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involvement of people in the planning process; administratively and professionatly it is expected that the system should provide for a long-term policy plan, a mid-term comprehensive plan further integrated with budgetary process and divided into projects / schemes for implementation, monitoring and review,
3. Considering the above, the recommended urban development planning system consists of a set of four inter-related plans as follows:
a. Perspective Plan
b. Development Plan
c. Annual Plan and
d. Plans of Projects/Schemes
4. The definition of these plans is as under:
a) A Perspective Plan is a long term (20-25 years) written document supported by necessary maps and diagrams providing the state government the goals, policies, strategies and general programmes of the urban local authority regarding spatio-econornic development of the settlement under its governance.
b) A Development Plan conceived within the framework of the approved perspective plan, is a medium term (generally five years) plan providing to the people the comprehensive proposals for socio-economic and spatial development of the urban centre indicating the manner in which the use of land and development therein shall be carried out by the local authority and other agencies.
c) An Annual Plan, conceived within the framework of development plan, is a plan containing the details of new and ongoing projects that the local authority intends to implement during the respective financial year and for which necessary fiscal resources shall be mobilised through plan funds and other sources.
d) Conceived within the framework of approved Development Plan, Projects / Schemes are detailed working layouts with all supporting infrastructure, and documents including cost of development, source of finance and recovery instruments for their execution by a public or private agency.
2.30 SCOPE AND PURPOSE OF VARIOUS URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANS
2.31 Perspective Plan
1. As defined earlier in para 2.20.3 (a), a perspective plan is a written document, supported by illustrations and maps, containing spatio-economic development policies, strategies and
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general programmes of the local authority. This plan presents to the state government and people the intentions of the local authority regarding development of the urban centre in the next 20-25 years. The scope of this plan covers social, economic and spatial development goals, policies and-priorities relating to all those urban activities that have spatial implications
", or, in other words, that require land for their location and desired functioning. It also covers long-term policies regarding development of infrastructure and resource mobilisation that are necessary to promote these urban activities. Great care is always taken in this plan to minimise the conflict between the environmental protection and urban development.
2. The basic purpose of a perspective plan is to provide a policy framework for further detailing and it serves as a guide for urban local authority in preparation of the development plan.
3. A perspective plan should generally be for a period of 20 years and the plan period of 20-25 years should be so adjusted that it coincides with the term of the National/State Five Year Plans. Tohis will facilitate integration of spatial and economic policy planning initiatives.' (Fig.2.1 )
2.32 Development Plan
1. Development plan prepared within the framework of the approved-perspective plan is a medium-term (5 years) comprehensive plan of spatio-economic development of the urban centre, The objective of a development plan is to provide further necessary details and intended actions in the form of strategies and physical proposals for various policies given in the perspective plan depending upon the economic and social needs and aspiration of the people, available resources and priorities. A local authority cannot adopt a development plan unless it is conceived within the framework of the perspective plan which is approved or is in the process of being approved.
2. The scope of this plan covers an assessment of current issues, prospects, priorities and proposals for development of the urban centre including employment generation, economic base, transportation and land use, housing and other infrastructure; and matters like environment, conservation and ecology. It also contains implementation strategies, agency-wise (including private sector) schemes/projects, development promotion rules, and resource mobilisation plan with particular reference to finance, land and manpower and provides an efficient system of monitoring and review.
3. Depending upon the urgency of the needs and priorities requiring special treatment and covering special aerial extant development plans for specific subjects could also be prepared within the framework of the perspective plan and covering the area of jurisdiction of the local authority. These plans could be traffic and transportation plan, tourism development plan, environmental conservation plan, heritage conservation plan, mining sites reclamation plan, coastal area development plan, highway corridor development and such others.
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Five Year Plans
Existing Plan (if any)
Preparation & Approval
Perspective Plan Period
T Base year taken as the year of commencement of the state Urban and Regional Planning (revised) Act whereunder a municipality shall assume the status of planning and development authority.'
n Number of remaining years of a current Five Year Plan counted from the base year T .
nS,n10 ; n+S,n +10 .
