COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

COMBINED CYCLE

POWER PLANT

CONTENTS:-

03' BLOCK DIAGRAM & IT'S COMPONANTS.

03' WORKING OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT. 03' ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES.

03' CLASSIFICATION OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT. 03' SITE SELECTION COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT.

03' STATUS OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT IN INDIA. 03' CONCLUSION.

03' REFERANCE.

COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT ENERGY SYSTEMS

SANKDASARIY A SHAILESH B. ENRL NO-090760 111025

SSASIT (E.C. DEPARTMENT)

SSASIT

I BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

~AIM:- TO STUDY ABOUT COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT.

Combined cycle is an electric generating technology that creates additional electricity from heat exiting gas turbines. The exhaust heat from the gas turbines is routed to a conventional boiler or to a heat recovery steam generator for utilization by a steam turbine in the production of electricity.

~BLOCK DIAGRAM:-

~The schematic arrangement of a gas turbine power plant is shown in figure.The main components of plants are given below:-

(i) Compressor (ii)Regenerator (iii)Combustion Chamber (iv)Gas Turbine (v)Alternator

(vi) Starting motor

SSASIT

I BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

(I) COMPRESSOR

~The compressor used in the plant is generally of rotatory type.The air at atmospheric pressure is drawn by the compressor via the filter which removes the dust from the air.The rotatory blades of the compressor push the air between stationary blades to raise its pressure.Thus air at high pressure is available at the output of the compressor.

(II)REGENERA TOR

~A regenerator is a device which recovers heat from the the exhaust gases of the turbine.The exhaust is passed through the regenerator before wasting to atmosphere.A regenerator consists of a nest of tubes contained in ashell.the compressed air from the compressor passes through the tubes on its way to the combustion chamber.In this way compressor is heated by the hot exhaust gases.

(III)COMBUSTION CHAMBER

~The air at high pressure from the compressor is led to the combustion chamber via the regenerator.In the combustion chamber,heat is added to the air by burning oil.The oil is injected through the burner into the chamber at high pressure ensure atomisation of oil and its through mixing with air.The result is that the chamber attains a very high temperature(about 3000F).The combustion gases are suitably cooled to 1300F to 1500F then delivered to gas turbine.

(IV)GAS TURBINE

~The products of combustion consisting of a mixture of gases at high temperature and pressure are passed to the gas turbine.These gases in passing over the turbine blades expand and thus do the mechanical work.The temperature of the exhaust gases from the turbine is about 900 F.

(V)ALTERNATOR

~The gas turbine is coupled into the alternator.The alternator converts the mechanical energy of the turbine into electrical energy.The output of the alternator is given to the bus-bars through transformers,isolators and circuit breakers.

(VI) STARTING MOTOR

~Before starting the turbine,compressor has to be started.For this purpose,an electric motor is mounted on the same shaft as that of the turbine.The motor is energised by the batteries.Once the unit starts, a part of the mechanical power of the turbine drives the compressor and there is no need of the motor now.

SSASIT

I BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

~WORKING OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT :-

~First step is the same as the simple cycle gas turbine plant. Burning of gas, the thrust rotating a gas turbine and the coupled generator produces Electricity. In the second step the hot gases leaving the gas turbine passes into boiler to produce steam. This boiler is called the 'Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The steam then rotates the steam turbine and coupled generator to produce Electricity. The hot gases leave the HRSG at around 140 degrees centigrade and are discharged into the atmosphere. The steam condensing, and water recycling system is the same as in the steam power

plant.

Electricity ........

~ __ ~ __ ~~rPump ~--~~~ ~~+--()

~ Heat Recover Steam Generator

~Roughly the steam turbine cycle produces one third of the power and gas turbine cycle produces two thirds of the power output of the CCPP. Normally there will be two generators, one driven by the gas turbine and one driven by the steam turbine. There are also systems with one generator connected through a single shaft to both the gas turbine and steam turbine.

~Even though this system is having the best efficiency, it has limitations. The gas turbine can only use Natural gas or high grade oils like aviation or diesel fuel. Because of this the combined cycle can be operated only in locations where these fuels are available and cost effective.

t Compressor Intake .A.ir

~Developments for gasification of coal and use in the gas turbine are in advanced stages. Once this is proven, Coal as the main fuel can also be used in the combined cycle power plant.

""':::"""" ... Fuel

I Combustor II--------,t

Gas Turbine

SSASIT

I BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

~ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANTS:-

~ADVANTAGES:

.:. Very high power-to-weight ratio, compared to reciprocating engines .

