhesive tape/mole skin to prevent damage. etc. Health and Hygiene a. e.4. h. Prevent insect bites by using repellent. (1) Check body for lice. netting. b. b. c. Rules for Avoiding Illness a. Try to get 7-8 hours sleep per day.) (2) Comb and clean debris from hair. (c) Check frequently for blisters and red areas. (3) Cleanse mouth and brush teeth. 5. Eat varied diet. (2) Wash clothing and use repellents. (a) Use hardwood twig as toothbrush (fray it by chewing on one end then use as brush). Purify all water obtained from natural sources by using iodine tablets. (d) Gargle with salt water to help prevent sore throat and aid in cleaning teeth and gums. d. Stay clean (daily regimen). (3) Use smoke to fumigate clothing and equipment. fleas. (b) Pick off insects and eggs (DO NOT crush). or boiling for 5 minutes. g. and clothing. f. (Use white ashes. bleach. ticks. and massage. V-18 . (a) Change and wash socks (b) Wash. Locate latrines 200 feet from water and away from shelter. Exercise daily. Wash hands before preparing food or water. dry. (b) Use single strand of an inner core string from parachute cord for dental floss. c. (a) Check body regularly. (4) Clean and protect feet. sand. Dry wet clothing as soon as possible. Clean all eating utensils after each meal. (1) Minimize infection by washing. or loamy soil as soap substitutes. Prevent and control parasites. (c) Use clean finger to stimulate gum tissues by rubbing.
the majority of body heat escapes through the head and neck areas. NOT drinking water. Priorities a. Avoid overheating. c. Evaluate available resources and situation. (3) Wear a hat when in direct sunlight (in hot environment). (3) Establish multiple survival signals. VI-1 . Never discard clothing. Dampen clothing when on the ocean in hot weather. First 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct survival shelter according to selection criteria. (2) Layers create more dead air space. If you fall into the water in the winter— (1) Build fire. (1) Tight clothing restricts blood flow regulating body temperature. b. Keep entire body covered to prevent sunburn and dehydration in hot climates. (2) Remove wet clothing and rewarm by fire. then accomplish individual tasks accordingly. 2. (3) Finish drying clothing by fire. (2) Procure water. d. Second 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct necessary tools and weapons. (2) Dry clothing before dark to prevent hypothermia. When fully clothed. e. b. (4) Build Fire. (1) Remove layers of clothing before strenuous activities.Chapter VI PERSONAL PROTECTION 1. Care and Use of Clothing a. f. (1) Use salt water. (2) Procure food. Wear loose and layered clothing. Keep clothing dry to maintain its insulation qualities (dry damp clothing in the sun or by a fire). (2) Use a hat to regulate body heat. g. c.
Examine clothing frequently for damage. (3) Repair when necessary by using— (a) Needle and thread. Improvised foot protection (Figure VI-1). tape. (6) Secure by rope. Other Protective Equipment a. vines. Figure VI-1 Improvised Foot Wear (4) Fold front over the toes. If no fire is available— (1) Remove clothing and get into sleeping bag (if available). (b) Safety pins. (2) Air and dry daily to remove body moisture. (2) Allow wet clothes to freeze. over the instep. or tuck into other layers of material. (c) Tape.h. (1) Cut 2 to 4 layers of cloth into a 30-inch square. one at a time. (1) Fluff before use. VI-2 . especially at foot of bag. (2) Wash clothing whenever possible. i. etc. 3.. (5) Fold side corners. j. Keep clothing clean (dirt reduces its insulation qualities). (1) DO NOT sit or lie directly on the ground. Sleeping bag. (3) Center foot on triangle with toes toward corner. (2) Fold into a triangle. (3) Break ice out of clothing.
(3) Improvise with available material. (1) Near signal and recovery site. etc. (2) Improvise by cutting small horizontal slits in webbing. b. snow. Used to protect from sand. insects. and scratches (wrap material around lower leg and top of boots). (1) Wear in bright sun or snow conditions. leaves. Figure VI-2. Sun and Snow Goggles c. dry grass. Figure VI-3. Gaiters 4. (2) Available food and water. Site selection. (3) Avoid natural hazards: VI-3 . Sun and snow goggles (Figure VI-2). Gaiters (Figure VI-3). or similar materials. Shelters Evasion considerations apply. bark. a. dry moss.
(4) Location large and level enough to lie down in.(a) Dead standing trees. b. (3) Thermal A Frame. Cold climates require an enclosed. (a) Snow is the most abundant insulating material. Figure VI-4. (Figures VI-5 through VI-7). unless you can see your breath. VI-4 . (1) Immediate shelters. insulated shelter. (c) Avalanche areas. Snow Cave. Find shelter needing minimal improvements (Figure VI-4). Temperate climates require any shelter that gives protection from wind and rain. (b) Drainage and dry river beds except in combat areas. Types. Snow Trench. Immediate Shelters (2) General shelter. Note: As a general rule. your snow shelter is too warm and should be cooled down to preclude melting and dripping. (b) Air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using an open flame inside enclosed shelters.