Pi, Pj.. ....: Successive Five Year Plans for five year periods i, j .
FIG. 2.1,: CONTINUOUS PERSPECTIVE PLANS
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4. A development plan is a statutory plan, approved and adopted by the local authority for implementation with the help of schemes and projects. Its proposals are precise and definite.
5. It makes known publicly the intention of the local authority regarding physical, social and economic development of the urban centre, the facilities and services that are proposed to be provided in near future (next 5 years). It notifies the property owners the manner in which their properties will be affected; and it informs the developers about the areas where opportunities for investment will be available.
6. The time-frame of 5 years expediently suits the provisions of 74th Constitution Amendment Act (74th CAA) where, under article 243U(i), the duration of municipalities the local authority for development plan preparation, adoption and implementation is a period of 5 years. A plan and a planning process that provides opportunities to incorporate the needs of the urban centre and development aspirations of the people through the elected representatives would be desirable, acceptable to people and be dynamic as it will have better adaptability to change. (Figure 2.2).
7. As shown in Fig.2.2, the elected local authority (LA-i) soon after assuming office takes actions to review the existing plan and prepares the development plan which will be for five years, the first three years of which shalf be during and up to the end of the term of LA-i and the next two years will fall during the term of the next local authority LA-j.This authority will implement the plan for three years up to the end of their term. The LA-j after assuming office will revievrtheprogress of 3 years' implementation of the development plan by LA-i which will provide input tor the preparation of development plan for the next 5 years. During the two-year period of review and preparation of development plan, LA-j will have an approved plan for implementation and by the time its validity expires; the next plan upto the year 12, will be ready. LA-j will implement this plan up to end of its term and the process will continue. This ensures a continuous process of planning, implementation, review and further planning without any break. This also ensures that an elected local authority after assuming office reviews the plan formulated by its predecessors, prepares the development plan following. its policies, priorities and ideology and implements the same up to the end of its term.
8. As suggested by these guidelines, under the Model Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law (Revised) each municipality constituted under the municipal act shall be the planning and development authority to prepare development plan for whole or part of the area under its jurisdiction.
2.33 Annual Plan
1. The purpose of annual plan, to be prepared by the local authority every year, is to identify the new schemes/projects, which the authority will undertake for implementation during the year taking into account the physical and fiscal performance of the preceding year,
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< LA i. > < LA j > < LA k >
Existing Plan (if any)
Preparation & Approval
r;1&," 1 I I I
r'" ""1 I
Perspective Plan Period
LA-i, LA-j .. : Elected Local Authority for the 5 year's term i, j
FIG. 2.2 : CONTINUOUS AND PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT PLANS
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the priorities, the policies and the proposals contained in the approved development plan.
2. This plan also provides the resource requirements during the year and the sources of funds including those mobilised by the local authority, grants, aids and project/scheme funds of the state and Central governments.
3. It is thus an important document for resource mobilisation as on its basis the plan funds will be allocated by the funding body. This plan, therefore, serves as an important link with the budgetary process.
4. The annual plan provides a built-in system of continuous annual review of the performance, actions and initiatives of local authority in implementing development plan.
2.34 Plans of Schemes I Projects
1. Conceived within the framework of the development plan, schemes/projects are the working layouts supported by written report, providing all necessary details for execution including finance, development, administration and management. These schemes/projects could be for any area, old or new; any activity or land use like residential, commercial, industrial, recreational, educational or health related; or infrastructure development separately or in an integrated manner; by any agency such as government, semi-government, private or even individuals; or for any agency prepared by town planners,
archltectsenqlneers as the case may be, enjoying maximum freedom of expression in their
design within the stipulations of development promotion rules and other regulations as applicable. These could also be for subjects like tourism development, recreation, urban renewal of central area, environmental improvement,conservation, and even land pooling.
2. The schemes/projects provide all the required planning, architectural, engineering, financial and administrative details i11 drawing and written form for execution. These are to be prepared by the respective executing agencies which could be public or private.
