ABSTRACT\SUMMARY This experiment is about fluidization of a bed of solid by passing a fluid, usually a gas upwards through a bed

of particles supported on a distributor. Fluidization or fluidizing, converts a bed of solid particles into an expanded mass that has many properties of a liquid. As a fluid is passed upward through a bed of particles, pressure loss due to frictional resistance increases as fluid flow increases. At a point, whereby the upward drag force exerted by the fluid on the particle equal to apparent weight of particles in the bed, fluidization occurs. The size of solid particle which can be fluidized varies greatly from less than 1µ m to 6cm. It is generally concluded that particles distributed in sizes between 150µ m and 10µ m are the best for smooth fluidization (least formation of large bubbles). Large particles cause instability and result in slugging or massive surges. Small particles (less than 20µ m) frequently even though dry, act as if damp, forming agglomerates or fissures in the bed, or spouting. Adding finer sized particles to a coarse bed or coarse sized particles to a bed of fines usually results in better fluidization. he upward velocity of the gas is usually between 0.15m/s and 6m/s. This velocity is based upon the flow through the empty vessel as is referred to as the superficial velocity. As the velocity of flow increases, the particles rearrange themselves to offer less resistance to the fluid flow and the bed will tend to expand unless it is composed of large particles (mean diameter > 1mm). The expansion continues until a stage is reached where the drag force exerted on the particles will be sufficient to support the weight of the particles in the bed. The fluid/particle systems then begin to exhibit fluid like properties and it will flow under the influence of a hydrostatic head. This is the point of incipient fluidization and the gas velocity needed to achieve this is referred to as the minimum fluidization velocity, Umf. Beyond this velocity, the pressure drop across the bed will be approximately equal to the weight of the bed per unit area. The effective¨ P excludes the hydrostatic

and in industrial operations such as backwashing filters. through porous media. extraction of soluble components from raw materials and for certain types of chemical reactor. Then only. superficial gas velocity. It is well known that if the particles are loosely packed and the pressure drop due to the flow through the bed is equivalent to the weight of the bed. we plotted two graphs which are bed pressure drop against superficial gas velocity and bed expansion against superficial gas velocity for all cases. use is made of the high rate of solids mixing that . as with the natural movement of ground water. Umf and mf for all cases can be calculated. INTRODUCTION The upward flow of fluid through a bed of particles is a situation encountered both in nature. (C) cohesive and (D) dense. bed pressure drop and the flow rate of the fluid. It is likely. however that this pressure drop will be exceeded just prior to fluidization with gas fluidized systems in order to overcome cohesive forces between the particles and break down the residual packing and interlocking of particles within the bed. Ballotini which is in group A and Glutinous flour which is in group C. From this experiment. we are considering with a coarse sand which is in group B. (B) bubble.pressure drop across the bed which can be neglected in gas fluidized systems operating at atmospheric pressure. There are 4 stages of particles that are (A) aerated. crude petroleum or natural gas. In this experiment. we can obtain the bed expansion. Geldart (1973) classified powders into four groups according to their fluidization properties at ambient condition. The behavior of fluidization is depends on the types of the particles composed in the vessel. the phenomenon of fluidization occurs. The Umf predicted from the graph then is being compared with the calculated one. By the equation given in the theory. The fluidized state occurs naturally is so-called µquick sand¶ and industrially. ionexchange processes.

the Ergun equation (1952) can be used: . Wen & Yu equation (1966) and Baeyens & Geldart equation (1977). This equipment is designed to allow the study of the characteristics of flow through both fixed and fluidized bed of solid particles. The transparent walls allow studies to be made of bubble behavior in the gas-solid system. To observe the onset of fluidization THEORY a)Pressure drop across the bed.¨ P In order to determine the pressure drop through a fixed bed fro any flow condition. OBJECTIVES There are three objectives of doing the fluidization experiment: To determine the pressure drop and bed expansion through a fixed and fluidized bed. heat transfer and chemical reaction. To verify the Ergun equation (1952).accompanies fluidization for various operations such as drying. in order that students can readily observe the important phenomenon of bubbling that occurs in gas-solid systems when the gas velocity is in the excess of that required for fluidization. Although the majority of fixed and fluidized bed situations encountered by practicing engineers are three dimensional. coating.