Figure VI-5. Snow Trench VI-5 . Thermal A Frame Figure VI-6.
White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material). (2) Cover with available material. the shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches). (a) If natural materials are used. VI-6 . c. Shelter construction. (1) Have entrance 45-90 degrees from prevailing wind. Snow Cave (4) Shade shelter. See Figure VI-10 for an example. Tropical/wet climates require enclosed.Figure VI-7. (a) To reduce the surface temperature. elevated shelter for protection from dampness and insects. a minimum of 2 layers of material suspended 12-18 inches above the head is required. Hot climates require a shade shelter to protect from ultraviolet rays (Figure VI-8). (5) Elevated platform shelter (Figure VI-9). arrange them in layers starting at the bottom with each layer overlapping the previous one. (b) For thermal protection.
Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter Figure VI-9. Elevated Platform Shelter Figure VI-10.Figure VI-8. Shingle Method VI-7 .
The 3 essential elements for starting a fire are heat. leaves. b. damp. dry moss. VI-8 . Fires CAUTION: Weigh hazards and risks of detection against the need for a fire. Construct a bed to protect from cold. • Use additional layers in heavy rain. (2) Boughs. broad leaves. e. 5. etc. such as flares (last resort). Shelter construction materials: (1) Raft and raft parts. (e) Pyrotechnics. a. (d) Concentrated sunlight (use magnifying glass or flashlight reflectors). or dry moss. poncho. (5) Bark peeled off dead trees. (3) Use fires at times when the local populace is cooking. (2) Use fires at dusk. and oxygen. d. (4) Sheet of plastic or plastic bag. dawn. (8) Snow. etc. (1) Heat sources: (a) Matches or lighter. (c) Sparks from batteries. (2) Vehicle or aircraft parts.• Stretch as tight as possible • Use a 40–60 degree slope. (6) Boughs. (b) Flint and steel (experiment with various rocks and metals until a good spark is produced).— (b) If using porous material like parachute. (9) Sand and rocks. ground using— (1) Raft or foam rubber from vehicle seats. fuel. or parachute material. Evasion considerations: (1) Use trees or other sources to dissipate smoke. blankets. (7) Grass and sod. (3) Blankets. or during inclement weather. Bed construction. Fire building.
VI-9 . aircraft fuel. fork.) Examples of tinder include— • Cotton. • Candle (shred the wick. (2) Fuel is divided into 3 categories: tinder. not the wax). Chapstick. (To get tinder to burn hotter and longer. Tinder must be very finely shaved or shredded to provide a low combustion point and fluffed to allow oxygen to flow through. Without prior training. • Plastic spoon. Figure VI-11. (Gather large amounts of each category before igniting the fire. Friction Method Note: If possible. • Foam rubber. saturate with Vaseline.(f) Friction method (Figure VI-11). or knife. insect repellant. carry a fire-starting device with you. etc.) (a) Tinder. this method is difficult to master and requires a lot of time to build the device. kindling. and fuel.
(c) Fuel. Kindling must be small enough to ignite from the small flame of the tinder.•Dry bark. (b) Kindling. • Bamboo (open chambers to prevent explosion). Figure VI-12. Use the tepee fire to produce a concentrated heat source for cooking. to dry out wet wood. VI-10 . c. etc. and provide coals for cooking. lighting. Examples of fuel include— • Dry hardwood (removing bark reduces smoke). Gradually add larger kindling until arriving at the size of fuel to burn. •Gun powder. •Petroleum products. • Dry dung. Types. •Pitch. Fires are built to meet specific needs or uses. •Dry grasses. (1) Tepee fire (Figure VI-12). Tepee Fire (2) Log cabin fire (Figure VI-13). or signaling. Use the log cabin fire to produce large amounts of light and heat.
Figure VI-14. Use fire reflectors to get the most warmth from a fire. Sod Fire and Reflector VI-11 . Build fires against rocks or logs. Log Cabin or Pyramid Fires (3) Sod fire and reflector (Figure VI-14).Figure VI-13. CAUTION: DO NOT use porous rocks or riverbed rock—they may explode when heated.
(4) Dakota fire hole (Figure VI-15). Dakota Fire Hole (5) Improvised stoves (Figure VI-16). These are very efficient. Figure VI-15. Use the Dakota fire hole for high winds or evasion situations. Figure VI-16. Improvised Stove VI-12 .