Selection of the area subject/project will be determined by the needs and priorities of the executing agency guided by market forces and government policy interventlons.
2.40 INTER-RELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIOUS. PLANS
1. Taking into account the entire planning process and also incorporating the suggested planning system,Figure 2.3 shows the inter-relationship of the different development plans, directly or indirectly related to urban development, at various levels ranging from national to a transitional urban area under the jurisdiction of a nagar panchayat.
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f',A TIO~AL PERSPECTIVE PLAN
STATE PEflSPECTI\'f f'LA~1
r S C" Tf DLANNING 8<)ARl:,
ME n10POLITAN IMETROPOUTAN PLANNING COMMITTEE)
,DISTRICT PLANNING COMMlTIE\
~BAH SETTLEMENT ("lJNCIP~llTY)
'RANSITiONAL AREA INAGAR PANCHAYAT\
~~. _, - --._- _. --- - --- - ---------------------------------------:--------------------------
• Hl' ATIONSHIP WITH Pl ANS OF MEmo ,\REAlMFmO·CITY
l' AGGRIGA r,ON Of PI ANS
DISAGGRIGA TlON OF PLANS
FIG. 2.3 .. INTFR-RELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIOUS DEVELOPMENT PLANS
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2. Fig.2.3 also shows the linkages for aggregation of plans' proposals for consolidation and integration of physical and fiscal planning efforts at district, metropolitan area, state and national levels. It further indicates the pattern of disaggregation of policies, programmes and resources.
3. It needs to be emphasised here that urban plans should not be conceived in isolation from its region as each urban centre is part of a regional system of settlements which in turn play their respective role in the process of development of
the region as a whole. As contained in the provisions of the 74th CAA, the metropolitan area development plan orthe district development plan serves as a guide for identifying the basic functions and other development initiatives in case of an urban centre located in the district or the metropolitan area. This must be considered and incorporated in the urban development plans.
4. Policies and development proposals contained in other plans of regions like resource
J regions, agro-climatic regions, as well as the state perspective plan should also be appropriately considered and incorporated.
2.50 PLANNING PROCESS
1. As shown in Fig. 2.4, planning is a continuous, time-oriented, cyclic process and, therefore, spatial development planning should be seen and practised as a process where planning, implementation, monitoring, review and again planning go on as a dynamic process.
2. In this'process, the decision to prepare a plan is outside the cycle of planning process. The review of the plan, depending upon the results (positive, indicating satisfactory implementation or negative showing faults of varying degrees) generates five possibilities of further action, as shown in Fig.2.4. The following sections provide more details of various stages of this process.
2.51 Aims and Objectives
1. Aims can be defined as broad and general statements indicating the decisions of the policy makers, aspirations of the people and needs of the community. For example, 'to provide job opportunities for all' is a statement of aims.
2. Objectives are specific statements indicating the ways and means of achieving the set aims, taking into account the potentials. For example, for the aim related to job opportunities; the objectives could be :
provision of jobs through development of industries/ commerce or trade; provision of incentives and inducements (specific) to industries;
provision of informal sector economic activity sites as part of commercial areas, and such others.
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. , ,
I DECISI?N TO PREPARE PLAN I .- .. -
DEVELOPMENT r---1 IDENTIFICATION _c" PLAN FORMULATION,
AIMS AND OF PROJECTED EVALUATION AND
OBJECTIVES REQUIREMENTS APPROVAL
/ I" / -,
lREVIEW f ~f :;,..1 IMPLEMENTATION
I.L. J MONITORING
<, ANNUAL REViEW OF PRO,)ECTS/SCHEMES
1. Review results positive, continue further implementation.
2. Review results not satisfactory, revise, refine project/scheme.
REVIEW OF THE PLANS
3. Review results positive, no change in goals, identify projected needs for the next plan period and continue the process.
4. Review results indicate revision of goals. Revise the goals for the next plan period and continue.
5. Review results negative indicating termination of the plan ( a condition that may not arise) . abandon the plan and take decision to prepare the appropriate plan and continue.
FIG. 2.4 : GENERAL PROCESS OF PLANNING
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