DIESEL POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

DIESEL-ELECTRIC

POWER PLANT

CONTENTS:-

03' BLOCK DIAGRAM & IT'S COMPONANTS. 03' WORKING OF DIESEL POWER PLANT. 03' ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES.

03' APPLICATION OF DIESEL POWER PLANT.

03' STATUS OF DIESEL ELECRIC POWER PLANT IN INDIA. 03' CONCLUSION.

03' REFERANCE.

DIESEL ELECTRIC POWER PLANT ENERGY SYSTEMS

SANKDASARIY A SHAILESH B. ENRL NO-090760 111025

SSASIT (E.C. DEPARTMENT)

SSASITI BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

DIESEL POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

DIESEL POWER PLANT

~AIM:- TO STUDY ABOUT DIESEL POWER PLANT.

r::!>A generating station in which diesel engine is used as the prime mover for the generation of electrical energy is known as diesel power station.

r::!>In a diesel power station, diesel engine is used as the prime mover. The diesel burns inside the engine and the products of this combustion act as the working fluid to produce mechanical energy. The diesel engine drives alternator the which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. As thegerneration cost is considerable due to high price of diesel, therefore, such power stations are only used to produce small power.

~BLOCK DIAGRAM:-

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SSASITI BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

DIESEL POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

~ DIESEL ENGINE :- This is the main component of the diesel electric power plant which develops power. They may be 4 strokes or 2 stroke engine. 4 stroke engines has lower fuel consumption, more flexibility, better scavenging and higher efficiency than 2 stroke. Cylinders are arranged in V shape to make the engine more compact. 6 to 8 cylinders are commonly used. Speed is in the range of 500-1000 rpm. The diesel engines are compression ignition type. Diesel engines are available in sizes from 75kW to 3750kW.

~AIR INTAKE SYSTEM:- This system supplies necessary air to the engine for fuel combustion. It consists of pipes for the supply of fresh air to the engine manifold. Filters are provided to remove dust particles from air which may act as abrasive in the engine cylinder.

~ AIR FILTER AND SUPERCHARGER :- The function of air filter is to remove the dust from the air, which is taken by the engine. The function of supercharger is to increase the pressure of air supplied to the engine to increase the power of the engine. The supercharger is driven by the engine.

~ EXHAUST SYSTEM :- This includes silencer and connecting ducts. silencer is required in between the engine and the intake system, since the noise may be transmitted back to outside air via the air intake system. The temperature of exhaust gases are really high that heat is used for heating the oil or air supplied to the engine.

~FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM:- It consists of storage tank, strainers, fuel transfer pump and all day fuel tank. The fuel oil is supplied at the plant site by rail or road. The oil is stored in the storage tank. From the storage tank, oil is pumped to smaller all day tank at daily or short intervals. From this tank, fuel oil is passed through strainers to remove suspended impurities. The clean oil is injected into the engine by fuel injection pump.

~COOLING SYSTEM:-The heat released by the burning of fuel in the engine cylinder is partially converted into work. The remainder part of the heat passes through the cylinder wall, piston, rings etc. and may cause damage to system. In order to keep the temperature of the engine parts within the safe operating limits, cooling is provided. The cooling system consists of a water source, pump and cooling towers. The pump circulated water through cylinder and head jacket. The water takes away heat form the engine and itself becomes hot. The hot water is cooled by cooling towers and recirculated for cooling.

~LUBRICATING SYSTEM:-The system minimises the wear of rubbing surfaces of the engine.It comprises of lubricating oil tank,pump,filter and oil cooler. The lubricatiion oil is drawn from the lubricating oil tank by the pump and is passed through filter to remove impurities .The clean lubrication oil is delivered to the points which require lubrication.The oil coolers incorporated in the system keep the temperature of the oil low.

SSASITI BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

DIESEL POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

~ENGINE STARTING SYSTEM:-This is an arrangement to rotate the engine initially.while starting,until firing starts and the unit runs with its own power.Small sets are started manually by handles but for larger units,compressed air is used for starting.In the latter case,air at high pressure is admitted to a few of the cylinders,making them to act as reciprocating air motors to turn over the engine shaft.The fuel is admitted to the remaining cylinders which makes the engine to start under its own power.

~GOVERNING SYSTEM :- Their function is to maintain the speed of the engine constant irrespective of load on the plant. This is done by varying fuel supply to the engine according to load.

~DIESEL ENGINE GENERATOR :- The generators used in diesel power plants are of rotating field, salient pole construction, speed ranging from 214 to 1000 rpm and capacities ranging from 25-5000 kVA at 0.8 power factor lagging. Generators are coupled directly to diesel engine. They are provided with voltage regulators to allow voltage regulation. The excitation is usually provided at 115 to 230 V from a DC exciter, usually coupled to the engine shaft through a belt.

~WORKING OF DIESEL ENGINE POWER PLANT :-

The main part is diesel engine in diesel power plant so we here we explained the workind of 4 stroke diesel engine after performing this four stroke we get the energy into mechanicle form in rotary motion which is coupled with the turbine directly or to a generator and through this we get electricity.