DO NOT drink— (1) Urine. (5) Snow or ice. (6) Melted water from new sea ice. (d) Presence of swarming insects indicates water is near. sleet) (FigureVII-1). (4) Ground water (when no surface water is available) (Figure VII-2). and springs). VII-1 . heat. Water Procurement a. (5) Alcohol. • Lowers body temperature. Minimum 2 quarts per day to maintain fluid level. • Induces dehydration. injury. (a) Abundance of lush green vegetation. (a) DO NOT eat ice or snow. 2. (4) Sea water. snow. (2) Precipitation (rain. or an illness increases water loss. Water Requirements Drink extra water. (3) Blood. (c) “V” intersecting game trails often point to water. lakes. Water sources: (1) Surface water (streams. (e) Bird flight in the early morning or late afternoon might indicate the direction to water. Note: Pale yellow urine indicates adequate hydration. • Causes minor cold injury to lips and mouth. (3) Subsurface (wells and cisterns). (2) Fish juices. b. dew.Chapter VII Water 1. (b) Drainages and low-lying areas. Exertion.
Figure VII-1. Water Indicators VII-2 . Water Procurement Figure VII-2.
• Collect dew off raft. (a) Water available in survival kits. Figure VII-3. Old Sea Ice or Icebergs OLD SEA ICE NEW SEA ICE Bluish or blackish Milky or grey Shatters easily Does not break easily Rounded corners Sharp edges Tastes relatively salt-free Tastes extremely salty VII-3 . • Place between layers of clothing. Table VII-1. (d) Use a water generator (Figure VII-3). (c) Old sea ice or icebergs (Table VII-1). • Speed the process by adding hot rocks or water. • Stir frequently to prevent damaging container. Water Generator (6) Open seas. (b) Precipitation. • Catch rain in spray shields and life raft covers. • DO NOT place next to the skin. • Drink as much as possible. (c) Melt with body heat. • Use waterproof container.(b) Melt with fire.
• • Pour into hand to check smell. cut off 6 inches of opposite end. •Leaning Tree. • Old bamboo. • • Tap before dark. • • Produce most water at night. cut as large a piece of vine as possible (cut the top first). water will flow again. Figure VII-4. • •Shake and listen for water. • • When water flow stops.(7) Tropical areas. •Water trees (avoid milky sap). Leaning Tree •Banana plants. • Vines (Figure VII-5A). •Plants with hollow sections can collect moisture. (a) All open sources previously mentioned. Let sap stop running and harden during the daytime. (b) Vegetation. Cloth absorbs rain running down tree and drips into container (Figure VII-4). VII-4 . and taste to determine if drinkable. • • Cut bark (DO NOT use milky sap). • • If juice is clear and water like. • • DO NOT touch vine to lips. color. bore into the roots and collect water. • •Bore hole at bottom of section to obtain water. • • For evasion situations.
obtain water by digging a beach well (Figure VII-6). Figure VII-5 A and B.• •Cut out entire section to carry with you. • Green bamboo (Figure VII-5B). •Beach well. Along the coast. Figure VII-6. • •Filter and purify. Water Vines and Green Bamboo CAUTION: Liquid contained in green coconuts (ripe coconuts may cause diarrhea). Beach Well VII-5 .
(8) Dry areas. Solar Still Figure VII-8. (a) Solar still (Figure VII-7). Figure VII-7. VII-6 . Vegetation Bag (c) Transpiration bag (Figure VII-9). •Water bag must be clear. •Water will taste like the plant smells. (b) Vegetation bag (Figure VII-8).
(2) Purify all other water. VII-7 . CAUTION: DO NOT use poisonous/toxic plants in vegetation/ transpiration bags. Seepage Basin 3. Water Preparation and Storage a. b. Filtration. Transpiration Bag Figure VII-10. (1) Water from live plants requires no further treatment. Figure VII-9. Filter through porous material (sand/charcoal). (a) Boil at least 1 minute.(d) Seepage basin (Figure VII-10). Purification.
Follow instructions on package. obtain water from a clear. cold. to aerate. (4) Flotation gear. covered or sealed container. (2) Put in clear container and expose to the sun’s ultraviolet rays to kill bacteria. clean.(c) Water purification tablets. To prevent contamination. (2) Prophylactic. (3) Section of bamboo. (1) Trash bag. (b) Pour from one container to another to improve taste VII-8 . and fast running source (if possible). use a clean. Storage. c. d. (1) If water cannot be purified. Potable Water.
watering.Chapter VIII FOOD 1. Sources and location. Figure VIII-1. Food Procurement a. and roosting areas). (1) Mammals can be found where— (a) Trails lead to watering. (b) Listening for bird noises (indication of nesting areas (3) Fish and other marine life locations (Figure VIII-1). feeding. lakes. (5) Insects are found— (a) In dead logs and stumps. and slow moving streams. (1) Snares— (a) Work while unattended. b. Fishing Locations (4) Reptiles and amphibians are found almost worldwide. (c) On ponds. Procurement techniques. (b) At ant and termite mounds. (b) Droppings or tracks look fresh. (2) Birds can be found by— (a) Observing the direction of flight in the early morning and late afternoon (leads to feeding. and bedding areas. VIII-1 .
and the animal’s escape. preventing reopening. Figure VIII-2. VIII-2 . •Use funneling (natural or improvised) (Figure VIII-5). fist-sized for rabbits). the wire locks in place. and bedding areas. •Avoid disturbing the area. • To construct a squirrel pole (Figure VIII-4) use simple loop snares. •Use materials that will not break under the strain of holding an animal. (d) Placement of snares (set as many as possible). feeding. • •Once tightened. Snare Placement (c) Construction of simple loop snare. •Mouth of dens (Figure VIII-2). •Use a figure 8 (locking loop) if wire is used (Figure VIII-3). • Make noose opening slightly larger than the animal's head (3-finger width for squirrels.(b) Location: •Trails leading to water.
