PLANE TABLE SURVEYING

Maj Dr. Jawed

PLANE TABLE SURVEYING
‡ Plane Tabling is a graphical method of surveying in which the field work and plotting are done simultaneously. ‡ Useful to fill in details between stations fixed by triangulation or theodolite traversing. ‡ Particularly adapted for small scale or medium scale mapping in which great accuracy in detail is not required. ‡ The plane table consists essentially of:
± A drawing board mounted on a tripod and ± A straight edge called an alidade.

‡ Size varies from 75cm x 60cm or 50cm to 60 m square. .THE DRAWING BOARD ‡ Made of well-seasoned wood such as teak or pine. and revolved about a vertical axis and clamped in any position. ‡ It is mounted on a tripod in such a manner that it can be leveled.

one at the top. ‡ The beveled (ruling or working) edge of the alidade is called the fiducial edge. ‡ It consists of two vanes at the ends. the vanes are hinged and can be folded when the alidade is not in use. ‡ One of the vanes known as sight vane is provided with a narrow slit with three holes.PLAIN ALIDADE ‡ Consists of a metal (brass or gunmetal) or boxwood straight edge or ruler about 50 cm long. ‡ One of the vanes is provided with a narrow slit and the other with a central vertical wire or hair. . one at the bottom and one in the middle.

a definite line of sight may be established parallel to the ruling edge of the alidade. ‡ A plane alidade can be used only when the elevations of the of the objects are low.‡ The other vane which is known as object vane. ‡ With the help of the slit. . ‡ The length of the ruling edge should be equal to the smaller side of the plane table. is open and carried a hair or a fine thread or a thin wire stretched between the top and bottom of the slit.

PLAIN ALIDADE Sight Vane Object Vane Fiducial Edge .

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‡ A graduated scale is mounted on the horizontal axis. ‡ The angles of elevation or depression can be read on the vertical circle. ‡ It is used to take inclined sights. . ‡ It increases the range and accuracy of the sights.TELESCOPIC ALIDADE ‡ The alidade which is fitted with a telescope is known as a telescopic alidade. ‡ One side of the metal ruler is used as the working edge along which lines are drawn. ‡ It consists of a small telescope with a level tube.

TELESCOPIC ALIDADE .

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SPIRIT LEVEL ‡ It consists of a small metal tube which contains a small bubble. ‡ The spirit level may also be circular but its base must be flat so that it can be laid on the table. ‡ The table is truly level when the bubble remains central all over the table. .

SPIRIT LEVEL .

THE MAGNETIC COMPASS ‡ A box compass consists of a magnetic needle pivoted at its centre freely. ‡ The bottom of the box compass is perfectly flat. ‡ It is used for orienting the plane table to magnetic north. .

THE MAGNETIC COMPASS .

.PLUMBING FORK ‡ The plumbing fork consists of a hair pinshaped brass frame. ‡ It is used in large scale survey for accurate centering of the station location on the table over its ground position. ‡ One end has a pointer while a plumb bob is attached the other end. having two equal arms.

‡ The fork is placed with its upper arm lying on the top of the table and the lower arm below it. The table is said to be centered when the plumb bob hangs freely over ground mark.PLUMBING FORK ‡ It is also used for transferring the location of the instrument station on the sheet on to the ground. .

PLUMBING FORK Plumbing Fork .

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. The field book is not necessary as plotting is done in the field concurrently with the field work. It is most rapid.ADVANTAGES OF PLANE TABLING ‡ ‡ ‡ It is most suitable for preparing small-scale maps. and hence the mistakes in booking the field notes are avoided.

‡ It is less costly than a theodolite survey. ‡ No great skill is required to prepare a satisfactory map. ‡ It is particularly advantageous in magnetic areas where compass survey is not reliable. .‡ The surveyor can compare the plotted work with the actual features of the area surveyed and thus can ascertain if it represents them properly.

DISADVANTAGES OF PLANE TABLING ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ It is not suitable for work in a wet climate. they are likely to be lost. cumbersome and awkward to carry. It is not intended for accurate work. it is a great inconvenience in absence of the field notes. It is heavy. and. There are several accessories to be carried. therefore. . If the survey is to be re-plotted to a different scale or quantities are to be computed.

.SETTING UP THE PLANE TABLE ‡ The table should be set up at a convenient height. This may be done using a plumbing fork or U frame. ‡ The table should be so placed over the station on the ground that the point plotted on the sheet corresponding to the station occupied should be exactly over the station on the ground. ‡ This operation is known as the centering of the table. (say about 1m). The legs of the tripod should be spread well apart. and firmly fixed into the ground.

The disleveling of the plane table. throws the location of the point considerably out of its true location. the table top is made truly horizontal. . leveling can be done by eye estimation whereas for accurate and large scale work. leveling achieved with an ordinary spirit level. For rough and small scale work.In this operation. The leveling is specially important in hilly terrain where some of the control points are situated at higher level and some other at lower level.

It is necessary when the instrument has to be set up at more than one station.ORIENTING THE PLANE TABLE The operation of keeping the table at each of the successive stations parallel to the position which it occupied at the first station is known as orientation. There are two methods of orienting the table: ‡ Orientation by the Magnetic Needle ‡ Orientation by Backsighting .

. This method is not much reliable and prone to errors due to variations of magnetic field.ORIENTING BY MAGNETIC NEEDLE This method is used when it is not possible to bisect the previous station from the new station.

.ORIENTING BY BACKSIGHTING In this method the table is orientated by back sighting through the ray which is drawn from the previous station. This is the most accurate and reliable method of orientation of plane table.

Methods of Plane Table ‡ Radiation ‡ Intersection ‡ Traversing ‡ Resection .

‡ Rays are drawn to various objects. ‡ The distance of the object from the station are measured and marked off on the ray.RADIATION METHOD ‡ This method is useful in surveying small areas which can be commanded from one station. and measuring the distance with chain or tape with suitable scale. ‡ In this method the objects are located by radiating lines from the point. .

RADIATION METHOD B C b A a P c d D e f E F .

.INTERSECTION METHOD In this method the point is fixed on the plane by the intersection of the rays drawn from the two instrument stations. The line joining the stations is called Base line. The method requires only the linear measurements of this line.

INTERSECTION METHOD A B C a p BASE LINE f e b c q d P Q F E D .

to locate the topographic details. locating details by taking offsets in usual manner.  This method consists in running a traverse with a plane table. rivers. which have been previously fixed by other methods of survey.TRAVERSING METHOD  This is similar to that of Compass Survey or Transit Traversing. etc.  This is the main method of plane table and is similar to compass or theodolite traversing. It is also suitable for the survey of roads. It is used for running survey lines between stations. .

TRAVERSING METHOD A a B a d c e E b a b a d c b a b c .

.RESECTION METHOD This method is used for establishing the instrument stations only. details are located either by radiation or intersection. After fixing the stations.

RESECTION METHOD B b a c A a c C .

. ± The alidade should be correctly centred on the station point on paper. ± The expansion and contraction of paper should be taken care off.ERRORS IN PLANE TABLING ‡ Following precautionary measures should be taken while performing field work: ± The table must be accurately oriented once the table is shifted.

± The table should accurately centred. ± Table should be sufficiently clamped. ± The board should be horizontal. . ± The rays should be accurately drawn through the station points. ± The objects should be accurately sighted.

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