2. Next. Firstly. switch on the air pump and the control valve is adjusted to give the flow rate of 2. . 4. the column of the fluidized bed is filled to a height of 150 mm with the coarse grade sand. 3. Then.0 l/min. identify the apparatus used for the experiment whether it is in good condition or else it might affect the data taken from the experiment.PROCEDURE 1.

manometer reading and the state of the bed is recorded in each of the increasing flow rate. 8. 5. The bed expansion.0l/min. All data are recorded in tables form for easier observations.The flow rate is then increased by 1. 7. The entire experiment is repeated by using Ballotini and Glutinous flour. APPARATUS . in order to determine the bulk particle density. the volume of the particles is taken by weighing it. Lastly. 6.



the separation of the particle increases.DISCUSSIONS Fluidization is a process when a fluid is passed upward trough a bed of particlesthe pressure loss in the fluid due to the frictional resistance with increases with increasingfluid flow. the graph shows a littleincreasementin the pressure drop when the superficial velocity gas also increase. theminimum .0715m/s. For this case. This velocity increases with particle sizeand particle density and is affected by fluid properties. The superficial fluid velocity at which the packed bed becomes a fluidized bedis known as the minimum fluidization velocity. and the bed becomefluidized. A point is reached when the upward drag force exerted by the fluid on theparticles is equal to the apparent weight of particles in the bed. For the first types of particles which is coarse grade sand. At this point the particlesare lifted by the fluid. from the graph we can saw that thepressure drop also increase as the superficial gas velocity increased. The second type is finer sand or ballotini. Thefluidization starts when it reaches minimum fluidization velocity which is about 0.

For this two types of particles. The minimum fluidizing velocity. group C fluidization can be improved by mechanical help such as include a vibrator or a mixer.0682m/s. Beside that. bubblescontinue to grow. . Lastly. The structures are so strong which upon fluidization.383097. it is very difficult to fluidize because the inter particle forces is higher than hydrodynamic forces exerted on the particles by the fluidizing gas. fluidization did not occur in this case. fluidization did not occur because group C particles exhibitcohesive tendencies. never achieving a maximum size.fluidization velocity is 0. mf for coarse grade sand is 0. cracks and rathole is form and at a given pressure different. for bed voidage at minimum fluidization velocity. Lastly is the glutinous flour. CONCLUSIONS 1. mf for sand is 0. The bed expansion and the pressure drop of the particle are proportional to the superficial velocity of the gas supply Students should be able to utilize appropriate conversion factors to ensure consistency of units when making calculations. Umf for coarse grade sand is 0. This shows that bed voidage for Ballotini is higher and makes it more porous than sand. The voidage at minimum fluidizing velocity. the bed not expanding and resist aeration.321387 while mf for Ballotini is 0. 3. For Glutinous Flour. 2. The bed notexpanding and resist aeration.321387 while mf for Ballotini is 0.383097.16 Other than that.0682m/s. However.0715m/s while Umf for Ballotini is 0. This is because the flour is cohesive and the structure is sostrong upon fluidization. it also because the interaction force between theparticles is strong if compared to the hydronamic force by the fluiding gas.

Perry¶s Chemical Engineers¶ Handbook. Make sure that the apparatus is in good condition for better operation. Green. Seventh Edition Edited by Robert H.R. REFERENCES 1. Applied Science Publishers London and New York. Chemical Engineering Series. Department of Mechanical Engineering.Students should read and have a brief idea of what is going on in the experiment by reading the lab manual or other reference book for better understanding.Howard. McGraw-Hill International Edition. United Kingdom. the University of Aston in Birmingham. 2. . Perry and Don W.Fluidized beds Combustion and Applications. Edited by J.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful