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**Chapter 10 VAPOR AND COMBINED POWER CYCLES
**

Carnot Vapor Cycle 10-1C Because excessive moisture in steam causes erosion on the turbine blades. The highest moisture content allowed is about 10%. 10-2C The Carnot cycle is not a realistic model for steam power plants because (1) limiting the heat transfer processes to two-phase systems to maintain isothermal conditions severely limits the maximum temperature that can be used in the cycle, (2) the turbine will have to handle steam with a high moisture content which causes erosion, and (3) it is not practical to design a compressor that will handle two phases.

10-3E A steady-flow Carnot engine with water as the working fluid operates at specified conditions. The thermal efficiency, the quality at the end of the heat rejection process, and the net work output are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Analysis (a) We note that

TH = Tsat @180 psia = 373.1°F = 833.1 R TL = Tsat @14.7 psia = 212.0°F = 672.0 R

T

and

ηth,C 672.0 R T = 1− L = 1− = 19.3% 833.1 R TH

1 180 psia 2 qin 14.7 psia 4 3 s

**(b) Noting that s4 = s1 = sf @ 180 psia = 0.53274 Btu/lbm·R,
**

x4 = s4 − s f s fg = 0.53274 − 0.31215 = 0.153 1.44441

(c) The enthalpies before and after the heat addition process are

**h2 = h f + x 2 h fg = 346.14 + (0.90)(851.16) = 1112.2 Btu/lbm Thus,
**

q in = h2 − h1 = 1112.2 − 346.14 = 766.0 Btu/lbm

h1 = h f @ 180 psia = 346.14 Btu/lbm

and,

wnet = η th q in = (0.1934)(766.0 Btu/lbm) = 148.1 Btu/lbm

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

10-2

10-4 A steady-flow Carnot engine with water as the working fluid operates at specified conditions. The thermal efficiency, the amount of heat rejected, and the net work output are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Analysis (a) Noting that TH = 250°C = 523 K and TL = Tsat @ 20 kPa = 60.06°C = 333.1 K, the thermal efficiency becomes

η th,C = 1 −

TL 333.1 K = 1− = 0.3632 = 36.3% 523 K TH

T

**(b) The heat supplied during this cycle is simply the enthalpy of vaporization,
**

q in = h fg @ 250oC = 1715.3 kJ/kg

250°C

1 qin 20 kPa 4 qout

2

Thus,

q out = q L = ⎛ 333.1 K ⎞ TL q in = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 523 K ⎟(1715.3 kJ/kg ) = 1092.3 kJ/kg TH ⎠ ⎝

3 s

**(c) The net work output of this cycle is
**

wnet = η th q in = (0.3632 )(1715.3 kJ/kg ) = 623.0 kJ/kg

10-5 A steady-flow Carnot engine with water as the working fluid operates at specified conditions. The thermal efficiency, the amount of heat rejected, and the net work output are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Analysis (a) Noting that TH = 250°C = 523 K and TL = Tsat @ 10 kPa = 45.81°C = 318.8 K, the thermal efficiency becomes

η th, C = 1 −

TL 318.8 K =1− = 39.04% 523 K TH

T

**(b) The heat supplied during this cycle is simply the enthalpy of vaporization,
**

q in = h fg @ 250°C = 1715.3 kJ/kg

250°C

1 qin 10 kPa 4 qout

2

Thus,

q out = q L = ⎛ 318.8 K ⎞ TL q in = ⎜ ⎜ 523 K ⎟(1715.3 kJ/kg ) = 1045.6 kJ/kg ⎟ TH ⎝ ⎠

3 s

**(c) The net work output of this cycle is
**

wnet = η th q in = (0.3904)(1715.3 kJ/kg ) = 669.7 kJ/kg

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

10-3

10-6 A steady-flow Carnot engine with water as the working fluid operates at specified conditions. The thermal efficiency, the pressure at the turbine inlet, and the net work output are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Analysis (a) The thermal efficiency is determined from

TL 60 + 273 K = 1− = 46.5% 350 + 273 K TH

η th, C = 1 −

(b) Note that

T

**s2 = s3 = sf + x3sfg = 0.8313 + 0.891 × 7.0769 = 7.1368 kJ/kg·K Thus,
**

T2 = 350°C ⎫ ⎬ P2 ≅ 1.40 MPa (Table A-6) s 2 = 7.1368 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭

350°C

1

2

60°C

4

3 s

**(c) The net work can be determined by calculating the enclosed area on the T-s diagram,
**

s 4 = s f + x 4 s fg = 0.8313 + (0.1)(7.0769) = 1.5390 kJ/kg ⋅ K

Thus,

wnet = Area = (TH − TL )(s 3 − s 4 ) = (350 − 60)(7.1368 − 1.5390) = 1623 kJ/kg

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

10-10C The pump work remains the same. (2) P = constant heat addition in a boiler.10-4 The Simple Rankine Cycle 10-7C The four processes that make up the simple ideal cycle are (1) Isentropic compression in a pump. . 10-14C Yes. 10-9C Heat rejected decreases. (3) Isentropic expansion in a turbine. you are using it without permission. Inc. and (4) P = constant heat rejection in a condenser. 10-13C We would reject this proposal because wturb = h1 .h2 . everything else increases. and any heat loss from the steam will adversely affect the turbine work output.81°C. 10-8C Heat rejected decreases. If you are a student using this Manual. and heat loss to the surrounding medium from these components and piping. everything else increases. the moisture content decreases. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. because the saturation temperature of steam at 10 kPa is 45. everything else increases. which is much higher than the temperature of the cooling water. and (b) the same as the boiler inlet pressure in ideal cycles.qout. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 10-11C The actual vapor power cycles differ from the idealized ones in that the actual cycles involve friction and pressure drops in various components and the piping. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 10-12C The boiler exit pressure will be (a) lower than the boiler inlet pressure in actual cycles.

Inc.50 = 139.02 + (0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.10-5 10-15E A simple ideal Rankine cycle with water as the working fluid operates between the specified pressure limits.94782 Btu ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0. A-5E.4)Btu/lbm ⎝ 1 kJ ⎠ The rates of heat addition and rejection are & & Qin = m(h3 − h2 ) = (0. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4E. .02)Btu/lbm = 913.02 Btu/lbm v 1 = v f @ 6 psia = 0.out = m(h3 − h4 ) ⎯ ⎯→ m = & WT.50 Btu/lbm ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ T 500 psia 2 qin 6 psia 4 s 3 h2 = h1 + wp.01645 ft 3 /lbm wp. h1 = h f @ 6 psia = 138.404 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ = 1.9300 lbm/s (1630.9864 s fg 1. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined. you are using it without permission.0 Btu/lbm ⎬ T3 = 1200°F ⎭ s 3 = 1.out h3 − h4 = 500 kJ/s ⎛ 0.in = 138.8075 Btu/lbm ⋅ R s 4 − s f 1.52)Btu/lbm = 1386 Btu/s & = m(h − h ) = (0.52 Btu/lbm 1 qout P3 = 500 psia ⎫ h3 = 1630. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.88) = 1120.0 − 139.4 − 138.8075 − 0.6 Btu/s Qout & 4 1 and the thermal efficiency of the cycle is η th = 1 − & Qout 913. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.341 & 1386 Q in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.9300 lbm/s)(1630.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 Btu = (0. The rates of heat addition and rejection.02 + 1.24739 P4 = 6 psia ⎫ x 4 = = = 0.4 Btu/lbm 4 f 4 fg Knowing the power output from the turbine the mass flow rate of steam in the cycle is determined from & & & WT. and A-6E).9300 lbm/s)(1120.58155 ⎬ s 4 = s3 ⎭ h = h + x h = 138.9864)(995.01645 ft 3 /lbm)(500 − 6)psia ⎜ ⎜ 5. If you are a student using this Manual. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.6 = 1− = 0.0 − 1120.

2 q in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the quality at state 4 would be at its minimum of 85% (most closely approaches the Carnot cycle).04 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp. you are using it without permission. and A-6).10-6 10-16 A simple ideal Rankine cycle with water as the working fluid operates between the specified pressure limits. Inc.7440 kJ/kg ⋅ K Since the expansion in the turbine is isentropic. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.0 kJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the cycle is η th = 1 − q out 1985.27 + (0. h1 = h f @ 30 kPa = 289. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.27 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 30 kPa = 0. .31 = 2823.27 = 1985.in = 289. If you are a student using this Manual.0 = 1− = 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.31 kJ/kg Thus. and the properties at state 4 would be (Table A-5) P4 = 30 kPa ⎫ h4 = h f + x 4 h fg = 289. The maximum thermal efficiency of the cycle for a given quality at the turbine exit is to be determined. P3 = 3000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h3 = 3115.2 kJ/kg q out = h4 − h1 = 2274.7440 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ T 3 3 MPa 2 1 qin 30 kPa qout 4 s Other properties are obtained as follows (Tables A-4.297 2823.3) = 2274.9441 + (0.04 = 292.27 + 3.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0.3 − 289.001022 m 3 /kg )(3000 − 30)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 3.85)(6.85)(2335. q in = h3 − h2 = 3115.001022 m 3 /kg wp.5 − 292.8234) = 6.5 kJ/kg s 3 = s 4 = 6. Analysis For maximum thermal efficiency. A-5.85 ⎭ s 4 = s f + x 4 s fg = 0.3 kJ/kg ⎬ x 4 = 0.

630 kW & & W P. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.05 = 255.in = mwP.05 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp.9596 s fg 7.7 kJ/kg 4 f 4 fg The power produced by the turbine and consumed by the pump are & & WT. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.6214 − 0.001017 m 3 /kg wp.42 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 20 kPa = 0. If you are a student using this Manual.47 kJ/kg T 4 MPa 2 1 qin 20 kPa 4 s 3 qout P3 = 4000 kPa ⎫ h3 = 3906.in = (50 kg/s)(4.05 kJ/kg) = 203 kW PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.in = 251. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.8320 P4 = 20 kPa ⎫ x 4 = = = 0. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.out = m(h3 − h4 ) = (50 kg/s)(3906.3 − 2513.001017 m 3 /kg)(4000 − 20)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 4. and A-6).0752 ⎬ s 4 = s3 ⎭ h = h + x h = 251. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.6214 kJ/kg ⋅ K s4 − s f 7.3 kJ/kg ⎬ T3 = 700°C ⎭ s 3 = 7. .in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0. The power produced by the turbine and consumed by the pump are to be determined.9596)(2357.42 + (0. Inc. h1 = h f @ 20 kPa = 251.5) = 2513. A-5.7)kJ/kg = 69.10-7 10-17 A simple ideal Rankine cycle with water as the working fluid operates between the specified pressure limits.42 + 4. you are using it without permission.

8 Btu/lbm ⎬ s 3 = s 4 = 1. A-5E.52203 Btu/lbm ⋅ R P3 = 2500 psia ⎫ h3 = 1450.18 + (0.0 Btu/lbm q out = h4 − h1 = 930.5) = 930. .58 − 130. h1 = h f @ 5 psia = 130. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. q in = h3 − h2 = 1450.52203 Btu/lbm ⋅ R ⎭ T3 = 989.4 = 1− = 0.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 Btu = (0.58 Btu/lbm ⎬ x 4 = 0. and A-6E).18 Btu/lbm T 2500 psia 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 3 v 1 = v f @ 5 psia = 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.58 Btu/lbm 3 qin 5 psia 1 qout 4 s h2 = h1 + wp.76 Btu/lbm P4 = 5 psia ⎫ h4 = h f + x 4 h fg = 130.4 Btu/lbm The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η th = 1 − q out 800. The turbine inlet temperature and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4E.80)(1000.0 q in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.76 = 1313.10-8 10-18E A simple ideal Rankine cycle with water as the working fluid operates between the specified pressure limits.390 1313.8 − 137.2 °F Thus. Inc. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.80)(1.58 = 137.23488 + (0.in = 130.01641 ft /lbm)(2500 − 5)psia ⎜ ⎜ 5. If you are a student using this Manual.60894) = 1.404 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ = 7.01641 ft 3 /lbm wp.18 + 7.80 ⎭ s 4 = s f + x 4 s fg = 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.18 = 800. you are using it without permission.

8 kJ/kg q out = h4 − h1 = 1911.6618)(2257. If you are a student using this Manual. .in = 417.000 kPa ⎫ h3 = 2610.8 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.5 = 699. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4. h1 = h f @ 100 kPa = 417. A-5.3028 P4 = 100 kPa ⎫ x 4 = = = 0.54 = 433.001043 m 3 /kg )(15.3108 − 1. wT. The power produced by the turbine.3 kJ/kg q in = h3 − h2 = 2610.000 − 100)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 15.001043 m 3 /kg w p. the heat added in the boiler.3108 kJ/kg ⋅ K s4 − s f 5.05 = 2177.8 − 433. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.51 + 15.10-9 10-19 A simple ideal Rankine cycle with water as the working fluid operates between the specified pressure limits.0 = 1− = 0.8 − 1911. you are using it without permission.51 + (0.8 kJ/kg ⎬ x3 = 1 ⎭ s 3 = 5.out = h3 − h4 = 2610. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.5 − 417.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0.0562 s fg ⎬ s 4 = s3 ⎭ h = h + x h = 417.05 kJ/kg T 15 MPa 2 qin 100 kPa 3 1 qout 4 P3 = 15.51 = 1494. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.5) = 1911.6618 6. Inc.5 kJ/kg 4 f 4 fg Thus.0 kJ/kg s The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η th = 1 − q out 1494. and A-6).51 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 100 kPa = 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.314 q in 2177. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.54 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp.

Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.8 kJ/kg x 4 = 0.3108 kJ/kg ⋅ K s4 − s f 5.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0.5 q in = h3 − h2 = 2610.10-10 10-20 A simple Rankine cycle with water as the working fluid operates between the specified pressure limits. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. you are using it without permission.000 − 100)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 15.001043 m /kg )(15. h3 − h4 2610. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine.70 ⎭ s The isentropic efficiency of the turbine is ηT = Thus. If you are a student using this Manual.3108 − 1.54 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp.8 = = 0.0562 ⎬ s 4 = s3 ⎭ h = h + x h = 417.51 + (0. h1 = h f @ 100 kPa = 417.6618 s fg 6. and A-6).51 + (0. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. A-5.8 − 1911.05 = 2177.6618)(2257.3028 P4 = 100 kPa ⎫ x 4 s = = = 0.51 = 1580.8 − 1997.8 kJ/kg q out = h4 − h1 = 1997.3 = 1− = 0.274 q in 2177.8 − 417. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.70)(2257.8 − 433.8 kJ/kg ⎬ x3 = 1 ⎭ s 3 = 5.51 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 100 kPa = 0. Inc.05 kJ/kg 3 T 15 MPa 2 qin 100 kPa 3 1 qout 4s 4 P3 = 15. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.5) = 1911.877 h3 − h4 s 2610.5) = 1997.54 = 433.in = 417.5 kJ/kg f 4s 4 s fg P4 = 100 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h4 = h f + x 4 h fg = 417.000 kPa ⎫ h3 = 2610. .51 + 15.8 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.3 kJ/kg The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η th = 1 − q out 1580.001043 m 3 /kg wp.

13 kJ/kg h3 − h4 s q in = h3 − h2 = 1302.72 + 7.94782 Btu ⎞ & & & ⎯→ m = net = W net = mwnet ⎯ ⎜ ⎟ = 2. the rate of heat addition.72 = 769.10-11 10-21E A simple steam Rankine cycle operates between the specified pressure limits. If you are a student using this Manual.41 Btu/lbm wnet = q in − q out = 1224.01614 ft 3 /lbm wp. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.4116 Btu/lbm ⋅ R s 4 − s f 1.8 − 769. you are using it without permission.94782 Btu ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ = 0.39 Btu/lbm ⎝ 1 kJ ⎠ The power output from the turbine and the rate of heat addition are 1 kJ ⎛ ⎞ & & WT.13262 P4 = 1 psia ⎫ x 4 s = = = 0. and A-6E). h3 − h4 ⎯ ⎯→ h4 = h3 − η T (h3 − h4s ) = 1302.01614 ft 3 /lbm)(2500 − 1)psia ⎜ ⎜ 5.404 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ = 7.0 − 77. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.18 Btu/lbm ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ T 2500 psia 3 2 qin 1 psia 4s 4 s 1 qout P3 = 2500 psia ⎫ h3 = 1302.72 Btu/lbm v 1 = v f @ 6 psia = 0. The mass flow rate.0 − 839.41 = 455. h1 = h f @ 1 psia = 69.46 = 77.94782 Btu ⎠ ⎝ & & Qin = mq in = (2.in = 69.7) = 787. Inc.6932 s fg 1.0 − (0.13)Btu/lbm⎜ ⎟ = 1016 kW 0.90)(1302.4116 − 0.3718 & 2549 Btu/s ⎝ 1 kJ Qin ⎠ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.out = m(h3 − h4 ) = (2.0 Btu/lbm ⎬ T3 = 800°F ⎭ s 3 = 1.70 Btu/lbm 4s f 4 s fg ηT = Thus.0 − 787.84495 ⎬ s 4 = s3 ⎭ h = h + x h = 69. A-5E.081 lbm/s)(1224. the power produced by the turbine.46 Btu/lbm h2 = h1 + wp.39 Btu/lbm The mass flow rate of steam in the cycle is determined from & W 1000 kJ/s ⎛ 0.70) = 839. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4E.8 Btu/lbm) = 2549 Btu/s and the thermal efficiency of the cycle is η th = & W net 1000 kJ/s ⎛ 0.13 − 69.8 Btu/lbm q out = h4 − h1 = 839.72 + (0.18 = 1224. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.081 lbm/s)(1302.6932)(1035. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 Btu = (0. .081 lbm/s wnet 455.

18 Btu/lbm 1 qout P3 = 2500 psia ⎫ h3 = 1302.10-12 10-22E A simple steam Rankine cycle operates between the specified pressure limits. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.3718 × 100 = 1. h1 = h f @ 1 psia = 69.404 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ = 7. Inc.70 Btu/lbm 4s f 4 s fg ηT = h3 − h4 ⎯ ⎯→ h4 = h3 − η T (h3 − h4s ) = 1302. and A-6E).0 − 839. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4E.64% 0.46 = 77.13262 P4 = 1 psia ⎫ x 4 s = = = 0.70) = 839. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.7) = 787.4116 − 0.in = 69.3779 − 0.90)(1302.94782 Btu ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ = 0.01614 ft 3 /lbm wp.6932)(1035.72 + (0.048 lbm/s)(1302. If you are a student using this Manual.94782 Btu ⎠ ⎝ and the thermal efficiency of the cycle is η th = & W net 1000 kJ/s ⎛ 0.3718 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.13 kJ/kg h3 − h4 s The mass flow rate of steam in the cycle is determined from & W net 1000 kJ/s ⎛ 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.72 + 7.84495 ⎬ s 4 = s3 ⎭ h = h + x h = 69.18)Btu/lbm⎜ ⎟ = 2508 Btu/s 0. you are using it without permission.0 − 787.4116 Btu/lbm ⋅ R s 4 − s f 1.048 lbm/s h3 − h4 (1302.6932 s fg 1.13) Btu/lbm ⎝ 1 kJ ⎠ The rate of heat addition is 1 kJ ⎛ ⎞ & & Qin = m(h3 − h2 ) = (2. .in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 Btu = (0. The error in the thermal efficiency caused by neglecting the pump work is then Error = 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.94782 Btu ⎞ & & & W net = m(h3 − h4 ) ⎯ ⎯→ m = = ⎜ ⎟ = 2. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. the rate of heat addition.0 − 77.3779 & 2508 Btu/s ⎝ 1 kJ Qin ⎠ The thermal efficiency in the previous problem was determined to be 0.72 Btu/lbm v 1 = v f @ 6 psia = 0. A-5E.46 Btu/lbm ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ T 2500 psia 2 qin 1 psia 4s 4 s 3 h2 = h1 + wp.01614 ft 3 /lbm)(2500 − 1)psia ⎜ ⎜ 5.0 − (0. the power produced by the turbine. The mass flow rate.3718.0 Btu/lbm ⎬ T3 = 800°F ⎭ s 3 = 1.

2453 η overall & m coal = & Qin 1.3407 q in 3040. Inc. Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4. h1 = h f @ 25 kPa = 271. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.07 = 277.992 kJ/s Qin = 0.2 kJ/kg The thermal efficiency is determined from qin = h3 − h2 = 3317.10-13 10-23 A 300-MW coal-fired steam power plant operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle between the specified pressure limits.2 kJ/kg and η th = 1 − Thus.2 = 1− = 0.000 kJ/s & = = 1.8932 P4 = 25 kPa ⎫ = = 0.300 kJ/kg ⎜ 1000 kg ⎟ C coal ⎝ ⎠ and PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.00102 m /kg (5000 − 25 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 5.2 − 277.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) T ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.8210 kJ/kg ⋅ K s 4 − s f 6.2 η overall = η th ×η comb ×η gen = (0.9370 ⎭ 4 s h4 = h f + x 4 h fg = 271.03 kJ/kg 3 ( ) 3 2 1 5 MPa · Qin 25 kPa · Qout P3 = 5 MPa ⎫ h3 = 3317.07 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + w p .2 kJ/kg qout = h4 − h1 = 2276.992 kJ/s ⎛ 1 ton ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.222. The overall plant efficiency and the required rate of the coal supply are to be determined.5% (b) Then the required rate of coal supply becomes & W net 300. A-5.04174 tons/s = 150. q out 2004.96 = 2004.2 − 271.in = 271.96 + (0.3407 )(0.96 ) = 24.96 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 25 kPa = 0. and A-6).8545 ⎬ x4 = s 4 = s3 s fg 6.03 = 3040. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.222. If you are a student using this Manual.8545)(2345.5) = 2276. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. .96 + 5. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 kJ/kg ⎬ T3 = 450°C ⎭ s 3 = 6.8210 − 0.3 tons/h = 29.001020 m 3 /kg w p .75)(0. you are using it without permission.

10-14

10-24 A solar-pond power plant that operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. The thermal efficiency of the cycle and the power output of the plant are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Analysis (a) From the refrigerant tables (Tables A-11, A-12, and A-13),

h1 = h f @ 0.7 MPa = 88.82 kJ/kg w p ,in = v 1 (P2 − P1 )

v 1 = v f @ 0.7 MPa = 0.0008331 m 3 /kg

⎛ 1 kJ = 0.0008331 m 3 /kg (1400 − 700 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 0.58 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + w p ,in = 88.82 + 0.58 = 89.40 kJ/kg

P3 = 1.4 MPa ⎫ h3 = h g @ 1.4 MPa = 276.12 kJ/kg ⎬ sat.vapor ⎭ s 3 = s g @ 1.4 MPa = 0.9105 kJ/kg ⋅ K

T

(

)

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

2 1

1.4 MPa qin R-134a 0.7 MPa qout

3

4 s

s 4 − s f 0.9105 − 0.33230 P4 = 0.7 MPa ⎫ = = 0.9839 ⎬ x4 = s 4 = s3 s fg 0.58763 ⎭ h4 = h f + x 4 h fg = 88.82 + (0.9839)(176.21) = 262.20 kJ/kg

Thus ,

q in = h3 − h2 = 276.12 − 89.40 = 186.72 kJ/kg q out = h4 − h1 = 262.20 − 88.82 = 173.38 kJ/kg wnet = q in − q out = 186.72 − 173.38 = 13.34 kJ/kg

and

η th =

(b)

wnet 13.34 kJ/kg = = 7.1% q in 186.72 kJ/kg

& & Wnet = mwnet = (3 kg/s )(13.34 kJ/kg ) = 40.02 kW

10-15

10-25 A steam power plant operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle between the specified pressure limits. The thermal efficiency of the cycle, the mass flow rate of the steam, and the temperature rise of the cooling water are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4, A-5, and A-6),

h1 = h f @ 10 kPa = 191.81 kJ/kg w p ,in = v 1 (P2 − P1 )

v 1 = v f @ 10 kPa = 0.00101 m 3 /kg

⎛ 1 kJ = 0.00101 m 3 /kg (7,000 − 10 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 7.06 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + w p ,in = 191.81 + 7.06 = 198.87 kJ/kg P3 = 7 MPa ⎫ h3 = 3411.4 kJ/kg ⎬ T3 = 500°C ⎭ s 3 = 6.8000 kJ/kg ⋅ K s 4 − s f 6.8000 − 0.6492 P4 = 10 kPa ⎫ = = 0.8201 ⎬ x4 = s 4 = s3 s fg 7.4996 ⎭

T

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

(

)

3 2 1 7 MPa qin 10 kPa qout 4 s

h4 = h f + x 4 h fg = 191.81 + (0.8201)(2392.1) = 2153.6 kJ/kg

Thus,

q in = h3 − h2 = 3411.4 − 198.87 = 3212.5 kJ/kg q out = h4 − h1 = 2153.6 − 191.81 = 1961.8 kJ/kg wnet = q in − q out = 3212.5 − 1961.8 = 1250.7 kJ/kg

and

η th =

(b) & m=

wnet 1250.7 kJ/kg = = 38.9% q in 3212.5 kJ/kg

& Wnet 45,000 kJ/s = = 36.0 kg/s wnet 1250.7 kJ/kg

**(c) The rate of heat rejection to the cooling water and its temperature rise are
**

& & Qout = mq out = (35.98 kg/s )(1961.8 kJ/kg ) = 70,586 kJ/s & Qout 70,586 kJ/s ΔTcooling water = = = 8.4°C & (mc) cooling water (2000 kg/s )(4.18 kJ/kg ⋅ °C )

10-16

10-26 A steam power plant operates on a simple nonideal Rankine cycle between the specified pressure limits. The thermal efficiency of the cycle, the mass flow rate of the steam, and the temperature rise of the cooling water are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4, A-5, and A-6),

h1 = h f @ 10 kPa = 191.81 kJ/kg

v 1 = v f @ 10 kPa = 0.00101 m 3 /kg

w p ,in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) / η p

⎛ 1 kJ = 0.00101 m /kg (7,000 − 10 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 8.11 kJ/kg

3

T 3

(

)

⎞ ⎟ / (0.87 ) ⎟ ⎠

2

2

7 MPa qin 10 kPa

h2 = h1 + w p ,in = 191.81 + 8.11 = 199.92 kJ/kg P3 = 7 MPa ⎫ h3 = 3411.4 kJ/kg ⎬ T3 = 500°C ⎭ s 3 = 6.8000 kJ/kg ⋅ K s 4 − s f 6.8000 − 0.6492 P4 = 10 kPa ⎫ = = 0.8201 ⎬ x4 = s 4 = s3 s fg 7.4996 ⎭

1

qout

4 4 s

h4 s = h f + x 4 h fg = 191.81 + (0.820)(2392.1) = 2153.6 kJ/kg

ηT =

Thus,

h3 − h4 ⎯ ⎯→ h4 = h3 − ηT (h3 − h4 s ) h3 − h4 s = 3411.4 − (0.87 )(3411.4 − 2153.6) = 2317.1 kJ/kg

qin = h3 − h2 = 3411.4 − 199.92 = 3211.5 kJ/kg qout = h4 − h1 = 2317.1 − 191.81 = 2125.3 kJ/kg wnet = qin − qout = 3211.5 − 2125.3 = 1086.2 kJ/kg

and

η th =

(b)

& m=

wnet 1086.2 kJ/kg = = 33.8% q in 3211.5 kJ/kg

**& 45,000 kJ/s Wnet = = 41.43 kg/s wnet 1086.2 kJ/kg
**

& & Qout = mq out = (41.43 kg/s )(2125.3 kJ/kg ) = 88,051 kJ/s

(c) The rate of heat rejection to the cooling water and its temperature rise are

ΔTcooling water =

& Qout & (mc) cooling water

=

88,051 kJ/s = 10.5°C (2000 kg/s )(4.18 kJ/kg ⋅ °C)

9 q in η th = 1 − (b) Carnot Cycle analysis: P3 = 10 MPa ⎫ h3 = 2725.5 − 261.5 kJ/kg ⎬ x3 = 1 ⎭ s 3 = 5.3 − 1093.0 °C ⎫ h2 = 1407. you are using it without permission.6159 − 0. If you are a student using this Manual.9 kJ/kg q out 1594.42 + (0.57 = 2463.5) = 1093.001017 m 3 /kg w p . A-5.9 kJ/kg q out = h4 − h1 = 1845.0752 T Carnot cycle 2 3 1 4 s = 251.7 kJ/kg q out = h4 − h1 = 1845.3603 kJ/kg ⋅ K P1 = 20 kPa ⎫ s fg ⎬h = h +x h s1 = s 2 f 1 fg ⎭ 1 x1 = s1 − s f = 3.15 kJ/kg T Rankine cycle 3 2 1 4 s ( ) h2 = h1 + w p .5 kJ/kg ⎬ x3 = 1 ⎭ T3 = 311.8320 = 0.8 kJ/kg ⎬ x2 = 0 ⎭ s 2 = 3.3 = 565.5 − 1407.3603 − 0.6159 kJ/kg ⋅ K s4 − s f P4 = 20 kPa ⎫ 5.0 kJ/kg wnet = q in − q out = 2463.57 kJ/kg P3 = 10 MPa ⎫ h3 = 2725.0 = 1− = 0.8 = 1317.4 = 1− = 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.in = v1 (P2 − P ) 1 ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.001017 m3 /kg (10.42 = 1594.3 − 251.0752 s fg ⎭ h4 = h f + x 4 h fg = 251.4 kJ/kg q out 751.10-17 10-27 The net work outputs and the thermal efficiencies for a Carnot cycle and a simple ideal Rankine cycle are to be determined. .7 q in η th = 1 − PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. Analysis (a) Rankine cycle analysis: From the steam tables (Tables A-4. Inc.9 kJ/kg q in = h3 − h2 = 2725.3 kJ/kg q in = h3 − h2 = 2725.9 = 751.5) = 1845.7 − 752.8320 = = 0.15 = 261.430 1317.42 kJ/kg v1 = v f @ 20 kPa = 0. and A-6).0 °C T2 = T3 = 311.in = 251.353 2463.4 kJ/kg wnet = q in − q out = 1317.6761 ⎬ x4 = s 4 = s3 7.000 − 20 ) kPa ⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 10.3574 7.42 + (0. h1 = h f @ 20 kPa = 251.3574)(2357.0 = 869.9 − 1594.6761)(2357.42 + 10.

.90)(2392.20 kJ/kg)(2748.83)kJ/kg = 203.1 − 2160.10-18 10-28 A single-flash geothermal power plant uses hot geothermal water at 230ºC as the heat source.410 kW (d) We use saturated liquid state at the standard temperature for dead state enthalpy T0 = 25°C⎫ ⎬ h0 = 104.1 kJ/kg ⎬ x3 = 1 ⎭ s 3 = 6.14 kJ/kg ⎭ h fg 990.81 + (0.622 E in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.7)kJ/kg = 15.410 = = 0. If you are a student using this Manual.14 kJ/kg x1 = 0 ⎭ h2 − h f P2 = 500 kPa ⎫ ⎬x2 = h2 = h1 = 990.622 kW η th = & WT.3 (c) The power output from the turbine is & & WT.20 kg/s (b) Turbine: production well 1 reinjection well P3 = 500 kPa ⎫ h3 = 2748.out = m3 (h3 − h4 ) = (38. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.0757 = 7.14 − 640. Inc. you are using it without permission.3 kJ/kg s 4 = s3 ⎭ P4 = 10 kPa ⎫ ⎬h4 = h f + x 4 h fg = 191. the power output from the turbine. The mass flow rate of steam through the turbine.6% & 203. the isentropic efficiency of the turbine. and the thermal efficiency of the plant are to be determined. Analysis (a) We use properties of water for geothermal water (Tables A-4 through A-6) T1 = 230°C⎫ ⎬ h1 = 990. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 − 2344.8207 kJ/kg ⋅ K P4 = 10 kPa ⎫ ⎬h4 s = 2160.686 h3 − h4 s 2748.1661)(230 kg/s) = 38.09 = 2108 2 = 0.1) = 2344.14 − 104. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.7 kJ/kg x 4 = 0.83 kJ/kg x0 = 0 ⎭ & & E in = m1 (h1 − h0 ) = (230 kJ/kg)(990.1 − 2344.out 15.7 = = 0.90 ⎭ ηT = h3 − h4 2748.1661 3 steam turbine separator condenser 6 Flash chamber 5 4 The mass flow rate of steam through the turbine is & & m3 = x 2 m1 = (0.

out 15.90 kJ/kg)(2693.90 ⎭ P6 = 500 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h6 = 640.1661 = 191.0777 P8 = 150 kPa ⎫ ⎬h8 = 2693.0777)(191.83)kJ/kg = 203. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.80 kg/s) = 14.35 °C ⎬ h7 = h6 ⎭ x 7 = 0. out = m3 (h3 − h4 ) = (38. Inc. the power produced from the second turbine. If you are a student using this Manual.14 kJ/kg x1 = 0 ⎭ P2 = 500 kPa ⎫ ⎬ x 2 = 0.90 kg/s The power outputs from the high and low pressure stages of the turbine are & & WT1. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.20 kg/s & & & m6 = m1 − m3 = 230 − 0.1 kJ/kg x3 = 1 ⎭ P4 = 10 kPa ⎫ ⎬h4 = 2344.621 E in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.7 kJ/kg x 4 = 0.10-19 10-29 A double-flash geothermal power plant uses hot geothermal water at 230ºC as the heat source.80 kg/s P3 = 500 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h3 = 2748.621 kW η th = & WT. Analysis (a) We use properties of water for geothermal water (Tables A-4 through A-6) T1 = 230°C⎫ ⎬ h1 = 990. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.410 kW & & WT2.20 kJ/kg)(2748.83 kJ/kg x0 = 0 ⎭ & & Ein = m1 (h1 − h0 ) = (230 kg/s)(990. out = m8 (h8 − h4 ) = (14.1661 h2 = h1 = 990.09 kJ/kg x6 = 0 ⎭ P7 = 150 kPa ⎫ T7 = 111.101 = 10.14 kJ/kg ⎭ & & m3 = x2 m1 = (0. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. .7)kJ/kg = 15.410 + 5193 = = 0.7)kJ/kg = 5191 kW (c) We use saturated liquid state at the standard temperature for the dead state enthalpy T0 = 25°C⎫ ⎬ h0 = 104.1 − 2344.14 − 104. you are using it without permission.1 kJ/kg x8 = 1 ⎭ 3 8 separator steam turbine 4 2 6 Flash chamber 7 separator Flash chamber 9 condenser 5 1 production well reinjection well (b) The mass flow rate at the lower stage of the turbine is & & m8 = x7 m6 = (0. The temperature of the steam at the exit of the second flash chamber.1% & 203.1 − 2344. and the thermal efficiency of the plant are to be determined.1661)(230 kg/s) = 38.

09 kJ/kg x6 = 0 ⎭ T7 = 90°C ⎫ ⎬ h7 = 377.001839 m /kg w p .1 kJ/kg x3 = 1 ⎭ P4 = 10 kPa ⎫ ⎬h4 = 2344.04 kJ/kg x7 = 0 ⎭ 3 separator steam turbine 4 6 2 8 heat exchanger flash chamber condenser air-cooled condenser 5 1 9 isobutane turbine BINARY CYCLE pump The isobutane properties are obtained from EES: P8 = 3250 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h8 = 755.7 kJ/kg x 4 = 0. If you are a student using this Manual.65)kJ/kg ⎯ ⎯→ miso = 105.14 kJ/kg x1 = 0 ⎭ P2 = 500 kPa ⎫ ⎬ x 2 = 0.377.7)kJ/kg = 15.09 . ( ) h11 = h10 + w p .65 kJ/kg An energy balance on the heat exchanger gives & & m 6 (h6 − h7 ) = miso (h8 − h11 ) & & (191. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.410 kW PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission.46 kg/s (b) The power outputs from the steam turbine and the binary cycle are & & WT.83 kJ/kg ⎬ 3 x10 = 0 ⎭ v 10 = 0.80 kg/s P3 = 500 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h3 = 2748.19 kJ/kg)(2748.1661)(230 kg/s) = 38.90 ⎝ ⎠ = 5. Inc.90 ⎭ P6 = 500 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h6 = 640. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.82 kJ/kg.01 kJ/kg T9 = 80°C ⎭ 1 1 production well 7 reinjection well P10 = 400 kPa ⎫ h10 = 270.001819 m 3/kg (3250 − 400 ) kPa ⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m3 ⎟ / 0.14 kJ/kg ⎭ & & m3 = x2 m1 = (0. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.20 kg/s & & & m6 = m1 − m3 = 230 − 38.82 = 276. The mass flow rate of isobutane in the binary cycle.04)kJ/kg = m iso (755. . and the thermal efficiencies for the binary cycle and the combined plant are to be determined.20 = 191.1661 h2 = h1 = 990. the net power outputs from the steam turbine and the binary cycle.in = 270.1 − 2344.in = v10 (P − P ) / η p 11 10 ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.81 kg/s)(640.05 kJ/kg T8 = 145°C ⎭ P9 = 400 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h9 = 691.276.05 .83 + 5. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Analysis (a) We use properties of water for geothermal water (Tables A-4 through A-6) T1 = 230°C⎫ ⎬ h1 = 990.10-20 10-30 A combined flash-binary geothermal power plant uses hot geothermal water at 230ºC as the heat source.steam = m3 (h3 − h4 ) = (38.

