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BOD Full Report

BOD Full Report

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Published by: Khinwah Siew on Apr 24, 2011
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KOD ETIKA PELAJAR (KEP) JAB. Saya juga mengaku tidak menerima atau memberi sebarang bantuan dalam menyediakan laporan ini dan membuat ikrar ini dengan kepercayaan bahawa apa-apa yang tersebut di dalamnya adalah benar. ___________________________ TandatanganPelajar Nama :JOYCE TEO SUET HUI No. KEJ. Matrik : AF080293 Tarikh :16TH MARCH 2011 . SUMBER AIR & ALAM SEKITAR FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM & ALAM SEKITAR UTHM Saya dengan ini mengaku bahawa saya telah menyediakan laporan ini dengan daya usaha saya sendiri.

Biochemical oxygen demand or BOD is a procedure to determine the amount of oxygen consumed by the microorganisms in the waste water chemically. f. Since the test is performed over a five day period. the oxygen is consumed.0 THEORY BOD is defined as the amount of oxygen required by living organisms in the stabilization of the organic matter of water.0 a. When organic matter such as dead plants. for particle purposes. leaves. The kinetics of the BOD reaction are. The temperature of 20oc is standard temperature in lab and it is suitable for the bacteria active in breaking down the waste. formulated in accordance with first-order reaction kinetics and may be expressed as dL / dt = . h. c. manure. equals BODt = L( 1 ± e-kt ) For five day BOD (BOD5). It is commonly used as the indicator to show the cleanliness of the waste water.1. b. Most of the biological process sprrd up as the temperature increase and slow down as the temperature drop. Different result would be obtained at different temperatures because biochemical reaction rates are temperature-dependent. grass clippings.kt or The amount of BOD remaining at time t equals Lt = L e-kt and y the amount of BOD that has been exerted at any time t. much of the available dissolved oxygen is consumed by aerobic bacteria. d. When this happens. APPARATUS AND MATERIAL Beaker 2 Bottles Waste water Measuring cylinder Deionised water Pipettes pH Meter Magnetic stirrer .kLt where.0 INTRODUCTION Microorganisms such as bacteria are responsible for decomposing organic waste. The greater the amount of organic matter present. This equation can be integrated as lnLt / L = . e.0 OBJECTIVE To measure the amount of dissolved oxygen in the waste water for a specified period of time and temperature. 2. the bacteria will begin the process of breaking down this waste. It is generally assumed that the rate at which oxygen is consumed directly proportional to the concentration of degradable organic matter remaining at any time. the greater the amount of oxygen utilized. If the oxidation of an organic compound is carried out by microorganisms using the organic matter as a food source. or even food waste is present in a water supply. 4. 3. g. sewage. robbing other aquatic organisms of the oxygen they need to live. Lt is the amount of the first stage BOD remaining in the water at time t and k is the reaction rate constant. the sample is kept in incubator which remains around 20oc. The BOD test is indirect measurement of organic matter. it is often refferred as five day BOD (BOD5).

73 mg/l Sample of 10ml of wastewater BLANK SAMPLE Dilution factor.55 mg/l SAMPLE 10. 5.39 mg/l 10. The readings for both pH and temperature are recorded in the Bench Sheet. The sample is then divided by using measuring cylinder. The second bottle is prepared by pouring the 300ml of deionized water into the bottle.) 4. 5. The sample is poured into the first bottle and deionized water is added until 300ml. 6. 8. 2. 3.4 mg/l 8.26 mg/l FINAL DO 10. 6. (Group 8 = 5ml. Same procedure for the second bottle. The final DO is recorded after 5 days of the experiment for both bottles. 100ml of waste water is collected from a specified source using a beaker. The readings of DO for both bottles are recorded in the Bench Sheet as initial DO. P = FINAL DO 10. 7.56 mg/l Dilution factor. A magnetic stirrer is then added into these two bottles respectively.61 Source : Drainage in front of Golf court BOD Data table.0 DO meter BOD incubator PROCEDURES 1. The bottles are kept in the BOD incubator and remain around 20oc.76 mg/l 5 ml 300 ml INITIAL DO 10. j. P = 10 ml 300 ml . The waste water is then tested by using pH meter. 9.i.0 RESULTS AND CALCULATION Sample: pH : 6. It is tested to be neutral. The sample in bottle is stirred whilst the DO meter is put into the bottle to get the DO reading. Group 9 = 10ml.2 mg/l 6. Date / Time Started: 08 / 2 / 2011 Sample of 5ml of wastewater INITIAL DO BLANK 10.

2 Show all the calculation and state if any of the data needs to thrown out. The value of BOD at each group: Group 8 : wastewater = 5 mL . A drop of more than 0. And the pH value of the sample is nearly neutral and after our group use 5 mL of wastewater.76 (5 z 300) 10.mg/L= D1 ± D2 P Sample of 5ml wastewater : BOD5. it is because the waste water. because the average BOD result is compared with the effluent standard (DOE.8 mg/L Data no needs to thrown out 2) DO5 Blank of 10ml wastewater = 10.mg/L = 10.26  6. It means that the sample doesn¶t show any toxic effect.2 mg/L after the five day incubation period.2 mg/L The value of BOD is 5. .9 mg/L 7.40 = 0.56  8.39 ± 10.0 DATA ANALYSIS 7. BOD = 108 mg/L Group 9 : wastewater = 10 mL .1 Calculate the BOD BOD.mg/L = = 105.2 mg/L.4 Does you sample shows a toxic effect? The sample is not showing any toxic effect. Malaysia).2 mg/L The value of BOD is 8. BOD = 105.19 the value is less than 0. the value of BOD obtained is slightly higher than Group 9 which the sample size is 10 mL.76 mg/L Data no needs to thrown out The dilution water blank cannot deplete more than 0. took from a drainage in front of the Golf court is not from a toxic source. Was this criteria met? 7.2 mg/L indicates some type of contamination or calibration error.73 (10 z 300) = 108 mg/L Sample of 10ml wastewater : BOD5. 7.55 ± 10.9 mg/L 7. BOD = DO initial ±DO final 1) DO5 Blank of 5ml wastewater = 10.7.15 the value is less than 0.5 Could you rely on your BOD results? Why? Yes. So the criterion is met.2 = 0.3 The BOD blank did not show a DO depletion of more than 0.

the sample must keep at or below 4 C during compositing.O. Sample Water.0mg/L. mL) Estimated BOD. suggest the associated treatment for BOD removal.0 DISCUSSION Question 1 a) Calculate the min / max volume of sample to be added to prepare as estimated BOD. mg/L) x (vol of BOD bottle. It is also to prevent further oxygen dissolving in.O. Otherwise. 8. If it is begin within 2 hours of collection. concentration) ± (Min residual concentration) = 7.5 to 7. mL = 7 mg/L x 300 mL 400 /L = 5.0mg/L. BOD¶s seal water was using to ensure that no air bubble is trapped in the bottle that will affect the characteristics of sample.O.By referring to Sewage/ Effluent Standard (DOE.5 mL = (Sat D. For example.0mg/L after 5 days of incubation and the residual D.). d) Describe the function of BOD bottle¶s cap and seal water. The D. .5 because microbes are most active in this range oh pH value. What is the latest day and time the sample can be started for BOD? The sample must be prepared not more than 24 hours.O. mL = Max allowable depletion = (8. mg/L Sample waterminimum. Malaysia).25 mL b) Why must samples that containing cautic alkalinity or acidity be adjusted before preparing BOD dilution? To conduct BOD experiment. if the test will begin within more than 2 hours. cold storage is unnecessary but.g. of saturated dilution water is approximately 8. bottle¶s cap was using to reduce evaporation of the water seal during evaporation. mL = (min/max allowable depletion. suppose that estimated BOD of an influent sample is 400mg/L.0) mg/L 2 mg/L x 300 mL 400 mg/L = 1. to be at least 1. D. According to the Sewage/Effluent Standard (DOE.0 ± 1. c) The completed composite samples arrive in the lab at (e.0 mg/L Sample watermaximum . depletion to be at least 2. the BOD dilution must be natural which range between pH values of 6. Malaysia) could you sample be discharge to river untreated? If not. the sample cannot be discharge to the river untreated because the value obtained with 5 ml of wastewater is higher than 50 mg/1.

which have been dechlorinated or adjusted for pH variations? The samples which have been dechlorinated must be seeded with 300mL of BOD water in the BOD bottle before allows it store in the BOD incubator. mg/L D2 = DO of diluted sample after 5 days incubation at 20 C. D1 = DO of diluted sample immediately after preparation.0 mg/L (ok!!!) 300 = (D1 ± D2) / P = (7.O. sodium sulphite (Na2SO3).8 mg/L Final D. b) What reagents are required to chemically dechlorinate a BOD sample? Sulphuric acid solution or acetic acid solution.9) / (2/100) . mg/L P = decimal volumetric fraction of sample used b) Calculate the seed correction and BOD5 (seeded) for the data given as below BOD5 of Seed Material 95 mg/L Dilution #1 mL of seed material 2 mL mL of sample 100 mL Start D.8 ± 2. potassium iodide solution. Question 3 a) State the formula to calculate i) seed correction Seed correction = ii) BOD5 (seeded) BOD5 (mg/L) = [(D1 ± D2) ± (B1 ± B2)f] / P where . 7. c) What must be done to samples.9 mg/L Seed correction = BOD5 of seed material x volume of seed material 300 BOD5 of seed material x volume of sample 300 = BOD5 (mg/L) 95 x 2 = 0.Question 2 a) Why must samples that containing residual chlorine be dechlorinated before preparation of BOD dilutions? To determine valuable of bacterial source. Chlorine can kill the microbes live and bacteria in samples. 2.633 mg/L< 1.O.

3 mg/L and 1. This will help ensure that the seed correction meets the 0. b) Explain preparation of seed material. Usually. The sample is diluted to fill the bottle.8 mg/L respectively. small quantities of digester supernatant.             ii) BOD3 and                iii) BOD remaining at 3 days = BOD at 8 days = BOD8          Question 5 a) What is seeding process in BOD measurement? Seeding is a process of adding live bacteria and microorganism to a sample. Place the material in a suitable container and incubate at 20°C for 24-36 hours.23 l/d. return activated sludge.= 245 mg/L Question 4 a) 30 mL of wastewater are placed in a 300 mL BOD bottle. settled raw domestic sewage prepared in the manner above will have sufficient BOD for use as a seed material. or an acclimated seed material can be used to increase the potency of the seed material used for the test. y Select a material to be used for seeding which will have a BOD of at least 180 mg/L. If not. y . The DO concentrations at the beginning and the end of 5-day incubation period are 7. the condition must be corrected and healthy active organisms added. What is the BOD?          b) The BOD5 of a wastewater was determined to be 250 mg/L. calculate i) ultimate BOD. If the reaction coefficient was 0. If the samples tested contain materials which could kill or injure the microorganisms.6 mg/L minimum specified in ³Standard Methods´.

The oxygen level is not very high in most water sources. Then DO levels low if sample water not have enough oxygen to dissolve in water that need to all leaving things. Hence. Otherwise. y Duplicates are two [or more] lab analyses on the same water sample. The seed correction should not exceed 1. Replicates are used to determine the errors involved in sample collection. If the oxygen level is reduced. Question 6 What is the significance of dissolved oxygen? Dissolved oxygen allows animals to breathe in water and it provides a suitable habitat for the other animals. Standard A (20mg/l) is the indicator for drinking water while Standard B (50 mg/l) is the indicator for inland water quality. the BOD will low which is water sample not have microbes live. The key to a good seed correction is a relatively stable seed material which produces a good seed correction in every test situation c) What materials can be used to seed a BOD sample? Any source of water which can provide a suitable population of organisms can be used. care should be taken not to use too strong a seed material for the test. commercially available seed material may be used.0 mg/L BOD. Bacteria in the water also use this oxygen to break down animals and plants. if there are no errors in the collection and analysis. b) When are DO levels at their highest and their lowest and why? DO levels are highest if the sample of water is not polluted means there is no toxic and bacterial effect so in sample of water there is a lot of oxygen demanding wastes is well within selfpurification capacity. the animals begin to die. This make the drain water become . It is also to maintaining the aquatic life and aesthetic quality of streams and lakes. Extra Discussion The BOD5for both of 5ml and 10ml are more than 100 ml/g. The golf field area is polluted because usually people use it to do several types of activities. however. ten percent duplicate or replicate samples should be run. A lot of food stalls and other business spot will be set up there. One of the example is convocation event that will be held every year. therefore. Differentiate replicate and duplicate sample. y Replicates are two or more separate water samples collected in the field from the same site and depth. we can say that the water sample is quite polluted because the location of the sample is the UTHM golf field. which is not in the range of Standard A and Standard B. and then the difference between two replicate analyses indicates the natural variability in the water at that location.y y As an alternative. Duplicates are used to determine the % difference between two samples in order to estimate the error involved in the analyses. settled raw sewage or commercially prepared seed material are the most common sources. This would result in one duplicate sample or one replicate sample being run every ten samples. Question 7 a) With regard to precision.

0 .01 0. The recommendation to solve the problem is to apply water treatment to the water source and to prevent incorrect handling of human activities at the golf field.10 0.0 1. 8 (3)] PARAMETER LIMITS OF EFFLUENT OF STANDARDS A AND B Parameter Unit Standard A Temperature pH Value BODs at 20ºC COD Suspended Solids Mercury Cadmium Chromium.9.20 0. Hexavaient Arsenic Cyanide Lead Chromium.10 0.0 1.0 1.0 APPENDIX ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ACT 1974 (ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (SEWAGE AND INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS) REGULATIONS 1978 [Regulation 8 (1).0 5.001 B 40 5. The consequence is the water polluted and the BOD5reading is high.0 CONCLUSION The water source at UTHM golf field has been polluted due to the incorrect handling of human activities as the BOD5 reading is out of the Standard A and B.05 0.20 0.0 4. 8 (2). 10.02 0.20 0.005 0. Trivalent Copper Manganese Nickel Tin Zinc Borom Iron (Fe) Phenol mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 C 40 6.20 1.0 1.05 0.0 1.0 50 100 100 0.0 1.0 1. 9. The organic material come from the food will consume the oxygen in the water due to the microbes¶ activities.005 0.polluted as the users don¶t handle the waste properly.10 0.05 0.20 0.0 1.9.0 20 50 50 0.0 0.05 0.5 1.0 .5 .

50 10.0 1) 2) 3) 4) REFERENCES Introduction to Environment Engineering.org/curriculum/dipproj2/en/fieldbook/bod.ciese.0 0.Free Chlorine Sulphide Oil and Grease mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 1. Third Edition / Davis Cornwell / McGraw Hill Environment Engineering / Gerard Kiely / McGraw Hill http://en.org/wiki/Dissolved_oxygen http://www.shtml .50 Not Detectable 2.0 0.wikipedia.0 11.

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