1 Background Nepal is a small country, which occupies a geographical area of 141,181 square kilometers sandwiched between two Asian giant’s China and India. The country is divided administratively into 5 development regions and 75 districts. Municipality is the lowest local level administration unit in each district. The number of Village Development Committee (VDC) and Municipalities are 3,995 and 58 respectively. Ecologically it is divided into three ecological regions i.e. Mountain, Hill and Terai. Landlocked, lacking substantial resources for economic development, and hampered by an inadequate transportation network, Nepal is one of the least developed nations in the world. The economy is heavily dependent on imports of basic materials and on foreign markets for its forest and agricultural products. Nepal imports essential commodities, such as fuel, construction materials, fertilizers, metals, and most consumer goods, and exports such products as rice, jute, timber, and textiles. Almost all Nepalese live in villages or in small market centres. Outside of Kāthmāndu, there are no major cities. Smaller urban centres (Biratnagar, Nepalganj, and Birganj) are located in the Tarai along the Indian border, and Pokharā is situated in a valley in the mid-mountain region. In addition, a few townships—such as Hitaura, Butwal, and Dharan—have begun to emerge in the foothills and hill areas, where economic activity has developedThe political and administrative system of Nepal has not made those changes in trade, investment, and related economic policies that would expedite economic development and attract foreign capital. The government’s development programs, which are funded by foreign aid, also have failed to respond directly to the needs of rural people (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2010). This study will make an inquiry about socio economic status of female who are carpet weavers in Nepal. The woolen carpet industry has been one of the most important labor markets in Nepal, especially during the (early) 1990s. Carpet manufacturing in Nepal received a major momentum when Tibetan refugees fled south in the early 1960s.Seeing the history we find some facts about the starting of carpet weaving in Nepal. According to spiny babbler (2007) the well known carpet making tradition entered Nepal only in 1959 along with around 15,000 Tibetan refugees who fled to the country. The Tibetan-Nepalese carpet making industry started with this group of Tibetan weavers and remained small up until it was revealed to the West and flourished in the

2 years that followed. In 1961, the Swiss organized Jawalakhel Handicraft Center was formed and soon became the focus of carpet making in Nepal. The master weavers from Gyantse, the best carpet making area of central Tibet, who settled in Nepal eventually taught their skills to others resulting in an increase in production of better carpets. The hand spun wool, high quality dyes, and Tibetan designs produced carpets that would soon grow into a major industry in the country. The Swiss again helped in marketing by generating a market in Europe and promoting the art there as well as establishing system of design with graph paper to produce uniformity. Then carpet weaving industry spread around Nepal where Tibetan refugees had settled, especially inside the Kathmandu Valley. By mid 1970, the business was firmly established. Many women are involved in carpet weaving. The United Nations has defined the status of women in the context of their access to knowledge, economic resources, and political power, as well as their personal autonomy in the process of decision making. When Nepalese women's status is analyzed in this light, the picture is generally bleak. Though some changes are observed recently, many may be having the various problems. Carpet weaving factories (Cottage industries) were every where in the past . But The decrease in carpet export in recent years has made the industry struggle. This situation surely have left impact on the female labors of Carpet factory. When we deeply observe Nepalese social system we find some typical roles of women. The senior female member played a commanding role within the family by controlling resources, making crucial planting and harvesting decisions, and determining the expenses and budget allocations. Yet women's lives remained centered on their traditional roles--taking care of most household chores, fetching water and animal fodder, and doing farm work. Their standing in society was mostly contingent on their husbands' and parents' social and economic positions. They had limited access to markets, productive services, education, health care, and local government. Malnutrition and poverty hit women hardest. Female children usually were given less food than male children, especially when the family experienced food shortages. Women usually worked harder and longer than men. By contrast, women from high-class families had maids to take care of most household chores and other menial work and thus worked far less than men or women in lower socioeconomic groups. The economic contribution of women was substantial, but largely unnoticed because their traditional role was taken for granted. When employed, their wages normally were 25 percent less than those paid to men. In most rural areas, their employment outside the household