Inc.82 kJ/kg ) = 6139 kW (c) The thermal efficiencies of the binary cycle and the combined plant are & & Qin. binary T0 = 25°C⎫ ⎬ h0 = 104.iso = miso (h8 − h9 ) = (105.iso − miso w p . plant = & & WT.410 + 6139 = = 0. binary 6139 = = 0.6% & 203.2% & 50. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.binary = miso (h8 − h11 ) = (105.01)kJ/kg = 6753 kW & & & W net.454 Qin.83 kJ/kg x0 = 0 ⎭ & & E in = m1 (h1 − h0 ) = (230 kJ/kg)(990.122 = 12. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .10-21 & & WT.binary = & W net.46 kg/s)(5.65)kJ/kg = 50. If you are a student using this Manual.83)kJ/kg = 203. you are using it without permission.454 kW η th.binary = WT.05 − 276.622 E in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.in = 6753 − (105.46 kJ/kg)(755.05 − 691.46 kJ/kg)(755.14 − 104.106 = 10.622 kW η th.steam + Wnet. binary 15.

. the moisture content decreases. as the reheating pressure increases.2 0. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. see the reheat process 2 to 3 versus the reheat process 5 to 6.6 0. the amount of condensation increases during the expansion process in the lowpressure turbine. state 4 versus state 7. Increasing the reheat pressure will increase the cycle efficiency. Increasing the pressure for reheating increases the average temperature for heat addition makes the energy of the steam more available for doing work. Inc. In the second case there is expansion through the high-pressure turbine from 6000 kPa to 500 kPa between states 1 and 5 with reheat at 500 kPa to state 6 and finally expansion in the low-pressure turbine to state 7. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 900 SteamIAPWS 800 700 1 3 6 T [K ] 600 6000 kPa 4000 kPa 2 500 400 0. An optimal pressure for reheating generally allows for the moisture content of the steam at the low-pressure turbine exit to be in the range of 10 to 15% and this corresponds to quality in the range of 85 to 90%. you are using it without permission. everything else increases. However.8 20 kPa 300 4 7 200 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 s [kJ/kmol-K] 10-33C The thermal efficiency of the simple ideal Rankine cycle will probably be higher since the average temperature at which heat is added will be higher in this case. 10-32C The T-s diagram shows two reheat cases for the reheat Rankine cycle similar to the one shown in Figure 10-11. If you are a student using this Manual. In the first case there is expansion through the high-pressure turbine from 6000 kPa to 4000 kPa between states 1 and 2 with reheat at 4000 kPa to state 3 and finally expansion in the low-pressure turbine to state 4.4 500 kPa 5 0.10-22 The Reheat Rankine Cycle 10-31C The pump work remains the same.

1 = 3492.12 = 1358.7266 kJ/kg ⋅ K P4 = 3 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h4 = 3105. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. η th = wnet 1358.2359 − 0. If you are a student using this Manual.9% 3492. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.001017 m3 /kg w p .5 − 3105.out = (h3 − h4 ) + (h5 − h6 ) = 3399.10-23 10-34 [Also solved by EES on enclosed CD] A steam power plant that operates on the ideal reheat Rankine cycle is considered.42 kJ/kg v1 = v f @ 20 kPa = 0.2 − 3105.42 + 8.2 = 1366. h1 = h f @ 20 kPa = 251.5 − 259.0752 ⎬ s6 = s5 ⎭ h6 = h f + x6 h fg = 251.in = 1366.out − w p .54 kJ/kg P3 = 8 MPa ⎫ h3 = 3399.1 + 3457.12 = 259.2 kJ/kg The turbine work output and the thermal efficiency are determined from wT. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.2 − 2385.8320 = = 0. The turbine work output and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.5) = 2385.5 kJ/kg ⎬ T3 = 500°C ⎭ s3 = 6. A-5.2359 kJ/kg ⋅ K s6 − s f 7.3 kJ/kg Thus.4 − 8.9051)(2357.0 kJ/kg wnet = wT .2 kJ/kg ⎬ T5 = 500°C ⎭ s5 = 7. Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.42 + (0. . and A-6).54 + 3457.in = 251.4 kJ/kg and q in = (h3 − h2 ) + (h5 − h4 ) = 3399.3 kJ/kg = = 38.12 kJ/kg T 3 8 MPa 4 2 20 kPa 1 6 s 5 ( ) h2 = h1 + w p .in = v1 (P2 − P ) 1 ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.001017 m 3 /kg (8000 − 20 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 8. you are using it without permission.9051 P6 = 20 kPa ⎫ x6 = s fg 7.5 kJ/kg q in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.1 kJ/kg s4 = s3 ⎭ P5 = 3 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3457.

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.P=P[4]) h[3] =W_t_hp+h[4]"SSSF First Law for the high pressure turbine" "Low Pressure Turbine analysis" P[5]=P[4] s[5]=entropy(Fluid$.T=T[4].P=P[5]) h[5]=enthalpy(Fluid$. "Input Data .P=P[4]) Ts[4]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[2].T=T[3].P=P[5]) s_s[6]=s[5] hs[6]=enthalpy(Fluid$. Analysis The problem is solved using EES.P=P[3]) v[3]=volume(Fluid$.T=T[3].T=T[5]. Inc.T=T[3].x=x[1]) W_p_s=v[1]*(P[2]-P[1])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" W_p=W_p_s/Eta_p h[2]=h[1]+W_p "SSSF First Law for the pump" v[2]=volume(Fluid$.10-24 10-35 EES Problem 10-34 is reconsidered.P=P[1].P=P[1].s=s_s[6].x=x[1]) T[1]=temperature(Fluid$.h=h[2]) T[2]=temperature(Fluid$. If you are a student using this Manual.P=P[6]) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.P=P[3]) s[3]=entropy(Fluid$. you are using it without permission.s=s_s[4].x=x[1]) s[1]=entropy(Fluid$.s=s[4].T=T[5].h=h[4]) s[4]=entropy(Fluid$. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.s=s_s[4]. and the solution is given below.P=P[1]. The problem is to be solved by the diagram window data entry feature of EES by including the effects of the turbine and pump efficiencies and reheat on the steam quality at the low-pressure turbine exit Also.P=P[4].P=P[4]) v[4]=volume(Fluid$.P=P[1]. .P=P[2].h=h[2]) "High Pressure Turbine analysis" h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$.x=x[1]) v[1]=volume(Fluid$. the T-s diagram is to be plotted.from diagram window" {P[6] = 20 [kPa] P[3] = 8000 [kPa] T[3] = 500 [C] P[4] = 3000 [kPa] T[5] = 500 [C] Eta_t = 100/100 "Turbine isentropic efficiency" Eta_p = 100/100 "Pump isentropic efficiency"} "Pump analysis" function x6$(x6) "this function returns a string to indicate the state of steam at point 6" x6$='' if (x6>1) then x6$='(superheated)' if (x6<0) then x6$='(subcooled)' end Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' P[1] = P[6] P[2]=P[3] x[1]=0 "Sat'd liquid" h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P[4]) Eta_t=(h[3]-h[4])/(h[3]-hs[4])"Definition of turbine efficiency" T[4]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[3]) s_s[4]=s[3] hs[4]=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P[2].h=h[2]) s[2]=entropy(Fluid$.

0 1 .0 s [k J /k g -K ] SOLUTION Eff=0.2 [C] Ts[4]=345.6 7 .P=P[6]) "Boiler analysis" Q_in + h[2]+h[4]=h[3]+h[5]"SSSF First Law for the Boiler" "Condenser analysis" h[6]=Q_out+h[1]"SSSF First Law for the Condenser" T[6]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[6]) x6s$=x6$(x[6]) "Cycle Statistics" W_net=W_t_hp+W_t_lp-W_p Eff=W_net/Q_in 7 00 Id e a l R a n k in e c yc le w ith re h e a t 6 00 5 00 3 5 4 00 T [C] 4 8 0 0 0 kP a 3 0 0 0 kP a 3 00 2 00 1 00 1 .h=h[6].4 [kJ/kg] h[4]=3105 [kJ/kg] hs[4]=3105 [kJ/kg] P[2]=8000 [kPa] P[5]=3000 [kPa] Q_out=2134 [kJ/kg] s[3]=6.06 [C] T[4]=345.117 [kJ/kg] W_t_lp=1072 [kJ/kg] x[6]=0.06 [C] v[1]=0. you are using it without permission.P=P[6]) vs[6]=volume(Fluid$.9 1 1.5 6.2 2 0 kP a 6 0 0.h=h[6].4 [C] T[5]=500 [C] Ts[6]=60.s=s_s[6].8 [kJ/kg] x[1]=0 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.8321 [kJ/kg-K] s[5]=7. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.2 [C] v[2]=0.10-25 Ts[6]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[6]) Eta_t=(h[5]-h[6])/(h[5]-hs[6])"Definition of turbine efficiency" h[5]=W_t_lp+h[6]"SSSF First Law for the low pressure turbine" x[6]=QUALITY(Fluid$.5 [kJ/kg] h[5]=3457 [kJ/kg] hs[6]=2385 [kJ/kg] P[3]=8000 [kPa] P[6]=20 [kPa] s[1]=0.2 3.832 [kJ/kg-K] s[4]=6.3 4 .001017 [m^3/kg] v[4]=0.7 8.236 [kJ/kg-K] T[1]=60. If you are a student using this Manual.06 [C] v[3]=0.727 [kJ/kg-K] s_s[4]=6. .001014 [m^3/kg] vs[6]=6.236 [kJ/kg-K] T[3]=500 [C] T[6]=60.1 2 .08968 [m^3/kg] W_p=8.04177 [m^3/kg] W_net=1359 [kJ/kg] W_t_hp=294.h=h[6].4 5 .8 9.922 [m^3/kg] W_p_s=8.236 [kJ/kg-K] s_s[6]=7.117 [kJ/kg] x6s$='' Eta_t=1 h[2]=259. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.389 Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' h[3]=3400 [kJ/kg] h[6]=2385 [kJ/kg] P[1]=20 [kPa] P[4]=3000 [kPa] Q_in=3493 [kJ/kg] s[2]=0.9051 Eta_p=1 h[1]=251.727 [kJ/kg-K] s[6]=7.P=P[6]) s[6]=entropy(Fluid$.s=s_s[6].727 [kJ/kg-K] T[2]=60.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.25 Btu/lbm v 1 = v f @ 10 psia = 0.7 Btu/lbm w net = q in − q out = 1261.250 Btu/s and the thermal efficiency of the cycle is η th = & W net 5000 kJ/s ⎛ 0.01659 ft 3 /lbm)(600 − 10)psia ⎜ ⎜ 5.28362 P6 = 10 psia ⎫ x 6 = = = 0.25 + 1. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. .06 Btu/lbm ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ T 3 600 psia 2 200 psia 4 6 s 5 10 psia P3 = 600 psia ⎫ h3 = 1289.0 Btu/lbm ⎝ 1 kJ ⎠ The rates of heat addition and rejection are & & Qin = mq in = (13. A-5E.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 Btu = (0.47 lbm/s)(1261.81 = 163. and A-6E or EES). and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.8 = 352.990 Btu/s ⎝ 1 kJ Qin ⎠ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.00219 s fg ⎬ s 4 = s3 ⎭ h = h + x h = 355.3 Btu/lbm ⎬ T5 = 600°F ⎭ s 5 = 1. The rates of heat addition and rejection.94782 Btu ⎞ & & & W net = mwnet ⎯ ⎯→ m = net = ⎜ ⎟ = 13.7 − 909.0 Btu/lbm The mass flow rate of steam in the cycle is determined from & W 5000 kJ/s ⎛ 0.5325 Btu/lbm ⋅ R s 4 − s f 1.47 lbm/s)(909.5325 − 0. q in = (h3 − h2 ) + (h5 − h4 ) = 1289.in = 161.10-26 10-36E An ideal reheat steam Rankine cycle produces 5000 kW power. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.995 Btu/s & & Qout = mq out = (13.3 − 1187.54379 P4 = 200 psia ⎫ x 4 = = = 0.9266 1.5 Btu/lbm 4 f 4 fg P5 = 200 psia ⎫ h5 = 1322.25 + (0. Inc.06 + 1322.9266)(981.7 Btu/lbm) = 12.0 Btu/lbm 6 f 6 fg Thus.9865 1.46 + (0.6771 Btu/lbm ⋅ R s 4 − s f 1. h1 = h f @ 10 psia = 161. If you are a student using this Manual. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.2790 & 16.0 − 161.404 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ = 1.01659 ft 3 /lbm w p.81 Btu/lbm h2 = h1 + wp.82) = 1071. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4E.6771 − 0.9865)(843.9 − 163.94782 Btu ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ = 0.25 = 909. you are using it without permission.7 Btu/lbm) = 16.50391 s fg ⎬ s6 = s5 ⎭ h = h + x h = 161.5 = 1261.47 lbm/s wnet 352.7 Btu/lbm q out = h6 − h1 = 1071.33) = 1187.9 Btu/lbm ⎬ 1 T3 = 600°F ⎭ s 3 = 1.

25 + 1.11 lbm/s wnet 361. A-5E.620 Btu/s and the thermal efficiency of the cycle is η th = & W net 5000 kJ/s ⎛ 0.25 + (0. you are using it without permission. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.2 Btu/lbm 6 f 6 fg Thus.10-27 10-37E An ideal reheat steam Rankine cycle produces 5000 kW power.28362 P6 = 10 psia ⎫ x 6 = = = 0. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.01659 ft 3 /lbm)(600 − 10)psia ⎜ ⎜ 5.9808 1.7586 Btu/lbm ⋅ R s 6 − s f 1.11 lbm/s)(1324.9 Btu/lbm 1 ⎬ T3 = 600°F ⎭ s 3 = 1. h1 = h f @ 10 psia = 161.51 + (0.5 Btu/lbm ⎝ 1 kJ ⎠ The rates of heat addition and rejection are & & Qin = mq in = (13.4 Btu/lbm q out = h6 − h1 = 1124. If you are a student using this Manual.47427 P4 = 100 psia ⎫ x 4 = = = 0.11 lbm/s)(962.94782 Btu ⎞ & & & W net = mwnet ⎯ ⎯→ m = net = ⎜ ⎟ = 13.9 = 361.2790.4 Btu/lbm) = 17.9 Btu/lbm) = 12.06 Btu/lbm ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ T 3 600 psia 2 100 psia 10 psia 4 6 s 5 P3 = 600 psia ⎫ h3 = 1289. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.9 Btu/lbm 4 f 4 fg P5 = 100 psia ⎫ h5 = 1329.82) = 1124.5325 Btu/lbm ⋅ R s 4 − s f 1.9 Btu/lbm w net = q in − q out = 1324.5 Btu/lbm The mass flow rate of steam in the cycle is determined from & W 5000 kJ/s ⎛ 0.4 Btu/lbm ⎬ T5 = 600°F ⎭ s 5 = 1.94782 Btu ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ = 0. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.404 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ = 1.81 Btu/lbm h2 = h1 + wp.4 − 1131.07 + 1329.81 = 163.25 Btu/lbm v 1 = v f @ 6 psia = 0. The rates of heat addition and rejection. q in = (h3 − h2 ) + (h5 − h4 ) = 1289. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4E.7586 − 0.50391 s fg ⎬ s6 = s5 ⎭ h = h + x h = 161. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.360 Btu/s & & Qout = mq out = (13. and A-6E or EES).12888 s fg ⎬ s 4 = s3 ⎭ h = h + x h = 298.99) = 1131. .9 − 163.2 − 161.5325 − 0. Inc. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined for a reheat pressure of 100 psia.9374 1.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 Btu = (0.25 = 962.9374)(888.360 Btu/s ⎝ 1 kJ Qin ⎠ Discussion The thermal efficiency for 200 psia reheat pressure was determined in the previous problem to be 0.in = 161.01659 ft 3 /lbm w p.9808)(981.4 − 962.9 = 1324.2729 & 17. operating the reheater at 100 psia causes a slight decrease in the thermal efficiency. Thus.

90)(2108.1) = 2344.90 ⎭ s 4 = s f + x 4 s fg = 1. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.4 − 195.3 kJ/kg ⎬ x 4 = 0.90)(2392. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.in = 191.4 kJ/kg ⎬ s3 = s 4 ⎭ T3 = 292.81 = 2152.6492 + (0.03 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp. you are using it without permission. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.84 + 3029. and A-6).9 kJ/kg and η th = 1 − q out 2152.90)(7.7 kJ/kg ⎬ x 6 = 0.3247 kJ/kg ⋅ K P3 = 4000 kPa ⎫ h3 = 2939.4 q in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.9 °C Thus.84 kJ/kg P4 = 500 kPa ⎫ h4 = h f + x 4 h fg = 640.09 + (0.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. A-5.81 + 4. h1 = h f @ 10 kPa = 191. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 − 2537. Inc.4996) = 7. .9603) = 6.81 + (0.3 = 3235.3989 kJ/kg ⋅ K P5 = 500 kPa ⎫ h5 = 3029.10-28 10-38 An ideal reheat Rankine with water as the working fluid is considered.335 3235.03 = 195.0) = 2537.001010 m 3 /kg )(4000 − 10)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 4. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.001010 m 3 /kg w p.9 = 1− = 0. The temperatures at the inlet of both turbines.81 kJ/kg T 3 4 MPa 2 1 500 kPa 10 kPa 4 6 s 5 v 1 = v f @ 10 kPa = 0.90)(4. If you are a student using this Manual. q in = ( h3 − h2 ) + ( h5 − h4 ) = 2939.90 ⎭ s 6 = s f + x 6 s fg = 0.8604 + (0.4 kJ/kg q out = h6 − h1 = 2344.7 − 191.2 °C P6 = 10 kPa ⎫ h6 = h f + x 6 h fg = 191.2 kJ/kg ⎬ s5 = s6 ⎭ T5 = 282.

5019 s fg ⎬ s6 = s5 ⎭ h = h + x h = 340.2 − 2841.001030 m 3 /kg w p.54 = 2012.380 3247.7684 − 1. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. A-5.51 + 3024.9 − 340. you are using it without permission. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.8732 6.5MPa 2 MPa 2 50 kPa 1 6 4 5 P3 = 17. Inc.9 kJ/kg 6 f 6 fg Thus.4266 kJ/kg ⋅ K P4 = 2000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h4 = 2841.8 kJ/kg q out = h6 − h1 = 2352. .8732)(2304.6 − 358.54 + (0. The thermal efficiency of the cycle is to be determined.in = 340.7684 kJ/kg ⋅ K s6 − s f 6. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.97 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0. and A-6 or EES). Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.4 kJ/kg and η th = 1 − q out 2012.51 kJ/kg T 3 17.54 + 17.6 kJ/kg ⎬ T3 = 550°C ⎭ s 3 = 6.0912 P6 = 50 kPa ⎫ x 6 = = = 0.5 kJ/kg s 4 = s3 ⎭ s P5 = 2000 kPa ⎫ h5 = 3024.2 kJ/kg ⎬ T5 = 300°C ⎭ s 5 = 6.5 = 3247.97 = 358.001030 m 3 /kg )(17500 − 50)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 17.8 q in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.54 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 50 kPa = 0.500 kPa ⎫ h3 = 3423.10-29 10-39 An ideal reheat Rankine cycle with water as the working fluid is considered. q in = (h3 − h2 ) + ( h5 − h4 ) = 3423. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.4 = 1− = 0.7) = 2352. h1 = h f @ 50 kPa = 340.

52 kJ/kg 3 T 3 17. . PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.6 q in The thermal efficiency was determined to be 0.396.5MP 2 1 2 MPa 50 kPa 4 6 s 5 P3 = 17.54 + 17. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.9968 6.5725 − 1.0 − 340.5019 s fg ⎬ s6 = s5 ⎭ h = h + x h = 340.500 kPa ⎫ h3 = 3423.6 − 358.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0.97 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp.4 = 1− = 0. When this temperature is increased to 550°C.10-30 10-40 An ideal reheat Rankine cycle with water as the working fluid is considered. h1 = h f @ 50 kPa = 340.54 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 50 kPa = 0. and A-6 or EES).2% in thermal efficiency. the thermal efficiency becomes 0.in = 340. q in = (h3 − h2 ) + (h5 − h4 ) = 3423. If you are a student using this Manual.54 + (0. A-5.6 kJ/kg ⎬ T3 = 550°C ⎭ s 3 = 6.380 when the temperature at the inlet of low-pressure turbine was 300°C. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.0912 P6 = 50 kPa ⎫ x 6 = = = 0.5725 kJ/kg ⋅ K s6 − s f 7.9968)(2304. The thermal efficiency of the cycle is to be determined. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.0 − 2841.52 + 3579.4266 kJ/kg ⋅ K P4 = 2000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h4 = 2841.4 kJ/kg and η th = 1 − q out 2297.396 3802. you are using it without permission. This corresponding to a percentage increase of 4.001030 m 3 /kg w p. Inc.0 kJ/kg ⎬ T5 = 550°C ⎭ s 5 = 7.97 = 358.001030 m /kg )(17500 − 50)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 17.7) = 2638.5 = 3802.5 kJ/kg s 4 = s3 ⎭ P5 = 2000 kPa ⎫ h5 = 3579.54 = 2297.6 kJ/kg q out = h6 − h1 = 2638.0 kJ/kg 6 f 6 fg Thus.

81 kJ/kg T 3 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ v 1 = v sat @ 10 kPa = 0.834 kJ/s = 1− = 42. .90)(7. and A-6).3480 kJ/kg ⋅ K P6 = 10 kPa ⎫ h6 = h f + x 6 h fg = 191.8 − 206.835 kJ/s η th = 1 − & Qout 25. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.039 kW (c) The thermal efficiency is determined from Thus.15 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h4 = 2817.90)(2392.81 + (0.14 kJ/kg 3 5 ( ) 15 4 2 10 kPa 1 6 s h2 = h1 + w p . Inc.2)kJ/kg = 45.61 − 2817.in = 191.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.95 + 3466. If you are a student using this Manual.7 − 191. Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.000 − 10 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 15.7 kJ/kg ⎬ s6 = s5 ⎭ s 6 = s f + x 6 s fg = 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.95 kJ/kg P3 = 15 MPa ⎫ h3 = 3310.2 kJ/kg s 4 = s3 ⎭ (b) The rate of heat supply is & & Qin = m[(h3 − h2 ) + (h5 − h4 )] = (12 kg/s )(3310.14 = 206.61 kJ/kg P4 = 2. The pressure at which reheating takes place. you are using it without permission. h1 = hsat @ 10 kPa = 191.6492 + (0.10-31 10-41 A steam power plant that operates on an ideal reheat Rankine cycle between the specified pressure limits is considered.6% & 45.4996 ) = 7. A-5.3988 kJ/kg ⋅ K T5 = 500°C ⎫ P5 = 2150 kPa (the reheat pressure) ⎬ s5 = s6 ⎭ h5 = 3466.81)kJ/kg = 25.81 + 15. the total rate of heat input in the boiler. & & Qout = m(h6 − h1 ) = (12 kJ/s )(2344.00101 m 3 /kg (15. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.1) = 2344.8 kJ/kg ⎬ T3 = 500°C ⎭ s 3 = 6.039 kJ/s Q in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.00101 m /kg w p .

Inc.2815 kJ/kg ⋅ K 12.3 kJ/kg. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. h1 = h f @ 9. If you are a student using this Manual.242 kW (c) The thermal efficiency is q 2273.73 kPa = 189.57 + 14.2 − 2948.8 .in = v1 (P2 − P ) / η p 1 ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.9% 3603. The condenser pressure. P3 = 12.10-32 10-42 A steam power plant that operates on a reheat Rankine cycle is considered.1) = 3027.90 ) ⎝ ⎠ = 14.7 kg/s)(3603.7 kJ/kg η th = 1 − out = 1 − = 0.02 = 203. Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4. h6 = 2463.2273. A-5.3 kJ/kg T P5 = 2 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3358.59 kJ/kg Cycle analysis: q in = (h3 − h2 ) + (h5 − h4 ) = 3476.5 MPa P6 = ? ⎫ h6 = 4s 4 ⎬ x 6 = 0. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.8 kJ/kg q in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.369 = 36.95⎭ 2 2s P6 = ? ⎫ ⎬ h6 s = s6 = s5 ⎭ P=? 1 6s 6 h −h s ηT = 5 6 ⎯ ⎯→ h6 = h5 − η T (h5 − h6 s ) h5 − h6 s = 3358.00101 m3 /kg (12.02 kJ/kg ( ) h2 = h1 + w p .5 − 3027.001010 m3 /kg w p .57 = 2273.3 = 3603.73 kPa. you are using it without permission.5 − (0.3 − 189.57 kJ/kg v1 = v f @ 10 kPa = 0. the net power output.5 kJ/kg ⎬ T3 = 550°C 3 ⎭ s 3 = 6.3 kJ/kg The pressure at state 6 may be determined by a trial-error approach from the steam tables or by using EES from the above equations: P6 = 9. (b) Then.7)kJ/kg = 10.2 − 2463.2 kJ/kg ⎬ 3 5 T5 = 450°C ⎭ s 5 = 7.2 − (0.1) = 3027.85)(3358.8 kJ/kg q out = h6 − h1 = 3027. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.85)(3476.6317 kJ/kg ⋅ K Turbine Boiler P4 = 2 MPa ⎫ 4 ⎬ h4 s = 2948.3 + 3358.1 kJ/kg s 4s = s3 ⎭ 6 h3 − h4 ηT = 5 Condenser h3 − h4 s Pump 2 →h4 = h3 − η T (h3 − h4 s ) 1 = 3476.5 MPa ⎫ h3 = 3476.7 kJ/kg & & W net = m(q in − q out ) = (7.500 − 9.in = 189. and A-6). and the thermal efficiency are to be determined.73 kPa )⎜ 3⎟ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m / (0. .5 − 2948.

the cycle must receive and reject heat isothermally. but in closed feedwater heaters there is no mixing. by regeneration. 10-46C Both cycles would have the same efficiency. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the steam must be a saturated vapor at the turbine inlet. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. as shown on the T-s diagram.10-33 Regenerative Rankine Cycle 10-43C Moisture content remains the same. 10-47C To have the same thermal efficiency as the Carnot cycle. everything else decreases. . If you are a student using this Manual. T Boiler inlet qin Boiler exit qout s PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 10-44C This is a smart idea because we waste little work potential but we save a lot from the heat input. Thus the liquid should be brought to the saturated liquid state at the boiler pressure isothermally. you are using it without permission. we utilize a considerable amount of heat by sacrificing little work output. 10-45C In open feedwater heaters. Therefore. the two fluids actually mix. Inc. This will require an infinite number of heat exchangers (feedwater heaters). and most of its energy would be part of the heat rejected anyway. The extracted steam has little work potential left.

etc.7 kJ/kg T2 = 160°C ⎭ h3 = hf @ 200 kPa = 504.07 − 504. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 4 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible. Inc. Rate of net energy transfer by heat. If you are a student using this Manual. potential. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. work. The mass and energy balances for this steady-flow system can be expressed in the rate form as Mass balance: & & & min − m out = Δmsystem & & min = m out & & & m1 + m 2 = m3 0 (steady) =0 Water 70°C 200 kPa 10 kg/s Steam 200 kPa 160°C 1 3 2 Energy balance: & & E in − E out 1 24 4 3 = & ΔE system 0 (steady) 1442443 4 4 =0 Water 200 kPa sat. energies & & E in = E out & & & & & m1 h1 + m 2 h2 = m3 h3 (since Q = W = Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0) & & & & m1 h1 + m 2 h2 = (m1 + m 2 )h3 & Solving for m 2 . Properties From the steam tables (Tables A-4 through A-6 or EES). 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.7) kJ/kg PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. liq.71 − 2789. h1 ≅ hf @ 70°C = 293.07 kJ/kg P2 = 200 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h2 = 2789. kinetic. and substituting gives & & m 2 = m1 h1 − h3 (293. you are using it without permission.71) kJ/kg = 0.10-34 10-48 Feedwater is heated by steam in a feedwater heater of a regenerative The required mass flow rate of the steam is to be determined. .71 kJ/kg Analysis We take the mixing chamber as the system.926 kg/s = (10 kg/s) h3 − h2 (504. and mass Rate of change in internal.

4 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible.404 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ = 0. you are using it without permission.0782 lbm/s (h3 − h6 ) + wP.46 + 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 3 There are no work interactions.0 Btu/lbm Feedwater 200 psia T3 = 400°F ⎭ 200 psia sat.in = v 4 ( P5 − P4 ) = v f @ 160 psia ( P5 − P4 ) ⎛ 1 Btu = (0.73 Btu/lbm 2 6 T1 = 350°F ⎭ 1 P3 = 160 psia ⎫ ⎬ h3 = 1218. and mass Rate of change in internal. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. The energy balance for this steady-flow system can be expressed in the rate form as & & E in − E out 1 24 4 3 = & ΔE system 0 (steady) 1442443 4 4 =0 Rate of net energy transfer by heat.46 Btu/lbm 2 lbm/s x6 = 0 ⎭ Analysis We take the entire unit as the system.0 − 355. Inc. etc. If you are a student using this Manual.in = m 6 h6 & & & & & m1 h1 + m3 h3 + m3 wP.01815 ft 3 /lbm)(200 − 160) psia ⎜ ⎜ 5. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. work. The mass flow rate of bleed steam required to operate this unit is to be determined.in 1218. & & m3 = m1 h6 − h1 355. liq. Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time.1344 Btu/lbm ⎟ ⎠ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Steam Properties From the steam tables (Tables A-4E through A-6E). which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.in = (m1 + m3 )h6 & Solving this for m3 . energies & & E in = E out & & & & m1 h1 + m3 h3 + m3 wP. 160 psia 3 400°F P1 = 200 psia ⎫ ⎬ h1 ≅ h f @ 350° F = 321.46 − 321.1344 where wP. 4 5 P6 = 200 psia ⎫ 350°F ⎬ h6 = h f @ 200 psia = 355. potential.73 = (2 lbm/s) = 0. . the closed feedwater heater with a pump as shown in the figure is arranged so that the water at state 5 is mixed with the water at state 2 to form a feedwater which is a saturated liquid. kinetic.10-35 10-49E In a regenerative Rankine cycle.

Inc. 3 There are no work interactions.94 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 4 Heat loss from the device to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to the cold fluid. liq. The mass and energy balances for this steady-flow system can be expressed in the rate form as 300 psia Sat. etc. energies & & E in = E out & & & & & & m1 h1 + m3 h3 = m 2 h2 + m 4 h4 (since Q = W = Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0) Combining the two. The required mass flow rate of bleed steam is to be determined. & ms = 424.10-36 10-50E The closed feedwater heater of a regenerative Rankine cycle is to heat feedwater to a saturated liquid.94 Btu/lbm x4 = 0 ⎭ Steam 300 psia 400°F 400 psia Sat. If you are a student using this Manual. Properties From the steam tables (Tables A-4E through A-6E).88 (1 lbm/s) = 0. Analysis We take the heat exchanger as the system. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. and mass Rate of change in internal. Feedwater 400 psia 370°F Mass balance (for each fluid stream): & & & m in − m out = Δm system 0 (steady) & & & & & & & & = 0 → m in = m out → m1 = m 2 = m fw and m 3 = m 4 = m s Energy balance (for the heat exchanger): & & E in − E out 1 24 4 3 = & ΔE system 0 (steady) 1442443 4 =0 Rate of net energy transfer by heat. & & m fw (h2 − h1 ) = m s (h3 − h4 ) & Solving for m s : & ms = h2 − h1 & m fw h3 − h4 Substituting.13 − 342. .0940 lbm/s 1257. P1 = 400 psia ⎫ ⎬ h1 ≅ h f @ 370° F = 342. Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. which is a control volume. kinetic. liq.9 − 393.9 Btu/lbm T3 = 500°F ⎭ 3 P4 = 300 psia ⎫ ⎬ h4 = h f @ 300 psia = 393.88 Btu/lbm T1 = 370°F ⎭ P2 = 400 psia ⎫ ⎬ h2 = h f @ 400 psia = 424. you are using it without permission. work.13 Btu/lbm x2 = 0 ⎭ P3 = 300 psia ⎫ ⎬ h = 1257. potential. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.90 ⎭ = 1008.26 (6 kg/s) = 0.777 kg/s 2623. potential.3 + (0.10-37 10-51 The closed feedwater heater of a regenerative Rankine cycle is to heat feedwater to a saturated liquid. Feedwater 4 MPa 200°C Analysis We take the heat exchanger as the system. you are using it without permission. energies & ΔE system 0 (steady) 1442443 4 =0 & & E in = E out & & & & & & m1 h1 + m3 h3 = m 2 h2 + m 4 h4 (since Q = W = Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0) Combining the two. Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process since there is no change with time. kinetic.5 − 852.5 kJ/kg T2 = 245°C ⎭ P3 = 3000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h3 = h f + x 3 h fg x 3 = 0.3 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. . liq.90 4 MPa 245°C 3 MPa Sat. which is a control volume.7 kJ/kg P4 = 3000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h4 = h f @ 3000 kPa = 1008. & & m fw (h2 − h1 ) = m s (h3 − h4 ) & Solving for m s : & ms = h2 − h1 & m fw h3 − h4 Substituting. 4 Heat loss from the device to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to the cold fluid. work. If you are a student using this Manual.9) = 2623. The required mass flow rate of bleed steam is to be determined. and mass Rate of change in internal. Properties From the steam tables (Tables A-4 through A-6). & ms = 1061.26 kJ/kg T1 = 200°C ⎭ P2 = 4000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h2 ≅ h f @ 245°C = 1061.3 kJ/kg x4 = 0 ⎭ Steam 3 MPa x = 0. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.7 − 1008.9)(1794. etc. P1 = 4000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h1 ≅ h f @ 200°C = 852. 3 There are no work interactions. The mass and energy balances for this steady-flow system can be expressed in the rate form as Mass balance (for each fluid stream): & & & min − m out = Δmsystem 0 (steady) & & & & & & & & = 0 → min = m out → m1 = m 2 = m fw and m3 = m 4 = m s Energy balance (for the heat exchanger): & & E in − E out 1 24 4 3 = Rate of net energy transfer by heat. Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.

The net power output of the power plant and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.42 = 505. If you are a student using this Manual. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.6 MPa = 0. Inc.20 = 137.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) = 0.001101 m 3 /kg (10. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. h1 = h f @ 5 kPa = 137.001005 m 3 /kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ = 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.2 MPa = 0.001101 m /kg ⎛ 1 kJ w pIII .42 kJ/kg h4 = h3 + w pII .20 kJ/kg ⎟ ⎠ P3 = 0.10-38 10-52 A steam power plant operates on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with two open feedwater heaters.6 MPa ⎫ h5 = h f @ 0.in = v 3 (P4 − P3 ) = 0.95 kJ/kg 2 1 pI .liquid ⎭ v 3 = v f @ 0.in v 1 = v f @ 5 kPa = 0.35 kJ/kg h6 = h5 + w pIII . and A-6).6 MPa 0.73 kJ/kg P7 = 10 MPa ⎫ h7 = 3625.38 + 10. Analysis 7 Boiler Turbine 8 10 9 fwh II 4 P III 5 P II 3 fwh I 2 PI 1 Condenser T 7 6 10 MPa 4 2 3 5 0.8 kJ/kg ⎬ T7 = 600°C ⎭ s 7 = 6.8 kJ/kg s8 = s 7 ⎭ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.000 − 600 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 10.6 MPa = 670.9045 kJ/kg ⋅ K P8 = 0.75 kJ/kg ⎛ 1 kJ w pI .in = 670.71 + 0. A-5.35 = 680.2 MPa 5 kPa 1 y 8 1-y 9 1-y-z 10 s 6 (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4.13 kJ/kg P5 = 0.001061 m /kg ⎛ 1 kJ w pII .liquid ⎭ v 5 = v f @ 0.2 MPa ⎫ h3 = h f @ 0. .6 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h8 = 2821. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.75 + 0. you are using it without permission.71 kJ/kg ⎬ 3 sat.2 MPa = 504.001005 m 3 /kg (200 − 5 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ h =h +w = 137.in = 504.38 kJ/kg ⎬ 3 sat.in = v 5 (P6 − P5 ) = 0.001061 m 3 /kg (600 − 200 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 0.

.71 − 137. Inc. qout = (1 − y − z )(h10 − h1 ) = (1 − 0.71 + (0.6) = 2618.5 MW (b) η th = 1 − q out 1556.0 kJ/kg The fraction of steam extracted is determined from the steady-flow energy balance equation applied to the & & feedwater heaters.1373)(2105.1% q in 2945.73 = 2945.9176 ⎬ s10 = s 7 ⎭ h10 = h f + x10 h fg = 137.540 kW ≅ 30.0) = 2105.9045 − 0.8 = 1388.07136) = 0.95 (1 − 0.5968 ⎬ s9 = s7 ⎭ h9 = h f + x 9 h fg = 504.7 kJ/kg s10 − s f 6.2 MPa ⎫ x 9 = s fg 5.8 − 680. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.8 kJ/kg = 1− = 47. Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 .95 h9 − h2 Then.9045 − 1.07133 h8 − h4 2821.2 kJ/kg ) = 30.1373 2618.9602 P9 = 0.0 kJ/kg PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.75 + (0. y= h5 − h4 670. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 kJ/kg and & & W net = mwnet = (22 kg/s )(1388.13 = = 0.8 kJ/kg wnet = qin − qout = 2945.8119 P10 = 5 kPa ⎫ x10 = s fg 7.5302 = = 0.0 − 1556.07133 − 0.75) = 1556.7 − 137.8 − 505.0 − 137.9602)(2201.4762 = = 0.2 kJ/kg qin = h7 − h6 = 3625. Solving for z.13 & & & ⎯ ⎯→ m9 h9 + m 2 h2 = m3 h3 ⎯ ⎯→ zh9 + (1 − y − z )h2 = (1 − y )h3 FWH-1: & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i e e & & where z is the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m9 / m5 ) at the second stage. z= h3 − h2 (1 − y ) = 504. Solving for y. If you are a student using this Manual.38 − 505.10-39 s9 − s f 6. you are using it without permission. FWH-2: & & & E in − E out = ΔE system & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i 0 (steady) =0 & & E in = E out e e & & & ⎯ ⎯→ m8 h8 + m 4 h4 = m5 h5 ⎯ ⎯→ yh8 + (1 − y )h4 = 1(h5 ) & & where y is the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m8 / m5 ).8119)(2423.

87 kJ/kg T 8 12. you are using it without permission.9323 P = 0.6717 = = 0.29 kJ/kg 3 5 Closed fwh 1-y-z ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ h2 = h1 + w pI .001073 m 3 /kg (12.9323)(2163.3 MPa = 0.09 = 574. The mass flow rate of steam through the boiler for a net power output of 250 MW and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.0 kJ/kg The fraction of steam extracted is determined from the steady-flow energy balance equation applied to the & & feedwater heaters. If you are a student using this Manual. P5 = 12. h1 = h f @ 10 kPa = 191.001115 m /kg sat. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.0 kJ/kg s10 − s f 6. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.43 + 13.00101 m /kg w pI .8 MPa ⎫ x 9 = s fg 4.3 MPa = 561.001073 m /kg w pII .81 + 0.5 kJ/kg ⎬ T8 = 550°C ⎭ s 8 = 6.6160 ⎬ s 9 = s8 ⎭ h9 = h f + x 9 h fg = 720.9935)(2047. .29 = 192.0457 = = 0. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.7977 )(2392.8 MPa ⎫ 3 ⎬ v 6 = v f @ 0.in = v 3 (P4 − P3 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0. liquid ⎭ v 3 = v f @ 0.43 kJ/kg ⎬ 3 sat.6317 − 2.4°C T6 = T5 . one closed and one open.5 MPa ⎫ h8 = 3476.8 MPa 9 y 0. Inc.3200 ⎬ s10 = s8 ⎭ h10 = h f + x10 h fg = 561.81 + (0. A-5.6317 kJ/kg ⋅ K h6 = h7 = h f @ 0.6317 − 0.3 MPa ⎫ x10 = 10 s fg 5.87 + (0.500 − 300 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 13.5 kJ/kg s11 − s f 6.43 + (0.5 MPa 5 4 2 3 7 1 6 0.52 kJ/kg P6 = 0.9935 P9 = 0.8 MPa = 0.8 MPa = 720.8 MPa = 170.09 kJ/kg h4 = h3 + w pII .3 MPa ⎫ h3 = h f @ 0.5 MPa → h5 = 727. Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4.4996 ⎬ s11 = s8 ⎭ h11 = h f + x11h fg = 191. Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.81 kJ/kg Boiler 8 Turbine 9 y 11 4 P II 3 Open fwh 2 6 7 PI 1 10 z Condenser v 1 = v f @ 10 kPa = 0.5) = 2755. and A-6).1) = 2100.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.in = 191.10-40 10-53 [Also solved by EES on enclosed CD] A steam power plant operates on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with two feedwater heaters.5) = 2578. liquid ⎭ T6 = Tsat @ 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 MPa 10 z 1-y-z 10 kPa 11 s ( ) s9 − s f 6.10 kJ/kg P3 = 0.in = 561.6492 = = 0.6317 − 1.7977 P = 10 kPa ⎫ x11 = 11 s fg 7.00101 m 3 /kg (300 − 10 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 0.83 kJ/kg P8 = 12.

.0 − 191.10 − (0.1 kJ/kg and & m= (b) & Wnet 250.10) = 0.2 kg/s wnet 1249 kJ/kg q out 1500. qout = (1 − y − z )(h11 − h1 ) = (1 − 0.0753)(720.43 − 192.81) = 1500. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 kJ/s = = 200. If you are a student using this Manual.0753 = h9 − h6 2755.1381 h10 − h2 2578.1 kJ/kg η th = 1 − PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.83 − 574.1381)(2100. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.1 kJ/kg wnet = qin − qout = 2749.5 − 727. z= (h3 − h2 ) − y(h7 − h2 ) = 561.10 Then. y= h5 − h4 727.1 = 1249 kJ/kg qin = h8 − h5 = 3476.0 − 720.5 − 192. you are using it without permission. Solving for z.36 = 2749.87 − 192. & & & E in − E out = ΔE system & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i 0 (steady) =0 & & E in = E out e e & & & & ⎯ ⎯→ m7 h7 + m 2 h2 + m10 h10 = m3 h3 ⎯ ⎯→ yh7 + (1 − y − z )h2 + zh10 = (1)h3 & & where z is the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m9 / m5 ) at the second stage.4% q in 2749.1 − 1500.87 For the open FWH. Solving for y. Inc.52 = 0.1 kJ/kg = 1− = 45.10-41 & & & Ein − E out = ΔEsystem & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i 0 (steady) =0 & & Ein = E out e e & & ⎯ ⎯→ m9 (h9 − h6 ) = m5 (h5 − h4 ) ⎯ ⎯→ y (h9 − h6 ) = (h5 − h4 ) & & where y is the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m10 / m5 ).0753 − 0.

P=P[1].P=P[1].P=P[3].h=h[4]) "Closed Feedwater Heater analysis" P[6]=P[9] y*h[9] + 1*h[4] = 1*h[5] + y*h[6] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.P=P[4]. the T-s diagram is to be plotted.P=P[3].x=0) T[1]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[2].x=0) w_pump2_s=v3*(P[4]-P[3])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" w_pump2=w_pump2_s/Eta_pump "Definition of pump efficiency" h[3]+w_pump2= h[4] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" s[4]=entropy(Fluid$. If you are a student using this Manual. Analysis The problem is solved using EES. .x=0) T[3]=temperature(Fluid$. The effects of turbine and pump efficiencies on the mass flow rate and thermal efficiency are to be investigated. kW) Eta_turb= 100/100 "Turbine isentropic efficiency" Eta_turb_hp = Eta_turb "Turbine isentropic efficiency for high pressure stages" Eta_turb_ip = Eta_turb "Turbine isentropic efficiency for intermediate pressure stages" Eta_turb_lp = Eta_turb "Turbine isentropic efficiency for low pressure stages" Eta_pump = 100/100 "Pump isentropic efficiency" "Condenser exit pump or Pump 1 analysis" Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' P[1] = P[11] P[2]=P[10] h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$.x=0) w_pump1_s=v1*(P[2]-P[1])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" w_pump1=w_pump1_s/Eta_pump "Definition of pump efficiency" h[1]+w_pump1= h[2] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" s[2]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[3].P=P[1].x=0) "Boiler condensate pump or Pump 2 analysis" P[5]=P[8] P[4] = P[5] P[3]=P[10] v3=volume(Fluid$. Inc.h=h[2]) T[2]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[2].x=0) s[1]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[3].P=P[1]. and the solution is given below. Also.h=h[4]) T[4]=temperature(Fluid$.x=0) {Sat'd liquid} v1=volume(Fluid$.h=h[2]) "Open Feedwater Heater analysis" z*h[10] + y*h[7] + (1-y-z)*h[2] = 1*h[3] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$. you are using it without permission. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.10-42 10-54 EES Problem 10-53 is reconsidered. "Input Data" P[8] = 12500 [kPa] T[8] = 550 [C] P[9] = 800 [kPa] "P_cfwh=300 [kPa]" P[10] = P_cfwh P_cond=10 [kPa] P[11] = P_cond W_dot_net=250 [MW]*Convert(MW.P=P[4]. liquid at P[3]" s[3]=entropy(Fluid$.x=0) "Condensate leaves heater as sat.

P=P[6].P=P[11]. T=T[8].P=P[10]. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.P=P[11].P=P[10]) h[10]=h[9]-Eta_turb_ip*(h[9]-hs[10])"Definition of turbine efficiency for Intermediate pressure stages" T[10]=temperature(Fluid$. P=P[8]) "Turbine analysis" ss[9]=s[8] hs[9]=enthalpy(Fluid$.h=h[9]) ss[10]=s[8] hs[10]=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P[6].x=0) "h[5] = h(T[5].h=h[9]) s[9]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[11]) h[11]=h[10]-Eta_turb_lp*(h[10]-hs[11])"Definition of turbine efficiency for low pressure stages" T[11]=temperature(Fluid$.s=ss[10].P=P[9]) h[9]=h[8]-Eta_turb_hp*(h[8]-hs[9])"Definition of turbine efficiency for high pressure stages" T[9]=temperature(Fluid$.s=ss[9].h=h[7]) s[7]=entropy(Fluid$. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.P=P[6].s=ss[9].P=P[11]) Ts[11]=temperature(Fluid$.s=ss[11].P=P[6]. T=T[8].h=h[11]) s[11]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[5].h=h[5]) "Condensate leaves heater as sat. liquid at P[6]" s[5]=entropy(Fluid$. Inc.x=0) T[6]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[9]) Ts[9]=temperature(Fluid$.s=ss[10].10-43 h[5]=enthalpy(Fluid$.s=ss[11].P=P[9]. liquid at P[6]" s[6]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[7].P=P[10]) Ts[10]=temperature(Fluid$.x=0) "Condensate leaves heater as sat. P[5]) where T[5]=Tsat at P[9]" T[5]=temperature(Fluid$.h=h[5]) h[6]=enthalpy(Fluid$. . P=P[8]) s[8]=entropy(Fluid$. If you are a student using this Manual.P=P[7].P=P[10].x=0) "Trap analysis" P[7] = P[10] y*h[6] = y*h[7] "Steady-flow conservation of energy for the trap operating as a throttle" T[7]=temperature(Fluid$. you are using it without permission.((1-y-z)*w_pump1+ w_pump2) Eta_th=w_net/q_in W_dot_net = m_dot * w_net PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.P=P[6].h=h[11]) h[8] =y*h[9] + z*h[10] + (1-y-z)*h[11] + w_turb "SSSF conservation of energy for turbine" "Condenser analysis" (1-y-z)*h[11]=q_out+(1-y-z)*h[1]"SSSF First Law for the Condenser" "Cycle Statistics" w_net=w_turb .h=h[7]) "Boiler analysis" q_in + h[5]=h[8]"SSSF conservation of energy for the Boiler" h[8]=enthalpy(Fluid$.h=h[10]) ss[11]=s[8] hs[11]=enthalpy(Fluid$.h=h[10]) s[10]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[9].

2 5. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.75 0.9 0.85 0.4267 0.3916 0.4452 0.3 218 212.42 0.8 0.8 200.41 0.45 0.85 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.75 0.1 0.6 3.9 203.8 ηturb 0. Inc.75 0.85 0.4 0.95 1 ηth 0.4045 0. If you are a student using this Manual.43 0.4535 m [kg/s] 231.39 0.7 0.10-44 ηturb 0.4161 0.8 0.95 1 ηturb 0.7 0.4 7 12500 kPa 800 kPa 300 kPa Steam 8 9 10 11 10 kPa 2 4 6 8 s [kJ/kg-K] 10 12 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.6 207.9 0.9 0.46 0.95 600 500 400 T [C] 300 200 100 0 0 1.4363 0.44 ηth 0.6 224. . you are using it without permission.7 ηturb =ηpump 235 230 225 220 215 210 205 200 1 m [kg/s] 0.

the feedwater is heated to the exit temperature of the extracted steam. and A-6).in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0. the work consumed by the pumps. 4 T Turbine 5 3 MPa qin 3 Condenser 2 1 7 20 kPa Pump 1 qout 1 MPa y 5 1-y 6 s 4 6 Boiler 7 3 Closed fwh 2 h1 = h f @ 20 kPa = 251. A-5.8357 s fg 7. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.42 + (0. .51 kJ/kg ⎬ x7 = 0 ⎭ T7 = 179. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4. you are using it without permission.7 kJ/kg 6 f 6 fg For an ideal closed feedwater heater. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.9 kJ/kg s5 = s 4 ⎭ s6 − s f 6.53 kJ/kg T3 = T7 = 209.03 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp.10-45 10-55 An ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with a closed feedwater heater is considered.0752 ⎬ s6 = s 4 ⎭ h = h + x h = 251. Inc. which ideally leaves the heater as a saturated liquid at the extraction pressure. P7 = 1000 kPa ⎫ h7 = 762.7450 − 0.7450 kJ/kg ⋅ K P5 = 1000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h5 = 2851.9°C P3 = 3000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h = 763.001017 m 3 /kg wp. If you are a student using this Manual.42 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 20 kPa = 0.03 = 254. The work produced by the turbine.in = 251.8320 P6 = 20 kPa ⎫ x 6 = = = 0.1 kJ/kg ⎬ T4 = 350°C ⎭ s 4 = 6.42 + 3.45 kJ/kg P4 = 3000 kPa ⎫ h4 = 3116.5) = 2221. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.9°C ⎭ 3 & & An energy balance on the heat exchanger gives the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m5 / m 4 ) for closed feedwater heater: PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and the heat added in the boiler are to be determined.001017 m 3 /kg )(3000 − 20)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 3.8357)(2357.

9 + (1 − 0.03 kJ/kg q in = h4 − h3 = 3116. you are using it without permission. wT.2437)(2851.8 = = 0.03 = 737.7) = 740. Inc.9 − 2221. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.2437 h5 − h7 2851.53 − 254.in = 740.45 = = 0.1 − 2851.10-46 & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i e e & & & & m5 h5 + m 2 h2 = m3 h3 + m 7 h7 yh5 + 1h2 = 1h3 + yh7 Rearranging.3136 q in 2353 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. h3 − h2 763.in = 3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.9 kJ/kg wP. . If you are a student using this Manual.9 − 762.51 y= Then. wnet = wT.out = h4 − h5 + (1 − y )(h5 − h6 ) = 3116.8 kJ/kg η th = wnet 737.53 = 2353 kJ/kg Also.out − wP.1 − 763.9 − 3.

10-47

10-56 An ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with a closed feedwater heater is considered. The change in thermal efficiency when the steam serving the closed feedwater heater is extracted at 600 kPa rather than 1000 kPa is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4, A-5, and A-6 or EES),

4

T Turbine 5 3 MPa qin 3 Condenser 2 1 7 20 kPa Pump 1 qout 0.6 MPa y 5 1-y 6 s 4 6

Boiler

7 3 Closed fwh 2

h1 = h f @ 20 kPa = 251.42 kJ/kg

v 1 = v f @ 20 kPa = 0.001017 m 3 /kg

wp,in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0.001017 m 3 /kg )(3000 − 20)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 3.03 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + w p,in = 251.42 + 3.03 = 254.45 kJ/kg

P4 = 3000 kPa ⎫ h4 = 3116.1 kJ/kg ⎬ T4 = 350°C ⎭ s 4 = 6.7450 kJ/kg ⋅ K s5 − s f 6.7450 − 1.9308 P5 = 600 kPa ⎫ x 5 = = = 0.9970 s fg 4.8285 ⎬ s5 = s 4 ⎭ h = h + x h = 670.38 + (0.9970)(2085.8) = 2750.0 kJ/kg 5 f 5 fg s6 − s f 6.7450 − 0.8320 P6 = 20 kPa ⎫ x 6 = = = 0.8357 s fg 7.0752 ⎬ s6 = s 4 ⎭ h = h + x h = 251.42 + (0.8357)(2357.5) = 2221.7 kJ/kg 6 f 6 fg

For an ideal closed feedwater heater, the feedwater is heated to the exit temperature of the extracted steam, which ideally leaves the heater as a saturated liquid at the extraction pressure.

P7 = 600 kPa ⎫ h7 = 670.38 kJ/kg ⎬ x7 = 0 ⎭ T7 = 158.8°C P3 = 3000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h = 671.79 kJ/kg T3 = T7 = 158.8°C ⎭ 3

10-48

& & An energy balance on the heat exchanger gives the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m5 / m 4 ) for closed feedwater heater:

& & ∑m h = ∑m h

i i

e e

& & & & m5 h5 + m 2 h2 = m3 h3 + m 7 h7

yh5 + 1h2 = 1h3 + yh7

Rearranging,

h3 − h2 671.79 − 254.45 = = 0.2007 h5 − h7 2750.0 − 670.38

y=

Then,

wT,out = h4 − h5 + (1 − y )(h5 − h6 ) = 3116.1 − 2750.0 + (1 − 0.2007)(2750.0 − 2221.7) = 788.4 kJ/kg wP,in = 3.03 kJ/kg q in = h4 − h3 = 3116.1 − 671.79 = 2444 kJ/kg

Also,

w net = wT,out − wP,in = 788.4 − 3.03 = 785.4 kJ/kg

η th =

wnet 785.4 = = 0.3213 2444 q in

When the steam serving the closed feedwater heater is extracted at 600 kPa rather than 1000 kPa, the thermal efficiency increases from 0.3136 to 0.3213. This is an increase of 2.5%.

10-49

10-57 EES The optimum bleed pressure for the open feedwater heater that maximizes the thermal efficiency of the cycle is to be determined by EES.

Analysis The EES program used to solve this problem as well as the solutions are given below. "Given" P[4]=3000 [kPa] T[4]=350 [C] P[5]=600 [kPa] P[6]=20 [kPa] P[3]=P[4] P[2]=P[3] P[7]=P[5] P[1]=P[6] "Analysis" Fluid$='steam_iapws' "pump I" x[1]=0 h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$, P=P[1], x=x[1]) v[1]=volume(Fluid$, P=P[1], x=x[1]) w_p_in=v[1]*(P[2]-P[1]) h[2]=h[1]+w_p_in "turbine" h[4]=enthalpy(Fluid$, P=P[4], T=T[4]) s[4]=entropy(Fluid$, P=P[4], T=T[4]) s[5]=s[4] h[5]=enthalpy(Fluid$, P=P[5], s=s[5]) T[5]=temperature(Fluid$, P=P[5], s=s[5]) x[5]=quality(Fluid$, P=P[5], s=s[5]) s[6]=s[4] h[6]=enthalpy(Fluid$, P=P[6], s=s[6]) x[6]=quality(Fluid$, P=P[6], s=s[6]) "closed feedwater heater" x[7]=0 h[7]=enthalpy(Fluid$, P=P[7], x=x[7]) T[7]=temperature(Fluid$, P=P[7], x=x[7]) T[3]=T[7] h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$, P=P[3], T=T[3]) y=(h[3]-h[2])/(h[5]-h[7]) "y=m_dot_5/m_dot_4" "cycle" q_in=h[4]-h[3] w_T_out=h[4]-h[5]+(1-y)*(h[5]-h[6]) w_net=w_T_out-w_p_in Eta_th=w_net/q_in

10-50

P 6 [kPa] 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

ηth 0.32380 0.32424 0.32460 0.32490 0.32514 0.32534 0.32550 0.32563 0.32573 0.32580 0.32585 0.32588 0.32590 0.32589 0.32588 0.32585 0.32581 0.32576 0.32570 0.32563

0.326 0.3258 0.3255 0.3253 0.325 0.3248 0.3245 0.3243 0.324 0.3238 100

η th

140

180

220

260

300

Bleed pressure [kPa]

7450 − 0.001017 m 3 /kg w p.90)(3116. and A-6 or EES).1 − 2221.1 kJ/kg ⎬ T4 = 350°C ⎭ s 4 = 6.1 kJ/kg h 4 − h6 s For an ideal closed feedwater heater. which ideally leaves the heater as a saturated liquid at the extraction pressure.0752 s fg ⎬ s 6s = s 4 ⎭ h = h + x h = 251.42 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 20 kPa = 0.9) = 2878.3 kJ/kg h4 − h5 s h 4 − h6 ⎯ ⎯→ h6 = h4 − η T (h4 − h6s ) = 3116. Inc.9 kJ/kg s 5s = s 4 ⎭ s6s − s f 6. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.45 kJ/kg P4 = 3000 kPa ⎫ h4 = 3116.001017 m 3 /kg )(3000 − 20)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 3.7 kJ/kg 6s f 6 s fg ηT = ηT = h4 − h5 ⎯ ⎯→ h5 = h4 − η T (h4 − h5s ) = 3116.1 − (0. If you are a student using this Manual.42 + (0. A-5.5) = 2221. 4 T Turbine 5 3 MPa qin 3 2 1 7 20 kPa 1 MPa y 5s 1-y qout 6s 6 s 5 4 6 Condenser Boiler 7 3 Closed fwh 2 Pump 1 h1 = h f @ 20 kPa = 251.10-51 10-58 A regenerative Rankine cycle with a closed feedwater heater is considered. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.8357)(2357.7) = 2311.7450 kJ/kg ⋅ K P5 = 1000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h5 s = 2851. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.03 = 254. . 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. you are using it without permission.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0.1 − 2851. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. The thermal efficiency is to be determined.90)(3116.8357 7.1 − (0. the feedwater is heated to the exit temperature of the extracted steam.03 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + w p.8320 P6 = 20 kPa ⎫ x 6 s = = = 0.42 + 3.in = 251. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.

5 kJ/kg η th = wnet 665.2829 2353 q in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.9°C ⎫ ⎬ h = 763. wnet = wT.2406 h5 − h7 2878.5 − 3. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.03 kJ/kg q in = h4 − h3 = 3116.51 y= Then. h3 − h2 763.03 = 665.5 = = 0.out − wP.53 = 2353 kJ/kg Also.1 − 763.10-52 P7 = 1000 kPa ⎫ h7 = 762.9°C ⎭ 3 P3 = 3000 kPa & & An energy balance on the heat exchanger gives the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m5 / m 4 ) for closed feedwater heater: & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i e e & & & & m5 h5 + m 2 h2 = m3 h3 + m 7 h7 yh5 + 1h2 = 1h3 + yh7 Rearranging.53 kJ/kg T3 = T7 = 209.out = h4 − h5 + (1 − y )(h5 − h6 ) = 3116.3 − 762.5 kJ/kg wP.53 − 254.45 = = 0.3 + (1 − 0.3 − 2311. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. wT. If you are a student using this Manual.2406)(2878.1) = 668.in = 3. . you are using it without permission.in = 668. Inc.51 kJ/kg ⎬ x7 = 0 ⎭ T7 = 179.1 − 2878.

7450 − 0.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0.001012 m 3 /kg wp. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. .1 − (0.5) = 2221.1 kJ/kg h 4 − h6 s For an ideal closed feedwater heater.3 kJ/kg h4 − h5 s h 4 − h6 ⎯ ⎯→ h6 = h4 − η T (h4 − h6s ) = 3116. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.9) = 2878. the feedwater is heated to the exit temperature of the extracted steam. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.7 kJ/kg 6s f 6 s fg ηT = ηT = h4 − h5 ⎯ ⎯→ h5 = h4 − η T (h4 − h5s ) = 3116.7450 kJ/kg ⋅ K P5 = 1000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h5 s = 2851. you are using it without permission.in = 209.7) = 2311. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.90)(3116.1 − 2221.9 kJ/kg s 5s = s 4 ⎭ s6s − s f 6.06 − 10 ≅ 50°C ⎭ v 1 ≅ v f @ 50°C = 0.02 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp. and A-6 or EES).001012 m 3 /kg )(3000 − 20)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 3.0752 ⎬ s 6s = s 4 ⎭ h = h + x h = 251.8320 P6 = 20 kPa ⎫ x 6 s = = = 0.34 + 3.34 kJ/kg ⎬ − 10 = 60. The thermal efficiency is to be determined.36 kJ/kg P4 = 3000 kPa ⎫ h4 = 3116. Inc. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.42 + (0.90)(3116. A-5.8357)(2357. which ideally leaves the heater as a saturated liquid at the extraction pressure. 4 T Turbine 5 3 MPa qin 3 Condenser 2 1 7 20 kPa Pump 1 1 MPa y 5s 1-y qout 6s 6 s 5 4 6 Boiler 7 3 Closed fwh 2 When the liquid enters the pump 10°C cooler than a saturated liquid at the condenser pressure. If you are a student using this Manual.1 kJ/kg ⎬ T4 = 350°C ⎭ s 4 = 6.02 = 212.10-53 10-59 A regenerative Rankine cycle with a closed feedwater heater is considered.1 − 2851.8357 s fg 7. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. the enthalpies become P1 = 20 kPa T1 = Tsat @ 20 kPa ⎫ h1 ≅ h f @ 50°C = 209.1 − (0.

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 kJ/kg η th = wnet 654.9°C ⎭ 3 P3 = 3000 kPa & & An energy balance on the heat exchanger gives the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m5 / m 4 ) for closed feedwater heater: & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i e e & & & & m5 h5 + m 2 h2 = m3 h3 + m 7 h7 yh5 + 1h2 = 1h3 + yh7 Rearranging.2781 q in 2353 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.36 = 0.1) = 657.51 y= Then.1 − 763.in = 3. wT.3 + (1 − 0.2 kJ/kg w P.10-54 P7 = 1000 kPa ⎫ h7 = 762.51 kJ/kg ⎬ x7 = 0 ⎭ T7 = 179. .3 − 2311.03 kJ/kg q in = h4 − h3 = 3116. If you are a student using this Manual.3 − 762.03 = 654.out − wP.53 = 2353 kJ/kg Also.2 = = 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Inc.53 − 212.out = h4 − h5 + (1 − y )(h5 − h6 ) = 3116. h3 − h2 763.9°C ⎫ ⎬ h = 763.2 − 3.2605 = h5 − h7 2878. you are using it without permission.1 − 2878.in = 657. wnet = wT.2605)(2878.53 kJ/kg T3 = T7 = 209.

. s=s[5]) T[5]=temperature(Fluid$. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. s=s[6]) x_s[6]=quality(Fluid$. P=P[5]. P=P[7]. P=P[4]. Analysis The EES program used to solve this problem as well as the solutions are given below. T=T[3]) y=(h[3]-h[2])/(h[5]-h[7]) "y=m_dot_5/m_dot_4" "cycle" q_in=h[4]-h[3] w_T_out=h[4]-h[5]+(1-y)*(h[5]-h[6]) w_net=w_T_out-w_p_in Eta_th=w_net/q_in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. x=x[7]) T[3]=T[7] h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P[6]. you are using it without permission.10-55 10-60 EES The effect of pressure drop and non-isentropic turbine on the rate of heat input is to be determined for a given power plant. Inc. P=P[5].90 P[2]=P[3] P[7]=P[5] P[1]=P[6] "Analysis" Fluid$='steam_iapws' "(a)" "pump I" x[1]=0 h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$. s=s[5]) x_s[5]=quality(Fluid$. x=x[1]) w_p_in=v[1]*(P[2]-P[1]) h[2]=h[1]+w_p_in "turbine" h[4]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P[7]. P=P[6]. P=P[5]. T=T[4]) s[4]=entropy(Fluid$. If you are a student using this Manual. x=x[7]) T[7]=temperature(Fluid$. P=P[1]. s=s[5]) s[6]=s[4] h_s[6]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P[3]. "Given" P[3]=3000 [kPa] DELTAP_boiler=10 [kPa] P[4]=P[3]-DELTAP_boiler T[4]=350 [C] P[5]=1000 [kPa] P[6]=20 [kPa] eta_T=0. h=h[6]) "closed feedwater heater" x[7]=0 h[7]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P[5]. P=P[1]. T=T[4]) s[5]=s[4] h_s[5]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P[6]. h=h[5]) x[6]=quality(Fluid$. s=s[6]) h[5]=h[4]-eta_T*(h[4]-h_s[5]) h[6]=h[4]-eta_T*(h[4]-h_s[6]) x[5]=quality(Fluid$. x=x[1]) v[1]=volume(Fluid$. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. P=P[4].

3136 P[3]=3000 [kPa] q_in=2352.2437 eta_T=1 Fluid$='steam_iapws' P[4]=3000 [kPa] w_net=737.5 [kJ/kg] w_p_in=3.8 [kJ/kg] w_p_in=3.10-56 Solution with 10 kPa pressure drop in the boiler: DELTAP_boiler=10 [kPa] Eta_th=0.031 [m^3-kPa/kg] y=0. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission.9 [kJ/kg] PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.1 [kJ/kg] Solution without any pressure drop in the boiler: DELTAP_boiler=0 [kPa] Eta_th=0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.2405 eta_T=0.2827 P[3]=3000 [kPa] q_in=2352.031 [m^3-kPa/kg] y=0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. .1 [kJ/kg] w_T_out=668.8 [kJ/kg] w_T_out=740.9 Fluid$='steam_iapws' P[4]=2990 [kPa] w_net=665. Inc.

Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.41 Btu/lbm T7 = 1100°F P7 = 1500 psia ⎫ h7 = 1550. If you are a student using this Manual.09 + 4.01715 ft /lbm w pII .in = 69. h1 = h f @ 1 psia = 69.01614 ft 3 /lbm ⎛ 1 Btu = 0. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.4039 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ = 4. A-5E.in = 376. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. .14 + 0.in = v 3 (P4 − P3 ) ⎛ 1 Btu = 0.in = 236. the net power output of the plant. and A-6E).in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) v 1 = v f @ 1 psia = 0. Inc.01865 ft 3 /lbm (1500 − 250 psia )⎜ ⎜ 5. liquid ⎭ v 3 = v f @ 40 psia = 0.14 Btu/lbm ⎬ 3 sat.y 10 Boiler 8 6 P III 5 y Open fwh II 4 P II Condense 3 250 psia z 11 140 psia 9 40 psia 1-y-z 1 psia 12 s (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4E.12 = 69.84 Btu/lbm P3 = 40 psia ⎫ h3 = h f @ 40 psia = 236. you are using it without permission.67 Btu/lbm ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ h4 = h3 + w pII .09 Btu/lbm ⎬ 3 sat.31 = 380.4039 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ = 0.72 Btu/lbm w pI .31 Btu/lbm ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ h6 = h5 + w pIII .in = v 5 (P6 − P5 ) ⎛ 1 Btu = 0.01865 ft /lbm w pIII .81 Btu/lbm P5 = 250 psia ⎫ h5 = h f @ 250 psia = 376. The mass flow rate of steam through the boiler.12 Btu/lbm ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ h2 = h1 + w pI .5 Btu/lbm ⎬ ⎭ s 7 = 1.6402 Btu/lbm ⋅ R P8 = 250 psia ⎫ ⎬ h8 = 1308. liquid ⎭ v 5 = v f @ 250 psia = 0. Analysis 7 High-P Turbine T Low-P Turbine 9 1-y 10 Open fwh I z 2 PI 1 6 11 12 1-y-z 2 4 3 1 5 1500psia 7 y 8 1 .4039 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ = 0.10-57 10-61E A steam power plant operates on an ideal reheat-regenerative Rankine cycle with one reheater and two open feedwater heaters. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.67 = 236.01614 ft 3 /lbm (40 − 1 psia )⎜ ⎜ 5.72 + 0.5 Btu/lbm s8 = s 7 ⎭ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.01715 ft 3 /lbm (250 − 40 psia )⎜ ⎜ 5.

1300)(1531.1 MW ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ η th = 1 − q out 744.84 (1 − 0.9488)(1035. q out = (1 − y − z )(h12 − h1 ) = (1 − 0. . Solving for y.4 Btu/lbm wnet = q in − q out = 1415.055 kJ ⎞ & & Wnet = mwnet = (282.4 Btu/lbm = 1− = 47. If you are a student using this Manual.84495 The fraction of steam extracted is determined from the steady-flow energy balance equation applied to the & & feedwater heaters.8 − 744.84 Then.9488 1.1300 h8 − h4 1308. Solving for z.5 lbm/s)(671.10-58 P9 = 140 psia ⎫ ⎬ h9 = 1248. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.1300 − 0.09 − 236.81 = = 0.5 − 380.8 Btu/lbm s9 = s7 ⎭ P10 = 140 psia ⎫ h10 = 1531.72) = 744.4 Btu/lbm x12 = s12 − s f = 1. & & & Ein − E out = ΔEsystem 0 (steady) =0 FWH-2: & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i & & Ein = E out e e & & & ⎯ ⎯→ m8 h8 + m4 h4 = m5 h5 ⎯ ⎯→ yh8 + (1 − y )h4 = 1(h5 ) & & where y is the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m8 / m5 ).1125)(1052.4 = 671.1125 h11 − h2 1356.1300) = 0.8 Btu/lbm q in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.13262 = 0.4% 1415.0 Btu/lbm s11 = s10 ⎭ s fg P12 = 1 psia ⎫ ⎬ h12 = h f + x12 h fg = 69.5 − 236.14 − 69.4 − 69.81 0 (steady) & & & Ein − E out = ΔEsystem =0 FWH-1 & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i & & Ein = E out e e & & & ⎯ ⎯→ m11h11 + m 2 h2 = m3 h3 ⎯ ⎯→ zh11 + (1 − y − z )h2 = (1 − y )h3 & & where z is the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m9 / m5 ) at the second stage. y= h5 − h4 376.8) = 1415.0 − 69.8832 − 0.8832 Btu/lbm ⋅ R P11 = 40 psia ⎫ ⎬ h11 = 1356.72 + (0. Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 . you are using it without permission.3 Btu/lbm ⎬ T10 = 1000°F ⎭ s10 = 1.4 Btu/lbm q in = h7 − h6 + (1 − y )(h10 − h9 ) = 1550.7 ) s12 = s10 ⎭ = 1052.41 + (1 − 0.3 − 1248. z= h3 − h2 (1 − y ) = 236. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 Btu/lbm (b) (c) ⎛ 1. Inc.4 Btu/lbm)⎜ ⎜ 1 Btu ⎟ = 200.5 lbm/s q in 1415.8 Btu/lbm and & m= & Qin 4 × 10 5 Btu/s = = 282.

9 − 3051.5 kJ/kg ηT = P7 = 5 MPa ⎫ h7 = 3550.10-59 10-62 A steam power plant that operates on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with a closed feedwater heater is considered.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) / η p = (0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.88)(3550. liquid ⎭ v 3 = v f @ 1 MPa = 0.1) = 3111. h1 = h f @ 20 kPa = 251.25 kJ/kg since the two fluid streams which are being mixed have the same enthalpy.in = 251. you are using it without permission.5 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3476. P5 = 12. Inc. 11 10 Closed fwh 2 PII 3 PI 8 y Cond. 1 1 0.500 − 1000 kPa ) / 0. P8 = 1 MPa .001017 m 3 /kg w pI .in = 762.in = v 3 (P11 − P3 ) / η p = (0.1 kJ/kg ⎭ h7 − h8 ⎯ ⎯→ h8 = h7 − η T (h7 − h8 s ) h7 − h8 s = 3550.6317 kJ/kg ⋅ K s6 = s5 P6 = 5 MPa ⎫ ⎬h6 s = 3185.5 − (0.43 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + w pI .51 kJ/kg 4 ⎬ sat.85 kJ/kg P3 = 1 MPa ⎫ h3 = h f @ 1 MPa = 762. the net power output.500 − 20 kPa ) = 14.51 + 14.5 − 3185.73 kJ/kg h11 = h3 + w pII .1 kJ/kg ⎭ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. If you are a student using this Manual. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.1 kJ/kg ηT = ⎫ ⎬T8 = 328°C h8 = 3111. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. and A-6).25 kJ/kg 7 Mixing Cham.6 ) = 3220. the mass flow rate of the steam extracted from the turbine for the closed feedwater heater.43 = 265.001017 m 3 /kg )(12. The temperature of the steam at the inlet of the closed feedwater heater.6 kJ/kg ⎭ h5 − h6 ⎯ ⎯→ h6 = h5 − η T (h5 − h6 s ) h5 − h6 s = 3476.9 − (0. Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4.88 Boiler 5 High-P turbine Low-P turbine 6 1-y 9 Also. A-5.88 = 14.9 kJ/kg ⎬ T7 = 550°C ⎭ s 7 = 7.5 kJ/kg ⎬ T5 = 550°C ⎭ s 5 = 6.88)(3476.001127 m 3 /kg )(12.001127 m 3 /kg w pII .42 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 20 kPa = 0. and the thermal efficiency are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.73 = 777.42 + 14. h4 = h10 = h11 = 777.1238 kJ/kg ⋅ K s8 = s 7 P8 = 1 MPa ⎫ ⎬h8 s = 3051.

9 − 3220.1788)(2492.5 − 777.9) = 2492.1 − 762. If you are a student using this Manual.25 + 3550.9 − 2347.9 − (0.393 = 39.7 − 1840.9 kJ/kg s9 = s7 ⎭ ηT = h 7 − h9 ⎯ ⎯→ h9 = h7 − η T (h7 − h9 s ) h7 − h9 s = 3550.1788 The corresponding mass flow rate is & & m8 = ym5 = (0.1788)(24 kg/s) = 4.5 = 3029.7 kJ/kg and & & W net = m( q in − q out ) = (24 kg/s)(3029. Inc. Noting that & & Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.7 kJ/kg PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. .550 kW (b) The thermal efficiency is determined from η th = 1 − q out 1840.1 kJ/kg q in = h5 − h4 + h7 − h6 = 3476.42 ) = 1840.85) = y (3111.51) ⎯ ⎯→ y = 0.3% q in 3029.1 kJ/kg = 1− = 0.25 − 265.88)(3550.1)kJ/kg = 28. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.10-60 P9 = 20 kPa ⎫ ⎬h9 s = 2347.2 − 251. you are using it without permission.2 kJ/kg The fraction of steam extracted from the low pressure turbine for closed feedwater heater is determined from the steady-flow energy balance equation applied to the feedwater heater. (1 − y )(h10 − h2 ) = y(h8 − h3 ) (1 − y )(777. q out = (1 − y )(h9 − h1 ) = (1 − 0.29 kg/s (c) Then.

6492 kJ/kg ⋅ K s 3 = s 4 = 6.0 kJ/kg x destroyed. . © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.41 = T0 ⎜ s1 − s 4 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 290 K TR ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ The exergy of the steam at the boiler exit is simply the flow exergy. respectively. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.8000 + ⎟ = 178. 100 kPa ) ≅ h f @ 290 K = 71.95 kJ/kg s0 = s@ (290 K . ψ 3 = (3411.2533 kJ/kg ⋅ K Thus. 10-64 The exergy destruction associated with the heat rejection process in Prob. Analysis From Problem 10-25. and both are due to temperature difference.2532 ) kJ/kg ⋅ K = 1440. s1 = s 2 = s f @10 kPa = 0.41 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 1961.8 kJ/kg The exergy destruction associated with the heat rejection process is q R . irreversibilities occur during heat addition and heat rejection processes in the boiler and the condenser.800 − 0. ψ 3 = (h3 − h0 ) − T0 (s3 − s0 ) + = (h3 − h0 ) − T0 (s3 − s0 ) V32 2 0 + qz3 0 where h0 = h@ (290 K . Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.8 kJ/kg ⎞ ⎟ = (290 K )⎜ 0.9 kJ/kg PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.10-61 Second-Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycles 10-63C In the simple ideal Rankine cycle. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. If you are a student using this Manual. The exergy of the steam at the boiler exit is also to be determined.4 kJ/kg q out = 1961. One way of doing that is regeneration.6492 − 6. Inc. Therefore.8000 kJ/kg ⋅ K h3 = 3411. you are using it without permission.4 − 71. 10-25 is to be determined for the specified source and sink temperatures. the irreversibilities can be decreased and thus the 2nd law efficiency can be increased by minimizing the temperature differences during heat transfer in the boiler and the condenser.95) kJ/kg − (290 K )(6. 100 kPa ) ≅ s f @ 290 K = 0.

10-62 10-65E The exergy destructions associated with each of the processes of the Rankine cycle described in Prob. 23 = T0 ⎜ s 3 − s 2 − in ⎜ Tsource ⎝ ⎞ 1490.3 Btu/lbm ⎜ ⎟ 500 R Tsink ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ Processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic.24739 Btu/lbm ⋅ R s 3 = s 4 = 1. . Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.24739 − 1. s1 = s 2 = s f @ 6 psia = 0. 41 = T0 ⎜ s1 − s 4 + out ⎟ = (500 R )⎜ 0.4 − 138. Inc. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.0 − 139.5 Btu/lbm ⎞ ⎟ = (500 R )⎛1.38 Btu/lbm T 500 psia 2 1 qin 6 psia qout 4 s 3 The exergy destruction during a process of a stream from an inlet state to exit state is given by x dest = T0 s gen ⎛ q q = T0 ⎜ s e − s i − in + out ⎜ Tsource Tsink ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Application of this equation for each process of the cycle gives ⎛ q x destroyed.12 = 0 x destroyed.8075 Btu/lbm ⋅ R q in = h3 − h2 = 1630. 34 = 0 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.38 Btu/lbm ⎞ ⎛ x destroyed. and thus x destroyed. you are using it without permission. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual.5 Btu/lbm q out = h4 − h2 = 1120.52 = 1490.8075 − 0.24739 − ⎜ ⎟ = 399.8075 + ⎟ = 202.02 = 982.8 Btu/lbm ⎟ 1960 R ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎛ q ⎞ 982. Analysis From Problem 10-15E. 10-15E are to be determined for the specified source and sink temperatures.

12 = 0 x destroyed.3 − 255. you are using it without permission.47 = 3650. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 23 = T0 ⎜ s 3 − s 2 − in ⎜ Tsource ⎝ ⎞ 3650. Inc. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. s1 = s 2 = s f @ 20 kPa = 0. .3 kJ/kg ⎞ ⎛ x destroyed.10-63 10-66 The exergy destructions associated with each of the processes of the Rankine cycle described in Prob. 34 = 0 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Analysis From Problem 10-17.8 kJ/kg q out = h4 − h1 = 2513. and thus x destroyed.7 − 251.42 = 2262.8320 kJ/kg ⋅ K s 3 = s 4 = 7. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.8320 − 7.8 kJ/kg ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ = (288 K )⎜ 7.0 kJ/kg ⎜ ⎟ 288 K Tsink ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ Processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic.6 kJ/kg ⎟ 1023 K ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ q ⎞ 2262.3 kJ/kg T 4 MPa 2 1 qin 20 kPa qout 4 s 3 The exergy destruction during a process of a stream from an inlet state to exit state is given by ⎛ q q x dest = T0 s gen = T0 ⎜ s e − s i − in + out ⎜ Tsource Tsink ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Application of this equation for each process of the cycle gives ⎛ q x destroyed. 10-17 are to be determined for the specified source and sink temperatures.6214 − 0. 41 = T0 ⎜ s1 − s 4 + out ⎟ = (288 K )⎜ 0.8320 − ⎟ = 927. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.6214 + ⎟ = 307.6214 kJ/kg ⋅ K q in = h3 − h2 = 3906.

4 Btu/lbm ⎜ Tsink ⎟ 537 R ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Processes 1-2. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.7 Btu/lbm 2 3 600 psia 200 psia 4 10 psia 1 6 5 T The exergy destruction during a process of a stream from an inlet state to exit state is given by ⎛ q q x dest = T0 s gen = T0 ⎜ s e − s i − in + out ⎜ Tsource Tsink ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ s Application of this equation for each process of the cycle gives q in.28362 − x destroyed. 23 = T0 ⎜ s 3 − s 2 − ⎜ ⎟ = 149. you are using it without permission.8 Btu/lbm ⎞ ⎟ = (537 R )⎛1.9 − 163. and 5-6 are isentropic.28362 − 1. Analysis From Problem 10-36E. 56 = 0 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.6771 − 1. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.5325 − 0.6771 + ⎟ = 161.2 Btu/lbm ⎜ Tsource ⎟ 1160 R ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ q ⎞ 909.28362 Btu/lbm ⋅ R s 3 = s 4 = 1. If you are a student using this Manual.5325 Btu/lbm ⋅ R s 5 = s 6 = 1. 61 = T0 ⎜ s1 − s 6 + out ⎟ = (537 R )⎜ 0. x destroyed. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Inc. 10-36E are to be determined for the specified source and sink temperatures.10-64 10-67E The exergy destructions associated with each of the processes of the ideal reheat Rankine cycle described in Prob. 34 = 0 x destroyed.6771 Btu/lbm ⋅ R q in. 4-5 = h5 − h4 = 1322. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . 2-3 ⎞ ⎛ 1126.0 Btu/lbm ⎜ ⎟ Tsource ⎠ 1160 R ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ q in.8 Btu/lbm ⎞ ⎟ = (537 R )⎛1. 4-5 ⎞ ⎛ 134. s1 = s 2 = s f @ 10 psia = 0.2-3 = h3 − h2 = 1289. 3-4.12 = 0 x destroyed.3 − 1187.8 Btu/lbm q out = 909.5325 − x destroyed.8 Btu/lbm q in.06 = 1126. and thus.7 Btu/lbm ⎞ ⎛ x destroyed.5 = 134. 45 = T0 ⎜ s 5 − s 4 − ⎜ ⎟ = 15.

Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.7266 + ⎟ = 94. Also.0 kJ/kg ⎞ ⎟ = (300 K )⎛ 6.1 kJ/kg xdestroyed. qR .2359 + xdestroyed. Thus.in = 3399.2 − 251.1 kJ/kg qout = h6 − h1 = 2385.6 kJ/kg ⎟ ⎜ TR ⎠ 300 K ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.10-65 10-68 The exergy destructions associated with each of the processes of the reheat Rankine cycle described in Prob. 23 ⎞ ⎛ − 3140.2359 − 6.in = 3457. If you are a student using this Manual.8 kJ/kg ⎞ ⎟ = (300 K )⎛ 0. Analysis From Problem 10-34.7266 − 0. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.7266 kJ/kg ⋅ K s5 = s6 = 7.0 kJ/kg q45.8 kJ/kg Processes 1-2.54 = 3140.2 − 3105.45 = T0 ⎜ s5 − s4 + ⎜ ⎜ TR ⎟ 1800 K ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ qR . . 45 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ − 352.1 = 352.8320 + xdestroyed.23 = T0 ⎜ s3 − s2 + ⎜ ⎟ = 1245. i12 = i34 = i56 = 0. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. you are using it without permission.61 ⎞ ⎛ 2133.0 kJ/kg ⎜ ⎟ TR ⎠ 1800 K ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ qR .2359 kJ/kg ⋅ K q23. 10-34 are to be determined for the specified source and sink temperatures.61 = T0 ⎜ s1 − s6 + ⎜ ⎟ = 212.8320 − 7. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 − 259. s1 = s2 = s f @ 20 kPa = 0.5 kJ/kg ⎞ ⎟ = (300 K )⎜ 7.8320 kJ/kg ⋅ K s3 = s4 = 6. and 5-6 are isentropic. 3-4.42 = 2133. Inc.

Also.P=P[4].s=s[4]. .P=P[1].T=T[5].P=P[5]) h[5]=enthalpy(Fluid$.h=h[4]) s[4]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[2]. If you are a student using this Manual.T=T[3]. The problem is to be solved by the diagram window data entry feature of EES by including the effects of the turbine and pump efficiencies.x=x[1]) T[1]=temperature(Fluid$. the T-s diagram is to be plotted.T=T[5].P=P[5]) s_s[6]=s[5] PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.P=P[3]) s[3]=entropy(Fluid$.s=s_s[4]. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. and the solution is given below.h=h[2]) "High Pressure Turbine analysis" h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P[4]) h[3] =W_t_hp+h[4]"SSSF First Law for the high pressure turbine" "Low Pressure Turbine analysis" P[5]=P[4] s[5]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[1].P=P[3]) v[3]=volume(Fluid$.P=P[1]. Inc. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.x=x[1]) W_p_s=v[1]*(P[2]-P[1])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" W_p=W_p_s/Eta_p h[2]=h[1]+W_p "SSSF First Law for the pump" v[2]=volume(Fluid$.P=P[2].P=P[4]) Ts[4]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[2].T=T[3].h=h[2]) T[2]=temperature(Fluid$.from diagram window" {P[6] = 20 [kPa] P[3] = 8000 [kPa] T[3] = 500 [C] P[4] = 3000 [kPa] T[5] = 500 [C] Eta_t = 100/100 "Turbine isentropic efficiency" Eta_p = 100/100 "Pump isentropic efficiency"} "Data for the irreversibility calculations:" T_o = 300 [K] T_R_L = 300 [K] T_R_H = 1800 [K] "Pump analysis" Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' P[1] = P[6] P[2]=P[3] x[1]=0 "Sat'd liquid" h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$.x=x[1]) s[1]=entropy(Fluid$. function x6$(x6) "this function returns a string to indicate the state of steam at point 6" x6$='' if (x6>1) then x6$='(superheated)' if (x6<0) then x6$='(subcooled)' end "Input Data . Analysis The problem is solved using EES.x=x[1]) v[1]=volume(Fluid$.10-66 10-69 EES Problem 10-68 is reconsidered.T=T[3].P=P[4]) v[4]=volume(Fluid$.P=P[1].P=P[3]) s_s[4]=s[3] hs[4]=enthalpy(Fluid$.T=T[4].h=h[2]) s[2]=entropy(Fluid$. you are using it without permission.P=P[4]) Eta_t=(h[3]-h[4])/(h[3]-hs[4])"Definition of turbine efficiency" T[4]=temperature(Fluid$.s=s_s[4].

10-67

hs[6]=enthalpy(Fluid$,s=s_s[6],P=P[6]) Ts[6]=temperature(Fluid$,s=s_s[6],P=P[6]) vs[6]=volume(Fluid$,s=s_s[6],P=P[6]) Eta_t=(h[5]-h[6])/(h[5]-hs[6])"Definition of turbine efficiency" h[5]=W_t_lp+h[6]"SSSF First Law for the low pressure turbine" x[6]=QUALITY(Fluid$,h=h[6],P=P[6]) "Boiler analysis" Q_in + h[2]+h[4]=h[3]+h[5]"SSSF First Law for the Boiler" "Condenser analysis" h[6]=Q_out+h[1]"SSSF First Law for the Condenser" T[6]=temperature(Fluid$,h=h[6],P=P[6]) s[6]=entropy(Fluid$,h=h[6],P=P[6]) x6s$=x6$(x[6]) "Cycle Statistics" W_net=W_t_hp+W_t_lp-W_p Eff=W_net/Q_in "The irreversibilities (or exergy destruction) for each of the processes are:" q_R_23 = - (h[3] - h[2]) "Heat transfer for the high temperature reservoir to process 2-3" i_23 = T_o*(s[3] -s[2] + q_R_23/T_R_H) q_R_45 = - (h[5] - h[4]) "Heat transfer for the high temperature reservoir to process 4-5" i_45 = T_o*(s[5] -s[4] + q_R_45/T_R_H) q_R_61 = (h[6] - h[1]) "Heat transfer to the low temperature reservoir in process 6-1" i_61 = T_o*(s[1] -s[6] + q_R_61/T_R_L) i_34 = T_o*(s[4] -s[3]) i_56 = T_o*(s[6] -s[5]) i_12 = T_o*(s[2] -s[1])

700

Id e a l R a n k in e c yc le w ith re h e a t

600

500

3

5

400

T [C]

4 8000 kPa 3000 kP a

300

200

100

1 ,2 20 kP a 6

0 0 .0

1 .1

2 .2

3 .3

4 .4

5 .5

6 .6

7 .7

8 .8

9 .9

1 1 .0

s [k J /k g -K ]

10-68

SOLUTION Eff=0.389 Eta_p=1 Eta_t=1 Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' h[1]=251.4 [kJ/kg] h[2]=259.5 [kJ/kg] h[3]=3400 [kJ/kg] h[4]=3105 [kJ/kg] h[5]=3457 [kJ/kg] h[6]=2385 [kJ/kg] hs[4]=3105 [kJ/kg] hs[6]=2385 [kJ/kg] i_12=0.012 [kJ/kg] i_23=1245.038 [kJ/kg] i_34=-0.000 [kJ/kg] i_45=94.028 [kJ/kg] i_56=0.000 [kJ/kg] i_61=212.659 [kJ/kg] P[1]=20 [kPa] P[2]=8000 [kPa] P[3]=8000 [kPa] P[4]=3000 [kPa] P[5]=3000 [kPa] P[6]=20 [kPa] Q_in=3493 [kJ/kg] Q_out=2134 [kJ/kg] q_R_23=-3140 [kJ/kg] q_R_45=-352.5 [kJ/kg] q_R_61=2134 [kJ/kg] s[1]=0.832 [kJ/kg-K] s[2]=0.8321 [kJ/kg-K] s[3]=6.727 [kJ/kg-K] s[4]=6.727 [kJ/kg-K] s[5]=7.236 [kJ/kg-K] s[6]=7.236 [kJ/kg-K] s_s[4]=6.727 [kJ/kg-K] s_s[6]=7.236 [kJ/kg-K] T[1]=60.06 [C] T[2]=60.4 [C] T[3]=500 [C] T[4]=345.2 [C] T[5]=500 [C] T[6]=60.06 [C] Ts[4]=345.2 [C] Ts[6]=60.06 [C] T_o=300 [K] T_R_H=1800 [K] T_R_L=300 [K] v[1]=0.001017 [m^3/kg] v[2]=0.001014 [m^3/kg] v[3]=0.04177 [m^3/kg] v[4]=0.08968 [m^3/kg] vs[6]=6.922 [m^3/kg] W_net=1359 [kJ/kg] W_p=8.117 [kJ/kg] W_p_s=8.117 [kJ/kg] W_t_hp=294.8 [kJ/kg] W_t_lp=1072 [kJ/kg] x6s$='' x[1]=0 x[6]=0.9051

69

10-70 A single-flash geothermal power plant uses hot geothermal water at 230ºC as the heat source. The power output from the turbine, the thermal efficiency of the plant, the exergy of the geothermal liquid at the exit of the flash chamber, and the exergy destructions and exergy efficiencies for the flash chamber, the turbine, and the entire plant are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Analysis (a) We use properties of water for geothermal water (Tables A-4, A-5, and A-6)

T1 = 230°C⎫ h1 = 990.14 kJ/kg ⎬ x1 = 0 ⎭ s1 = 2.6100 kJ/kg.K P2 = 500 kPa ⎫ x 2 = 0.1661 ⎬ h2 = h1 = 990.14 kJ/kg ⎭ s 2 = 2.6841 kJ/kg.K

& & m3 = x 2 m1

3 steam turbine separator 4

= (0.1661)(230 kg/s) = 38.19 kg/s

2 condenser 6 Flash chamber 1 production well 5

**P3 = 500 kPa ⎫ h3 = 2748.1 kJ/kg ⎬ x3 = 1 ⎭ s 3 = 6.8207 kJ/kg ⋅ K P4 = 10 kPa ⎫ h4 = 2464.3 kJ/kg ⎬ x 4 = 0.95 ⎭ s 4 = 7.7739 kJ/kg ⋅ K P6 = 500 kPa ⎫ h6 = 640.09 kJ/kg ⎬ x6 = 0 ⎭ s 6 = 1.8604 kJ/kg ⋅ K
**

& & & m 6 = m1 − m3 = 230 − 38.19 = 191.81 kg/s

reinjection well

**The power output from the turbine is
**

& & WT = m 3 ( h3 − h4 ) = (38.19 kJ/kg)(2748.1 − 2464.3)kJ/kg = 10,842 kW

**We use saturated liquid state at the standard temperature for dead state properties
**

T0 = 25°C⎫ h0 = 104.83 kJ/kg ⎬ x0 = 0 ⎭ s 0 = 0.3672 kJ/kg

& & E in = m1 (h1 − h0 ) = (230 kJ/kg)(990.14 − 104.83)kJ/kg = 203,622 kW

η th =

& WT,out 10,842 = = 0.0532 = 5.3% & 203,622 E in

(b) The specific exergies at various states are

ψ 1 = h1 − h0 − T0 ( s1 − s 0 ) = (990.14 − 104.83)kJ/kg − (298 K)(2.6100 − 0.3672)kJ/kg.K = 216.53 kJ/kg ψ 2 = h2 − h0 − T0 ( s 2 − s 0 ) = (990.14 − 104.83)kJ/kg − (298 K)(2.6841 − 0.3672)kJ/kg.K = 194.44 kJ/kg ψ 3 = h3 − h0 − T0 ( s 3 − s 0 ) = (2748.1 − 104.83)kJ/kg − (298 K)(6.8207 − 0.3672)kJ/kg.K = 719.10 kJ/kg ψ 4 = h4 − h0 − T0 ( s 4 − s 0 ) = (2464.3 − 104.83)kJ/kg − (298 K)(7.7739 − 0.3672)kJ/kg.K = 151.05 kJ/kg ψ 6 = h6 − h0 − T0 ( s 6 − s 0 ) = (640.09 − 104.83)kJ/kg − (298 K)(1.8604 − 0.3672)kJ/kg.K = 89.97 kJ/kg

802 kW & & & X dest.53 − 194. Inc.8% ψ 1 216.842 kW = = 0.FC = (d) Turbine: ψ 2 194.T = (e) Plant: & WT 10.842 kW = 10.T = m3 (ψ 3 −ψ 4 ) − WT = (38. Plant 49.802 − 10.44 = = 0.44)kJ/kg = 5080 kW η II.8% & X in.842 kW = = 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.70 The exergy of geothermal water at state 6 is & & X 6 = m 6ψ 6 = (191.53 kJ/kg) = 49.05)kJ/kg .97 kJ/kg) = 17.10 − 151.802 kW PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. FC = m1 (ψ 1 −ψ 2 ) = (230 kg/s)(216.898 = 89.257 kW (c) Flash chamber: & & X dest. you are using it without permission. Plant = m1ψ 1 = (230 kg/s)(216.0% & m3 (ψ 3 −ψ 4 ) (38.Plant = & WT 10. Plant = X in.10. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .10 − 151. If you are a student using this Manual.19 kg/s)(719.05)kJ/kg & & X in.500 = 50.960 kW η II. Plant − WT = 49.19 kg/s)(719.2177 = 21.81 kg/s)(89.842 = 38.854 kW η II.53 & & & X dest.

if the cycle involves no irreversibilities such as throttling. friction. and still have a utilization factor of unity. 10-72C No. It could be unity for a plant that does not produce any power. 10-73C Yes. and heat transfer through a finite temperature difference. A cogeneration plant may involve throttling.71 Cogeneration 10-71C The utilization factor of a cogeneration plant is the ratio of the energy utilized for a useful purpose to the total energy supplied. you are using it without permission. and heat transfer through a finite temperature difference. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. friction. Regeneration is the transfer of heat from the working fluid at some stage to the working fluid at some other stage. 10-74C Cogeneration is the production of more than one useful form of energy from the same energy source. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. .

866 + 15. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.38) kJ/kg = 15.6 MPa P6 = 7 MPa ⎫ h6 = 3411.60 kJ/kg ) + (30 kg/s )(6. The net power produced and the utilization factor of the plant are to be determined.in + m 4 wpII.in = v 4 (P5 − P4 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ 6 ⎟ = 0.81 + (0.6492 = = 0.57 = 318.6)kJ/kg + (22.8201)(2392.5 kg/s )(0. & & & WT.72 10-75 A cogeneration plant is to generate power and process heat.782 kW & & Qin = m5 (h6 − h5 ) = (30 kg/s )(3411.077 − 210. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.90 + 6.90 kJ/kg = 0.866 kW Also. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. h1 = h f @ 10 kPa = 191.6 )kJ/kg = 33.001026 m3/kg (7000 − 600 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 7 MPa = 6.4 kJ/kg 7 4 3 · ⎬ Qproces T6 = 500°C ⎭ s 6 = 6.38 kJ/kg 0 (steady) Condenser 1 Mixing chamber: & & & E in − E out = ΔE system & & =0⎯ ⎯→ E in = E out P II 4 2 PI ∑ or.6 kJ/kg 10 kPa s7 = s6 ⎭ · 8 1 Qout s8 − s f 6.50 )(670.60 = 192.in = 311. If you are a student using this Manual.90 kJ/kg & 30 m4 v 4 ≅ v f @ h f =311. . you are using it without permission.6 − 2153.6 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h7 = 2774.in = 191.6 − 670.57 kJ/kg 5 · h5 = h4 + w pII.782 εu = = = 52.4996 ⎬ s8 = s6 ⎭ h = h + x h = 191.41) + (7.00101 m 3 /kg (600 − 10 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 0.788 Qin and PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. & & Qprocess = m7 (h7 − h3 ) = (7. A-5. out − W p.077 kW & & & W p.47 kJ/kg Qin 0. Inc. and A-6).1) = 2153.788 kW & & W net + Q process 32.6 kJ/kg 8 f 8 fg ∑ & & & & ⎯→ m 4 h4 = m 2 h2 + m3 h3 m e he ⎯ h4 = ( ) s Then.41 kJ/kg h3 = h f @ 0.in = 33.50 )(192.8000 − 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.6 = 32. & mi hi = & & m2 h2 + m3h3 (22.in = (22.8201 P8 = 10 kPa ⎫ x8 = s fg 7.60 kJ/kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Boiler Turbine 7 8 h2 = h1 + wpI.out = m 6 (h6 − h7 ) + m8 (h7 − h8 ) = (30 kg/s )(3411.4% & 92.6 MPa 5 Process heater 3 = 670.001026 m3/kg T w pII.5 kg/s )(2774.81 kJ/kg v1 = v f @ 10 kPa = 0.8000 kJ/kg ⋅ K 2 P7 = 0. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.4 − 2774.47 ) = 92.5 kg/s )(2774.4 − 318.38) = = 311.6 kW & & & W net = WT.in = m1 wpI.57 kJ/kg ) = 210. Part of the steam extracted from the turbine at a relatively high pressure is used for process heating.81 + 0.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.00101 m 3 /kg 6 wpI.

s = ηT [m6 (h6 − h7 s ) + m8 (h7 s − h8 s )] = (0.6535 Btu/lbm ⋅ R · Qin 7 80 psia 7s 2 2 psia 1 8s 8 s w pII.02 + 0.01664 ft 3 /lbm (1000 − 80 psia )⎜ ⎜ 5.17499 = = 0.0 ) Btu/lbm + (3 lbm/s)(1209.29 = 172.13 Btu/lbm 0 (steady) Mixing chamber: & & & E − E = ΔE in out system =0 & & & m4 h4 = m2 h2 + m3h3 & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i & & Ein = Eout e e ⎯→ ⎯ 5 4 3 1000psia · Qprocess or.8475)(1021.01623 ft 3/lbm 6 Turbine 7 8 Process heater 3 P II 4 T 6 2 PI 1 Condenser wpI. If you are a student using this Manual.02 Btu/lbm v1 = v f @ 2 psia = 0. and A-6E).in = 94.8475 P8 s = 2 psia ⎫ x8 s = s fg 1.4039 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ = 3.27 = 94. Inc. The rate of heat transfer to the boiler and the power output of the cogeneration plant are to be determined. & & m 2 h2 + m3 h3 (3)(94.2 − 1209.in = 169.74444 ⎬ s8s = s 6 ⎭ h = h + x h = 94.0 − 959.in = v 4 (P5 − P4 ) / η p ( ) ⎞ ⎟ / (0.0 Btu/lbm s7s = s6 ⎭ s8 s − s f 1.7 ) = 959. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.86)[(5 lbm/s)(1506.43 + 3.72 Btu/lbm P7 s = 80 psia ⎫ ⎬ h7 s = 1209. you are using it without permission. Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4E.29 Btu/lbm P6 = 1000 psia ⎫ h6 = 1506. .43 Btu/lbm = 0. h1 = h f @ 2 psia = 94.98) Btu/lbm] = 1921 Btu/s = 2026 kW PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.02 + (0.01623 ft 3/lbm)(80 − 2) psia = 0.29 ) + (2 )(282. (b) & & Qin = m 5 (h6 − h5 ) = (5 lbm/s )(1506.13) = = 169.98 Btu/lbm 8s f 8 s fg Then.out = ηT WT .29 Btu/lbm h3 = h f @ 80 psia = 282.86 ⎞ ⎛ 1 Btu ⎟ ×⎜ 5 ⎜ 5.27 Btu/lbm h2 = h1 + wpI.01664 ft 3 /lbm h4 = ⎛ 1 Btu = 0.2 Btu/lbm ⎬ T6 = 1000°F ⎭ s 6 = 1. A-5E.86 ) ⎟ ⎠ h5 = h4 + w pII .43 Btu/lbm & 5 m4 v 4 ≅ v f @ h f =169.4039 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ = 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. which is extracted from the turbine of a cogeneration plant.72 )Btu/lbm = 6667 Btu/s & & & & WT.6535 − 0.in = v1 (P2 − P ) / η p Boiler 1 1 (0. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.2 − 172.73 10-76E A large food-processing plant requires steam at a relatively high pressure.

38 = 650. In the second mode.in = 251.47 ) = = 494.47 kJ/kg Mixing chamber: & & E −E in out & = ΔEsystem e e 0 (steady) & & = 0 → Ein = Eout & & & m5 h5 = m2 h2 + m4 h4 & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i ⎯→ ⎯ or. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.4219 − 0. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 60 percent of the steam is routed to the process heater and remaining is expanded to the condenser pressure. .09 )kJ/kg = 9693 kW (b) When only 60% of the steam is routed to the process heater.8604 = = 0.6 − 640.9196 P7 = 0.91 kJ/kg & m5 5 P6 = 10 MPa ⎫ h6 = 3242.001017 m 3 /kg Boiler 6 Turbine 7 8 5 4 PII Process heater 3 PI 2 1 Condens.6 ) kJ/kg + (2 kg/s )(2578.in = v 3 (P4 − P3 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.out = m6 (h6 − h7 ) = (5 kg/s )(3242. h5 = & & m 2 h2 + m 4 h4 (2 )(261.38 kJ/kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ T 6 5 2 4 3 1 7 8 s h4 = h3 + wpII. Inc. A-5.out = m 6 (h6 − h7 ) + m8 (h7 − h8 ) = (5 kg/s )(3242.4219 − 1.in = 640.42 + (0.42 kJ/kg v1 = v f @ 20 kPa = 0. and the power produced and the rate of process heat supplied in the second mode are to be determined.57 kJ/kg h3 = h f @ 0.8320 = = 0.0752 ⎬ s8 = s 6 ⎭ h = h + x h = 251.4 − 2578.4219 kJ/kg ⋅ K s 7 − s f 6.9196)(2108.15 kJ/kg = 640. all the steam leaving the turbine at a relatively high pressure is routed to the process heater.74 10-77 A cogeneration plant has two modes of operation.001093 m 3 /kg (10. Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4.5 MPa v3 =v f w pII.000 − 20 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 10.42 + 10.001017 m 3 /kg (10. and A-6).001093 m 3 /kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ h2 = h1 + w pI.5) = 2114.7901 P8 = 20 kPa ⎫ x8 = s fg 7.09 + 10. The power produced and the rate at which process heat is supplied in the first mode.5 MPa ⎫ x 7 = s fg 4. h1 = h f @ 20 kPa = 251.0 ) kJ/kg = 4248 kW & & Q process = m 7 (h7 − h3 ) = (3 kg/s )(2578. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.57 ) + (3)(650.09 + (0. you are using it without permission.09 kJ/kg = 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. & & WT. If you are a student using this Manual.7901)(2357.6 )kJ/kg = 3319 kW & & Qprocess = m7 (h7 − h3 ) = (5 kg/s )(2578.000 − 500 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 10.15 = 261.0) = 2578. wpI.6 − 2114.6 − 640.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0. In the first mode.4 kJ/kg ⎬ T6 = 450°C ⎭ s 6 = 6.09) kJ/kg = 5816 kW PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.9603 ⎬ s7 = s6 ⎭ h = h + x h = 640.0 kJ/kg 8 f 8 fg When the entire steam is routed to the process heater. & & & WT.4 − 2578.6 kJ/kg f 7 7 fg s8 − s f 6.5 MPa @ 0.

7765 1 = = 0.in = v1 (P2 − P ) 1 ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.66 kJ/kg ( ) 5 9 4 PII 3 Process heater h2 = h1 + wpI. Inc.8097 P8 = 10 kPa ⎫ x8 = s fg 7.7 − 2128. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.07 = 610.00101 m3 /kg (400 − 10 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 0.7 ) kJ/kg + (0.out = (h6 − h7 ) + 0.out − wp.73 kJ/kg P6 = 6 MPa ⎫ h6 = 3302.81 + 0. you are using it without permission.7219 − 1.in = v 4 (P5 − P4 ) T ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.4)(0. and A-6). .23 = 845.7 ) kJ/kg = 852. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.07 kJ/kg ( ) 6 5 3.66 + 6.73 kg/s wnet 845. The mass flow rate of steam through the boiler for a net power output of 15 MW is to be determined.20 kJ/kg h3 = h4 = h9 = h f @ 0.07 kJ/kg ) = 6.8 kJ/kg PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.8 kJ/kg Thus.4 wpI.in = (0.in = 191.7219 − 0.4(h7 − h8 ) = (3302.81 + (0.in = 604.4) = 2665.9 2 6 MPa 0.00101 m3 /kg v1 = v f wpI. A-5. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. If you are a student using this Manual. h1 = h f @ 10 kPa @ 10 kPa 6 Boiler Turbine 7 8 = 191.39 kJ/kg = 604.4.001084 m3 /kg wpII.9661)(2133.000 kJ/s = = 17. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.39 kJ/kg ) + (6.4 )(2665. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. we have wT.1) = 2128. per kg of steam flowing through the boiler.7 kJ/kg f 7 7 fg s8 − s f 6.0 kJ/kg wp.4 MPa 7 8 s h5 = h4 + wpII.6492 = = 0.9 kJ/kg ⎬ T6 = 450°C ⎭ s 6 = 6.0 − 6.in = 0.1191 ⎬ s7 = s6 ⎭ h = h + x h = 604.23 kJ/kg wnet = wT.4 MPa Condense r 1 PI 2 fwh v4 =v f @ 0.81 kJ/kg = 0.8097 )(2392.66 + (0.in + wpII.4 MPa ⎫ x 7 = s fg 5.9 − 2665.75 10-78 A cogeneration plant modified with regeneration is to generate power and process heat.001084 m3 /kg (6000 − 400 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 6.9661 P7 = 0.4996 ⎬ s8 = s 6 ⎭ h = h + x h = 191.4 MPa = 0.in = 852. & m= & Wnet 15.7219 kJ/kg ⋅ K s7 − s f 10 kPa 6.39 = 192.7 kJ/kg 8 f 8 fg Then.

x=0) {Sat'd liquid} v1=volume(Fluid$. kW) Eta_turb= 100/100 "Turbine isentropic efficiency" Eta_pump = 100/100 "Pump isentropic efficiency" P[1] = P[8] P[2]=P[7] P[3]=P[7] P[4] = P[7] P[5]=P[6] P[9] = P[7] "Condenser exit pump or Pump 1 analysis" Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$. you are using it without permission. and the solution is given below.y + z)*h[3] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$.x=0) T[1]=temperature(Fluid$.h=h[2]) "Open Feedwater Heater analysis:" z*h[7] + (1.x=0) T[3]=temperature(Fluid$.6 "fraction of steam extracted from turbine for feedwater heater and process heater" P[6] = 6000 [kPa] T[6] = 450 [C] P_extract=400 [kPa] P[7] = P_extract P_cond=10 [kPa] P[8] = P_cond W_dot_net=15 [MW]*Convert(MW. and 9:" (y-z)*h[9] + (1-y+z)*h[3] = 1*h[4] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" T[4]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[4].P=P[9].x=0) w_pump1_s=v1*(P[2]-P[1])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" w_pump1=w_pump1_s/Eta_pump "Definition of pump efficiency" h[1]+w_pump1= h[2] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" s[2]=entropy(Fluid$. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.P=P[3].P=P[1].P=P[9]. Analysis The problem is solved using EES.P=P[1].x=0) "Mixing chamber at 3.x=0) T[9]=temperature(Fluid$. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.z)*h[9] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" Q_dot_process = m_dot*(y .x=0) "Condensate leaves heater as sat. The effect of the extraction pressure for removing steam from the turbine to be used for the process heater and open feedwater heater on the required mass flow rate is to be investigated.z)*h[7] = q_process + (y . liquid at P[3]" s[4]=entropy(Fluid$. liquid at P[3]" s[9]=entropy(Fluid$. 4.P=P[9]. If you are a student using this Manual.y)*h[2] = (1.x=0) "Process heater analysis:" (y . liquid at P[3]" s[3]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[1].P=P[4].h=h[4]) "Condensate leaves heater as sat. Inc. .P=P[3]. "Input Data" y = 0.76 10-79 EES Problem 10-78 is reconsidered.P=P[1].x=0) "Condensate leaves heater as sat.z)*q_process"[kW]" h[9]=enthalpy(Fluid$.x=0) s[1]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[2].P=P[3].P=P[2].h=h[2]) T[2]=temperature(Fluid$.h=h[4]) "Boiler condensate pump or Pump 2 analysis" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.

Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.y)*h[8]=q_out+(1.y)*h[1]"SSSF First Law for the Condenser" "Cycle Statistics" w_net=w_turb .s=ss[8].h=h[5]) "Boiler analysis" q_in + h[5]=h[6]"SSSF conservation of energy for the Boiler" h[6]=enthalpy(Fluid$. Inc.77 v4=volume(Fluid$.y)*w_pump1+ w_pump2) Eta_th=w_net/q_in W_dot_net = m_dot * w_net Steam Pextract [kPa] 100 200 300 400 500 600 ηth 0.h=h[7]) ss[8]=s[7] hs[8]=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P[8].P=P[7]. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.P=P[8]) h[8]=h[7]-Eta_turb*(h[7]-hs[8])"Definition of turbine efficiency for low pressure stages" T[8]=temperature(Fluid$.3203 0.72 Qprocess [kW] 9508 9696 9806 9882 9939 9984 700 600 500 6 T [°C] 400 300 5 200 6000 kPa 2 100 3.3284 0.s=ss[7].h=h[8]) s[8]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[7].26 18.P=P[5].x=0) w_pump2_s=v4*(P[5]-P[4])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" w_pump2=w_pump2_s/Eta_pump "Definition of pump efficiency" h[4]+w_pump2= h[5] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" s[5]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[8]) Ts[8]=temperature(Fluid$.s=ss[8].3142 0. P=P[6]) "Turbine analysis" ss[7]=s[6] hs[7]=enthalpy(Fluid$.26 16.4. . T=T[6].9 1 400 kPa 7 8 6 8 10 12 10 kPa 0 0 2 4 s [kJ/kg-K] PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.36 17.h=h[7]) s[7]=entropy(Fluid$. T=T[6].P=P[4]. If you are a student using this Manual.3092 0.h=h[8]) h[6] =y*h[7] + (1.74 18.P=P[7]) Ts[7]=temperature(Fluid$.((1. you are using it without permission.y)*h[8] + w_turb "SSSF conservation of energy for turbine" "Condenser analysis" (1.P=P[7]) h[7]=h[6]-Eta_turb*(h[6]-hs[7])"Definition of turbine efficiency for high pressure stages" T[7]=temperature(Fluid$.3413 0.P=P[8]. P=P[6]) s[6]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[5].12 17.s=ss[7].h=h[5]) T[5]=temperature(Fluid$.305 m [kg/s] 15.

. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission.335 0. Inc.345 0.32 0.34 0.78 19 18.5 15 100 200 300 400 500 600 P 10000 extract [kPa] 9900 Q process [kW ] 9800 9700 9600 9500 100 200 300 400 500 600 P 0.5 16 15.31 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.325 extract [kPa] η th 0.5 18 m [kg/s] 17. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.33 0.5 17 16.315 0.305 100 200 300 400 500 600 P extract [kPa] PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.

49) − (6)(1408. . and A-6E). 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.450 Btu/s & Q process = = (18)(208.5 Btu/lbm s 7 = s3 ⎭ 3 Boiler 4 5 Turbine 6 7 2 Process heater 1 P T & & W net = m5 (h5 − h7 ) = (12 lbm/s)(1408. h1 ≅ h f @ 240° F = 208.5) − (18)(208.49 ) = 19.6348 Btu/lbm ⋅ R h3 = h4 = h5 = h6 P7 = 120 psia ⎫ ⎬ h7 = 1229. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.5) = −19.0) + (12)(1229.0 − 1229.0) − (12 )(1229. The net power produced. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.0 Btu/lbm ⎬ T3 = 800°F ⎭ s 3 = s5 = s 7 = 1. and the utilization factor of this plant are to be determined. the rate of process heat supply.79 10-80E A cogeneration plant is to generate power while meeting the process steam requirements for a certain industrial application. Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4E. A-5E. you are using it without permission. s PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual.49 Btu/lbm h2 ≅ h1 P3 = 600 psia ⎫ h3 = 1408.4.5) Btu/lbm = 2142 Btu/s = 2260 kW & & ∑m h −∑m h i i & (b) Q process = e e & & & = m 6 h6 + m 7 h7 − m1 h1 − 3. 2 600 psia = (6 )(1408.450 Btu/s & & ∑m h −∑m h e e i i & & & = m1 h1 − m 6 h6 − m 7 h7 1 120 psia 6 7 (c) εu = 1 since all the energy is utilized.

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.00101 m 3 /kg (600 − 10 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 0.001026 m3 /kg (7000 − 600 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ = 6.47 kJ/kg P6 = 7 MPa ⎫ h6 = 3411.4 kJ/kg ⎬ T6 = 500°C ⎭ s 6 = 6. Inc.6 MPa s7 = s6 ⎫ ⎬ h7 = 2773.9 kJ/kg ⎭ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the net power produced.00101 m 3 /kg wpI.75)(192. you are using it without permission. .40 kJ/kg)) = (1)h4 ⎯ ⎯→ h4 = 311. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.90 kJ/kg = 0.81 kJ/kg v1 = v f @ 10 kPa = 0. Part of the steam extracted from the turbine at a relatively high pressure is used for process heating.8000 kJ/kg ⋅ K P7 = 0.6 MPa 4 3 · Qprocess 5 · Qout 10 kPa 7 Condenser 1 2 1 8 s Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.596 kJ/kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ h2 = h1 + wpI. 6 Boiler Turbine 7 8 5 Process heater 3 P II 4 2 PI T 6 7 MPa · Qin 0. and A-6).001026 m3 /kg w pII.25)(670. The mass flow rate of steam that must be supplied by the boiler.38 kJ/kg Mixing chamber: & & & m3h3 + m2 h2 = m4 h4 (0.80 10-81 A cogeneration plant is to generate power and process heat. and the utilization factor of the plant are to be determined. h1 = h f @ 10 kPa = 191.in = v 4 (P5 − P4 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.in = 311.38 kJ/kg) + (0.in = 191.596 = 192.6 MPa = 670.40 kJ/kg h3 = h f @ 0.81 + 0.563 kJ/kg ( ) h5 = h4 + w pII. If you are a student using this Manual.90 + 6. A-5.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.563 = 318.90 kJ/kg v4 ≅ v f @ h f = 311.

9 − 670.088 kg/s m & & Qprocess = m7 (h7 − h3 ) This is one-fourth of the mass flowing through the boiler. out − Wp. out = m7 (h6 − h7 ) + m8 (h6 − h8 ) (4.524 = 52.in = m1wpI.088 kg/s )(3411.6 kJ/kg s8 = s6 ⎭ & 8600 kJ/s = m7 (2773.46 ) = 50.4 − 2773.088 kg/s )(0. Inc.033 − 115 = 17.35 kg/s )(3411.6)kJ/kg = = 18. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.in + m4 wpII. . & & Qin = m5 (h6 − h5 ) = (16. Thus.4 − 2153.35 .4 − 318.4.4.596 kJ/kg ) + (16.in = (16.088 kg/s) = 16.919 + 8600 = = 0.81 P8 = 10 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h8 = 2153.38)kJ/kg & 7 = 4.35 kg/s (b) Cycle analysis: & & & WT.919 kW (c) Then.in = 18.6 kW & & & Wnet = WT. the mass flow rate of steam that must be supplied by the boiler becomes & & m 6 = 4m 7 = 4(4.581 Q in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.563 kJ/kg ) = 114. you are using it without permission.088 kg/s )(3411.35 .033 kW & & & Wp.581 kW and εu = & & Wnet + Qprocess 17. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.4% & 50.35 kg/s )(6. If you are a student using this Manual.9)kJ/kg + (16.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc. The result is a cycle that is more efficient than either cycle executed operated alone. . © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. you are using it without permission. and those of steam cycle at low temperature. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. and combines them.82 Combined Gas-Vapor Power Cycles 10-82C The energy source of the steam is the waste energy of the exhausted combustion gases. If you are a student using this Manual. 10-83C Because the combined gas-steam cycle takes advantage of the desirable characteristics of the gas cycle at high temperature.

3658 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ s6 − s f 6.0752 s fg ⎬ s7 = s5 ⎭ h = h + x h = 251.5) = 2095. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.in = 251.59 = 252.8285 s fg ⎬ s6 = s5 ⎭ h = h + x h = 670.42 + (0. .001017 m 3 /kg wpI.15 = 678.001101 m3 /kg wpII. The mass flow rate of air to steam.000 − 600 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ = 8.42 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 20 kPa = 0.53 kJ/kg P5 = 8 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3139.42 kJ/kg Pr10 = 450.6 MPa 20 kPa 8 · 7 1 Qout s ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) 300 K STEAM 460 K CYCLE 6 2 3 0.9185)(2085.7821 P7 = 20 kPa ⎫ x7 = 7.02 kJ/kg From the steam tables (Tables A-4.01 kJ/kg h3 = h f @ 0.8320 = = 0.40 ⎯ ⎯→ h9 = 635. the required rate of heat input in the combustion chamber.5) = 32.83 10-84 [Also solved by EES on enclosed CD] A 450-MW combined gas-steam power plant is considered. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.1 kJ/kg f 6 6 fg s7 − s f 6. 3 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats.5 Pr11 P ⎛ 1 ⎞ = 11 Pr10 = ⎜ ⎟(450.6 MPa v3 = v f = 670.38 kJ/kg = 0.38 + (0. A-6).386 P Pr9 = 9 Pr8 = (14 )(1.001101 m3 /kg (8.6 MPa ⎫ x6 = 4.2 kJ/kg 7 f 7 fg & & Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 for the heat exchanger.42 + 0. and the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle are to be determined.7821)(2357. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.18 ⎯ ⎯→ h11 = 735.3658 − 0. The topping cycle is a gas-turbine cycle and the bottoming cycle is an ideal Rankine cycle with an open feedwater heater. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual.38 + 8.9308 = = 0.in = 670.5 kJ/kg P8 T10 = 1400 K ⎯ ⎯→ h10 = 1515.8 kJ/kg P10 ⎝ 14 ⎠ GAS CYCLE 11 5 400°C 9 8 MPa 4 12 T12 = 460 K ⎯ ⎯→ h12 = 462.4 kJ/kg T5 = 400°C ⎬ s5 = 6.9185 P6 = 0.8) = 2586.3658 − 1.6 MPa @ 0.001017 m 3 /kg (600 − 20 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 0. you are using it without permission. Analysis (a) The analysis of gas cycle yields (Table A-17) T 10 · Qin 1400 K T8 = 300 K ⎯ ⎯→ h8 = 300.15 kJ/kg ( ) h4 = h3 + wpI. h1 = h f @ 20 kPa = 251. the steady-flow energy balance equation yields PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.19 kJ/kg Pr8 = 1.386 ) = 19.59 kJ/kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ h2 = h1 + wpI. A-5.in = v 3 (P4 − P3 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0. Inc.

59 ) − 8.38 − 252.01 (the fraction of steam extracted ) wT = h5 − h6 + (1 − y )(h6 − h7 ) = 3139.1 + (1 − 0.56 kJ/kg wnet.000 kW = = 62.8 kJ/kg 99 99 & mair = and & Wnet 450. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.42 − 635.5 kg/s )(1515.in = (h10 − h11 ) − (h9 − h8 ) = 1515. you are using it without permission.4 − 678.steam = wT − w p .1792)(0.01 = = 0.8 − (635. the steady-flow energy balance equation yields & & & E in − E out = ΔEsystem & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i 0 (steady) =0 & & E in = E out e e & & & ⎯ ⎯→ m 2 h2 + m6 h6 = m3 h3 ⎯ ⎯→ yh6 + (1 − y )h2 = (1)h3 Thus.7 kg/s wnet 549.215 kW Qin PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.5) kJ/kg = 720. Inc.5% & 720. I − w p .3 + 8. y= h3 − h2 670.23 − (1 − 0.1792 h6 − h2 2586.7 kJ/kg & & Qin = mair (h10 − h9 ) = (818.gas = wT − wC .in = wT − (1 − y )w p .5 − 300.1 − 252.42 − 735.19 ) = 444. .56 ) = 549.84 & & & Ein − Eout = ΔEsystem & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i 0 (steady) =0 & & Ein = Eout e e & & ⎯ ⎯→ ms (h5 − h4 ) = mair (h11 − h12 ) & 3139. II = 956.3 kJ/kg The net work output per unit mass of gas is wnet = wnet.steam = 444.23 kJ/kg wnet. If you are a student using this Manual.1 wnet.53 mair h −h = 5 4 = = 8. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.1792 )(2586.80 − 462.15 = 948.4 − 2586.1 (948.gas + 8.99 kg air / kg steam &s m h11 − h12 735.000 kJ/s = = 818.02 & & (b) Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 for the open FWH.1 − 2095.2) = 956.215 kW (c) ηth = & Wnet 450.

T=T[10]. assuming: adiabatic.T=Ts9) h[8] + w_gas_comp = h[9]"SSSF conservation of energy for the actual compressor. w_comp > w_comp_isen" h[8] + w_gas_comp_isen =hs9"SSSF conservation of energy for the isentropic compressor.T=T[10]) P[10]=P[9] "Assume process 9-10 is SSSF constant pressure" Q_dot_in"MW"*1000"kW/MW"=m_dot_gas*q_in "Gas Turbine analysis" s[10]=ENTROPY(Air.P=P[9])"Ts9 is the isentropic value of T[9] at compressor exit" Eta_comp = w_gas_comp_isen/w_gas_comp "compressor adiabatic efficiency.s=ss11. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. ke=pe=0 per unit gas mass flow rate in kg/s" h[8]=ENTHALPY(Air. "Input data" T[8] = 300 [K] P[8] = 14.T=T[8]) hs9=ENTHALPY(Air.T=T[8]. w_gas_turb_isen > w_gas_turb" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.h=h[9]) s[9]=ENTROPY(Air.P=P[8]) ss9=s[8] "For the ideal case the entropies are constant across the compressor" P[9] = Pratio*P[8] Ts9=temperature(Air.T=T[9]. .P=P[11])"Ts11 is the isentropic value of T[11] at gas turbine exit" Eta_gas_turb = w_gas_turb /w_gas_turb_isen "gas turbine adiabatic efficiency. Inc. ke=pe=0" h[10]=ENTHALPY(Air.0 Eta_gas_turb = 1. and the solution is given below. The effect of the gas cycle pressure ratio on the ratio of gas flow rate to steam flow rate and cycle thermal efficiency is to be investigated. ke=pe=0" T[9]=temperature(Air. assuming W=0. Analysis The problem is solved using EES.0 Eta_steam_turb = 1.85 10-85 EES Problem 10-84 is reconsidered.7 [kPa] "Pratio = 14" T[10] = 1400 [K] T[12] = 460 [K] P[12] = P[8] W_dot_net=450 [MW] Eta_comp = 1.0 P[5] = 8000 [kPa] T[5] =(400+273) "[K]" P[6] = 600 [kPa] P[7] = 20 [kPa] "Gas compressor inlet" "Assumed air inlet pressure" "Pressure ratio for gas compressor" "Gas turbine inlet" "Gas exit temperature from Gas-to-steam heat exchanger " "Assumed air exit pressure" "Steam turbine inlet" "Steam turbine inlet" "Extraction pressure for steam open feedwater heater" "Steam condenser pressure" "GAS POWER CYCLE ANALYSIS" "Gas Compressor anaysis" s[8]=ENTROPY(Air. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.P=P[9]) "Gas Cycle External heat exchanger analysis" h[9] + q_in = h[10]"SSSF conservation of energy for the external heat exchanger. If you are a student using this Manual. assuming: adiabatic.P=P[10]) ss11=s[10] "For the ideal case the entropies are constant across the turbine" P[11] = P[10] /Pratio Ts11=temperature(Air. you are using it without permission.0 Eta_pump = 1.s=ss9.

86 h[10] = w_gas_turb_isen + hs11"SSSF conservation of energy for the isentropic gas turbine.T=T[12]. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.h=h[2]) "Open Feedwater Heater analysis" y*h[6] + (1-y)*h[2] = 1*h[3] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" P[3]=P[6] h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$.h=h[2]) T[2]=temperature(Fluid$. ke=pe=0" m_dot_gas*h[11] + m_dot_steam*h[4] = m_dot_gas*h[12] + m_dot_steam*h[5] h[12]=ENTHALPY(Air.s=ss6.P=P[3]. W=0.P=P[5].P=P[3]. assuming: adiabatic.s=ss7.h=h[6]) ss7=s[5] hs7=enthalpy(Fluid$.h=h[11]) s[11]=ENTROPY(Air.T=T[5]. ke=pe=0" hs11=ENTHALPY(Air. T=T[12]) s[12]=ENTROPY(Air.h=h[4]) T[4]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[6]) h[6]=h[5]-Eta_steam_turb*(h[5]-hs6)"Definition of steam turbine efficiency" T[6]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[2].T=T[5]) ss6=s[5] hs6=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P[5]) s[5]=entropy(Fluid$. Inc. assuming: adiabatic.P=P[6]) Ts6=temperature(Fluid$.s=ss7.x=0) "Boiler condensate pump or Pump 2 analysis" P[4] = P[5] v3=volume(Fluid$. ke=pe=0" T[11]=temperature(Air.P=P[7]) Ts7=temperature(Fluid$.x=0) w_pump2_s=v3*(P[4]-P[3])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" w_pump2=w_pump2_s/Eta_pump "Definition of pump efficiency" h[3]+w_pump2= h[4] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" s[4]=entropy(Fluid$.h=h[4]) w_steam_pumps = (1-y)*w_pump1+ w_pump2 "Total steam pump work input/ mass steam" "Steam Turbine analysis" h[5]=enthalpy(Fluid$. If you are a student using this Manual.x=0) w_pump1_s=v1*(P[2]-P[1])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" w_pump1=w_pump1_s/Eta_pump "Definition of pump efficiency" h[1]+w_pump1= h[2] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" s[2]=entropy(Fluid$.x=0) "Condensate leaves heater as sat.P=P[7]) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.P=P[2]. assuming: adiabatic.P=P[1].s=ss6.P=P[11]) "Gas-to-Steam Heat Exchanger" "SSSF conservation of energy for the gas-to-steam heat exchanger.P=P[6].P=P[1]. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.P=P[3].T=Ts11) h[10] = w_gas_turb + h[11]"SSSF conservation of energy for the actual gas turbine.P=P[6].P=P[12]) "STEAM CYCLE ANALYSIS" "Steam Condenser exit pump or Pump 1 analysis" Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' P[1] = P[7] P[2]=P[6] h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$. .P=P[1].P=P[3].P=P[1].x=0) s[3]=entropy(Fluid$.T=T[11].P=P[4].h=h[6]) s[6]=entropy(Fluid$.x=0) T[1]=temperature(Fluid$. liquid at P[3]" T[3]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[4].x=0) {Saturated liquid} v1=volume(Fluid$. you are using it without permission.x=0) s[1]=entropy(Fluid$.

w_steam_pumps) W_dot_net_gas = m_dot_gas*(w_gas_turb .932 5.6 7 7.97 64.0 1.P=P[7].h=h[7]) s[7]=entropy(Fluid$. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.951 4.5 3.51 11.12 Wnetgas [kW] 342944 349014 354353 359110 363394 367285 370849 374135 377182 380024 382687 Wnetsteam [kW] 107056 100986 95647 90890 86606 82715 79151 75865 72818 69976 67313 ηth [%] 59.03 11. kW)=m_dot_gas*(w_gas_turb-w_gas_comp)+ m_dot_steam*(w_steam_turb .86 62. If you are a student using this Manual.62 63.108 7.043 8.w_steam_pumps)"definition of the net cycle work" Eta_th=W_dot_net/Q_dot_in*Convert(.3 4.492 9.44 4.28 64. %) "Cycle thermal efficiency.2 3.993 10.57 12.685 C o m b in ed G as an d S team P o w er C ycle 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 10 G as C ycle T [K] S te am C yc le 11 9 5 8000 kP a 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 0. in percent" Bwr=(m_dot_gas*w_gas_comp + m_dot_steam*w_steam_pumps)/(m_dot_gas*w_gas_turb + m_dot_steam*w_steam_turb) "Back work ratio" W_dot_net_steam = m_dot_steam*(w_steam_turb .24 63.65 61.705 3.203 3. kW)=m_dot_steam*q_out "Cycle Statistics" MassRatio_gastosteam =m_dot_gas/m_dot_steam W_dot_net*Convert(MW. Inc. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 9.7 8.w_gas_comp) NetWorkRatio_gastosteam = W_dot_net_gas/W_dot_net_steam Pratio MassRatio gastosteam 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 7.685 4.431 5.456 3. you are using it without permission.92 60.29 61.574 8.0 s [kJ/kg -K ] PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.4 1.P=P[7]. .57 NetWorkRatio gastosteam 3.196 4.2 12 600 kP a 20 kP a 6 8 6.18 5. neglect ke and pe" h[5] = w_steam_turb + y*h[6] +(1-y)*h[7] "Steam Condenser analysis" (1-y)*h[7]=q_out+(1-y)*h[1]"SSSF conservation of energy for the Condenser per unit mass" Q_dot_out*Convert(MW.37 62.83 63.87 h[7]=h[5]-Eta_steam_turb*(h[5]-hs7)"Definition of steam turbine efficiency" T[7]=temperature(Fluid$.001 9.9 11.4 5.1 2.519 9.h=h[7]) "SSSF conservation of energy for the steam turbine: adiabatic.

0 9.steam vs Gas Pressure Ratio NetW orkRatio gastosteam 5. Inc.0 4.5 3. .5 2. you are using it without permission.gas /W dot. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 8.0 3.5 5.0 2.0 5 9 14 18 23 Pratio PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.4 5 7 .0 dot.6 η th [%] 5 9 .5 4. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.0 6.0 M assRatio gastosteam 11.88 66 6 3 .0 13.0 12.0 5 9 14 18 23 Pratio Ratio of Gas Flow Rate to Steam Flow Rate vs Gas Pressure Ratio 14.0 5.0 7.2 55 5 9 13 17 21 25 P ra tio W 6.5 6.8 6 1 .0 10.

4 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.42 + 6. Analysis Working around the topping cycle gives the following results: T6 s ⎛P = T5 ⎜ 6 ⎜P ⎝ 5 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ( k −1) / k T 1373 K · Qin 6 6s 6 MPa 9 7 = (293 K)(8) c p (T6 s − T5 ) T6 s − T5 0.6 kJ/kg ηT = PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.85 T8 s ⎛P = T7 ⎜ 8 ⎜P ⎝ 7 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ( k −1) / k ⎛1⎞ = (1373 K)⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ 0.0) = 819. The mass flow rate of air for a specified power output is to be determined. Properties The properties of air at room temperature are cp = 1. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.6 − (0. If you are a student using this Manual.5 kJ/kg T3 = 320°C P3 = 6000 kPa ⎫ h3 = 2953. 3 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0.0 K 293 K 5 2 1 STEAM CYCLE 20 kPa · 4s Qout 4 s c p (T7 − T8 ) h −h ηT = 7 8 = ⎯ ⎯→ T8 = T7 − η T (T7 − T8 s ) h7 − h8 s c p (T7 − T8 s ) = 1373 − (0.6°C = 548.4 = 758.6 K Fixing the states around the bottom steam cycle yields (Tables A-4.4 = 530.8 kJ/kg s 4 = s3 ⎭ h3 − h4 ⎯ h4 = h3 − η T (h3 − h4 s ) ⎯→ h3 − h4 s = 2953.08 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp.001017 m 3 /kg )(6000 − 20)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 6. A-6): h1 = h f @ 20 kPa = 251.8 K 0. A-5.8 − 293 = 293 + = 572. 2 The air-standard assumptions are applicable fo Brayton cycle.8) = 2127. Inc.90)(1373 − 758.4/1.6 − 2035. you are using it without permission.5 K T9 = Tsat @ 6000 kPa = 275.42 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 20 kPa = 0.1871 kJ/kg ⋅ K P4 = 20 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h4 s = 2035.8 K ηC = h6 s − h5 = h 6 − h5 c p (T6 − T5 ) GAS CYCLE 8s 8 3 320°C ⎯ ⎯→ T6 = T5 + ηC 530.90)(2953.4 (Table A-2a).08 = 257. .89 10-86 A combined gas-steam power cycle uses a simple gas turbine for the topping cycle and simple Rankine cycle for the bottoming cycle.in = 251.001017 m 3 /kg wp.005 kJ/kg·K and k = 1.6 kJ/kg ⎬ ⎭ s 3 = 6.4/1.

in = (2953.1010m a 2953. you are using it without permission.1010 kg of water. If you are a student using this Manual.5 That is.in = (h3 − h4 ) − w P. steam cycle = wT.6) & = 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 kg/s wnet (1× 275.005 kJ/kg ⋅ K )(1373 − 819.in = c p (T7 − T8 ) − c p (T6 − T5 ) = (1.out − wP.1010 × 819. Then.5 − 548.6 − 257.5 − 572.7 + 293)K = 275. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. .2 + 0.005)(819. gas cycle = wT.08 = 819.6 − 2127.6) − 6.2 kJ/kg w net.90 The net work outputs from each cycle are wnet. 1 kg of exhaust gases can heat only 0. the mass flow rate of air is & ma = & W net 100.000 kJ/s = = 279. Inc.9) kJ/kg air PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. out − wC.9 kJ/kg An energy balance on the heat exchanger gives & & & m a c p (T8 − T9 ) = m w (h3 -h2 ) ⎯ ⎯→ m w = c p (T8 − T9 ) h3 -h2 & ma = (1.

5 K T 1373 K · Qin 6a 6 6s 6 MPa 9 293 K 2 1 STEAM CYCLE 20 kPa · 4s Qout GAS CYCLE 8s 7 8 3 320°C The rate of heat addition in the cycle is & & Qin = m a c p (T7 − T6 a ) = (279. Representing this state by “6a” T6 a = T8 = 819.3 kg/s)(1. the temperature of the air at the compressor exit will be heated to the to the temperature at the turbine exit.4452 & 224.7) K = 224.5) K = 155. the rate of heat addition and the thermal efficiency are & & Qin = m a c p (T7 − T6 ) = (279. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.370 kW The thermal efficiency of the cycle is then 5 η th & W 100.3 kg/s)(1.005 kJ/kg ⋅ °C)(1373 − 572.005 kJ/kg ⋅ °C)(1373 − 819. Analysis With an ideal regenerator. you are using it without permission. If you are a student using this Manual.005 kJ/kg·K and k = 1.4452 = 0. Inc.91 10-87 A combined gas-steam power cycle uses a simple gas turbine for the topping cycle and simple Rankine cycle for the bottoming cycle.640 kW η th = & W net 100. . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.6436 − 0. Properties The properties of air at room temperature are cp = 1.640 kW Qin The change in the thermal efficiency due to using the ideal regenerator is Δη th = 0.6436 & 155. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 3 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats.4 (Table A-2a). The mass flow rate of air for a specified power output is to be determined.1984 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.000 kW = net = = 0.370 kW Qin 4 s Without the regenerator.000 kW = = 0. 2 The air-standard assumptions are applicable fo Brayton cycle.

3)(293) ⎡(1.1871) = 2278 kW ⎛ q & & X destroyed.3 kJ/kg q in.005)ln − (0.7 ⎡ ⎤ & & X destroyed.1871 + ⎟ = 8665 kW 293 K ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ T ⎞ & & & & & X destroyed.1010m a = 0.1 kJ/kg T 1373 K · Qin 6 6s 6 MPa 9 293 K 2 1 STEAM CYCLE 20 kPa · 4s Qout GAS CYCLE 8s 7 8 3 320°C 5 q out = h4 − h1 = 1876.005)ln = 23. 78 = m a T0 ⎜ c p ln 8 − Rln 8 ⎟ = (279.1010(279. 10-86 is to be determined. Analysis From Problem 10-86. Inc. .8320 − 6. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.005) ln 819. you are using it without permission.5 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 11260 kW ⎛ T P ⎞ 572.67 = c p (T7 − T6 ) = 804.5 K Tsink = 293 K s1 = s 2 = s f @ 20 kPa = 0.3)(293) ⎢(1.3) = 28. gas cycle = 1373 K Tsource. 41 = m wT0 ⎜ s1 − s 4 + out ⎜ Tsink ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1876. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.3)(293) ⎢(1.4627 − 6.5 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ & & X destroyed.8320) = (279.92 10-88 The component of the combined cycle with the largest exergy destruction of the component of the combined cycle in Prob. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.2 kJ/kg ⎞ ⎛ = (28. 34 = m wT0 (s 4 − s 3 ) = (28.1871 kJ/kg ⋅ K s 4 = 6.4627 kJ/kg ⋅ K q in.005)ln − (0. 67 = m a T0 ⎜ c p ln 7 − in ⎜ T6 Tsource ⎝ ⎞ 1373 804.21 kg/s)(293 K )⎜ 0.21)(293)(6.287) ln(8)⎥ = 6280 kW ⎜ 293 T5 P5 ⎟ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ T q & & X destroyed.1871 − 0. Tsource.12 = 0 (isentropic process) & & X destroyed.23 = h3 − h2 = 2696.287) ln⎜ ⎟⎥ = 6396 kW ⎜ ⎟ T7 P7 ⎠ 1373 ⎝ 8 ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ The largest exergy destruction occurs during the heat addition process in the combustor of the gas cycle.3)(293) ⎢(1. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.heat exchanger = m a T0 Δs 89 + m wT0 Δs 23 = m a T0 ⎜ c p ln 9 ⎟ + m a T0 ( s 3 − s 2 ) ⎜ T8 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 548.21 kg/s)(293 K )(6.6 ⎤ ⎡ + (28.2 kJ/kg & & m w = 0. steam cycle = T8 = 819.21 kg/s 4 s & X destroyed.7 1373 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎠ ⎛ T P ⎞ ⎡ 819.970 kW − ⎢ ⎟ 572. If you are a student using this Manual.8320 kJ/kg ⋅ K s 3 = 6. 56 = m a T0 ⎜ c p ln 6 − Rln 6 ⎟ = (279.3 ⎤ ⎟ = (279.

the analysis of gas cycle yields T8 = 300 K ⎯ ⎯→ h8 = 300. and the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle are to be determined.02 kJ/kg From the steam tables (Tables A-4. the required rate of heat input in the combustion chamber.52 kJ/kg P5 = 8 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3139.386 P9 Pr9 = Pr = (14 )(1.15 = 678.93 10-89 A 450-MW combined gas-steam power plant is considered.86 )(1515. h1 = h f @ 20 kPa @ 20 kPa v1 = v f = 251.19 kJ/kg Pr8 = 1. you are using it without permission.38 + 8.42 − (0.5) = 32.19 ) / (0.in = v 3 (P4 − P3 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.5 Pr11 = ηT = P11 ⎛ 1⎞ Pr10 = ⎜ ⎟ (450.6 MPa = 670.001017 m 3 /kg (600 − 20 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 0.42 + 0.386 ) = 19. Analysis (a) Using the properties of air from Table A-17.42 kJ/kg = 0.001017 m 3 /kg wpI.82 ) = 709. 3 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. and A-6).8 kJ/kg P10 ⎝ 14 ⎠ h10 − h11 ⎯ ⎯→ h11 = h10 − ηT (h10 − h11s ) h10 − h11s = 1515.5 − 300.6 MPa = 0. A-5.001101 m 3 /kg w pII. The topping cycle is a gas-turbine cycle and the bottoming cycle is a nonideal Rankine cycle with an open feedwater heater. The mass flow rate of air to steam. If you are a student using this Manual. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.4 kJ/kg T5 = 400°C ⎬ s 5 = 6.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0. Inc.59 kJ/kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ h2 = h1 + wpI.15 kJ/kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ h4 = h3 + wpI. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.000 − 600 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 8.in = 670.95 kJ/kg 8 1 7s 7 s T12 = 460 K ⎯ ⎯→ h12 = 462. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 kJ/kg T 10 · Qin GAS CYCLE 11s 11 5 9s 9 4 12 2 3 STEAM CYCLE 6s · Qout 6 T10 = 1400 K ⎯ ⎯→ h10 = 1515.38 kJ/kg v 3 = v f @ 0. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.3658 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.5 kJ/kg P8 8 ηC = h9 s − h8 ⎯ ⎯→ h9 = h8 + (h9 s − h8 ) / ηC h9 − h8 = 300.in = 251.42 kJ/kg Pr10 = 450.01 kJ/kg h3 = h f @ 0.42 − 735.001101 m 3 /kg (8.19 + (635.40 ⎯ ⎯→ h9 s = 635.8) = 844.59 = 252. .18 ⎯ ⎯→ h11s = 735.

9 ) = 2663.42 + (0.6 MPa ⎫ x 6 s = = = 0.1735)(0.5) = 2095.1) = 2241.2% & 933.4 − 2663.95 − 462. the steady-flow energy balance equation yields & & & E in − E out = ΔE system & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i e e 0 (steady) & & = 0 → E in = E out & & & ⎯ ⎯→ m 2 h2 + m6 h6 = m3 h3 ⎯ ⎯→ yh6 + (1 − y )h2 = (1)h3 Thus.9184 s fg 4.7820 s fg 7.59 ) − 8.56 + 6.15 = 815.1735 h6 − h2 2663.3 kJ/kg h5 − h7 s & & Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 for the heat exchanger.56 kJ/kg The net work output per unit mass of gas is wnet = wnet.000 kW = = 48.850 kW η th = & W net 450.5 − (1 − 0. Inc.3 kJ/kg h5 − h 6 s s7 − s f 6.425 kg air / kg steam &s m h11 − h12 844.3658 − 1. .8) = 2585.9) = 388. you are using it without permission.9 kJ/kg 6s f 6 s fg ηT = h5 − h 6 ⎯ ⎯→ h6 = h5 − η T (h5 − h6 s ) = 3139.86 )(3139.1) kJ/kg = 933.55 kJ/kg & & Qin = mair (h10 − h9 ) = (1158.3 − 252. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.42 − 844.4 − (0.steam = wT − w p.425 & mair = and (c) & Wnet 450.01 = = 0. II = 824.1735)(2663.3658 − 0.55 kJ/kg wnet.7820 )(2357. y= h3 − h2 670.1 − 300.in = (h10 − h11 ) − (h9 − h8 ) = 1515.38 + (0.86 )(3139.38 − 252.9308 P6 = 0.3 − 2241.52 = 5 = = 6.000 kJ/s = = 1158.steam = 261.gas + 1 1 (815.4 − 2095. I − wp.4 − (0.2 kg/s wnet 388. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.425 6.4 − 2585.3 + (1 − 0.0752 ⎬ s7 = s5 ⎭ h = h + x h = 251.9 kJ/kg w net.02 & & (b) Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 for the open FWH.5 kJ/kg w net.3)] = 824.2 kg/s )(1515.850 kW Qin PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.8285 ⎬ s 6s = s5 ⎭ h = h + x h = 670.in = wT − (1 − y )wp. the steady-flow energy balance equation yields & & & E in − E out = ΔE system & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i 0 (steady) =0 & & E in = E out e e & & ⎯ ⎯→ m s (h5 − h4 ) = m air (h11 − h12 ) & m air h − h4 3139.9184 )(2085.42 − 709.8320 P7 = 20 kPa ⎫ x 7 s = = = 0.gas = wT − wC .1 kJ/kg 7s f 7 fg ηT = h5 − h7 ⎯ ⎯→ h7 = h5 − η T (h5 − h7 s ) = 3139.01 (the fraction of steam extracted ) wT = η T [h5 − h6 + (1 − y )(h6 − h7 )] = (0.94 s 6s − s f 6.86 )[3139.95 − (709. If you are a student using this Manual.4 − 678.19 ) = 261.

82 Eta_gas_turb = 0.86 Eta_pump = 1. you are using it without permission.P=P[9])"Ts9 is the isentropic value of T[9] at compressor exit" Eta_comp = w_gas_comp_isen/w_gas_comp "compressor adiabatic efficiency.T=T[10]) P[10]=P[9] "Assume process 9-10 is SSSF constant pressure" Q_dot_in"MW"*1000"kW/MW"=m_dot_gas*q_in "Gas Turbine analysis" s[10]=ENTROPY(Air.T=T[8].T=T[9].95 10-90 EES Problem 10-89 is reconsidered. w_comp > w_comp_isen" h[8] + w_gas_comp_isen =hs9"SSSF conservation of energy for the isentropic compressor. ke=pe=0" h[10]=ENTHALPY(Air. assuming: adiabatic. and the solution is given below.T=Ts9) h[8] + w_gas_comp = h[9]"SSSF conservation of energy for the actual compressor. The effect of the gas cycle pressure ratio on the ratio of gas flow rate to steam flow rate and cycle thermal efficiency is to be investigated.P=P[10]) ss11=s[10] "For the ideal case the entropies are constant across the turbine" P[11] = P[10] /Pratio Ts11=temperature(Air. Inc.0 Eta_steam_turb = 0. If you are a student using this Manual.T=T[8]) hs9=ENTHALPY(Air.h=h[9]) s[9]=ENTROPY(Air. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. assuming W=0.P=P[11])"Ts11 is the isentropic value of T[11] at gas turbine exit" Eta_gas_turb = w_gas_turb /w_gas_turb_isen "gas turbine adiabatic efficiency.s=ss11. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. "Input data" T[8] = 300 [K] P[8] = 14. ke=pe=0" T[9]=temperature(Air.s=ss9.P=P[8]) ss9=s[8] "For the ideal case the entropies are constant across the compressor" P[9] = Pratio*P[8] Ts9=temperature(Air. . assuming: adiabatic.86 P[5] = 8000 [kPa] T[5] =(400+273) "K" P[6] = 600 [kPa] P[7] = 20 [kPa] "Gas compressor inlet" "Assumed air inlet pressure" "Pressure ratio for gas compressor" "Gas turbine inlet" "Gas exit temperature from Gas-to-steam heat exchanger " "Assumed air exit pressure" "Steam turbine inlet" "Steam turbine inlet" "Extraction pressure for steam open feedwater heater" "Steam condenser pressure" "GAS POWER CYCLE ANALYSIS" "Gas Compressor anaysis" s[8]=ENTROPY(Air.P=P[9]) "Gas Cycle External heat exchanger analysis" h[9] + q_in = h[10]"SSSF conservation of energy for the external heat exchanger.7 [kPa] "Pratio = 14" T[10] = 1400 [K] T[12] = 460 [K] P[12] = P[8] W_dot_net=450 [MW] Eta_comp = 0.T=T[10]. w_gas_turb_isen > w_gas_turb" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Analysis The problem is solved using EES. ke=pe=0 per unit gas mass flow rate in kg/s" h[8]=ENTHALPY(Air.