Locking Loop Figure VIII-4. Funneling VIII-3 .Figure VIII-3. Squirrel Pole Figure VIII-5.
(d) Pole. line. (2) Noose stick (easier and safer to use than the hands).) (a) Club or rock. Figure VIII-6.met. (e) Net. it may be dangerous. (c) Slingshot. (d) Be ready to kill the animal. (See Figure VIII-7 for fishing procurement methods. VIII-4 . (a) Insert forked stick into a den until something soft is (b) Twist the stick. (c) Remove the animal from the den. (f) Trap. binding the animal's hide in the fork. and hook. Procurement Devices (4) Hunting and fishing devices. (b) Spear. (3) Twist stick (Figure VIII-6).
•Flesh that remains dented when pressed. (h) Avoid all crustaceans above the high tide mark. (c) Kill animals before handling. •Unpleasant odor. •Flabby skin. Animals in distress may attract the enemy. (g) DO NOT eat fish eggs or liver (entrails). slimy gills.Figure VIII-7. •Pale. VIII-5 . (e) Kill fish before bringing them into the raft. (b) Avoid reaching into dark holes. (d) DO NOT secure fishing lines to yourself or the raft. Procurement Methods (5) Precautions: (a) Wear shoes to protect the feet when wading in water. •Sunken eyes. (f) DO NOT eat fish with— •Spines. (i) Avoid cone-shaped shells (Figure VIII-8).
the hairs could cause irritation or infection. Cone-Shaped Shells of Venomous Snails (j) Avoid hairy insects.Cone shell Warning! These snails can sting and cause acute pain. VIII-6 . swelling. such as— •Flies. (l) Avoid disease carrying insects. paralysis. Terebra shell Figure VIII-8. •Poisonous spiders. blindness and possible death in a few hours. (k) Avoid poisonous insects. •Mosquitoes. •Ticks. for example: •Centipedes. •Scorpions.
(d) Umbrella shaped flowers (hemlock is eliminated). VIII-7 . bulbs. (2) Avoid plants with the following characteristics: Note: Using these guidelines in selecting plants for food may eliminate some edible plants. (c) Mushrooms and fungus. (a) Milky sap (dandelion has milky sap but is safe to eat and easily recognizable).) requires more than 24 hours to test. (i) Plants with shiny leaves. these guidelines may help determine edibility. Even after testing food and finding it safe. or black spurs. (1) Selection criteria. DO NOT waste time testing a plant that is not abundant. however. Prickly pear and thistles are exceptions. (b) Spines. (a) Before testing for edibility. (g) Beans. and thorns (skin irritants/contact dermatitis).c. Before using the following guide use your evasion chart to identify edible plants: Note: If you cannot positively identify an edible plant and choose to try an unknown plant. Two good examples are green apples and wild onions. Each part of a plant (roots. eat in moderation. test all others before eating. or seeds inside pods. (f) Grain heads with pink. Bracken fern fiddleheads also violate this guideline. fine hairs. etc. (Aggregate berries such as black and dewberries are always edible. stems. purplish. these guidelines will help prevent choosing potentially toxic plants. (c) Remember that eating large portions of plant food on an empty stomach may cause diarrhea. (b) Test only 1 part of 1 plant at a time. (h) Old or wilted leaves. Plant Foods. ensure there are enough plants to make testing worth your time and effort.) (k) Almond scent in woody parts and leaves. or cramps. leaves. nausea. (j) White and yellow berries. (e) Bulbs (only onions smell like onions). bark.
