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Psychiatry

Psychiatry

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Published by Iffat Kabir

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Published by: Iffat Kabir on Apr 24, 2011
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09/21/2014

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CRITICAL DEVELOPMENT PERIODS

! As you develop, you make more and neuronal (synaptic) interconnections, utilizing
fewer and fewer neurons. That is, many neurons undergo apoptosis after initial
neonatal period.
o 2nd and 3rd trimesters
o 8 months - 2 yrs old
o 6-7 years
o 8-9 years

HARLOW’S MONKEYS

! Experiments raising monkeys in different environments and observing them as adults.
! Three conditions were set up:
o Raised in bare-wire cage, artificial nipple, wooden armature & source of food:
! The monkeys died
o Raised in similar cage, but arm and nipple were covered by terry cloth,
providing snugly cutaneous touch:
! They survived to become antisocial but had no reproductive success
o Raised as in (2) but they saw a picture of a simple face reproductive success.
They had more success than the other groups though
! Grew up to be nerd monkeys and tried to interact with other monkeys
but had very little reproductive success. They had more success than
the other groups though.

CRECHE SYNDROME

! Baby’s denied love in neonatal period have higher mortality & morbidity rate
! Baby’s raised in a prison where they were allowed to interact with their mothers
thrived even better than the babies raised by an orphanage without such interaction
! Talking to baby’s is crucial for language development

PARENTING

! Child should be able to engage parent's attention but should not have total control
over parent’s attention (for fear of manipulation)
! Child should have reasonable boundaries for undergoing exploratory behavior.

CHILD & ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT

! INFANCY (0-2 yrs): attachment, social smile (2 months), stranger anxiety (7-8
months), oral stage, basic trust, sensorimotor
! PRESCHOOL (2-6 yrs): language, cognitive/motor skills, separation/individuation,
negativity (“NO”), anal stage, Oedipal stage (dyad " triad)
! SCHOOL AGE (6-12 yrs): logic/reason (concrete operations), latency stage,
industry/inferiority
! ADOLESCENCE (12-18 yrs): abstract thought (formal operations), autonomy,
identity vs. role confusion, peer influences

www.brain101.info

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