P=P[1].96 h[10] = w_gas_turb_isen + hs11"SSSF conservation of energy for the isentropic gas turbine.P=P[5]. If you are a student using this Manual.h=h[4]) T[4]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[3]. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.s=ss6.h=h[2]) T[2]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[2].P=P[2].x=0) T[1]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[12]) "STEAM CYCLE ANALYSIS" "Steam Condenser exit pump or Pump 1 analysis" Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' P[1] = P[7] P[2]=P[6] h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$. Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. ke=pe=0" m_dot_gas*h[11] + m_dot_steam*h[4] = m_dot_gas*h[12] + m_dot_steam*h[5] h[12]=ENTHALPY(Air.x=0) w_pump2_s=v3*(P[4]-P[3])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" w_pump2=w_pump2_s/Eta_pump "Definition of pump efficiency" h[3]+w_pump2= h[4] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" s[4]=entropy(Fluid$.T=Ts11) h[10] = w_gas_turb + h[11]"SSSF conservation of energy for the actual gas turbine.s=ss7.h=h[6]) s[6]=entropy(Fluid$. you are using it without permission.s=ss7.x=0) "Condensate leaves heater as sat.s=ss6.h=h[6]) ss7=s[5] hs7=enthalpy(Fluid$.h=h[4]) w_steam_pumps = (1-y)*w_pump1+ w_pump2 "Total steam pump work input/ mass steam" "Steam Turbine analysis" h[5]=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P[5]) s[5]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[6]) Ts6=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[1].x=0) w_pump1_s=v1*(P[2]-P[1])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" w_pump1=w_pump1_s/Eta_pump "Definition of pump efficiency" h[1]+w_pump1= h[2] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" s[2]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[11]) "Gas-to-Steam Heat Exchanger" "SSSF conservation of energy for the gas-to-steam heat exchanger.x=0) "Boiler condensate pump or Pump 2 analysis" P[4] = P[5] v3=volume(Fluid$.T=T[12]. assuming: adiabatic. ke=pe=0" hs11=ENTHALPY(Air.P=P[6].P=P[3].x=0) {Saturated liquid} v1=volume(Fluid$.P=P[3]. .P=P[7]) Ts7=temperature(Fluid$.h=h[11]) s[11]=ENTROPY(Air. assuming: adiabatic.P=P[4]. T=T[12]) s[12]=ENTROPY(Air.P=P[6]) h[6]=h[5]-Eta_steam_turb*(h[5]-hs6)"Definition of steam turbine efficiency" T[6]=temperature(Fluid$.T=T[5]) ss6=s[5] hs6=enthalpy(Fluid$.T=T[11]. ke=pe=0" T[11]=temperature(Air. liquid at P[3]" T[3]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[1].x=0) s[1]=entropy(Fluid$. W=0.P=P[6].x=0) s[3]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[3]. assuming: adiabatic.P=P[7]) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.P=P[4].h=h[2]) "Open Feedwater Heater analysis" y*h[6] + (1-y)*h[2] = 1*h[3] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" P[3]=P[6] h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$.T=T[5].P=P[1].

neglect ke and pe" h[5] = w_steam_turb + y*h[6] +(1-y)*h[7] "Steam Condenser analysis" (1-y)*h[7]=q_out+(1-y)*h[1]"SSSF conservation of energy for the Condenser per unit mass" Q_dot_out*Convert(MW.w_gas_comp) NetWorkRatio_gastosteam = W_dot_net_gas/W_dot_net_steam Pratio MassRatio gastosteam 6 8 10 12 14 15 16 18 20 22 4.42 47.7 8.4 1.97 h[7]=h[5]-Eta_steam_turb*(h[5]-hs7)"Definition of steam turbine efficiency" T[7]=temperature(Fluid$.01 47. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.87 47.99 48.4 5.9 11. you are using it without permission.113 2.994 6.2 3.213 2.021 Wnetgas [kW] 262595 279178 289639 296760 301809 303780 305457 308093 309960 311216 Wnetsteam [kW] 187405 170822 160361 153240 148191 146220 144543 141907 140040 138784 ηth [%] 45.99 47.P=P[7].66 47.6 7 7.937 2.644 6.463 5.634 1.2 12 600 kPa 20 kPa 6 8 6.w_steam_pumps)"definition of the net cycle work" Eta_th=W_dot_net/Q_dot_in*Convert(.3 4.0 s [kJ/kg-K] PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. kW)=m_dot_steam*q_out "Cycle Statistics" MassRatio_gastosteam =m_dot_gas/m_dot_steam W_dot_net*Convert(MW.806 1.024 5. in percent" Bwr=(m_dot_gas*w_gas_comp + m_dot_steam*w_steam_pumps)/(m_dot_gas*w_gas_turb + m_dot_steam*w_steam_turb) "Back work ratio" W_dot_net_steam = m_dot_steam*(w_steam_turb .h=h[7]) "SSSF conservation of energy for the steam turbine: adiabatic.0 1.242 Com bined Gas and Steam Pow er Cycle 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 10 Gas Cycle T [K] Steam Cycle 11 9 5 8000 kPa 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 0.401 1. Inc.433 6.171 2.037 2.82 47.253 7. kW)=m_dot_gas*(w_gas_turb-w_gas_comp)+ m_dot_steam*(w_steam_turb . If you are a student using this Manual.8 9.851 7.P=P[7].1 2.w_steam_pumps) W_dot_net_gas = m_dot_gas*(w_gas_turb .642 8. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.64 47.34 NetWorkRatio gastosteam 1.29 46. %) "Cycle thermal efficiency.528 5.078 2. .5 3.h=h[7]) s[7]=entropy(Fluid$.

9 1.5 45.0 5.5 47.3 2.0 4.0 5 9 12 16 19 23 Pratio 2.0 1.5 46. .0 5 9 12 16 19 23 Pratio PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. If you are a student using this Manual.5 4.0 47.5 6.5 5.2 W dot. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.steam vs Gas Pressure Ratio NetW orkRatio gastosteam 2.5 1.6 1.1 2.8 1. Inc.5 48.4 5 9 12 16 19 23 Pratio Ratio of Gas Flow Rate to Steam Flow Rate vs Gas Pressure Ratio 8.98 Cycle Therm al Efficiency vs Gas Cycle Pressure Ratio 48.0 7.0 45.gas / W dot.5 M assRatio gastosteam 7.7 1. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.0 η th [% ] 46. you are using it without permission.0 6.5 8.

79 kJ/kg s10 = s 9 ⎭ h −h ⎯→ h10 = h9 − η T (h9 − h10 s ) η T = 9 10 ⎯ h9 − h10 s = 1304.80 ) = 557. h1 = h f v1 = v f @ 10 kPa = 191.00101 m3 /kg (6000 − 10 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎟ / 0. A-5. the steam temperature at the inlet of the high-pressure turbine.6456 kJ/kg P9 = 700 kPa ⎭ P10 = 100 kPa ⎫ ⎬h10 s = 763.80 )(1304. Analysis (a) We obtain the air properties from EES.21 kJ/kg T9 = 950°C ⎯ ⎯→ h9 = 1304.8 − (0.4 kJ/kg 11 STEAM 4 CYCLE 4s 10 kPa · 6s 6 Qout s PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.6648 kJ/kg P7 = 100 kPa ⎭ P8 = 700 kPa ⎫ ⎬h8 s = 503.47 kJ/kg s8 = s 7 ⎭ 8 Combustion chamber 9 Compressor 7 11 Heat exchanger 3 4 6 5 2 pump 1 Condenser Gas turbine 10 h − h7 ⎯ ⎯→ h8 = h7 + (h8 s − h7 ) / η C η C = 8s h8 − h7 = 290.4670 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ P6 = 10 kPa ⎫ x 6 s ⎬ s 6s = s5 ⎭h 6s s6s − s f 15°C 7 2 1 7. The moisture percentage at the exit of the lowpressure turbine.1) = 2366.65 = 199. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.50 kJ/kg T7 = 15°C ⎫ ⎬s 7 = 5. and the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle are to be determined.81 kJ/kg 3 @ 10 kPa = 0. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.98 kJ/kg T11 = 200 °C ⎯ ⎯→ h11 = 475.in = 191.47 − 290.4670 − 0.in = v1 (P2 − P ) / η p 1 ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0. 3 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. you are using it without permission.00101 m /kg wpI. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.9091 s fg 7. The topping cycle is a gas-turbine cycle and the bottoming cycle is a nonideal reheat Rankine cycle.62 kJ/kg Steam turbine T 950°C · Qin GAS CYCLE 10 10s 3 6 MPa 1 MPa 5 9 From the steam tables (Tables A-4. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.8 − 763.16 ) / (0.80 ⎠ ⎝ = 7. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual.37 kJ/kg P5 = 1 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3264.56 kJ/kg ( ) 8s 8 h2 = h1 + wpI.81 + (0. .99 10-91 A combined gas-steam power plant is considered. and A-6 or from EES). The analysis of gas cycle is as follows T7 = 15°C ⎯ ⎯→ h7 = 288.6492 = = = 0.4996 = h f + x 6 s h fg = 191.5 kJ/kg T5 = 400°C ⎬ s 5 = 7.8 kJ/kg T9 = 950°C ⎫ ⎬s 9 = 6.9091)(2392.79 ) = 871.16 + (503.81 + 7.

gas = 4328 − 2687 = 1641 kW & & WT. If you are a student using this Manual.7 = 1256 kW & & & Wnet.15 kg/s )(7. .80 )(3264.0ºC. the steady-flow energy balance equation yields & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i & & E in = E out (1.4) = 2546.gas = mair (h8 − h7 ) = (10 kg/s )(557. plant 2897 kW = = 0.8% & 7476 kW Qin PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.0 kJ/kg & & & m s (h3 − h2 ) + m s (h5 − h4 ) = m air (h10 − h11 ) e e Also.0 + 3264.37) + (3264.steam − W P.9842 = 0.98) kJ/kg = 4328 kW & & WC.21 − 288. Inc.gas = mair (h9 − h10 ) = (10 kg/s )(1304.15 kg/s )(3346.5 kJ/kg ⎬ 6 ⎭ Moisture Percentage = 1 − x 6 = 1 − 0.5 − 2366.steam = 1265 − 8. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. the enthalpy at state 3 becomes: h3 = 3346.steam = ms (h3 − h4 + h5 − h6 ) = (1. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.5 kJ/kg (c) & & WT.9842 h6 = 2546.21) kJ/kg = 7476 kW η th = & W net.steam = WT.gas − WC.5 − 2546.5 − 199.388 = 38.6% & & (b) Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 for the heat exchanger.8 − 871.7 kW & & & Wnet. you are using it without permission.5 − (0.15)[(3346.0 kJ/kg P6 = 10 kPa ⎫ x = 0.5 − h4 )] = (10)(871.steam = 1641 + 1256 = 2897 kW (d) & & Qin = mair (h9 − h8 ) = (10 kg/s )(1304.5 − 2965.564) kJ/kg = 8.plant = W net. Then.8 − 557.100 ηT = h5 − h6 ⎯ ⎯→ h6 = h5 − η T (h5 − h6 s ) h5 − h6 s = 3264.gas + Wnet.0158 = 1.62) ⎯ ⎯→ h4 = 2965.50 ) kJ/kg = 2687 kW & & & Wnet.gas = WT. The answer is T3 = 468.0) kJ/kg = 1265 kW & & WP.steam = ms w pump = (1. P3 = 6 MPa ⎫ h3 = ⎬ T3 = ? ⎭ s3 = P4 = 1 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h4 s = s 4s = s3 ⎭ ηT = h3 − h4 ⎯ ⎯→ h4 = h3 − η T (h3 − h4 s ) h3 − h4 s The temperature at the inlet of the high-pressure turbine may be obtained by a trial-error approach or using EES from the above relations.98 − 475.

& m A h3 − h4 = & mB h2 − h1 10-94C Steam is not an ideal fluid for vapor power cycles because its critical temperature is low. The working fluid of the bottoming cycle (cycle B) enters at state 3 and leaves at state 4. the steady-flow energy balance relation yields & & & E in − E out = ΔE system & & ∑m h = ∑m h e e 0 (steady) =0 & & E in = E out & & & & & & m A h2 + m B h4 = m A h1 + m B h3 or m A (h2 − h1 ) = m B (h3 − h4 ) i i Thus. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. . and its condenser pressure is too low. and the other in the low temperature region. you are using it without permission. both cycles are vapor cycles. 10-96C In binary vapor power cycles. relatively low critical pressure.101 Special Topic: Binary Vapor Cycles 10-92C Binary power cycle is a cycle which is actually a combination of two cycles. and has a low enthalpy of vaporization. 10-95C Because mercury has a high critical temperature. The working fluid of the topping cycle (cycle A) enters the heat exchanger at state 1 and leaves at state 2. one of the cycles is a gas cycle. its saturation dome resembles an inverted V. In the combined gas-steam power cycle. expensive. 10-93C Consider the heat exchanger of a binary power cycle. Neglecting any changes in kinetic and potential energies. and assuming the heat exchanger is well-insulated. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. but a very low condenser pressure. If you are a student using this Manual. It is also toxic. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Its purpose is to increase thermal efficiency. Inc. one in the high temperature region.

Using the relation above.out are the thermal efficiencies of the gas and steam cycles. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.30 − 0. Inc.out Qin Qout Qin +1− Qout Qg. the thermal efficiency of the given combined cycle is determined to be η cc = η g + η s − η gη s = 0.out Qg. .30 = 0.out ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎛ Q ⎞ ⎛ Q = 1− = 1− = η cc Qg. and where Qg. Analysis The thermal efficiencies of gas.out ⎠ ⎝ Qg. the proof is complete. where Qout is the heat rejected by the steam cycle.out is the heat rejected from the gas cycle and supplied to the steam cycle. steam. respectively. Using the relations above.40 × 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.out ⎞ ⎛ Qg. and combined cycles can be expressed as Wtotal Q = 1 − out Qin Qin Wg Qin η cc = ηg = ηs = = 1− Qg. you are using it without permission.out where Qin is the heat supplied to the gas cycle. If you are a student using this Manual.102 Review Problems 10-97 It is to be demonstrated that the thermal efficiency of a combined gas-steam power plant ηcc can be expressed as η cc = η g + ηs − η gηs where η g = Wg / Qin and η s = Ws / Qg.out ⎟ + ⎜1 − out η g + η s − η g η s = ⎜1 − ⎜ Qin ⎟ ⎜ Qg.4 + 0. the expression η g + η s − η gη s can be expressed as g.out Qin ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Therefore.58 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and the efficiency of a combined cycle is to be obtained.out ⎞⎛ Q ⎟ − ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − out ⎟⎜ Q ⎟ ⎜ Qin ⎠⎝ g.out Q Q −1+ + out − out Qin Qg.out Qin Ws Q = 1 − out Qg.

81 + (0.4996 ) = 7.92 )(7. .1) = 2392. If you are a student using this Manual. The reheat pressures of the cycle are to be determined for the cases of single and double reheat.92 )(2392. and A-6). 10-99 A steam power plant operating on the ideal Rankine cycle with reheating is considered.6492 + (0. and can be used for the double reheat pressure. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. P6 = 10 kPa ⎫ h6 = h f + x6 h fg = 191.92 ⎭ s6 = s f + x6 s fg = 0. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Inc.103 10-98 The thermal efficiency of a combined gas-steam power plant ηcc can be expressed in terms of the thermal efficiencies of the gas and the steam turbine cycles as ηcc = η g + η s − ηgη s . Analysis By factoring out terms. s PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.3637 kJ/kg ⋅ K T3 = 600°C ⎬ 3 ⎭ P4 = Px P = Px and 5 T5 = 600°C s 4 = s3 4 6 6 10 kPa 1 8 s Any pressure Px selected between the limits of 25 MPa and 2.5488 kJ/kg ⋅ K T5 = 600°C ⎫ ⎬ P5 = 2780 kPa s5 = s6 ⎭ T 600°C SINGLE 3 25 MPa 2 10 kPa 1 5 T 600°C DOUBLE 3 25 MPa 2 4 5 7 (b) Double Reheat : P3 = 25 MPa ⎫ s = 6. you are using it without permission.5 kJ/kg ⎬ x6 = 0.78 MPa will satisfy the requirements. Analysis (a) Single Reheat: From the steam tables (Tables A-4. It is to be shown that the value of η cc is greater than either of η g or η s . the relation ηcc = η g + η s − ηgη s can be expressed as η cc = η g + η s − η gη s = η g + η s (1 − η g ) > η g 1 24 4 3 Positive since η g <1 or η cc = η g + η s − η gη s = η s + η g (1 − η s ) > η s 1 24 4 3 Positive since η s <1 Thus we conclude that the combined cycle is more efficient than either of the gas turbine or steam turbine cycles alone. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. A-5.

& − 11.104 10-100E A geothermal power plant operating on the simple Rankine cycle using an organic fluid as the working fluid is considered. .000 Btu / h & Wnet = 1271 − 200 = 1071 kW Then.790.24 Btu/lbm ⋅ °F)(84. If you are a student using this Manual.100 lbm/h )(0.930. The exit temperature of the geothermal water from the vaporizer. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Qin = Qvaporizer + Qreheater = 22. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.000 Btu/h = (384.7 MBtu/h = (4. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.5 − 55°F) (c) The mass flow rate of geothermal water at the preheater is determined from the steady-flow energy balance on the geothermal water.000 Btu/h = m geo (1.120 lbm/h & & Qgeo = m geo c p (Tout − Tin ) (d) The rate of heat input is & & & . © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. & & Qair = m air c p (T9 − T8 ) = 29. you are using it without permission.140. the rate of heat rejection from the working fluid in the condenser.4°F (b) The rate of heat rejection from the working fluid to the air in the condenser is determined from the steady-flow energy balance on air.14 Btu ⎞ W net 1071 kW ⎟ = 10. and the thermal efficiency of the Level I cycle of this plant are to be determined.8°F) & m geo = 187.000 Btu/h ⎜ 1 kWh ⎟ Qin ⎠ ⎝ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the mass flow rate of geothermal water at the preheater. Inc.03 Btu/lbm ⋅ °F)(T2 − 325°F) & & Q brine = m brine c p (T2 − T1 ) T2 = 267.000 and = 33. − 22. Analysis (a) The exit temperature of geothermal water from the vaporizer is determined from the steadyflow energy balance on the geothermal water (brine).0 − 211.03 Btu/lbm ⋅ °F)(154.790.195.000 + 11140.930.286 lbm/h )(1.8% ⎜ = & 33. η th = & ⎛ 3412.

The thermal efficiency of the cycle and the mass flow rate of the steam are to be determined. .1 − 2230.7642 − 0.9 kJ/kg Then.3 = 4093.9204 )(2423. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual.5% q in 4093.9204 P8 = 5 kPa ⎫ x8 = s fg 7.4 kg/s wnet 1862. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.7642 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ s8 − s f 7.1 kJ/kg & Wnet 120.000 − 5 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 15. A-5.8 kJ/kg T3 = 500°C ⎬ s3 = 6. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.4 kJ/kg s4 = s3 ⎭ P5 = 5 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3434.8 − 152.001005 m3/kg 3 wp.07 = 152.75 = 2230. Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4.2 kJ/kg wnet = qin − qout = 4093.9 kJ/kg PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. η th = (b) & m= wnet 1862.in = 137.9176 ⎬ s8 = s7 ⎭ h8 = h f + x8h fg = 137.7 − 3007. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.75 kJ/kg = 0.75 + 15.000 kJ/s = = 64.7 kJ/kg T5 = 500°C ⎬ s5 = 6.2 = 1862.3 kJ/kg s6 = s5 ⎭ 2 ( ) 5 MPa 3 5 1 MPa 7 15 MPa 4 6 1 5 kPa 8 s P7 = 1 MPa ⎫ h7 = 3479. you are using it without permission.105 10-101 A steam power plant operating on an ideal Rankine cycle with two stages of reheat is considered.82 + 3434.82 kJ/kg P3 = 15 MPa ⎫ h3 = 3310.1 − 2971.9781 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ P6 = 1 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h6 = 2971. and A-6).4762 = = 0.in = v1 (P2 − P ) 1 T ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.75 + (0. h1 = h f @ 5 kPa @ 5 kPa v1 = v f = 137.9 − 137.9 kJ/kg Thus. qin = (h3 − h2 ) + (h5 − h4 ) + (h7 − h6 ) qout = 3310.4 + 3479.9 kJ/kg = = 45.0 ) = 2367.07 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp.3480 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ P4 = 5 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h4 = 3007.001005 m /kg (15.1 kJ/kg T7 = 500°C ⎬ s7 = 7.1 kJ/kg = h8 − h1 = 2367. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.

determined power produced by the turbine and consumed by the pump are to be determined. Inc.13 = 346.54 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 20 kPa = 0. q in = h3 − h2 = 3658.1693 kJ/kg ⋅ K s4 − s f 7.6 η th = 1 − The thermal efficiency slightly decreases as a result of subcooling at the pump inlet.9 kJ/kg q out 2201.9 = 1− = 0.16 = 3359. s q in = h3 − h2 = 3658. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.54 + 6. .0 − 293.9348 s fg 6.8 kJ/kg ⎬ T3 = 600°C ⎭ s 3 = 7.1 η th = 1 − When the liquid enters the pump 11. The thermal efficiency of the cycle is to be compared when it is operated so that the liquid enters the pump as a saturated liquid against that when the liquid enters as a subcooled liquid.09 = 2201.3 = 81.54 + (0.6 kJ/kg q out = h4 − h1 = 2495.3495 q in 3312. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.9348)(2304.16 kJ/kg Then.0 − 340. A-5.0912 P4 = 50 kPa ⎫ x 4 = = = 0.07 kJ/kg ⎬ T1 = Tsat @ 50 kPa − 11.54 = 2154.3 − 11. the enthalpies become P1 = 50 kPa ⎫ h1 ≅ h f @ 70°C = 293. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.67 = 3312.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ = (0.67 kJ/kg T 6 MPa 2 3 qin 50 kPa 4 1 qout P3 = 6000 kPa ⎫ h3 = 3658.106 10-102 A simple ideal Rankine cycle with water as the working fluid operates between the specified pressure limits.001023 m 3 /kg)(6000 − 50)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 6.3 = 70°C ⎭ v 1 ≅ v f @ 70°C = 0.13 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp.5019 ⎬ s 4 = s3 ⎭ h = h + x h = 340.001023 m 3 /kg wp.09 = 299.5 = 1− = 0.5 kJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the cycle is q out 2154. h1 = h f @ 50 kPa = 340.3446 q in 3359.09 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wp.in = 293. and A-6).0 kJ/kg 4 f 4 fg Thus.3°C cooler than a saturated liquid at the condenser pressure.8 − 346. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.1693 − 1. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. you are using it without permission.001030 m 3 /kg wp.7) = 2495.1 kJ/kg q out = h4 − h1 = 2495.8 − 299.07 + 6.001030 m 3 /kg )(6000 − 50)kPa ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎠ = 6. If you are a student using this Manual.in = 340.

9554 s fg 4.5 MPa ⎫ h3 = hf @ 0. and A-6).00101m3/kg (500−10 kPa)⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa⋅ m3 ⎟ /(0.in = v 3 (P4 − P3 ) / η p ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.81 kJ/kg v1 = v f @ 10 kPa = 0. h1 = hf @ 10 kPa = 191.33 kJ/kg P = 0.5 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h6 s = h f + x 6 s h fg = 640.95) ⎠ ⎝ = 0. you are using it without permission.5995 − 1.5 MPa = 0.09 + 10.001093 m3/kg (10. and the irreversibility associated with the regeneration process are to be determined.5 MPa y 6s 7s 6 1-y 7 qout s (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4. The mass flow rate of steam through the boiler.000 − 500 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m3 ⎟ / (0.09 kJ/kg 3 ⎬v = v 3 sat.liquid f @ 0. .93 kJ/kg ( ) h4 = h3 + wpII.in = 640.02 kJ/kg P5 = 10 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3375. A-5.5995 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ 6.1 kJ/kg T5 = 500°C ⎬ s 5 = 6. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.52 kJ/kg ( ) h2 = h1 + wpI. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.00101 m3/kg wpI.93 = 651.in = v1(P − P ) / ηp 2 1 ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.107 10-103 An 150-MW steam power plant operating on a regenerative Rankine cycle with an open feedwater heater is considered. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.5 MPa = 640.in = 191. If you are a student using this Manual. the thermal efficiency of the cycle.9603 P6 s = 0.81+ 0.001093 m /kg ⎭ 3 wpII.1 kJ/kg x6 s = = s6s − s f PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.8604 = 0. Inc.95) ⎠ ⎝ = 10.0) s 6 s = s5 ⎭ = 2654. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.9554)(2108.52 = 192. Analysis 5 Boiler 6 Turbine T 5 qin 1-y 7 Condenser 2 PI 1 2 10 kPa 1 4 10 MPa y 4 Open fwh P II 3 3 0.09 + (0.

33 = = 0. y= h3 − h2 640.6492 kJ/kg ⋅ K Then the irreversibility (or exergy destruction) associated with this regeneration process is 0⎞ ⎛ q iregen = T0 sgen = T0 ⎜ me se − mi si + surr ⎟ = T0 [s3 − ys6 − (1 − y )s2 ] ⎜ ⎟ TL ⎝ ⎠ = (303 K )[1.25 kJ/kg ∑ ∑ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.80)(3375.80)(3375.4 kJ/kg qin = h5 − h4 = 3375.1) s7s = s5 ⎭ = 2089.8604 kJ/kg ⋅ K s2 = s1 = s f @ 10 kPa = 0.8604 − (0.7 kJ/kg = 1− = 34.33 Then.3 − 192. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.9453 kJ/kg ⋅ K h6 = 2798.000 kJ/s = = 159.1 − 1784.1 − (0.7934 s fg 7.7 ) = 2346. If you are a student using this Manual.1718)(6. .7934 )(2392. Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 . P6 = 0.1718)(2346.5 MPa ⎫ ⎬ s6 = 6.8 − 191.5% q in 2724.6492 )] = 39.1 − (0.1) = 2798.5995 − 0.108 ηT = h5 − h6 ⎯ ⎯→ h6 = h5 − ηT (h5 − h6 s ) h5 − h6 s = 3375.1718 h6 − h2 2798.9453) − (1 − 0.4996 P7 s = 10 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h7 s = h f + x 7 s h fg = 191.7 kJ/kg x7s = ηT = h5 − h7 ⎯ ⎯→ h7 = h5 − ηT (h5 − h7 s ) h5 − h7 s = 3375.1 − 651.3 kJ/kg ⎭ s3 = s f @ 0.1 kJ/kg and & m= & Wnet 150.02 = 2724. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. you are using it without permission. Inc.09 − 192.5 MPa = 1.1 − 2654. Solving for y.3 kJ/kg s7s − s f 6.1 kJ/kg (b) The thermal efficiency is determined from η th = 1 − Also.7 kg/s 939.81) = 1784.81 + (0.8 kJ/kg The fraction of steam extracted is determined from the steady-flow energy balance equation applied to the & & feedwater heaters.4 kJ/kg wnet q out 1784. & & & E in − E out = ΔE system & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i 0 (steady) =0 & & Ein = E out e e & & & ⎯ ⎯→ m6 h6 + m2 h2 = m3 h3 ⎯ ⎯→ yh6 + (1 − y )h2 = 1(h3 ) & & where y is the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m6 / m3 ).1718)(0.6492 = = 0.7 kJ/kg wnet = qin − qout = 2724. qout = (1 − y )(h7 − h1 ) = (1 − 0.1 − 2089.7 = 939.

in = 191. The mass flow rate of steam through the boiler.47 kJ/kg ( ) P5 = 10 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3375.5995 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ s6 − s f 6.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.50 kJ/kg ⎟ ⎠ P3 = 0.1) = 2089.81 + (0. A-5.50 = 192. and the irreversibility associated with the regeneration process are to be determined.8604 = = 0. and A-6).38 kJ/kg ⎝ ⎠ h4 = h3 + wpII.5 MPa = 0.30 kJ/kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ = 0.in = 640.7934)(2392. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.81 kJ/kg = 0. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.5 MPa ⎫ x6 = s fg 4. Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 .38 = 650. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.001093 m /kg ⎭ 3 wpII.6492 = = 0.9554)(2108.7 kJ/kg The fraction of steam extracted is determined from the steady-flow energy equation applied to the & & feedwater heaters.001093 m3/kg (10.09 kJ/kg ⎬v = v 3 f @ 0.5 MPa = 640.4996 ⎬ s7 = s5 ⎭ h7 = h f + x7 h fg = 191.5995 − 0.5 MPa y 6 1-y qout 7 s (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4.liquid ⎫ h3 = h f @ 0. you are using it without permission.81 + 0. Inc.00101 m 3 /kg v1 = v f wpI.1 kJ/kg s7 − s f 6.in = v 3 (P4 − P3 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.5 MPa sat.7934 P7 = 10 kPa ⎫ x7 = s fg 7. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.9554 P6 = 0. If you are a student using this Manual. h1 = h f @ 10 kPa @ 10 kPa = 191. Analysis T 5 Boiler 6 Turbine 5 qin 1-y 7 Condenser 2 PI 1 2 10 kPa 1 4 10 MPa y 4 Open fwh P II 3 3 0.1 kJ/kg T5 = 500°C ⎬ s5 = 6. .09 + (0.109 10-104 An 150-MW steam power plant operating on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with an open feedwater heater is considered.00101 m 3 /kg (500 − 10 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ h2 = h1 + wpI.5995 − 1.000 − 500 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎟ = 10.09 + 10.9603 ⎬ s6 = s5 ⎭ h6 = h f + x6 h fg = 640. the thermal efficiency of the cycle.0 ) = 2654. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.

Solving for y.1819 )(6.8604 kJ/kg ⋅ K = 0.81) = 1552.6492)] = 39.110 & & & E in − E out = ΔE system & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i e e 0 (steady) & & = 0 → Ein = E out & & & ⎯ ⎯→ m6 h6 + m2 h2 = m3 h3 ⎯ ⎯→ yh6 + (1 − y )h2 = 1(h3 ) & & where y is the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m6 / m3 ).1 − 650.6492 kJ/kg ⋅ K s 2 = s1 = s f @ 10 kPa Then the irreversibility (or exergy destruction) associated with this regeneration process is 0⎞ ⎛ q iregen = T0 sgen = T0 ⎜ me se − mi si + surr ⎟ = T0 [s3 − ys6 − (1 − y )s2 ] ⎜ ⎟ TL ⎝ ⎠ = (303 K )[1. y= h3 − h2 640.6 kJ/kg and & m= & Wnet 150.31 Then.7 kJ/kg = 1− = 43.6 − 1552.5995 kJ/kg ⋅ K s3 = s f @ 0.7 − 191. . © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.1819 )(0.09 − 192.47 = 2724. If you are a student using this Manual.1819 = h6 − h2 2654.1819)(2089. q out 1552.0 kg/s wnet 1171.0 kJ/kg qin = h5 − h4 = 3375.1 − 192.9 kJ/kg (b) The thermal efficiency is determined from η th = 1 − Also. you are using it without permission.31 = 0.5995) − (1 − 0. qout = (1 − y )(h7 − h1 ) = (1 − 0.0% q in 2724.0 kJ/kg ∑ ∑ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.000 kJ/s = = 128.5 MPa = 1.7 = 1172.7 kJ/kg wnet = qin − qout = 2724. Inc.7 kJ/kg s 6 = s 5 = 6.8604 − (0.

73) + (3479.8 − 225. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. & & & Ein − E out = ΔEsystem & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i e e 0 (steady) & & = 0 → Ein = E out & & & ⎯ ⎯→ m8 h8 + m 2 h2 = m3 h3 ⎯ ⎯→ yh8 + (1 − y )h2 = 1(h3 ) & & where y is the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m8 / m3 ).2 kJ/kg s8 = s7 ⎭ s9 − s f T 10 MPa 4 3 2 15 kPa 1 0.8 kJ/kg The fraction of steam extracted is determined from the steady-flow energy balance equation applied to the & & feedwater heaters.6 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h8 = 3310. Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 .38 kJ/kg ⎬v = v 3 sat.0 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h6 = 2783.5995 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ P6 = 1. y= h3 − h2 670.53 = = 0.8) = 3389.7 kJ/kg q out = (1 − y )(h9 − h1 ) = (1 − 0.144 h8 − h2 3310. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. The fraction of steam extracted for regeneration and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined. and A-6). 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.001101 m /kg ⎭ 3 wpII. Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4.6 MPa ⎫ h3 = h f @ 0.in = 225.53 kJ/kg P3 = 0. liquid f @ 0. If you are a student using this Manual.94 ) = 1962.7642 − 0.0 MPa ⎫ h7 = 3479.9665)(2372.111 10-105 An ideal reheat-regenerative Rankine cycle with one open feedwater heater is considered.59 kJ/kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Boiler 6 7 Turbine 1-y 9 Condens.35 kJ/kg 4 Open fwh P II 3 ( ) h4 = h3 + wpII.1 kJ/kg T5 = 500°C ⎬ s5 = 6.in = 670.3) = 2518.7 kJ/kg q in and η th = 1 − PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.001014 m 3 /kg (600 − 15 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 0.1% 3389. A-5.1440)(2518.9665 P9 = 15 kPa ⎫ x9 = s fg 7.59 = 226.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.7642 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ P8 = 0. Inc.7 kJ/kg q out 1962.1 − 2783.38 − 226.8 kJ/kg s6 = s5 ⎭ P7 = 1.in = v 3 (P4 − P3 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.94 kJ/kg v1 = v f @ 15 kPa = 0.94 + (0.7549 = = 0. you are using it without permission.53 (b) The thermal efficiency is determined from q in = (h5 − h4 ) + (h7 − h6 ) = (3375.1 − 680.2522 ⎬ s9 = s7 ⎭ h9 = h f + x9 h fg = 225.001014 m 3 /kg 5 wpI.6 MPa 1 MPa 5 7 6 8 9 s 7.38 + 10.001101 m3/kg (10.94 + 0.000 − 600 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ = 10.6 MPa = 0.35 = 680. 2 PI 1 8 y h2 = h1 + wpI. h1 = h f @ 15 kPa = 225.7 kJ/kg = 1− = 42.1 kJ/kg T7 = 500°C ⎬ s7 = 7.2 − 226. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Solving for y.6 MPa = 670.73 kJ/kg P5 = 10 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3375. .

in = 670. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.54 kJ/kg P3 = 0. The fraction of steam extracted for regeneration and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.35 kJ/kg ( ) h4 = h3 + wpII.1 − (0.6 MPa = 670. If you are a student using this Manual.8 kJ/kg s6 s = s5 ⎭ ηT = h5 − h6 ⎯ ⎯→ h6 = h5 − ηT (h5 − h6 s ) h5 − h6 s = 3375.38 kJ/kg ⎬v = v 3 f @ 0.6 MPa sat.1 − 2783. h1 = h f @ 15 kPa = 225. Analysis 5 Boiler 6 7 Open fwh P II 3 Turbine 1-y 9 Condenser T 5 7 8 4 3 2 y 4 6 6s 8s 8 y 1-y 2 PI 1 1 9s 9 s (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4.35 = 680.6 MPa = 0. you are using it without permission.84 )(3375.112 10-106 A nonideal reheat-regenerative Rankine cycle with one open feedwater heater is considered.8) = 2878.59 kJ/kg ⎫ h3 = h f @ 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.5995 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ P6 s = 1. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.73 kJ/kg P5 = 10 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3375. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.94 kJ/kg v 1 = v f @ 15 kPa = 0.94 + 0.1 kJ/kg T5 = 500°C ⎬ s5 = 6.38 + 10.in = 225. A-5.001014 m 3 /kg w pI . .4 kJ/kg PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc.001014 m 3 /kg (600 − 15 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 0. liquid wpII.59 = 226.000 − 600 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ = 10.001101 m /kg ⎭ 3 ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ h2 = h1 + w pI .0 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h6 s = 2783.in = v 3 (P4 − P3 ) ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0. and A-6).001101 m3 /kg (10.

1 − (0.94 ) = 2097.2 kJ/kg and η th = 1 − q out 2097.94 + (0.3 − 226.38 − 226.113 P7 = 1.2 kJ/kg s8 s = s7 ⎭ ηT = h7 − h8 ⎯ ⎯→ h8 = h7 − ηT (h7 − h8 s ) = 3479.5 − 225.1 kJ/kg PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.1 − 2878.1 − 3310.2522 ⎬ s9s = s7 ⎭ h9 s = h f + x 9 s h fg = 225.1427 h8 − h2 3335.2 kJ/kg s 9 s − s f 7. you are using it without permission. If you are a student using this Manual.9665)(2372.53 = = 0.7642 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ P8 s = 0.1 − 2518. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.0 MPa ⎫ h7 = 3479. Inc.4 ) = 3295.2 kJ/kg = 1− = 36. Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 . Solving for y.6 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h8 s = 3310.1 kJ/kg T7 = 500°C ⎬ s7 = 7.84 )(3479.2 ) h7 − h8 s = 3337.53 (b) The thermal efficiency is determined from qin = (h5 − h4 ) + (h7 − h6 ) = (3375.1 − 680. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .5 kJ/kg The fraction of steam extracted is determined from the steady-flow energy balance equation applied to the & & feedwater heaters.8 kJ/kg ηT = h7 − h9 ⎯ ⎯→ h9 = h7 − ηT (h7 − h9 s ) = 3479.84)(3479.9665 P9 s = 15 kPa ⎫ x 9 s = s fg 7.73) + (3479. & & & Ein − E out = ΔE system & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i 0 (steady) =0 & & E in = E out e e & & & ⎯ ⎯→ m8 h8 + m2 h2 = m3 h3 ⎯ ⎯→ yh8 + (1 − y )h2 = 1(h3 ) & & where y is the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine ( = m8 / m3 ).7642 − 0.3) = 2518.1 kJ/kg qout = (1 − y )(h9 − h1 ) = (1 − 0.4% q in 3295. y= h3 − h2 670.7549 = = 0.1427 )(2672.8) h7 − h9 s = 2672.1 − (0.