Some plants have both edible and inedible parts. test for contact poisoning by placing a piece of the plant on the inside of your elbow or wrist. buds.d. If any ill effects occur during this period. Remember. (9) If after 3 minutes there is no reaction on your lip. Test procedures. thoroughly chew a pinch and hold it in your mouth for 15 minutes (DO NOT SWALLOW). touch a small portion (a pinch) to the outer surface of your lip to test for burning or itching. (4) DO NOT eat 8 hours before the test and drink only purified water. VIII-8 . NEVER ASSUME a part that proved edible when cooked is edible raw. test the part raw before eating. and flowers). place the plant on your tongue and hold it for 15 minutes. If no ill effects occur. smell alone does not indicate a plant is edible or inedible. (2) Separate the plant into its basic components (stems. The sap or juice should contact the skin. Wait another 8 hours. (5) During the 8 hours you abstain from eating. (7) Select a small portion of a single part and prepare it the way you plan to eat it. eat ¼ cup of the same plant prepared the same way. (3) Smell the food for strong acid odors. rinse out your mouth with water. If any ill effects occur. (6) During testing. swallow the food and wait 8 hours. (12) If no ill effects occur. roots. Usually 15 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction. (8) Before placing the prepared plant in your mouth. (10) If there is no reaction. induce vomiting and drink a water and charcoal mixture. (1) Test only 1 part of a plant at a time. the plant part as prepared is safe for eating. take NOTHING by mouth EXCEPT purified water and the plant you are testing. (11) If nothing abnormal occurs. The same part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals. CAUTION: Test all parts of the plant for edibility.
(b) Wash when ready to use. tongue. Concentrate your efforts on leafy green plants. and kidneys) and all meaty parts of the skull. •Open the abdominal cavity. (a) Remove the skin and save for other uses. Food Preparation Animal food gives the greatest food value per pound. (1) Mammals. brain. and above ground ripe vegetables not requiring significant preparation. Small Game Skinning VIII-9 . Ripe tropical fruits should be peeled and eaten raw. 2. (c) If preserving the meat. is the best indicator of ripeness. 3. Softness.CAUTION: 1. liver. Cook underground portions when possible to reduce bacterial contamination and ease digestion of their generally high starch content. Cook unripe fruits and discard seeds and skin. rather than color. a. •Remove the intestines. •Save inner organs (heart. Butchering and skinning. remove it from the bones. and eyes. During evasion. you may not be able to cook. 2. Figure VIII-9. (a) One cut skinning of small game (Figure VIII-9). ripe fruits. (d) Unused or inedible organs and entrails may be used as bait for other game. •Avoid rupturing the intestines.
DO NOT save. cook food. (4) Birds. (6) Fruits. mussels. CAUTION: Dead insects spoil rapidly. (a) Scale (if necessary) and gut fish soon after it is caught. berries. (2) Baking. clams. (b) Insert knifepoint into anus of fish and cut open the belly. and most nuts can be eaten raw. (b) Bury food in dirt under coals of fire. thoroughly cook all wild game. (d) Skin scavengers and sea birds. (c) Remove entrails. VIII-10 . (a) Skin. head with 2 inches of body. (a) Gut soon after killing. Cooking. snails. (d) Remove gills to prevent spoilage. (1) Boiling (most nutritious method of cooking—drink the (a) Make metal cooking containers from ration cans. (a) Remove all hard portions such as the legs of grasshoppers or crickets.) (b) Recommend cooking grasshopper-size insects. (3) Fish. (c) Skin or pluck them. and internal organs. (b) Discard skin. and scavenger birds.(2) Frogs and snakes. (The rest is edible. (5) Insects. b. (b) Drop heated rocks into containers to boil water or broth). (b) Protect from flies. (a) Wrap in leaves or pack in mud. crawfish. CAUTION: To kill parasites. Saltwater fish may be eaten raw. freshwater fish.
Some nuts (acorns) must be leached to remove the bitter taste of tannin. (1) Use salt to improve flavor and promote drying.(3) Leaching. pour off water. (4) DO NOT use pitch woods such as fir or pine. VIII-11 . boiling water is sometimes best. they produce soot giving the meat an undesirable taste. Drying and smoking removes moisture and preserves food. repeat process until palatable. Cold water should be tried first. Use one of the following leaching methods: (a) First method: •Soaking and pouring the water off. Refrigerating. c. Food Preservation b. however. (2) Cut or pound meat into thin strips. •Crushing and pouring water through. (1) Long term. (a) Shake shelled nuts in a container with hot coals. (4) Roasting. (b) Earth below the surface. (a) Food wrapped in waterproof material and placed in a stream remains cool in summer months. particularly in shady areas or along streams. •Discarding water. (2) Short term. (c) Wrap food in absorbent material such as cotton and re-wet as the water evaporates. (3) Remove fat. and taste the plant. (b) Frozen food will not decompose (freeze in meal-size portions). (a) Food buried in snow maintains a temperature of approximately 32 degrees F. Keeping an animal alive. is cooler than the surface. c. 3. •If bitter. (b) Second method: •Boil. (b) Roast thinly sliced meat and insects over a candle.
(a) Hang meat in the shade. Soft material acts as insulation helping keep the meat cool. (d) Carry shellfish. VIII-12 . (c) Ensure all corners of the wrapping are insect proof. crabs. (3) Packing meat on the trail. (b) Cover during daylight hours to protect from insects. (a) Use clean material. (2) Hanging meat. (b) Wrap pieces individually. (c) Place meat inside the pack for carrying.d. e. it attracts unwanted animals. (a) Wrap before flies appear in the morning. (d) Wrap soft fruits and berries in leaves or moss. Protecting meat from animals and insects. and shrimp in wet seaweed. DO NOT store food in the shelter. (b) Place meat in fabric or clothing for insulation. (1) Wrapping food.