• :. Smaller than most reciprocating engines of the same power rating .

• :. Moves in one direction only, with far less vibration than a reciprocating engine .

• :. Fewer moving parts than reciprocating engines .

• :. Low operating pressures .

• :. High operation speeds .

• :. Low lubricating oil cost and consumption .

• :. It is simple to design & construct compared to a Steam Power station, since no

boilers are required .

• :. Much smaller compared to Steam Power station of same capacity .

• :. Lower operating costs .

• :. Less water used since there is no need for a condenser .

• :. Maintenance charges are low .

• :. Can be started quickly .

• :. No stand-by losses.

~DISADVANTAGES:

.:. Cost is much greater than for a similar-sized reciprocating engine since the materials must be stronger and more heat resistant. Machining operations are also more complex .

• :. Usually less efficient than reciprocating engines, especially at idle .

• :. Delayed response to changes in power settings .

• :. Problem of starting. Compressor needs to be operating thus external source of power is necessary .

• :. Net output is low since greater power is used to drive compressor .

• :. Overall efficiency of plant is low ~ 20% because of exhaust gases still containing heat. only efficient in a Combined cycle configuration .

• :. Temperature of combustion chamber is too high thus resulting in a lower life.

~CLASSIFICATION OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT:-

The gas turbine power plants which are used in electric power industry are classified into two groups as per the cycle of operation.

(a) Open cycle gas turbine.

(b) Closed cycle gas turbine.

SSASIT

I BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

~The heated gases coming out of combustion chamber are then passed to the turbine where it expands doing mechanical work. Part of the power developed by the turbine is utilized in driving the compressor and other accessories and remaining is used for power generation. Since ambient air

enters into the compressor and gases coming out of turbine are exhausted into the atmosphere, the working medium must be replaced continuously. This type of cycle is known as open cycle gas turbine plant.

~In closed cycle gas turbine plant, the working fluid (air or any other suitable gas) coming out from compressor is heated in a heater by an external source at constant pressure. The high temperature and high-pressure air coming out from the external heater is passed through the gas turbine. The fluid coming out from the turbine is cooled to its original temperature in the cooler using external cooling source before passing to the compressor. The working fluid is continuously used in the system without its change of phase and the required heat is given to the working fluid in the heat exchanger.

The arrangement of the components of the closed cycle gas turbine plant is shown in Fig.This types of cycle is known as closed cycle gas turbine power plant.

~OPEN CYCLE GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT:-

To

Airfrom Atmosphere

Atmosphere

OPEN CYCLE GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT

~CLOSED CYCLE GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT:-

Combustion Chamber & Heat

Air Supply

Generator

!

Water in Water out

CLOSED CYCLE GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT

~A simple open cycle gas turbine consists of a compressor, combustion chamber and a turbine as shown in fig.The compressor takes in ambient air and raises its pressure. Heat is added to the air in combustion chamber by burning the fuel and raises its temperature.

SSASIT

I BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

~SITE SELECTION FOR COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT:-

l)AVAILABILITY OF RAW MATERIAL:-it is necessary to locate the plant as far as possible near the natural gas sources to reduce the cost of transportation of fuel. If the plant is located away from souces of fuel field it may create problems due to failure of transportation system.

2)NATURE OF THE LAND & ITS COST:-The site selected should have high bearing capacity of at least lONjmm2 to withstand dead load of the plant. It would reduce the cost of foundation of the plant.

3)LOAD CENTRE:-A power plant must be located near the load to which the power is supplied. The location of power plant at C.G. of loads reduces the cost of transmission lines & the losses occurring in it.

4)AVAILABILITY OF LABOUR:-Large men power is needed during the construction of plant. therefore, labour should be available near the construction site at cheap cost.

5 )ACCESSIBILITY TO SITE:- The power plant should have rail and road transportation facilities.