3 generally was limited to planting, weeding, and harvesting. In urban areas, they were employed in domestic and traditional jobs, as well as in the government sector, mostly in low-level positions. One tangible measure of women's status was their educational attainment. Although the constitution offers women equal educational opportunities, many social, economic, and cultural factors contributed to lower enrollment and higher dropout rates for girls. Illiteracy imposed the greatest hindrance to enhancing equal opportunity and status for women. They were caught in a vicious circle imposed by the patriarchical society. Their lower status hindered their education, and the lack of education, in turn, constricted their status and position. Although the female literacy rate has improved noticeably over the years, the level in the early 1990s fell far short of the male level. The level of educational attainment among female children of wealthy and educated families was much higher than that among female children of poor families. This class disparity in educational attainment was also true for boys. In Nepal, as in many societies, education was heavily class-biased. However, policy of Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare (MOWCSW) (2010) speaks about , mainstreaming , gender equality, empowerment, protection of reproductive right, and other positive policies. Whatsoever the policy talks about we can easily claim that the women carpet weavers may face many challenges. With the help of this study the researcher tries to open up the social and economic facts about carper weaving Nepali women. 1.2 Objective of the Study The major objective of the study is to explore the social disparity and economic dependency of female weavers in carpet industries in Lalitpur area. To achieve the goal of general objective, the following specific objectives have been set: 1. 2. 3. 1.3 To find out the socio-economic status of women weavers working in carpet industries. To explore the factors determining their socio-economic status. To analyse and discuss the conditions for improving socio-economic status of female carpet weavers. Statement of the Problem In Nepal, Process of industrial development was initiated during the mid 1930. Most of Nepalese carpet industries have low level of productivity due to lack of sufficient capital,

4 machinery, technique and train labours. The labours are the backbone of the industry, but labours are most neglected factor of production because of the weak bargaining power. They are not provided appropriate or minimum facilities and they are not satisfied with their job. Due to dissatisfaction among theme there is high rate of labours turnover. After 1950 Nepal openly welcomed economic growth strategy to lift the national economy. This economic growth expected to bring changes in common problems such as poverty, hunger, illiteracy, and infant mortality. But the economic growth strategy has failed to reduce poverty, hunger, illiteracy and infant mortality. Today Nepal is in a stage of stagnation, our economy is stagnant. It is not due to our traditionalism but because of our incorporation within global capitalist and regional capitalist system. This incorporation has increased our dependency rate on capitalist world and lowered to reproduce our indigenous mode of production. At present, Nepalese carpet industrial worker are not in the scene, their voices are not heard, there work are not valued and there future is dependent up on decision made by employers and government. The small carpet industries in Nepal are located in the several places and playing vital role in national income being a higher labour intensive industry, the carpet industry employs a lot of labours. Most of labours are coming from surrounding area their numbers are increasing as more industry are increasing. This study attempted to explore the position of female carpet industrial labours (weavers) because their status is very poor and they might be suppressed economically and socially. Hence, this study is generally based on the present status of women weavers in a carpet industry at Lalitpur. It examined their socio economic status. So the women working in the carpet industry are the focal point of the study.


Research questions On the basis of Problem statement and the objectives of the study the following research

questions will guide me during the study process. 1. What are the roles of women carpet labours (weavers) in carpet industry? 2. What are their socio-cultural and economic backgrounds?

5 3. What are the facilities they gain in their industry? 4. What are the problems they face in their job? 5. How are they managing their economic status? 6. How is their relation with their male counterpart? 7. How do they feel about their social and economic roles? 8. What kind of dependency position is there between female workers and owners? 1.5 Delimitation The scope of the study is to explore the female carpet weavers socio-economic status. For this purpose, this study will be conducted in the carpet industries situated in Lalitpur Municipality. This study will be limited to working of female weavers/ labours inside the carpet industry only. The female carpet weavers, males as their counter parts and their managers will be the respondents of the study.