BIOLOGICAL. Protection. Immediate Action Shelter IX-1 . (1) FIND PROTECTIVE SHELTER IMMEDIATELY! (2) Gather all equipment for survival (time permitting). (a) Seek existing shelter that may be improved (Figure IX-1).Chapter IX INDUCED CONDITIONS (NUCLEAR. Nuclear Conditions CAUTION: Radiation protection depends on time of exposure. and shielding. a. AND CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS) 1. Figure IX-1. (3) Avoid detection and capture. distance from the source.
follows: (b) If no shelter is available. Parachute or other suitable material Wind Enough room to work 3 Feet Minimum Figure IX-2. then enlarge for comfort (Figure IX-2). Improvised Shelter IX-2 . dig a trench or foxhole as •Dig trench deep enough for protection. •Cover with available material.
Bad Weather: Shake strongly or beat with branches.3 inches 3. (3) Culverts. SHELTER: Pick.(4) Radiation shielding efficiencies (Figure IX-3). and rest.0 inches 2. Keep handkerchief/cloth over mouth and nose. SHELTER SURVIVAL: Keep contaminated materials out of shelter. or underground sources are safest. (6) Foxhole 4 feet deep (remove topsoil (2) Storm/storage cellars within 2 feet radius of foxhole lip). DO NOT look at fireball! Remain prone until blast effects are over.8 inches 2. sleep. Improvise goggles. IX-3 . Cover exposed body parts.3 inches Ice 6. Priority: (1) Cave or tunnel covered with (5) Abandoned stone/mud buildings.7 inches Cinder Block 5. Additional thickness added to any amount of thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. 3 or more feet of earth. Good Weather: Bury contaminated clothing outside of shelter (recover later). Allow no more than 30 minutes exposure on 3d day for water procurement.2 inches Wood (Soft) 8. DO NOT smoke! 4-6 3-7 8 DAILY RADIATION TIME TABLE for NO RATE METER 9-12 2-4 hours exposure per day Complete isolation 13 Normal movement. (a) Water sources (in order of preference): •Springs. NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS: Fall flat. Present minimal profile to direction of blast. give close attention to fingernails and hairy parts. as soon as possible. DO NOT wring out! PERSONAL HYGIENE: Wash entire body with soap and any water. •Water in pipes/containers in abandoned buildings. •Snow (6 or more inches below the surface during the fallout). Brief exposure (30 minutes maximum) Brief exposure (1 hour maximum) Figure IX-3.3 inches One thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. RADIATION SHIELDING EFFICIENCIES Iron/Steel Brick Concrete Earth . Substance: (1) Water. Fallout/dusty conditions--keep entire body covered. No Water: Wipe all exposed skin surfaces with clean cloth or uncontaminated soil. keep warm.8 inches Snow 20. b. Rinse and /or shake wet clothing. (6) Lie down. Radiation Shielding Efficiencies (5) Leave contaminated equipment and clothing near shelter for retrieval after radioactive decay. 5 minutes unsheltered is maximum! (4) Basements. wells.
(a) Processed foods (canned or packaged) are preferred. •Milk from animals. •Cook all meat until very well done. •Filtering through earth removes 99 percent of radioactivity. •Avoid animals that appear to be sick or dying. (2) Food.). cut meat away from the bone. •Lakes.). leaving at least 1/8 inch of meat on the bone. •Plants whose edible portions grow underground (for example. •Aquatic food sources (use only in extreme emergencies because of high concentration of radiation). •Before cooking. •Water from below the surface (DO NOT stir up the IX-4 . turnips. •Purify all water sources. (b) Water preparation (Figures IX-4 and IX-5). •Shells of all eggs (contents will be safe to eat). water).•Use a seep well. (c) Avoid. or above ground plants that are not easily peeled or washed. etc. potatoes. etc. fruits. (b) Animal foods. •Smooth skinned vegetables. •Skin carefully to avoid contaminating the meat. Wash and remove skin. carrots. pools. •Discard all internal organs. apples. •Streams and rivers (filtered before drinking). wash and wipe containers before use. •Edible portions growing above ground that can be washed and peeled or skinned (bananas. (d) Plant foods (in order of preference). etc. ponds.
Figure IX-4. Filtration Systems, Filtering Water
Figure IX-5. Filtration Systems, Settling Water
c. Self-aid: (1) General rules: (a) Prevent exposure to contaminants. (b) Use personal hygiene practices and remove body waste from shelter. (c) Rest, avoid fatigue. (d) Drink liquids. (2) Wounds. (a) Clean affected area. (b) Use antibacterial ointment or cleaning solution. (c) Cover with clean dressing. (d) Watch for signs of infection. (3) Burns. (a) Clean affected area. (b) Cover with clean dressing. (4) Radiation sickness (nausea, weakness, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of hair, radiation burns). (a) Time is required to overcome. (b) Rest. (c) Drink fluids. (d) Maintain food intake. (e) Prevent additional exposure. 2. Biological Conditions a. Clues which may alert you to a biological attack follow: (1) Enemy aircraft dropping objects or spraying. (2) Breakable containers or unusual bombs, particularly those bursting with little or no blast, and muffled explosions. (3) Smoke or mist of unknown origin. (4) Unusual substances on the ground or vegetation; sick looking plants or crops. b. Protection from biological agents follow: (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Bathe as soon as the situation permits. (3) Wash hair and body thoroughly with soap and water. (4) Clean thoroughly under fingernails. (5) Clean teeth, gums, tongue, and roof of mouth frequently.
c. Survival tips for biological conditions follow: (1) Keep your body and living area clean. (2) Stay alert for clues of biological attack. (3) Keep nose, mouth, and skin covered. (4) Keep food and water protected. Bottled or canned foods are safe if sealed. If in doubt, boil food and water for 10 minutes. (5) Construct shelter in a clear area, away from vegetation, with entrance 90 degrees to the prevailing wind. (6) If traveling, travel crosswind or upwind (taking advantage of terrain to stay away from depressions). 3. Chemical Conditions a. Detecting. (1) Smell. Many agents have little or no odor. (2) Sight. Many agents are colorless: (a) Color. Yellow, orange, or red smoke or mist. (b) Liquid. Oily, dark patches on leaves, ground, etc. (c) Gas. Some agents appear as a mist immediately after shell burst. (d) Solid. Most solid state agents have some color. (3) Sound. Muffled explosions are possible indications of chemical agent bombs. (4) Feel. Irritation to the nose, eyes, or skin and/or moisture on the skin are danger signs. (5) Taste. Strange taste in food or water indicates contamination. (6) General indications. Tears, difficult breathing, choking, itching, coughing, dizziness. (7) Wildlife. Presence of sick or dying animals. b. Protection against chemical agents follows: (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Avoid contaminated areas. (a) Exit contaminated area by moving crosswind. (b) Select routes on high ground. (c) Avoid cellars, ditches, trenches, gullies, valleys, etc. (d) Avoid woods, tall grasses, and bushes as they tend to hold chemical agent vapors.
Tips for the survivor: (1) DO NOT use wood from a contaminated area for fire. Pinch-blotting. Self-aid in chemically contaminated areas.(e) Decontaminate body and equipment as soon as possible by— •Removing. handkerchief. Burying. •Neutralizing. dead fish. (2) Look for signs of chemical agents around water sources before procurement (oil spots. (c) Improvise a breathing filter using materials available (T-shirt. c. or animals). foreign odors. etc. •Destroying. (3) Keep food and water protected. Warm water. (1) If a chemical defense ensemble is available— (a) Use all protective equipment. d. (b) Rinse contaminated areas with water. (4) DO NOT use plants for food or water in contaminated areas. fabric. (2) If a chemical defense ensemble is not available— (a) Remove or tear away contaminated clothing.). (b) Follow antidote directions when needed. IX-8 .
(4) Anticipate fears. and cohesiveness promote high morale: (a) Preventing panic. boredom. Psychology of Survival a. withdrawal. anxiety. (3) Faith in America. illness.Appendix A THE WILL TO SURVIVE ARTICLE VI CODE OF CONDUCT I will never forget that I am an American fighting for freedom. b. Strengthen your will to survive with— (1) The Code of Conduct. I will trust in my God and in the United States of America. and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. fatigue. (2) Keep a positive attitude. (2) Pledge of Allegiance. environment. (2) Taking care of your buddy. (3) Develop a realistic plan. (b) Creating strength and trust in one another. (3) Working as a team. forgetfulness. depression. (4) Reassuring and encouraging each other. (4) Patriotic songs. A-1 . hunger. Preparation— (1) Know your capabilities and limitations. responsible for my actions. carelessness. (b) Attributing normal reactions to existing stressors (fear. (5) Thoughts of return to family and friends. death. Group dynamics of survival include— (1) Leadership. c. (d) Facilitating formulation of group goals. 1. (5) Combat psychological stress by— (a) Recognizing and anticipating existing stressors (injury. (c) Favoring persistency in overcoming failure. guilt. isolation). (c) Identifying signals of distress created by stressors (indecision. anger). good organization. and propensity to make mistakes).