0 kJ/kg T7 = T5 = 242. .6°C ⎭ P11 = 6000 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h = 1213.7 kJ/kg = 1052. h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 h9 h10 = 191.81 kJ/kg = 191. High-P Turbine 13 Boiler 16 Low-P Turbine z 14 12 Closed FWH I 10 11 8 6 Closed FWH II 7 P III 4 19 n x y 15 Open FWH 3 17 18 m PI 2 Condenser P II 9 5 1 P IV Analysis The compression processes in the pumps and the expansion processes in the turbines are isentropic. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Various items for this system per unit of mass flow rate through the boiler are to be determined. Also.4 kJ/kg h17 = 3275. If you are a student using this Manual.8 kJ/kg h15 = 2931. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.05 kJ/kg = 1049.6°C ⎭ 11 Enthalpies at other states and the fractions of steam extracted from the turbines can be determined from mass and energy balances on cycle components as follows: Mass Balances: x + y + z =1 m+n = z PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.8 kJ/kg = 1213. the state of water at the inlet of pumps is saturated liquid. Inc.4 kJ/kg h14 = 3062.114 10-107 A steam power plant operating on the ideal reheat-regenerative Rankine cycle with three feedwater heaters is considered. A-5. you are using it without permission.1 kJ/kg T11 = T9 = 275.8 kJ/kg = 1216. the feedwater is heated to the exit temperature of the extracted steam. Then. which ideally leaves the heater as a saturated liquid at the extraction pressure. Then. P7 = 3500 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h7 = 1050.6 kJ/kg h19 = 2547. and A-6).2 kJ/kg h13 = 3139. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.51 kJ/kg = 421.5 kJ/kg h18 = 2974. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.5 kJ/kg For an ideal closed feedwater heater.8 kJ/kg h16 = 2470. from the steam tables (Tables A-4.90 kJ/kg = 417.

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. HP = x(h13 − h14 ) + y (h13 − h15 ) + z (h13 − h16 ) = 514.6890 m = 0. LP = m(h17 − h18 ) + n(h17 − h19 ) = 477. Inc. we obtain h8 = 1050.3986 q in 2481 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.115 Open feedwater heater: mh18 + nh2 = zh3 Closed feedwater heater-II: zh4 + yh15 = zh7 + yh5 Closed feedwater heater-I: ( y + z )h8 + xh14 = ( y + z )h11 + xh9 Mixing chamber after closed feedwater heater II: zh7 + yh6 = ( y + z )h8 Mixing chamber after closed feedwater heater I: xh10 + ( y + z )h11 = 1h12 Substituting the values and solving the above equations simultaneously using EES. Other results of the cycle are wT. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.05586 n = 0. . If you are a student using this Manual.9 kJ/kg wT.08072 y = 0.7 kJ/kg h12 = 1213.8 kJ/kg q in = h13 − h12 + z (h17 − h16 ) = 2481 kJ/kg q out = n(h19 − h1 ) = 1492 kJ/kg η th = 1 − q out 1492 = 1− = 0.2303 z = 0. you are using it without permission.6332 Note that these values may also be obtained by a hand solution by using the equations above with some rearrangements and substitutions.3 kJ/kg x = 0.out.out.

s=s[13]) h[15]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P_cfwh1. P=P_reheat. x=0) T[9]=temperature(Fluid$. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. P=P_reheat. "Given" P_boiler=8000 [kPa] P_cfwh1=6000 [kPa] P_cfwh2=3500 [kPa] P_reheat=300 [kPa] P_ofwh=100 [kPa] P_condenser=10 [kPa] T_turbine=400 [C] "Analysis" Fluid$='steam_iapws' "turbines" h[13]=enthalpy(Fluid$. x=0) w_pIII_in=v[5]*(P_cfwh1-P_cfwh2) h[6]=h[5]+w_pIII_in "pump IV" h[9]=enthalpy(Fluid$. . P=P_reheat. T=T_turbine) s[13]=entropy(Fluid$. x=0) w_pI_in=v[1]*(P_ofwh-P_condenser) h[2]=h[1]+w_pI_in "pump II" h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P_ofwh. x=0) v[9]=volume(Fluid$. s=s[13]) h[17]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P_cfwh2. x=0) w_p4_in=v[5]*(P_boiler-P_cfwh1) h[10]=h[9]+w_p4_in "Mass balances" x+y+z=1 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. s=s[13]) h[16]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P_condenser.116 10-108 EES The optimum bleed pressure for the open feedwater heater that maximizes the thermal efficiency of the cycle is to be determined using EES. s=s[17]) h[19]=enthalpy(Fluid$. T=T_turbine) s[17]=entropy(Fluid$. P=P_cfwh1. P=P_cfwh2. T=T_turbine) h[18]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P_cfwh1. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. P=P_cfwh2. x=0) v[1]=volume(Fluid$. Inc. s=s[17]) "pump I" h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P_ofwh. P=P_cfwh1. P=P_boiler. you are using it without permission. x=0) v[5]=volume(Fluid$. T=T_turbine) h[14]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P_boiler. P=P_ofwh. x=0) w_pII_in=v[3]*(P_cfwh2-P_ofwh) h[4]=h[3]+w_pII_in "pump III" h[5]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P_condenser. x=0) T[5]=temperature(Fluid$. P=P_cfwh2. Analysis The EES program used to solve this problem as well as the solutions are given below. x=0) v[3]=volume(Fluid$. P=P_condenser.

396 η th 0.392729 0. T=T[7]) z*h[4]+y*h[15]=z*h[7]+y*h[5] "closed feedwater heater 1" T[11]=T[9] h[11]=enthalpy(Fluid$.388 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Pofwh [kPa] PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual.398954 0.398774 0.39 0.398952 0.398825 0.398669 0.117 m+n=z "Open feedwater heater" m*h[18]+n*h[2]=z*h[3] "closed feedwater heater 2" T[7]=T[5] h[7]=enthalpy(Fluid$.388371 0. P=P_cfwh1. T=T[11]) (y+z)*h[8]+x*h[14]=(y+z)*h[11]+x*h[9] "Mixing chamber after closed feedwater heater 2" z*h[7]+y*h[6]=(y+z)*h[8] "Mixing chamber after closed feedwater heater 1" x*h[10]+(y+z)*h[11]=1*h[12] "cycle" w_T_out_high=x*(h[13]-h[14])+y*(h[13]-h[15])+z*(h[13]-h[16]) w_T_out_low=m*(h[17]-h[18])+n*(h[17]-h[19]) q_in=h[13]-h[12]+z*(h[17]-h[16]) q_out=n*(h[19]-h[1]) Eta_th=1-q_out/q_in P open fwh [kPa] 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 ηth 0.398406 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.394888 0.398883 0.398624 0.397068 0.396199 0.394 0.4 0.398872 0.398099 0.398752 0.398576 0. P=P_boiler.398 0.398930 0. you are using it without permission.397671 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.392 0.398927 0. .

Analysis Working around the topping cycle gives the following results: T6 s ⎛P = T5 ⎜ 6 ⎜P ⎝ 5 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ( k −1) / k T 2560 R 7 · Qin 6 6s 800 psia 9 540 R 2 1 STEAM CYCLE 5 psia · 4s Qout = (540 R)(10) 0. A-6E): h1 = h f @ 5 psia = 130.6) = 926. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats.01641 ft 3 /lbm)(800 − 5)psia ⎜ ⎜ 5. The thermal efficiency of the cycle is to be determined. Properties The properties of air at room temperature are cp = 0.4866 Btu/lbm ⋅ R P4 = 5 psia ⎫ ⎬ h4 s = 908.90)(2560 − 1326) = 1449 R T9 = Tsat @ 800 psia + 50 = 978.in = 130. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.3 R + 50 = 1028 R Fixing the states around the bottom steam cycle yields (Tables A-4E.41 Btu/lbm ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ h2 = h1 + wp.4 (Table A-2Ea).118 10-109E A combined gas-steam power cycle uses a simple gas turbine for the topping cycle and simple Rankine cycle for the bottoming cycle. 2 The air-standard assumptions are applicable for Brayton cycle.4/1. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. A-5E.9 Btu/lbm ⎬ T3 = 600°F ⎭ s 3 = 1.4/1.4 = 540 + ⎛P T8 s = T7 ⎜ 8 ⎜P ⎝ 7 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ( k −1) / k = 1326 R 5 4 s ηT = c p (T7 − T8 ) h7 − h8 = ⎯ ⎯→ T8 = T7 − η T (T7 − T8 s ) h7 − h8 s c p (T7 − T8 s ) = 2560 − (0.9 − 908. If you are a student using this Manual.7 Btu/lbm PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.4 = 1043 R ηC = h6 s − h5 = h 6 − h5 c p (T6 − T5 ) T6 s − T5 c p (T6 s − T5 ) GAS CYCLE 8s 8 3 600°F ⎯ ⎯→ T6 = T5 + ηC 1043 − 540 = 1099 R 0.95)(1270.18 Btu/lbm v 1 = v f @ 5 psia = 0.6 Btu/lbm s 4 = s3 ⎭ ηT = h3 − h4 ⎯ h4 = h3 − η T ( h3 − h4 s ) ⎯→ h3 − h4 s = 1270.240 Btu/lbm·R and k = 1.404 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ = 2. .01641 ft 3 /lbm wp.9 − (0.18 + 2.90 ⎛1⎞ = (2560 R)⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ 0. you are using it without permission.41 = 132.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 Btu = (0. 3 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Inc. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.59 Btu/lbm P3 = 800 psia ⎫ h3 = 1270.

Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.240 Btu/lbm ⋅ R )(1028 − 540)R + 0. 1 lbm of exhaust gases can heat only 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.240)(1449 − 1028) & = 0.08876 lbm of water.4643 350. you are using it without permission. out − wC. steam cycle = wT.8 = 1− = 0.out − wP.9 − 926. gas cycle = wT.240 Btu/lbm ⋅ R )(2560 − 1449 − 1099 + 540)R = 132.41 = 341.in = (h3 − h4 ) − wP.7 − 130.08876 × (926.08876m a 1270.8 Btu/lbm η th = 1 − q out 187. Inc.in = c p (T7 − T8 ) − c p (T6 − T5 ) = (0.6 q in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.9 − 132. the heat output and the thermal efficiency are q in = q out & ma c p (T7 − T6 ) = (0.240 Btu/lbm ⋅ R )(2560 − 1099)R = 350.18) Btu/lbm = 187.119 The net work outputs from each cycle are wnet.7) − 2.6 Btu/lbm & ma & & m m = a c p (T9 − T1 ) + w ( h4 − h1 ) & & ma ma = 1× (0.5 Btu/lbm wnet.59 That is.8 Btu/lbm An energy balance on the heat exchanger gives & & & m a c p (T8 − T9 ) = m w (h3 -h2 ) ⎯ ⎯→ m w = c p (T8 − T9 ) h3 -h2 & ma = (0. . Then the heat input. If you are a student using this Manual.in = (1270.

4/1.01659 ft 3 /lbm)(800 − 10)psia ⎜ ⎜ 5.25 Btu/lbm v 1 = v f @ 10 psia = 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.01659 ft 3 /lbm wp. A-6E): h1 = h f @ 10 psia = 161.90 ⎛1⎞ = (2560 R)⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ 0.43 Btu/lbm ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ h2 = h1 + wp. A-5E. Analysis Working around the topping cycle gives the following results: T6 s ⎛P = T5 ⎜ 6 ⎜P ⎝ 5 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ( k −1) / k T 2560 R · Qin 6 6s 800 psia 9 540 R = 1326 R 7 = (540 R)(10) 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.120 10-110E A combined gas-steam power cycle uses a simple gas turbine for the topping cycle and simple Rankine cycle for the bottoming cycle.in = 161.4866 Btu/lbm ⋅ R P4 = 10 psia ⎫ ⎬ h4 s = 946. . you are using it without permission. Properties The properties of air at room temperature are cp = 0.6 Btu/lbm s 4 = s3 ⎭ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.4/1. The thermal efficiency of the cycle is to be determined.7 Btu/lbm P3 = 800 psia ⎫ h3 = 1270.240 Btu/lbm·R and k = 1. 2 The air-standard assumptions are applicable fo Brayton cycle. 3 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.3 R + 50 = 1028 R Fixing the states around the bottom steam cycle yields (Tables A-4E.43 = 163.in = v 1 ( P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 Btu = (0.9 Btu/lbm ⎬ T3 = 600°F ⎭ s 3 = 1.4 = 1043 R GAS CYCLE 8s 8 3 600°F ηC = h6 s − h5 c p (T6 s − T5 ) = h 6 − h5 c p (T6 − T5 ) T6 s − T5 ⎯ ⎯→ T6 = T5 + ηC 1043 − 540 = 1099 R 0. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.4 = 540 + ⎛P = T7 ⎜ 8 ⎜P ⎝ 7 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 5 2 1 ( k −1) / k STEAM CYCLE 10 psia · 4s Qout 4 T8 s s ηT = c p (T7 − T8 ) h7 − h8 = ⎯ ⎯→ T8 = T7 − η T (T7 − T8 s ) h7 − h8 s c p (T7 − T8 s ) = 2560 − (0.404 psia ⋅ ft 3 ⎝ = 2.4 (Table A-2Ea).25 + 2.90)(2560 − 1326) = 1449 R T9 = Tsat @ 800 psia + 50 = 978. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats.

out − wC. gas cycle = wT.7 Btu/lbm An energy balance on the heat exchanger gives & & & ⎯→ m w = m a c p (T8 − T9 ) = m w (h3 − h2 ) ⎯ c p (T8 − T9 ) h3 − h 2 & ma = (0.240 Btu/lbm ⋅ R )(2560 − 1099)R = 350.5 Btu/lbm wnet.4573 350. Inc.09126 × (962. .09126 lbm of water.8) − 2.6 q in When the condenser pressure is increased from 5 psia to 10 psia. you are using it without permission. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 Btu/lbm The net work outputs from each cycle are wnet.3 Btu/lbm η th = 1 − q out 190.9 − 946.09126m a 1270.9 − (0.6 Btu/lbm & ma & & ma m c (T − T ) + w ( h4 − h1 ) &a p 9 1 & m ma = 1× (0.25) Btu/lbm = 190. 1 lbm of exhaust gases can heat only 0.3 = 1− = 0.9 − 962. If you are a student using this Manual. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.4573.8 − 161.7 That is. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.in = (1270. steam cycle = wT.95)(1270.out − wP.4643 to 0. Then the heat input.in = c p (T7 − T8 ) − c p (T6 − T5 ) = (0.240)(1449 − 1028) & = 0.9 − 163.43 = 305.in = (h3 − h4 ) − wP. the heat output and the thermal efficiency are q in = q out = & ma c p (T7 − T6 ) = (0.240 Btu/lbm ⋅ R )(2560 − 1449 − 1099 + 540)R = 132.6) = 962. the thermal efficiency is decreased from 0.240 Btu/lbm ⋅ R )(1028 − 540)R + 0.121 ηT = h3 − h4 ⎯ h4 = h3 − η T ( h3 − h4 s ) ⎯→ h3 − h4 s = 1270.

8 .09126 5 10 psia 4s 4 The power outputs from each cycle are & & W net.out − wP. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 3 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.9 − 962. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats.240 Btu/lbm ⋅ R )(2560 − 1449 − 1099 + 540)R ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3412.in ) s = c p (T7 − T8 ) − c p (T6 − T5 ) 1 kW ⎛ ⎞ = (27.out − wC. steam cycle = m a ( wT.340 lbm/h 0.161.240 Btu/lbm·R and k = 1.14 Btu/h ⎠ = 1062 kW & & W net.in ) & = m a ( h3 − h4 − wP. The cycle supplies a specified rate of heat to the buildings during winter.340 lbm/h)(0.8 − 2. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.43)⎜ ⎟ 3412. 2 The air-standard assumptions are applicable to Brayton cycle. The mass flow rate of air and the net power output from the cycle are to be determined.in ) 1 kW ⎛ ⎞ = (2495 lbm/h)(1270.14 Btu/h ⎠ ⎝ = 224 kW The net electricity production by this cycle is then & W net = 1062 + 224 = 1286 kW PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.25) Btu/lbm 6 The mass flow rate of air is then & mw = & ma 2495 = = 27. Inc. Properties The properties of air at room temperature are cp = 0.122 10-111E A combined gas-steam power cycle uses a simple gas turbine for the topping cycle and simple Rankine cycle for the bottoming cycle. . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. gas cycle = m a ( wT. Analysis The mass flow rate of water is & mw = & Q buildings T 2560 R · Qin 6 6s 800 psia 9 540 R 2 1 STEAM CYCLE · Qout 7 GAS CYCLE 8s 8 3 600°F h4 − h1 = 2 × 10 Btu/h = 2495 lbm/h (962.4 (Table A-2Ea).09126 0. you are using it without permission.

63 kJ/kg ⎯→ From the steam tables (Tables A-4.in = v1 (P2 − P ) = 0.8783 P6 = 10 kPa ⎫ x6 = s fg 7. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Inc.2311 P Pr8 = 8 Pr7 = (8)(1. The topping cycle is an ideal gas-turbine cycle and the bottoming cycle is an ideal reheat Rankine cycle.2355 − 0. The mass flow rate of air in the gas-turbine cycle.3 + (0.81 + (0.14 = 206.12 kJ/kg P7 ⎯→ h9 = 1515.5) = 56. you are using it without permission.00101 m3/kg (15.000 − 10 kPa )⎜ 1 ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m3 ⎟ = 15.6454 = = 0. the steady-flow energy balance equation yields & & ⎯→ Ein = Eout ⎯ & mair = & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i e e ( ) & & ⎯ ⎯→ ms (h3 − h2 ) = mair (h10 − h11 ) h3 − h2 3157. .1434 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ s4 − s f 6.2359 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ s6 − s f 7.9 − 206.35 kJ/kg P9 ⎝8⎠ GAS CYCLE 10 3 8 15 MPa 11 STEAM CYCLE 4 10 kPa · Qout 3 MPa 5 T11 = 520 K ⎯ h11 = 523.95 kJ/kg P3 = 15 MPa ⎫ h3 = 3157. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats.81 + 15.14 kJ/kg ⎠ ⎝ h2 = h1 + wpI.1434 − 2. Analysis (a) The analysis of gas cycle yields T 9 · Qin 1400 K T7 = 290 K ⎯ ⎯→ h7 = 290.9 ) = 2781.63 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.1) = 2292.8 kJ/kg 6 f 6 fg & & Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 for the heat exchanger. h1 = h f @ 10 kPa @ 10 kPa 290 K 7 2 1 = 191.849 ⎯ ⎯→ h8 = 526.2 kJ/kg T5 = 500°C ⎬ s5 = 7. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.81 kJ/kg = 0.42 kJ/kg T9 = 1400 K ⎯ Pr9 = 450. the rate of total heat input.in = 191.9880 P4 = 3 MPa ⎫ x4 = s fg 3.4996 ⎬ s6 = s5 ⎭ h = h + x h = 191.9880 )(1794.95 & ms = (30 kg/s ) = 262.00101 m3/kg 6 s v1 = v f ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ wpI.3 ⎯ ⎯→ h10 = 860.9 kJ/kg T3 = 450°C ⎬ s3 = 6.5402 ⎬ s4 = s3 ⎭ h4 = h f + x4 h fg = 1008.7 kJ/kg P5 = 3 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3457. and A-6).35 − 523.16 kJ/kg Pr7 = 1.123 10-112 A combined gas-steam power plant is considered.6492 = = 0. If you are a student using this Manual. A-5. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle are to be determined.9 kg/s h10 − h11 860.2311) = 9.8783)(2392.5 Pr10 = P10 ⎛1⎞ Pr9 = ⎜ ⎟(450.

352 kW Qin PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Inc.9 kg/s )(1515.12) kJ/kg + (30 kg/s )(3457.409 kW η th = 1 − out = 1 − = 55.16 ) kJ/kg + (30 kg/s )(2292.7 )kJ/kg = 280.6% & 280.8 − 191.409 kW & Q 124.2 − 2781.9 kg/s )(523.352 kW ≅ 2. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.air + Qout. If you are a student using this Manual.steam = m air (h11 − h7 ) + m s (h6 − h1 ) = (262.81) kJ/kg = 124.80 × 10 5 kW (b) (c) & & & & & Qout = Qout.124 & & & & & Qin = Qair + Q reheat = m air (h9 − h8 ) + m reheat (h5 − h4 ) = (262. .63 − 290.42 − 526. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. you are using it without permission.

in = v1 (P2 − P ) 1 ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.42 kJ/kg T9 = 1400 K ⎯ Pr 9 = 450.00101 m3 /kg (15.9 − (0.7 kJ/kg ηT = h3 − h4 ⎯ ⎯→ h4 = h3 − ηT (h3 − h4 s ) h3 − h4 s = 3157.9880 P4 = 3 MPa ⎫ x4 s = s fg 3.5) = 56.1 kJ/kg 5 ⎯→ h9 = 1515. T Analysis (a) The analysis of gas cycle yields (Table A-17) 9 1400 K ⎯→ h7 = 290. the rate of total heat input.35) = 958.95 kJ/kg P3 = 15 MPa ⎫ h3 = 3157.42 − 860.16 kJ/kg T7 = 290 K ⎯ Pr 7 = 1.in = 191.5 Pr10 s = ηT = 290 K P s ⎛1⎞ 10 ⎯→ h10 s = 860.12 − 290.125 10-113 A combined gas-steam power plant is considered. 3 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats.2311) = 9.1434 − 2. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.9879 )(1794.2311 · Qin GAS P8 s ⎯→ h8 s = 526.849 ⎯ CYCLE P7 1 10s 3 h8 s − h7 8 ηC = ⎯ ⎯→ h8 = h7 + (h8 s − h7 ) / ηC 8 h8 − h7 3 MPa = 290.35 kJ/kg Pr = ⎜ ⎟(450.9 ) = 2781. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.14 = 206. and A-6).81 kJ/kg = 0.16 + (526.85)(3157.81 + 15.12 kJ/kg Pr8 s = Pr 7 = (8)(1.63 kJ/kg T11 = 520 K ⎯ From the steam tables (Tables A-4.9 − 2781. Inc.5402 ⎬ s4 s = s3 ⎭ h4 s = h f + x4 s h fg = 1008. you are using it without permission.3 + (0. The mass flow rate of air in the gas-turbine cycle.000 − 10 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 15.1 kJ/kg PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. A-5. The topping cycle is a gas-turbine cycle and the bottoming cycle is a nonideal reheat Rankine cycle.6454 = = 0. . If you are a student using this Manual.7 ) = 2838.16) / (0.42 − (0.85)(1515.4 kJ/kg ⎯→ h11 = 523.3 ⎯ P9 9 ⎝ 8 ⎠ 7 2 1 11 STEAM 4 CYCLE 4 10 kPa · 6s 6 Qout s h9 − h10 ⎯ ⎯→ h10 = h9 − ηT (h9 − h10 s ) h9 − h10 s = 1515. h1 = h f v1 = v f @ 10 kPa @ 10 kPa = 191.1428 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ s4 s − s f 6.00101 m3 /kg wpI.14 kJ/kg ( ) h2 = h1 + wpI.9 kJ/kg T3 = 450°C ⎬ s3 = 6.80) 15 MPa = 585. and the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle are to be determined.

2 − 2838.805 kW & Q 115. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. you are using it without permission.8782 )(2392.126 P5 = 3 MPa ⎫ h5 = 3457.5 kJ/kg & & Noting that Q ≅ W ≅ Δke ≅ Δpe ≅ 0 for the heat exchanger.42 − 585.8783 P6 = 10 kPa ⎫ x6 s = s fg 7. If you are a student using this Manual.6 kg/s ms = h10 − h11 958.4 − 523.5 − 191.805 kW η th = 1 − out = 1 − = 44.1) = 2292.81) kJ/kg = 115.6 kg/s )(1515.air + Qout.6 kg/s )(523. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Inc.1) kJ/kg + (30 kg/s )(3457.16) kJ/kg + (30 kg/s )(2467. .steam = m air (h11 − h7 ) + m s (h6 − h1 ) = (203.2359 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ s6 s − s f 7.63 (b) & & & & & Qin = Qair + Q reheat = m air (h9 − h8 ) + m reheat (h5 − h4 ) = (203.9 − 206.8) = 2467.4996 ⎬ s6 s = s5 ⎭ h = h + x h = 191.95 & (30 kg/s ) = 203.8 kJ/kg 6s 6 s fg f ηT = h5 − h6 ⎯ ⎯→ h6 = h5 − ηT (h5 − h6 s ) h5 − h6 s = 3457.986 kW Qin (c) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the steady-flow energy balance equation yields & & & Ein − Eout = ΔEsystem & & ∑m h = ∑m h i i 0 (steady) =0 & & Ein = Eout e e & & ⎯ ⎯→ ms (h3 − h2 ) = mair (h10 − h11 ) & mair = h3 − h2 3157.85)(3457.2 − 2292.81 + (0.2 − (0.2359 − 0.63 − 290.3% & 207.986 kW & & & & & Qout = Qout.2 kJ/kg T5 = 500°C ⎬ s5 = 7.6492 = = 0.1) kJ/kg = 207.

For a cycle that involves heat transfer only with a source at TH and a sink at T0. you are using it without permission. where ηth is efficiency of the Rankine cycle and ηth. the irreversibility becomes ⎛q ⎛q q ⎞ T T xdestroyed = T0 ⎜ out − in ⎟ = qout − 0 qin = qin ⎜ out − 0 ⎜q ⎜ T ⎟ TH ⎝ in TH ⎝ 0 TH ⎠ = qin (1 − ηth ) − 1 − ηth. .Carnot − η th . Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Carnot is ( ) the efficiency of the Carnot cycle operating between the same temperature limits.127 10-114 It is to be shown that the exergy destruction associated with a simple ideal Rankine cycle can be expressed as x destroyed = q in η th.C − ηth ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ [ ( )] ( ) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Analysis The exergy destruction associated with a cycle is given on a unit mass basis as x destroyed = T0 ∑T qR R where the direction of qin is determined with respect to the reservoir (positive if to the reservoir and negative if from the reservoir).C = qin ηth.

8 kJ/kg & mlow turb = & W turb.II wturb.128 10-115 A cogeneration plant is to produce power and process heat.799 kg/s = 107.1 kJ/kg 4 4 5 5 s and wturb.6 kJ/kg x5s = s 4s − s f = 6.4 MPa ⎫ h4 = h g @ 1.7758)(2392.47 kg/s h3 = wturb.9 − 2344. pressure.75) = 2770. you are using it without permission.6 ) = 2344. .4675 − 0.1 = 444.0 kJ/kg ⎫ P3 = 2 MPa ⎬ s 3 = 6. and mass flow rate of steam at the inlet of high-pressure turbine are to be determined.4 MPa ⎫ x 4 s = h fg 1958.96 = = 0.0 − 2788.8 kJ/kg h4 s − h f 2770.60 )(2788.1840) = 6. vapor g @ 1.2835 + (0.81 + (0.0 − (2843.4289 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ T3 = 227.4289 kJ/kg ⋅ K Then from the tables or the software. I & m high.high + h4 = 54. A-5. Inc.low = 800 kJ/s = 1.4675 kJ/kg ⋅ K ⎭ 4 s fg P5 = 10 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h5 s = h f + x5 s h fg s5s = s 4 ⎭ = 191.15 kJ/kg = h3 − h4 18.9 kJ/kg ⎬s = s sat.low = h4 − h5 = 2788.9 ) / (0.15 + 2788.9 kg/min 444. & m total = 1000 + 108 = 1108 kg/min = 18. If you are a student using this Manual. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.4 MPa = 6.5°C PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.0 kJ/kg ηT = h3 − h4 ⎯ ⎯→ h4 s = h3 − (h3 − h4 ) / ηT h3 − h4 s = 2843.8 kJ/kg Therefore .7758 7.8 − 829. There are two turbines in the cycle: a high-pressure turbine and a low-pressure turbine.47 kg/s wturb. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.9 − 2047.4 MPa = 2788. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.high = & Wturb. The temperature.9 = 2843.9 ⎬ s 4s = s3 ⎭ s 4 s = s f + x 4 s s fg = 2.9908)(4.4996 T 3 2 1 ηT = h4 − h5 ⎯ ⎯→ h5 = h4 − ηT (h4 − h5 s ) h4 − h5 s = 2788. and A-6).6492 = 0.9908 P4 s = 1. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.9 − (0. turb = 1000 kJ/s = 54. P4 = 1. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. the turbine inlet temperature and pressure becomes h3 = 2843.1) = 2047.

in = 491.88 ⎝ ⎠ = 7. A-5. h1 = h f @ 20 kPa = 251. 2 Turbine 8 MPa · Qin 2 MPa 4 3 · Qprocess 5 · Qout 20 kPa 8s 8 6 7 1 s Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.21 kJ/kg ( ) h5 = h4 + w pII.129 10-116 A cogeneration plant is to generate power and process heat.001058 m3 /kg (8000 − 2000 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m3 ⎟ / 0. and the utilization factor of the plant are to be determined.02 kJ/kg P6 = 8 MPa ⎫ h6 = 3399.29 = 253. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. and A-6).21 = 499.in = 251. Part of the steam extracted from the turbine at a relatively high pressure is used for process heating. The rate of process heat.001058 m 3/kg w pII.71 kJ/kg h3 = h f @ 2 MPa = 908.4 kJ/kg s7 = s6 ⎭ PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Inc.001017 m 3 /kg (2000 − 20 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 2.81 kJ/kg = 0. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. T 6 Boiler 7 8 5 Process heater 3 P II 4 2 PI 1 Conden.in = v 4 (P5 − P4 ) / η p ⎛ 1 kJ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.81 kJ/kg v4 ≅ v f @ h f = 491.47 kJ/kg Mixing chamber: & & & m3 h3 + m 2 h2 = m 4 h4 (4 kg/s)(908.71 kJ/kg)) = (11 kg/s)h4 ⎯ ⎯→ h4 = 491.42 kJ/kg v1 = v f @ 20 kPa = 0.81 + 7.7266 kJ/kg ⋅ K P7 = 2 MPa ⎫ ⎬ h7 s = 3000.47 kJ/kg) + (11 − 4 kg/s)(253. If you are a student using this Manual. the net power produced. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.001017 m 3 /kg wpI.5 kJ/kg ⎬ T6 = 500°C ⎭ s 6 = 6. you are using it without permission.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) / η p ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.88 ⎟ ⎠ h2 = h1 + wpI. .29 kJ/kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ / 0.42 + 2.

If you are a student using this Manual.905 Qin PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.5 − 3048.5 − (0.5 − 2215.out = m 7 (h6 − h7 ) + m8 (h6 − h8 ) = (4 kg/s )(3399.4 ) = 3048.02 ) = 31.47 ) kJ/kg = 8559 kW (b) Cycle analysis: & & & WT.5 − 3000.5 kJ/kg s8 = s 6 ⎭ ηT = Then. Inc.5 − (0.5 − 2357.3)kJ/kg + (7 kg/s )(3399.5 − 499.3 kJ/kg h6 − h7 s P8 = 20 kPa ⎫ ⎬ h8 s = 2215.88)(3399.905 kW and εu = & & W net + Q process 8603 + 8559 = = 0.130 ηT = h6 − h7 ⎯ ⎯→ h7 = h6 − η T (h6 − h7 s ) = 3399.538 = 53.8% & 31.3 − 908.6)kJ/kg = 8698 kW & & & Wp.in = m1 wpI.in = 8698 − 95 = 8603 kW (c) Then. out − W p.29 kJ/kg ) + (11 kg/s )(7.in + m 4 wpII. . h6 − h8 ⎯ ⎯→ h8 = h6 − η T (h6 − h8 s ) = 3399.5) = 2357. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.88)(3399. & & Qin = m5 (h6 − h5 ) = (11 kg/s )(3399.21 kJ/kg ) = 95 kW & & & Wnet = WT. you are using it without permission. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.in = (7 kg/s )(2.6 kJ/kg h6 − h8 s & & Qprocess = m7 (h7 − h3 ) = (4 kg/s )(3048.

09542 = h10 − h12 3154 − 532 The heat input in the boiler is q in = (h6 − h5 ) + (1 − y )(h9 − h8 ) = (3894 − 834.in = v 1 (P5 − P4 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0. Inc. . 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.14 kJ/kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 11 h5 = h4 + wpII.2 MPa 8 3 2 1 12 245 kPa 20 kPa 13 v4 =v f wpII. y= h4 − h3 830 − 532 = = 0.1 kJ/kg s Also.4 MPa 4 1.1) + (1 − 0. Solving for y. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.41 = 252.in = 830 + 4.14 = 834.00102 m /kg (1400 − 20 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 1. The net power output of the cycle and the minimum flow rate of the cooling water required are to be determined. Solving for z.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.8 kJ/kg 3 @ 1400 kPa @ 1400 kPa ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ T 5 MPa 6 9 10 h4 = h f = 830 kJ/kg = 0.4 + 1. you are using it without permission.8) = 0. If you are a student using this Manual. The T-s diagram for the ideal cycle is to be sketched.00102 m 3 /kg v1 = v f wpI. h3 = h12 = h f @ 245 kPa = 532 kJ/kg h13 = h12 (throttle valve operation) An energy balance on the open feedwater heater gives yh7 + (1 − y )h3 = 1(h4 ) where y is the fraction of steam extracted from the high-pressure turbine. and an open feedwater heater is considered.1039 h7 − h3 3400 − 532 An energy balance on the closed feedwater heater gives zh10 + (1 − y )h2 = (1 − y )h3 + zh12 where z is the fraction of steam extracted from the low-pressure turbine.00115 m /kg 3 5 7 1.in = 251.4 kJ/kg = 0.1039)(3692 − 3349) = 3367 kJ/kg The work output from the turbines is PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.1039)(532 − 252. Analysis (b) Using the data from the problem statement.131 10-117 A Rankine steam cycle modified for reheat. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.41 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wpI. the enthalpies at various states are h1 = h f @ 20 kPa @ 20 kPa = 251. a closed feedwater heater. z= (1 − y )( h3 − h2 ) (1 − 0.00115 m 3 /kg (5000 − 1400 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 4.

1039)(1. Inc.1 − 25) K PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.2 − Tw.1039)(3400) − (1 − 0. w (Tw.132 wT.09542)(2620) = 1449 kJ/kg The net work output from the cycle is wnet = wT.1039)(3349) + (1 − 0.1039)(251.1039 − 0.1 ) (4.4 MW (c) The heat rejected from the condenser is q out = (1 − y − z )h11 + zh13 − (1 − y )h1 = (1 − 0.18 kJ/kg ⋅ K)(60. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. w (Tw.400 kW = 144. 2 = T1 = Tsat @ 20 kPa = 60.in = 1449 − (1 − 0.out = h6 − yh7 − (1 − y )h8 + (1 − y )h9 − zh10 − (1 − y − z )h11 = 3894 − (0. Tw.41) − 4.1°C Then an energy balance on the condenser gives & & mq out = m w c p.1039)(3692) − (0.14 = 1444 kJ/kg The net power output is & & W net = mwnet = (100 kg/s)(1444 kJ/kg) = 144. That is. you are using it without permission.in − wPII. .1 ) & mw = & mq out (100 kg/s)(1923 kJ/kg) = = 1311 kg/s c p.09542)(2620) + (0.09542)(532) − (1 − 0.out − (1 − y ) wPI.09542)(3154) − (1 − 0.1039 − 0.2 − Tw. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.4) = 1923 kJ/kg The mass flow rate of cooling water will be minimum when the cooling water exit temperature is a maximum. If you are a student using this Manual.

in = v 16 (P17 − P16 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0. and thus there are three unknowns (y. .in = 191. Solving these equations using EES.05863)(747.6 kJ/kg The heat input in the boiler is q in = ( h7 − h6 ) + ( h9 − h8 ) = (3900 − 725.6) + (3687 − 3615) = 3246 kJ/kg PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.001073 m 3 /kg wpII. z. Analysis (b) Using the data from the problem statement. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.04 kJ/kg ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 1 19 13 h17 = h16 + wpII.4 kJ/kg 11 12 v 16 = v f @300 kPa = 0.06335 + 0. h3 = h18 = h f h4 = h16 = h f h5 = h14 = h f @ 75 kPa @ 300 kPa @ 925 kPa = 384. The net power output of the cycle and the flow rate of the cooling water required are to be determined.7 kJ/kg h15 = h14 (throttle valve operation) h19 = h18 (throttle valve operation) Energy balances on three closed feedwater heaters give yh10 + (1 − y − z )h4 = (1 − y − z )h5 + yh15 zh11 + (1 − y − z )h3 + yh15 = (1 − y − z )h4 + ( y + z )h16 wh12 + (1 − y − z )h2 = (1 − y − z )h3 + wh18 The enthalpies are known.in = v 1 (P2 − P1 ) ⎛ 1 kJ = 0.8 kJ/kg @ 300 kPa ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ T 7 8 17 6 14 5 4 3 16 18 15 9 10 h16 = h f = 561.001073 m 3 /kg (5000 − 300 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 5.8 kJ/kg = 0.4 kJ/kg s Also.001010 m 3 /kg (5000 − 10 kPa )⎜ ⎜ 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 ⎝ = 5.4 kJ/kg = 561.8 + 5.05863 w = 0.06335 − 0.06335 z = 0.07063 The enthalpy at state 6 may be determined from an energy balance on mixing chamber: h6 = (1 − y − z ) h5 + ( y + z ) h17 = (1 − 0. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.7) + (0.04 = 566. Inc.001010 m 3 /kg v1 = v f wpI.4) = 725. the enthalpies at various states are h1 = h f @ 10 kPa @ 10 kPa = 191.4 kJ/kg = 747. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.04 = 196. we obtain y = 0. The Ts diagram for the ideal cycle is to be sketched. If you are a student using this Manual.4 + 5.05863)(566.133 10-118 A Rankine steam cycle modified for reheat and three closed feedwater heaters is considered.04 kJ/kg h2 = h1 + wpI. w) and three equations. you are using it without permission.in = 561.