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SSASITI BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

DIESEL POWER PLANT

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

ENERGY SYSTEMS

~HOW IT WORKS:-

~There are different types cycles in thermodynamics.Such as Otto cycle,Carnot vapour cycle,Diesel cycle etc.Out of that cycle diesel engine works on diesel cycle.This cycle is also known as constant pressure cycle. Diesel engine is mostly employed in Stationary Power plants,Ships,Heavy Motor Vehicles.

Diesel Engine is mainly worked on below strokes.

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~SUCTION OR INTAKE STROKE:- In this stroke,the piston moves down from the top dead centre.As a result,inlet valve opens and air is drawn into the cylinder.After sufficient quantity of air with pressure is drawn,suction valve closes at the end of the stroke.The exhaust valve remains closed during this stroke.

~COMPRESSION STROKE:- In this stroke,piston moves up from the bottom dead centre. During this stroke both inlet and exhaust valve are closed.The air drawn into the cylinder during suction stroke,is entrapped inside the cylinder and compressed due to upward movement of the piston.In diesel engine,the compression ratio used is very high as a result,the air is finally compressed to a very high pressure up to 40 kilogram per centimeter square,at this pressure,the temperature of the air is reached to 1000 degree centigrade which is enough to ignite the fuel.

SSASITI BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

DIESEL POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

~WORKING OR POWER STROKE:- In this stroke,both inlet and exhaust valve remain closed.The hot gases (which are produced due to ignition of fuel during compression stroke) and compressed air,now expand adiabatically,in the cylinder pushing the piston down and hence work is done.At the end of stroke,the piston finally reaches the bottom dead centre.

~EXHAUST STROKE:- In this stroke,the piston again moves upward.The exhaust valve opens,while inlet and fuel valve are closed.A greater part of the burnt fuel gases escape due to their own expansion.The upward movement of the piston pushes the remaining gases out through the open exhaust valve.Only a small quantity of exhaust gases stay in the combustion chamber.At the end of exhaust stroke,the exhaust valve closes and the cycle is thus completed.

~ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF DIESEL POWER PLANTS: ~ADVANTAGES:

.:. Very simple design also simple installation .

• :. Limited cooling water requirement .

• :. Standby losses are less as compared to other Power plants .

• :. Low fuel cost .

• :. Quickly started and put on load .

• :. Smaller storage is needed for the fuel. .:. Layout of power plant is quite simple .

• :. There is no problem of ash handling .

• :. Less supervision required .

• :. For small capacttv.diesel power plant is more efficient as compared to steam power plant .

• :. They can respond to varying loads without any difficulty .

• :. They can be easily located at the load centre without causing pollution in the

envi ron ment .

• :. Diesel power plants maintain their high operating efficiency irrespective of load .

• :. There is less fire hazard .

• :. Maintenance charges are less as the auxiliary plant is also small in size .

• :. Plant is compact and light .

• :. Thermal efficiency of a diesel power station is always higher than that of a steam plant of equivalent size.

~DISADVANTAGES:

.:. High Maintenance and operating cost .

• :. Fuel cost is more, since in India diesel is costly .

• :. The plant cost per kW is comparatively more .

• :. The life of diesel power plant is small due to high maintenance .

• :. Noise is a serious problem in diesel power plant .

• :. Diesel power plant cannot be constructed for large scale.

SSASITI BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

DIESEL POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

~APPLICATION OF DIESEL POWER PLANTS:-

~Since there are many disadvantage of diesel power plant, although the plant find wide application in the following fields .

• :. They are quite suitable for mobile power generation and are widely used in

transportation systems consisting of railroads, ships, automobiles and aeroplanes .

• :. They can be used for electrical power generation in capacities from 100 to 5000 H.P .

• :. They can be used as standby power plants .

• :. They can be used as peak load plants for some other types of power plants .

• :. Industrial concerns where power requirement are small say of the order of 500 kW, diesel power plants become more economical due to their higher overall efficiency.

~STATUS OF DIESEL ELECTRIC POWER PLANT IN INDIA:-

POWER STATION STATE CAPACITY(MW)
Ambala Diesel Power Station Haryana 3.92
Keylong Diesel Power Station Himachal Pradesh 0.13
Bemina Diesel Power Station Jammu & Kashmir 5
Kamah Diesel Power Station Jammu & Kashmir 0.06
Leh Diesel Power Station Jammu & Kashmir 2.18
Upper Sindh Diesel Power Station Jammu & Kashmir 1.7
Yelahanka Diesel Power Station Karnataka 127.92
Brahmapuram Diesel Power Station Kerala 106.6
Kozhikode Diesel Power Station Kerala 128
Gangtok Diesel Power Station Sikkim 4
Ranipool Diesel Power Station Sikkim 1
Suryachakra Diesel Power Station Andaman & Nicobar 20 ~CONCLUSION:

~After studying diesel electrc power plant we can say that this is the most efficient power plant when the generation of electricity is at rapid speed. This power plant is setting up nearer to the requirmqnt area so losses is less than other power plant.Starting and stop operation is very rapid so we can us this power plant in emerga ncy services

~REFERANCE :

~WWW. ELECTRICALANDELECTRONICS.ORG ~WWW. EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG

~BOOKS OF POWER PLANT ENGINEERING (NEW_AGE_INTERNATIONAL)

SSASITI BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)