k. (3) Share scriptures and songs. With other survivors— (1) Identify or appoint a religious lay leader. or hymns. Spiritual Considerations a. (4) Pray for protection and a positive outcome. (3) Ask for God’s help. (2) Discuss what is important to you. f. repeat them to yourself and to your God. or others. h. Meditate. 2. (1) Faith and trust in your God. Remember scripture. (3) Hope comes from a belief in heaven and/or an after-life. clergy. b. verses. (2) Love for family and self. g. e. strength. (c) Accepting suggestions and criticism. Collect your thoughts and emotions. (b) Organizing according to individual capabilities. A-2 . Worship without aid of written scripture. d. (2) God will see you through (no matter what happens). (1) Talk to your God.(5) Influencing factors are— (a) Enforcing the chain of command. Pray for your God’s help. (2) Give thanks that God is with you. wisdom. (4) Never give up. Use self-control. Remember past inner sources to help you overcome adversity. j. (5) Try to have worship services. c. Praise God and give thanks because— (1) God is bigger than your circumstances. Identify your personal beliefs. (2) Those who have failed you. Forgive— (1) Yourself for what you have done or said that was wrong. (4) Pray for each other. and rescue. i. l. (3) Never lose hope. Trust.
(7) Encourage each other while waiting for rescue.(6) Write down scriptures and songs that you remember. remember— (a) Your God loves you. A-3 . (b) Praise your God.
The Army will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Army training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commander. 2. weatherproof. evasion. Distribution is in accordance with the Department of Army Form 12-99-R. US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). Scope This UNCLASSIFIED multiservice tactics. 4. regulations. and reference and incorporate it in Service and command manuals. and recovery information. Implementation Plan Participating Service command offices of primary responsibility (OPRs) will review this publication. Application The target audience for this publication is any Service member requiring basic survival. and procedures publication is designed to assist Service members in a survival situation regardless of geographic location. and curricula as follows: Army. 3. validate the information.Appendix B Publication Information 1. Purpose This publication provides Service members a quick reference. and recovery information. pocket-sized guide on basic survival. techniques. B-1 . evasion.
Marine Corps. c. Air Force. This publication reflects current joint and Service doctrine. personnel. Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC). The Marine Corps will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Marine Corps training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commanding general. The Navy will incorporate these procedures in US Navy doctrinal and training publications as directed by the commander. US Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC). Distribution is in accordance with Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures Desk Guide and Navy Standing Operating Procedures Publication 409. User Information a. b. facilities. ALSA will review and update this publication as necessary. command and control (C2) organizations. Distribution is in accordance with Air Force Instructions 33-360. will likewise be incorporated in revisions to this document. Send comments and recommendation directly to— B-2 . 5. and procedures. Key your comments to the specific page and paragraph and provide a rationale for each recommendation. appropriately reflected in joint and Service publications. responsibilities. We encourage recommended changes for improving this publication. Air Force units will validate and incorporate appropriate procedures in accordance with applicable governing directives. Distribution is in accordance with Marine Corps Publication Distribution System. The TRADOC-MCCDC-NWDC-AFDC Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Center developed this publication with the joint participation of the approving Service commands. Navy. Changes in Service protocol.
mil ALSA ALSA Center ATTN: Director 114 Andrews Street Langley AFB.Army Commander US Army Training and Doctrine Command ATTN: ATDO-A Fort Monroe VA 23651-5000 DSN 680-3153 COMM (757) 727-3153 Marine Corps Commanding General US Marine Corps Combat Development Command ATTN: C42 3300 Russell Road Quantico VA 22134-5001 DSN 278-6234 COMM (703) 784-6234 Navy Commander Navy Warfare Development Command (Det Norfolk) ATTN: ALSA Liaison Officer 1530 Gilbert Street Norfolk VA 23511-2785 DSN 262-2782 COMM (757) 322-2782 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org@langley.af.navy.mil Air Force HQ Air Force Doctrine Center ATTN: DJ 216 Sweeney Boulevard Suite 109 Langley AFB VA 23665-2722 DSN 754-8091 COMM (757) 764-8091 E-mail Address: afdc. VA 23665-2785 DSN 575-0902 COMM (757) 225-0902 E-mail: email@example.com B-3 .
SMITH Rear Admiral. . KINNAN Major General. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center This publication is available on the Army Doctrinal and Training Digital Library (ADTDL) at http://155. USN Commander Navy Warfare Development Command TIMOTHY A. J. ABRAMS General. JOHN N.217. RHODES Lieutenant General. USA Commander Training and Doctrine Command J.This publication has been prepared under our direction for use by our respective commands and other commands as appropriate.58.58. E. USMC Commanding General Marine Corps Combat Development Command B.
and U. United States Army Chief of Staff Official: JOEL B. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center *Supersedes: AFPAM 36-2246. requirements for FM 21-76-1.3 *AFTTP(I) 3-2. . SHINSEKI General. Army National Guard. KINNAN Major General.S.FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50. 1 March 1996 Air Force Distribution: F DISTRIBUTION: Active Army. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number 110906. HUDSON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army By Order of the Secretary of the Air Force: TIMOTHY A.26 29 JUNE 1999 By Order of the Secretary of the Army: ERIC K.
MARINE CORPS: PCN 14400006800 .
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