06335 − 0. you are using it without permission. If you are a student using this Manual.07063)(2716) − (1 − 0.07063)(2408) + (0.300 kW = 144.3 MW (c) The heat rejected from the condenser is q out = (1 − y − z − w) h13 + wh19 − (1 − y − z ) h1 = (1 − 0.05863)(5.04) − (0.06335)(3330) − (0.04) = 1443 kJ/kg The net power output is & & W net = mwnet = (100 kg/s)(1443 kJ/kg) = 144. w (Tw.06335 − 0.06335 + 0.07063)(2408) = 1448 kJ/kg The net work output from the cycle is wnet = wT.in − ( y + z ) wPII.05863)(5.8) = 1803 kJ/kg Then an energy balance on the condenser gives & & mq out = m w c p.2 − Tw.05863)(191.1 ) (4.05863 − 0. .06335 − 0. Inc. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.07063)(384.4) − (1 − 0.in = 1448 − (1 − 0.2 − Tw.18 kJ/kg ⋅ K)(10 K) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. w (Tw.06335 − 0.out − (1 − y − z ) wPI.05863 − 0.out = h7 − h8 + h9 − yh10 − zh11 − wh12 − (1 − y − z − w)h13 = 3900 − 3615 + 3687 − (0.134 The work output from the turbines is wT.1 ) & mw = & mq out (100 kg/s)(1803 kJ/kg) = = 4313 kg/s c p. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.05863)(3011) − (0.

P=P[1].h=h[4].P=P[1].P=P[3]) s[3]=entropy(Fluid$. . and the solution is given below.h=h[2]) T[2]=temperature(Fluid$.h=h[4].h=h[2]) "Turbine analysis" h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$.135 10-119 EES The effect of the condenser pressure on the performance a simple ideal Rankine cycle is to be investigated. you are using it without permission.P=P[2].P=P[4]) x[4]=quality(Fluid$.P=P[1].T=T[3].P=P[1].x=x[1]) T[1]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[4]) Ts[4]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[2]. Analysis The problem is solved using EES.0 "Turbine isentropic efficiency" Eta_p = 1.h=h[4]) s[4]=entropy(Fluid$.T=T[3]. function x4$(x4) "this function returns a string to indicate the state of steam at point 4" x4$='' if (x4>1) then x4$='(superheated)' if (x4<0) then x4$='(compressed)' end P[3] = 5000 [kPa] T[3] = 500 [C] "P[4] = 5 [kPa]" Eta_t = 1. Inc.P=P[3]) s_s[4]=s[3] hs[4]=enthalpy(Fluid$.x=x[1]) v[1]=volume(Fluid$. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.s=s_s[4]. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.P=P[4]) Eta_t=(h[3]-h[4])/(h[3]-hs[4])"Definition of turbine efficiency" T[4]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[4].x=x[1]) W_p_s=v[1]*(P[2]-P[1])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" W_p=W_p_s/Eta_p h[2]=h[1]+W_p "SSSF First Law for the pump" s[2]=entropy(Fluid$.s=s_s[4].x=x[1]) s[1]=entropy(Fluid$. If you are a student using this Manual.P=P[4]) h[3] =W_t+h[4]"SSSF First Law for the turbine" x4s$=x4$(x[4]) "Boiler analysis" Q_in + h[2]=h[3]"SSSF First Law for the Boiler" "Condenser analysis" h[4]=Q_out+h[1]"SSSF First Law for the Condenser" "Cycle Statistics" W_net=W_t-W_p Eta_th=W_net/Q_in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.0 "Pump isentropic efficiency" "Pump analysis" Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' P[1] = P[4] P[2]=P[3] x[1]=0 "Sat'd liquid" h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$.

9096 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual.9235 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 922.8905 0.9371 Qin [kJ/kg] 3292 3204 3158 3125 3100 3079 3061 3045 3031 3012 Qout [kJ/kg] 1990 2036 2057 2072 2082 2091 2098 2104 2109 2116 Steam 700 600 500 3 T [°C] 400 300 5000 kPa 200 2 100 1 0 0 2 5 kPa 4 6 8 10 12 4 s [kJ/kg-K] 1 40 0 1 30 0 1 20 0 W net [kJ/kg] 1 10 0 1 00 0 90 0 80 0 0 20 40 60 80 1 00 P [4 ] [k P a ] PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.8581 0.3484 0. .8212 0.3956 0. Inc.1 896.3092 0.3147 0.5 x4 0.9293 0.3371 0.3042 0.3283 0.3646 0.136 ηth 0.2 941. you are using it without permission.3 963.2976 P4 [kPa] 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 100 Wnet [kJ/kg] 1302 1168 1100 1054 1018 988.917 0.8772 0.9009 0.321 0.

88 0.84 0.94 0.28 0 20 40 60 80 100 P[4] [kPa] 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.34 η th 0.38 0.82 0 20 40 60 80 100 P[4] [kPa] PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.86 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.4 0.9 x[4] 0.137 0. you are using it without permission. .32 0. If you are a student using this Manual. Inc.3 0.36 0.92 0.

Analysis The problem is solved using EES.x=x[1]) W_p_s=v[1]*(P[2]-P[1])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" W_p=W_p_s/Eta_p h[2]=h[1]+W_p "SSSF First Law for the pump" s[2]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[3]) s[3]=entropy(Fluid$.T=T[3]. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.P=P[1].P=P[1].P=P[2].P=P[4]) Eta_t=(h[3]-h[4])/(h[3]-hs[4])"Definition of turbine efficiency" T[4]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[4]) Ts[4]=temperature(Fluid$. function x4$(x4) "this function returns a string to indicate the state of steam at point 4" x4$='' if (x4>1) then x4$='(superheated)' if (x4<0) then x4$='(compressed)' end P[3] = 3000 [kPa] {T[3] = 600 [C]} P[4] = 10 [kPa] Eta_t = 1.h=h[4]) s[4]=entropy(Fluid$.138 10-120 EES The effect of superheating the steam on the performance a simple ideal Rankine cycle is to be investigated.x=x[1]) T[1]=temperature(Fluid$.0 "Pump isentropic efficiency" "Pump analysis" Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' P[1] = P[4] P[2]=P[3] x[1]=0 "Sat'd liquid" h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$. . © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. If you are a student using this Manual.P=P[1]. Inc. and the solution is given below.0 "Turbine isentropic efficiency" Eta_p = 1.P=P[4]) h[3] =W_t+h[4]"SSSF First Law for the turbine" x4s$=x4$(x[4]) "Boiler analysis" Q_in + h[2]=h[3]"SSSF First Law for the Boiler" "Condenser analysis" h[4]=Q_out+h[1]"SSSF First Law for the Condenser" "Cycle Statistics" W_net=W_t-W_p Eta_th=W_net/Q_in PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.h=h[2]) "Turbine analysis" h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P[4]) x[4]=quality(Fluid$.x=x[1]) v[1]=volume(Fluid$.h=h[2]) T[2]=temperature(Fluid$.s=s_s[4].P=P[3]) s_s[4]=s[3] hs[4]=enthalpy(Fluid$.T=T[3].x=x[1]) s[1]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[1]. you are using it without permission.h=h[4].P=P[4].P=P[2].h=h[4].s=s_s[4].

6 1083 1206 1340 1485 1639 1803 1970 2139 x4 0.3466 0.34 0.955 0.8 722.8909 0.1 1006 1100 ηth 0. you are using it without permission. If you are a student using this Manual.4272 0.3614 0.38 0.9835 100 100 100 700 600 3 500 T [°C] 400 300 3000 kPa 200 2 100 1 10 kPa 4 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 s [kJ/kg-K] 0.7 911.752 0.8 970.139 Steam T3 [C] 250 344.42 0.36 0.4 438.4106 0.456 Wnet [kJ/kg] 862.3241 0.2 816.4424 0.46 0.3338 0.81 0.3 627.3774 0.32 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 T[3] [C] 2250 1950 W net [kJ/kg] 1650 1350 1050 750 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 T[3] [C] PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.9 533. Inc.3939 0.44 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. . © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.9244 0.4 η th 0.8536 0.

If you are a student using this Manual.h[4]. you are using it without permission. function x6$(x6) "this function returns a string to indicate the state of steam at point 6" x6$='' if (x6>1) then x6$='(superheated)' if (x6<0) then x6$='(subcooled)' end Procedure Reheat(P[3].T=T5.NoRHStages. Analysis The problem is solved using EES. and the solution is given below.h6) P3=P[3] T5=T[5] h4=h[4] Q_in_reheat =0 W_t_lp = 0 R_P=(1/Pratio)^(1/(NoRHStages+1)) imax:=NoRHStages .T[5].P=P6) "Eta_t=(h5-h6)/(h5-hs6)""Definition of turbine efficiency" h6=h5-Eta_t*(h5-hs6) W_t_lp=W_t_lp+h5-h6"SSSF First Law for the low pressure turbine" x6=QUALITY(Fluid$.s=s_s6.T=T5.0 "Turbine isentropic efficiency" Eta_p = 1.0 "Pump isentropic efficiency" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.s=s_s6.Eta_t:Q_in_reheat. .T[3].h4) P3=P4 UNTIL (i>imax) END "NoRHStages = 2" P[6] = 10"kPa" P[3] = 15000"kPa" P_extract = P[6] "Select a lower limit on the reheat pressure" T[3] = 500"C" T[5] = 500"C" Eta_t = 1.140 10-121 EES The effect of number of reheat stages on the performance an ideal Rankine cycle is to be investigated.P=P6) vs6=volume(Fluid$. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.P=P6) Ts6=temperature(Fluid$.h=h6.1 i:=0 REPEAT i:=i+1 P4 = P3*R_P P5=P4 P6=P5*R_P Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' s5=entropy(Fluid$.W_t_lp.P=P5) s_s6=s5 hs6=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P5) h5=enthalpy(Fluid$. Inc.s=s_s6.Pratio.P=P6) Q_in_reheat =Q_in_reheat + (h5 .

P=P[6]) vs[6]=volume(Fluid$.P=P[6]) W_t_lp_total = NoRHStages*W_t_lp Q_in_reheat = NoRHStages*(h[5] .h=h[4].P=P[1].s=s_s[6].h=h[2]) "High Pressure Turbine analysis" h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.T=T[3].P=P[3]) v[3]=volume(Fluid$.Pratio.s=s_s[4].h[4])} "Boiler analysis" Q_in_boiler + h[2]=h[3]"SSSF First Law for the Boiler" Q_in = Q_in_boiler+Q_in_reheat "Condenser analysis" h[6]=Q_out+h[1]"SSSF First Law for the Condenser" T[6]=temperature(Fluid$.x=x[1]) v[1]=volume(Fluid$.x=x[1]) W_p_s=v[1]*(P[2]-P[1])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" W_p=W_p_s/Eta_p h[2]=h[1]+W_p "SSSF First Law for the pump" v[2]=volume(Fluid$.T=T[5].P=P[4]) h[3] =W_t_hp+h[4]"SSSF First Law for the high pressure turbine" "Low Pressure Turbine analysis" Call Reheat(P[3].P=P[2].P=P[6]) s[6]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[2].P=P[4]) v[4]=volume(Fluid$. .h=h[2]) s[2]=entropy(Fluid$.T=T[3].P=P[4].h=h[4]) s[4]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[5]) h[5]=enthalpy(Fluid$. you are using it without permission.P=P[4]) Ts[4]=temperature(Fluid$.x=x[1]) s[1]=entropy(Fluid$.h6) h[6]=h6 {P[5]=P[4] s[5]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[6]) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.T=T[5].W_t_lp.h=h[6].s=s_s[6].NoRHStages.h=h[6].T=T[3].s=s[4]. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.h[4].s=s_s[4].P=P[4]) Eta_t=(h[3]-h[4])/(h[3]-hs[4])"Definition of turbine efficiency" T[4]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[1].P=P[6]) Ts[6]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[3]) s[3]=entropy(Fluid$.Eta_t:Q_in_reheat.T[3].h=h[6]. If you are a student using this Manual.P=P[5]) s_s[6]=s[5] hs[6]=enthalpy(Fluid$.T[5].P=P[6]) Eta_t=(h[5]-h[6])/(h[5]-hs[6])"Definition of turbine efficiency" h[5]=W_t_lp+h[6]"SSSF First Law for the low pressure turbine" x[6]=QUALITY(Fluid$.P=P[2].P=P[3]) s_s[4]=s[3] hs[4]=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P[1]. Inc.141 Pratio = P[3]/P_extract P[4] = P[3]*(1/Pratio)^(1/(NoRHStages+1))"kPa" Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' "Pump analysis" P[1] = P[6] P[2]=P[3] x[1]=0 "Sat'd liquid" h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$.x=x[1]) T[1]=temperature(Fluid$.s=s_s[6].P=P[1].h=h[2]) T[2]=temperature(Fluid$.

4 ηth 0. If you are a student using this Manual.39 0. .P=P[6]) x6s$=x6$(x[6]) "Cycle Statistics" W_net=W_t_hp+W_t_lp .3779 0. you are using it without permission.41 0.3546 NoRH Stages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Qin [kJ/kg] 4085 4628 5020 5333 5600 5838 6058 6264 6461 6651 Wnet [kJ/kg] 1674 1908 2051 2143 2207 2253 2289 2317 2340 2358 2400 2300 2200 W net [kJ/kg] 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 NoRHStages 0.386 0.3941 0.3621 0.37 0.4018 0.4122 0.38 0.3699 0.W_p Eta_th=W_net/Q_in ηth 0.36 0.142 x[6]=QUALITY(Fluid$.h=h[6].4085 0. Inc.35 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 NoRHStages 7000 6500 6000 Q in [kJ/kg] 5500 5000 4500 4000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 NoRHStages PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.42 0.4097 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

T[5].P=P_cond.143 10-122 EES The effect of number of regeneration stages on the performance an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with one open feedwater heater is to be investigated. and q_in for zero feedwater heaters. Analysis The problem is solved using EES.x=0)"[kPa]" P3[i]=P_extract[i] P6[i]=P_extract[i] If i > 1 then P4[i] = P6[i .P=P3[i].x=0) P[7] = P_cond s[5]=entropy(Fluid$. s=s[5]. T=T[5]." T_FWH[i] = (NoFWH +1 .Eta_turb.x=0) v3[i]=volume(Fluid$.Eta_pump:q_in. P=P[5]) h[5]=enthalpy(Fluid$. P=P[7]. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.x=0)*(P[5] . Procedure Reheat(NoFwh. If you are a student using this Manual. P=P[7]. h2.P=P[7]) h2=h[1]+volume(Fluid$.P[5].x=0) w_pump2_s=v3[i]*(P4[i]-P3[i])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" w_pump2[i]=w_pump2_s/Eta_pump "Definition of pump efficiency" h4[i]= w_pump2[i] +h3[i] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" s4[i]=entropy(Fluid$.w_net) Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' Tcond = temperature(Fluid$.P=P3[i].h=h4[i]) PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.x=0)*(P4[NoFWH+1] .P=P4[i].Tcond If NoFWH = 0 Then "the following are h7. you are using it without permission.h=h4[i]) T4[i]=temperature(Fluid$.T=T_FWH[i].P_cond.x=0) P4[1] = P[5] "NOTICE THIS IS P4[i] WITH i = 1" DELTAT_cond_boiler = Tboiler . .i)*DELTAT_cond_boiler/(NoFWH + 1)+Tcond"[C]" P_extract[i] = pressure(Fluid$.1] UNTIL i=NoFWH P4[NoFWH+1]=P6[NoFWH] h4[NoFWH+1]=h[1]+volume(Fluid$.P[7])/Eta_pump i=0 REPEAT i=i+1 "Boiler condensate pump or the Pumps 2 between feedwater heaters analysis" h3[i]=enthalpy(Fluid$.x=0) Tboiler = temperature(Fluid$. and the solution is given below.P=P[5].h2 else i=0 REPEAT i=i+1 "The following maintains the same temperature difference between any two regeneration stages. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.P[7])/Eta_pump w_net = Eta_turb*(h[5]-h7)-(h2-h[1]) q_in = h[5] . P=P[5]) h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$. w_net. NoFWH = 0" h7=enthalpy(Fluid$. T=T[5]. Inc. P=P[7].P=P4[i].

P=P6[i]) h6[i]=h[5]-Eta_turb*(h[5]-hs6[i])"Definition of turbine efficiency for high pressure stages" If i=1 then y[1]=(h3[1] .h=h[7]) s[7]=entropy(Fluid$. .h=h6[i]) s6[i]=entropy(Fluid$.x=0) "Condensate leaves heater as sat.h=h[7]) sumyi = 0 sumyh6i = 0 wp2i = W_pump2[1] i=0 REPEAT i=i+1 sumyi = sumyi + y[i] sumyh6i = sumyh6i + yh6[i] If NoFWH > 1 then wp2i = wp2i + (1.x=0) s[1]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[7].P=P[1].s=ss6[i].h4[2])/(h6[1] . © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.x=0) "Turbine analysis" T6[i]=temperature(Fluid$.144 Until i = NoFWH i=0 REPEAT i=i+1 "Open Feedwater Heater analysis:" {h2[i] = h6[i]} s5[i] = s[5] ss6[i]=s5[i] hs6[i]=enthalpy(Fluid$. you are using it without permission.h=h6[i]) yh6[i] = y[i]*h6[i] UNTIL i=NoFWH ss[7]=s6[i] hs[7]=enthalpy(Fluid$.h4[i+1]) ENDIF T3[i]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P6[i]) Ts6[i]=temperature(Fluid$.sumyi)*W_pump2[i] UNTIL i = NoFWH "Condenser Pump---Pump_1 Analysis:" P[2] = P6 [ NoFWH] P[1] = P_cond h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$. If you are a student using this Manual.P=P[1].x=0) {Sat'd liquid} v1=volume(Fluid$.h4[2]) "Steady-flow conservation of energy for the FWH" If i > 1 then js = i -1 j=0 sumyj = 0 REPEAT j = j+1 sumyj = sumyj + y[ j ] UNTIL j = js y[i] =(1.s=ss6[i].P=P3[i].P=P3[i]. liquid at P[3]" s3[i]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P6[i]. Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.sumyj)*(h3[i] .x=0) w_pump1_s=v1*(P[2]-P[1])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.P=P6[i].s=ss[7].P=P[1].P=P[7].h4[i+1])/(h6[i] .P=P[7]) Ts[7]=temperature(Fluid$.x=0) T[1]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[1].s=ss[7].P=P[7]) h[7]=h6[i]-Eta_turb*(h6[i]-hs[7])"Definition of turbine efficiency for low pressure stages" T[7]=temperature(Fluid$.

P=P[2]. If you are a student using this Manual.4902 0.h=h[2]) "Boiler analysis" q_in = h[5] .Eta_turb.((1.P[5].T[5].5141 0.5123 0.145 w_pump1=w_pump1_s/Eta_pump "Definition of pump efficiency" h[2]=w_pump1+ h[1] "Steady-flow conservation of energy" s[2]=entropy(Fluid$.h4[1]"SSSF conservation of energy for the Boiler" w_turb = h[5] .h=h[2]) T[2]=temperature(Fluid$.4806 0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. .4983 0.w_net) Eta_th=w_net/q_in No FWH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ηth 0.5155 0.0 "Pump isentropic efficiency" P[1] = P_cond P[4] = P[5] "Condenser exit pump or Pump 1 analysis" Call Reheat(NoFwh.sumyi)*h[7] "SSSF conservation of energy for turbine" "Condenser analysis" q_out=(1.4466 0.(1.P=P[2].5167 wnet [kJ/kg] 1532 1332 1243 1202 1175 1157 1143 1132 1124 1117 1111 qin [kJ/kg] 3430 2771 2536 2411 2333 2280 2240 2210 2186 2167 2151 Steam 700 600 500 5 T [°C] 400 300 4 200 6000 kPa 2 100 3 1 6 400 kPa 10 kPa 7 6 8 10 12 0 0 2 4 s [kJ/kg-K] PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.sumyi)*w_pump1+ wp2i) endif END "Input Data" NoFWH = 2 P[5] = 15000 [kPa] T[5] = 600 [C] P_cond=5 [kPa] Eta_turb= 1.P_cond.5101 0.sumyh6i .sumyi)*(h[7] . © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.h[1])"SSSF First Law for the Condenser" "Cycle Statistics" w_net=w_turb . Inc.Eta_pump:q_in. you are using it without permission.0 "Turbine isentropic efficiency" Eta_pump = 1.5073 0.5036 0.

Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. .146 0.44 0 2 4 6 8 10 NoFw h 1550 1500 1450 w net [kJ/kg] 1400 1350 1300 1250 1200 1150 1100 0 2 4 6 8 10 NoFw h 3600 3400 3200 q in [kJ/kg] 3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 0 2 4 6 8 10 NoFw h PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.52 0.45 0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.51 0. Inc.49 0.48 η th 0.5 0. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission.47 0.46 0.

P=P2)+273 q_in=h_fg Eta_Carnot=1-T2/T1 w_net=Eta_Carnot*q_in "Some Wrong Solutions with Common Mistakes:" W1_work = Eta1*q_in. Eta2=1-(T2-273)/(T1-273) "Using C instead of K" W3_work = Eta_Carnot*ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS.P=P2)ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. q2=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.x=1.x=0.147 Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Problems 10-123 Consider a steady-flow Carnot cycle with water as the working fluid executed under the saturation dome between the pressure limits of 8 MPa and 20 kPa.x=1. P1=8000 "kPa" P2=20 "kPa" h_fg=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.P=P1) T1=TEMPERATURE(Steam_IAPWS.x=0. you are using it without permission.x=0.P=P2) "Using h_fg at P2" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.x=0.P=P1)-ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. . Solutions can be verified by copying-and-pasting the following lines on a blank EES screen. Eta1=T2/T1 "Taking Carnot efficiency to be T2/T1" W2_work = Eta2*q_in. Water changes from saturated liquid to saturated vapor during the heat addition process.P=P1) "Using h_g instead of h_fg" W4_work = Eta_Carnot*q2. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual. The net work output of this cycle is (a) 494 kJ/kg (b) 975 kJ/kg (c) 596 kJ/kg (d) 845 kJ/kg (e) 1148 kJ/kg Answer (c) 596 kJ/kg Solution Solved by EES Software.P=P1)+273 T2=TEMPERATURE(Steam_IAPWS. (Similar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical values).x=1.

P=P4) q_in=h3-h2 q_out=h4-h1 Eta_th=1-q_out/q_in "Some Wrong Solutions with Common Mistakes:" W1_Eff = q_out/q_in "Using wrong relation" W2_Eff = 1-(h44-h1)/(h3-h2). If you are a student using this Manual.x=0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.P=P1) "Using Carnot efficiency" W4_Eff = (h3-h4)/q_in "Disregarding pump work" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.P=P3) s3=ENTROPY(Steam_IAPWS. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.P=P4) "Using h_g for h4" W3_Eff = 1-(T1+273)/(T3+273).T=T3.T=T3. Solutions can be verified by copying-and-pasting the following lines on a blank EES screen.x=0. with a turbine inlet temperature of 600°C. P1=10 "kPa" P2=3000 "kPa" P3=P2 P4=P1 T3=600 "C" s4=s3 h1=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. T1=TEMPERATURE(Steam_IAPWS. Disregarding the pump work.P=P1) v1=VOLUME(Steam_IAPWS.P=P3) h4=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS.x=1.x=0.P=P1) w_pump=v1*(P2-P1) "kJ/kg" h2=h1+w_pump h3=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. . (Similar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical values).148 10-124 A simple ideal Rankine cycle operates between the pressure limits of 10 kPa and 3 MPa. Inc. h44 = ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. the cycle efficiency is (a) 24% (b) 37% (c) 52% (d) 63% (e) 71% Answer (b) 37% Solution Solved by EES Software.s=s4. you are using it without permission.

with a turbine inlet temperature of 600°C.T=T3. The mass fraction of steam that condenses at the turbine exit is (a) 6% (b) 9% (c) 12% (d) 15% (e) 18% Answer (c) 12% Solution Solved by EES Software.T=T3. Inc.P=P4) moisture=1-x4 "Some Wrong Solutions with Common Mistakes:" W1_moisture = x4 "Taking quality as moisture" W2_moisture = 0 "Assuming superheated vapor" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission.s=s4.P=P3) s3=ENTROPY(Steam_IAPWS. Solutions can be verified by copying-and-pasting the following lines on a blank EES screen. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.P=P4) x4=QUALITY(Steam_IAPWS. .s=s4. (Similar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical values). P1=10 "kPa" P2=5000 "kPa" P3=P2 P4=P1 T3=600 "C" s4=s3 h3=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS.149 10-125 A simple ideal Rankine cycle operates between the pressure limits of 10 kPa and 5 MPa. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.P=P3) h4=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. If you are a student using this Manual.

x=0.T=T3. The rate of heat transfer in the boiler is 800 kJ/s.x=1. If you are a student using this Manual.x=0.P=P1) h2=h1 "pump work is neglected" "v1=VOLUME(Steam_IAPWS. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.s=s4. (Similar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical values). Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. h44 = ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS.P=P1) w_pump=v1*(P2-P1) h2=h1+w_pump" h3=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. Inc. the power output of this plant is (a) 243 kW (b) 284 kW (c) 508 kW (d) 335 kW (e) 800 kW Answer (d) 335 kW Solution Solved by EES Software.T=T3.x=0. with a turbine inlet temperature of 600°C. you are using it without permission. P1=10 "kPa" P2=10000 "kPa" P3=P2 P4=P1 T3=600 "C" s4=s3 Q_rate=800 "kJ/s" m=Q_rate/q_in h1=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. Solutions can be verified by copying-and-pasting the following lines on a blank EES screen.P=P3) h4=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. Disregarding the pump work. T1=TEMPERATURE(Steam_IAPWS.150 10-126 A steam power plant operates on the simple ideal Rankine cycle between the pressure limits of 10 kPa and 10 MPa.P=P1) "Using Carnot efficiency" W4_power = m*(h3-h44).P=P3) s3=ENTROPY(Steam_IAPWS.P=P4) q_in=h3-h2 W_turb=m*(h3-h4) "Some Wrong Solutions with Common Mistakes:" W1_power = Q_rate "Assuming all heat is converted to power" W3_power = Q_rate*Carnot. Carnot = 1-(T1+273)/(T3+273). .P=P4) "Taking h4=h_g" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.

P=P1) "Taking h1=hf@P1" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the mass flow rate of water through the heat exchanger becomes (a) 11 kg/s (b) 24 kg/s (c) 46 kg/s (d) 53 kg/s (e) 60 kg/s Answer (a) 11 kg/s Solution Solved by EES Software.718 "Using Cv for air instead of Cp" W3_msteam = m_gas "Taking the mass flow rates of two fluids to be equal" m_gas*Cp*(T3 -T4)=W4_msteam*(h2-h11). you are using it without permission. Water enters the heat exchanger at 200°C and 8 MPa and leaves at 350°C and 8 MPa.T=T1.151 10-127 Consider a combined gas-steam power plant. (Similar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical values). Cv=0.x=0.005 "kJ/kg. Solutions can be verified by copying-and-pasting the following lines on a blank EES screen. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual. If the exhaust gases are treated as air with constant specific heats at room temperature.P=P1) h2=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. Water for the steam cycle is heated in a well-insulated heat exchanger by the exhaust gases that enter at 800 K at a rate of 60 kg/s and leave at 400 K. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.18*(T2-T1) "Assuming no evaporation of liquid water" m_gas*Cv*(T3 -T4)=W2_msteam*(h2-h1). . m_gas=60 "kg/s" Cp=1. h11=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. Inc.K" T3=800 "K" T4=400 "K" Q_gas=m_gas*Cp*(T3-T4) P1=8000 "kPa" T1=200 "C" P2=8000 "kPa" T2=350 "C" h1=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS.P=P2) Q_steam=m_steam*(h2-h1) Q_gas=Q_steam "Some Wrong Solutions with Common Mistakes:" m_gas*Cp*(T3 -T4)=W1_msteam*4.T=T2.

P1=10 "kPa" P2=8000 "kPa" P3=P2 P4=4000 "kPa" P5=P4 P6=P1 T3=500 "C" T5=500 "C" s4=s3 s6=s5 h1=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. . (Similar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical values).T=T5. the cycle efficiency is (a) 29% (b) 32% (c) 36% (d) 41% (e) 49% Answer (d) 41% Solution Solved by EES Software.P=P5) h6=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS.T=T3.s=s4.152 10-128 An ideal reheat Rankine cycle operates between the pressure limits of 10 kPa and 8 MPa.x=0.x=0.T=T5. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.P=P1) h2=h1 h44=3185 "kJ/kg . © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.P=P3) s3=ENTROPY(Steam_IAPWS. and 2247 kJ/kg at the exit of the low-pressure turbine. Disregarding the pump work. and the enthalpy of steam is 3185 kJ/kg at the exit of the high-pressure turbine.for checking given data" h3=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS.P=P1) "Using Carnot efficiency" W4_Eff = 1-q_out/(h5-h2) "Using wrong relation for q_in" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.P=P4) h5=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. you are using it without permission.for checking given data" h66=2247 "kJ/kg .P=P5) s5=ENTROPY(Steam_IAPWS. with reheat occurring at 4 MPa.P=P6) q_in=(h3-h2)+(h5-h4) q_out=h6-h1 Eta_th=1-q_out/q_in "Some Wrong Solutions with Common Mistakes:" W1_Eff = q_out/q_in "Using wrong relation" W2_Eff = 1-q_out/(h3-h2) "Disregarding heat input during reheat" W3_Eff = 1-(T1+273)/(T3+273).T=T3. Solutions can be verified by copying-and-pasting the following lines on a blank EES screen. T1=TEMPERATURE(Steam_IAPWS. Inc. If you are a student using this Manual. The temperature of steam at the inlets of both turbines is 500°C.s=s6.P=P3) h4=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS.

P=P3) "Energy balance on the FWH" h3=x_ext*h_extracted+(1-x_ext)*h_feed "Some Wrong Solutions with Common Mistakes:" W1_ext = h_feed/h_extracted "Using wrong relation" W2_ext = h3/(h_extracted-h_feed) "Using wrong relation" W3_ext = h_feed/(h_extracted-h_feed) "Using wrong relation" 10-130 Consider a steam power plant that operates on the regenerative Rankine cycle with one open feedwater heater. Solutions can be verified by copying-and-pasting the following lines on a blank EES screen. 2797 kJ/kg at the location of bleeding. and the fraction of steam bled off the turbine for regeneration is 0. h_in=3374 "kJ/kg" h_out=2346 "kJ/kg" h_extracted=2797 "kJ/kg" Wnet_out=120000 "kW" x_bleed=0.153 10-129 Pressurized feedwater in a steam power plant is to be heated in an ideal open feedwater heater that operates at a pressure of 0. Inc.172. The net power output of the plant is 120 MW. (Similar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical values). If the enthalpy of feedwater is 252 kJ/kg and the enthalpy of extracted steam is 2665 kJ/kg. If the pump work is negligible. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.172 w_turb=(h_in-h_extracted)+(1-x_bleed)*(h_extracted-h_out) m=Wnet_out/w_turb "Some Wrong Solutions with Common Mistakes:" W1_mass = Wnet_out/(h_in-h_out) "Disregarding extraction of steam" W2_mass = Wnet_out/(x_bleed*(h_in-h_out)) "Assuming steam is extracted at trubine inlet" W3_mass = Wnet_out/(h_in-h_out-x_bleed*h_extracted) "Using wrong relation" PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.5 MPa with steam extracted from the turbine. the mass flow rate of steam at the turbine inlet is (a) 117 kg/s (b) 126 kg/s (c) 219 kg/s (d) 288 kg/s (e) 679 kg/s Answer (b) 126 kg/s Solution Solved by EES Software. the mass fraction of steam extracted from the turbine is (a) 4% (b) 10% (c) 16% (d) 27% (e) 12% Answer (c) 16% Solution Solved by EES Software.x=0. you are using it without permission. . (Similar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical values). and 2346 kJ/kg at the turbine exit. If you are a student using this Manual. h_feed=252 "kJ/kg" h_extracted=2665 "kJ/kg" P3=500 "kPa" h3=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. Solutions can be verified by copying-and-pasting the following lines on a blank EES screen. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. The enthalpy of the steam is 3374 kJ/kg at the turbine inlet.

(c) the pump work input will decrease. (b) the amount of heat rejected will increase. (d) the quality of steam at turbine exit will decrease. If you are a student using this Manual. 10-132 Consider a simple ideal Rankine cycle with fixed boiler and condenser pressures. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. (select the correct statement per unit mass of steam flowing through the boiler) (a) the turbine work output will decrease. 10-134 Consider a simple ideal Rankine cycle with fixed boiler and condenser pressures . (c) the cycle efficiency will decrease. If the condenser pressure is lowered while keeping turbine inlet state the same. (b) the amount of heat rejected will decrease. (c) the cycle thermal efficiency will decrease. (e) the amount of heat input will decrease.154 10-131 Consider a simple ideal Rankine cycle. (select the correct statement) (a) the turbine work output will decrease. Answer (a) the turbine work output will decrease. Answer (d) the moisture content at turbine exit will decrease. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Answer (d) the moisture content at turbine exit will decrease. . (b) the amount of heat rejected will decrease. If the cycle is modified with reheating. (select the correct statement) (a) the turbine work output will decrease. 10-133 Consider a simple ideal Rankine cycle with fixed boiler and condenser pressures . you are using it without permission. (d) the moisture content at turbine exit will decrease. Inc. (e) the amount of heat input will decrease. Answer (b) the amount of heat rejected will decrease. (e) the pump work input will decrease. (select the correct statement) (a) the turbine work output will decrease. (d) the moisture content at turbine exit will decrease. (c) the cycle efficiency will decrease. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. (d) the moisture content at turbine exit will decrease. (e) the amount of heat input will increase. (b) the amount of heat rejected will decrease. If the steam is superheated to a higher temperature. If the cycle is modified with regeneration that involves one open feed water heater.

At this pressure.8 1.155 10-135 Consider a cogeneration power plant modified with regeneration.0 MW (e) 3.6 h11 = 2128.73 h6 = 3302. The temperature rise of the cooling water from the river in the condenser is (a) 8.4 kg/s 4.6 kg/s (b) 3. and the remainder expands to a pressure of 10 kPa.81 h2 = 192. Part of the extracted steam is used to heat feedwater in an open feedwater heater. The total power output of the turbine is (a) 17. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 60% of the steam is extracted from the turbine. If you are a student using this Manual. The rest of the extracted steam is used for process heating and leaves the process heater as a saturated liquid at 0. The steam in the condenser is cooled and condensed by the cooling water from a nearby river.6 kg/s (e) 10. and the mixture is pumped to the boiler pressure.0 MW (b) 8.4 MPa.4 kg/s Answer (e) 10.4 MPa.20 h3 = h4 = h9 = 604.2°C Answer (a) 8.8 kg/s (c) 5. Steam enters the turbine at 6 MPa and 450°C at a rate of 20 kg/s and expands to a pressure of 0.0°C 3.2 kg/s (d) 7. Inc. It is subsequently mixed with the feedwater leaving the feedwater heater. The rate of heat supply from the process heater per unit mass of steam passing through it is (a) 246 kJ/kg (b) 893 kJ/kg (c) 1344 kJ/kg (d) 1891 kJ/kg (e) 2060 kJ/kg Answer (e) 2060 kJ/kg PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. you are using it without permission.4 MW (c) 12. which enters the adiabatic condenser at a rate of 463 kg/s.0 MW 2.2 MW (d) 20.2°C (c) 9. The mass flow rate of steam through the process heater is (a) 1.9°C (e) 16.9 h7 = h8 = h10 = 2665. 6 Boiler Turbine 8 10 5 9 4 P II 3 fwh 2 PI Process heater 1 7 11 Condenser h1 = 191.0°C (b) 5.4 MW Answer (a) 17. .66 h5 = 610. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.6°C (d) 12.

you are using it without permission. P1=10 "kPa" P11=P1 P2=400 "kPa" P3=P2.P=P3) h4=h3.8 MJ/s (e) 125. (Similar problems and their solutions can be obtained easily by modifying numerical values). P8=P2.4*m_total C=4.x=0. P10=P2 P5=6000 "kPa" P6=P5 T6=450 "C" m_total=20 "kg/s" m7=0.6*m_total m_cond=0. Solutions can be verified by copying-and-pasting the following lines on a blank EES screen.0 MJ/s (b) 53.T=T6.18 "kJ/kg. h10=h7 h11=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. Inc.8 MJ/s (c) 39. P7=P2. If you are a student using this Manual.P=P1) v1=VOLUME(Steam_IAPWS.P=P6) s6=ENTROPY(Steam_IAPWS.K" m_cooling=463 "kg/s" s7=s6 s11=s6 h1=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS.P=P6) h7=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS.x=0. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies.P=P11) W_turb=m_total*(h6-h7)+m_cond*(h7-h11) m_cooling*C*T_rise=m_cond*(h11-h1) m_cond*h2+m_feed*h10=(m_cond+m_feed)*h3 m_process=m7-m_feed q_process=h8-h9 Q_in=m_total*(h6-h5) 10-136 ··· 10-143 Design and Essay Problems PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.s=s11.156 5. P9=P2. Note: The solution given below also evaluates all enthalpies given on the figure.8 MJ/s Solution Solved by EES Software.P=P1) w_pump=v1*(P2-P1) h2=h1+w_pump h3=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS. .x=0. P4=P2.s=s7. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.5 MJ/s (d) 62.P=P7) h8=h7. h9=h3 v4=VOLUME(Steam_IAPWS.P=P4) w_pump2=v4*(P5-P4) h5=h4+w_pump2 h6=ENTHALPY(Steam_IAPWS.x=0.4 MJ/s Answer (b) 53.T=T6. The rate of heat transfer to the steam in the boiler is (a) 26.

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