~STATUS OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT IN INDIA:-

POWER PLANT NAME CAPACITY(MW) STATE
Godavari (Kakinada) Gas CCPP 208 Andhra Pradesh
Lakwa Gas Turbine 120 Assam
Konaseema CCGT Gas 445 Andhra Pradesh
Vijjeswaran Gas CCGT 272 Andhra Pradesh
GMR Vemagiri Gas CCGT 389 Andhra Pradesh
Samalkot/Peddapuram Gas CCGT 220 Andhra Pradesh
LANCO Kondapalli Gas CCGT 601 Andhra Pradesh
GVK Jegurupadu II Gas CCGT 220 Andhra Pradesh
GVK Jegurupadu I Gas CCGT 235 Andhra Pradesh
Gautami Gas CCGT 464 Andhra Pradesh
Namrup Gas CCGT 133.5 Assam
Kathalguri (Assam) Gas CCGT 291 Assam
Pragati Gas CCGT 330 Delhi
Indraprastha (Delhi) CCGT 282 Delhi
Vatwa Gas CCGT 100 Gujarat
Utran II CCGT Power Station 375 Gujarat
Utran I Gas CCGT 135 Gujarat SSASIT

I BY SHAILESH B. PATEL{E.C. DEPARTMENT)

COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

POWER PLANT NAME

SUGEN (Torrent Power) CCGT Paguthan Gas CCGT

Kawas Gas CCGT

Jhanor-Gandhar Gas CCPP

Jamnagar RIL Gas PP

Hazira RIL Gas CHP Plant

Hazira GSEG Gas CCGT

Hazira (Essar) Gas CCGT

Essar Hazira Gas CPP

Dhuvaran (GSECL) Gas CCGT Dhuvaran Oil GT Power Station Bhandar (Essar Hazira) Gas CCGT Vadodara Station II (GIPCL) Gas CCGT Vadodara Station I (GIPCL) Gas CCGT Faridabad NTPC Gas CCGT

Pampore Gas Turbine

Tanir Bavi Barge Gas CCPP Kayamkulam (Rajiv Gandhi) Gas CCPP BSES Kochi Gas CCGT

Uran Gas CCGT

Trombay Gas CCGT

South Bassein Gas PP

Ratnagiri III (Dhabol) Gas CCGT Ratnagiri II (Dhabol) Gas CCGT Ratnagiri I (Dhabol) Gas CCGT Karaikal Gas CCGT

Ramgarh Gas CCGT

Dholpur Gas CCGT

Anta Ga s CCGT

Sai Regency CCGT Power Plant Karuppur (APCL) CCGT Power Valuthur (Perungulam) Gas CCGT Pillaiperumalnallur Gas CCGT Kuttalam Gas CCGT India

Basin Bridge Gas Power Station Rokhia Gas Thermal Station Baramura Gas Thermal Station Agartala Gas Turbine Power Station Dadri Gas CCGT

Auraiya Gas CCGT

Aonla Gas PP

CAPACITY{MW) STATE
1147.5 Gujarat
655 Gujarat
644 Gujarat
648 Gujarat
300 Gujarat
250 Gujarat
156.1 Gujarat
515 Gujarat
32 Gujarat
219 Gujarat
220 Gujarat
500 Gujarat
165 Gujarat
145 Gujarat
430 Haryana
175 Jammu and Kashmir
220 Karnataka
360 Kerala
167 Kerala
912 Maharashtra
180 Maharashtra
152 Maharashtra
740 Maharashtra
740 Maharashtra
740 Maharashtra
33 Puducherry
113.8 Rajasthan
330 Rajasthan
413 Rajasthan
58 Tamil Nadu
119.8 Tamil Nadu
186.2 Tamil Nadu
330.5 Tamil Nadu
100 Tamil Nadu
120 Tamil Nadu
74 Tripura
21 Tripura
84 Tripura
817 Utta r Pradesh
652 Utta r Pradesh
100 Utta r Pradesh SSASIT

I BY SHAILESH B. PATEL{E.C. DEPARTMENT)

COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

ENERGY SYSTEMS

BY SHAILESH B. PATEL -090760111025

~CONCLUSION:-

Combine Cycle systems are efficient low cost systems that provides assurances of performance and operating objectives. Combine Cycle systems can be customized to the utility needs and preferences. They offer attractive economical reliable power generation. Operating flexibility of Combine Cycle power generating warrant their consideration for most power generation applications.

~REFERANCE :-

r::!>WWW. GLOBALENERGYOBSERVATORY.ORG r::!>WWW. ELECTRICALANDELECTRONICS.ORG r::!>WWW.EN.WIKIVERSITY.ORG

r::!>POWER PLANT ENGINEERING (NEW_AGE_INTERNATIONAL) BY A.K. RAJA & AMIT P. SRIVASTAVA & MANISH DWIVEDI.

SSASIT

I BY SHAILESH B. PATEL(E.C. DEPARTMENT)

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