pp. Ghimire. easy communication among them. they are just another investment on the part of capitalism.1. It involves class domination. 2. R. Instead. the mutual dependency of these two classes is not a relationship of equality and of respectable reciprocity.1. 212-13) Marx focus the workers are alienated because they are simply 'cogs' in the means of production. Economically and politically poor workers are on the periphery . In the capitalist society. (H. oppressor and oppressed. Various literatures have been reviewed and it is presented here after. Dependency Theoretical Perspective Dependency theory deals about unequal economy and political relationship and there dominate position of the system. repeated conflicts over economic rewards and the growth of class consciousness. Here the carpet owner can be perceived as bourgeoisie and the labour as proletariat. it is a relationship of exploiter and exploited. The capitalist class gains at the expense of the labour class and there is. Ghimire. R. p. the bourgeoisie and proletariat are dependent up on each other however. et. This book argues that the exploitation of labour has developed and increased in to complex structure of domination in the class relation and the political order was established to safeguard the system of domination. 2004 Engel presented this issue in "The Origins of the Family.2003. "Class is the manifestation of economics differentiation.Marxist approach.1. Sociological Models and Perspective. a conflict of interest between them. There must also be a physical concentration of masses of people.1 2.(Marx in Rao.6 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter covers the review of literatures related to the study area. Sociological Models and Perspective.2003) 2. Marxist theory focuses on the domination of workers by the ruling class. (Marx in Rubin. therefore.al:p 848)." (H. Marx said. Dependency theory or Neo. Private Property and the State"1884.160). Marx thinks social class as the crucial mechanism for changing social system(Dahal. oppression and conflict in both intra-national and international social relations. 1975.2. Theoretical Review Marxist Theoretical Perspective The present study entitled "Socio-economic status of Female Carpet Weavers " is associated with Marxist perspective.

and other aspects are controlled and exploited by core (owners). Their economic. dress etc. Frank can also be applicable. pattern. Baran. C. Furtado. attitudes. This theory. This theoretical view focus the core has become successful to earn more profit and collect the capital by exploiting the periphery. G.7 of the system. the ruling classes and other skilled and supervisory personnel.G. The core had free labour the periphery had forced labour and semi periphery had share cropping. Wallerstein. political status of labours in carpet factory. Frank argues that. which dominated Marxist thinking on the world economy from the late 1960s to the late 1970. Frank and others. development is impossible for a country which economy is dependent up on the economy of a core country.G. Dependency theory of A. The main advocates of this theory are P. Dependency feminists offered a very different account of women's marginalization in the development process of that offered by Women In Development scholars. (Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein) Dependency theory argues. Each of the three parts of the international division of labour tended to differ in terms of mode of labour control. economic. By analysing women's domestic labour as a subsidy to the process of capital accumulation they challenged the boundaries of traditional Marxist analysis which located women primarily in the private sphere and therefore as irrelevant to the workings of capital. He defines his theory that underdeveloped countries always have to depend on the developed countries due to exploitation process. Dependency can also mean that LDCs adopt DCs education. system. A. A. we must understand how it is exploited by core. Dependency theory is also called the Neo-Marxist theory. We fine unequal development process all over the world and the main reason of it is the exploitation of capitalism. (Todaro-1993) The solidarity of capitalism was ultimately based on its unequal development different parts of the capitalist world system came to specialize in specific function breeding labour power further more different areas came to specialize in producing particulars types of worked for example afraid produced slaves western and southern Europe had many peasant tenant. Dependency theorist critically argues that the labours suffering from problem is not from the result of backwardness but the result of exploitation.farmers western Europe was also the centre of wage workers. while noticing the social. 1977) . Dependency concept was firstly started in 1950 in Latin America. politics. (Elliot. if we want to understand why a labour remains periphery. which theoretical view accepted that unequal economic status existing as the outcome of exploitation.

animate political conflicts.8 The unequal development is due to the production of exploitation that is historical relationship between capitalists and labour forces. and its control over society is consolidated in a particular type of political system. when the mode of production itself is changing as a result of developments in technology and in the utilization of labour. Conflict is not necessarily negative. such conflicts become extreme (Encyciopadia of Bratina. 2006). a. (Green) 2.1. Marx and Engel's thought that the dynamism of history was generated by inevitable class conflict economically determined.4 Policies about female in Nepal MOWCSW (2010) has given following main policies regarding females of Nepal. Conflict is the deliberate attempt to oppose. which is considered as an essential part of the structure and development of capitalism in the world. Which tries to address the socio economic sector of women.1. (Frank. The relations between the classes are antagonistic because they are in conflict over the appropriation of what is produced. According to Marx.3 Conflict Theoretical Perspective The theory of conflict is at the centre of Marx's social theory. as a universal nonhuman situation. He used historical structural approach to exploitation and imbalanced relationship between them in the capitalist world system. because it can ultimately foster social cohesiveness by identifying social problems to be overcome. The dominant class. of his alienation. and economic conflicts. resist the will of another or others. it will be possible for him to proceed to a radical transformation of his situation by a revolution. Mainstreaming Mainstreaming incorporates women's concern and issues in the national and sectoral development policies and protects women's right and authority through the enactment of . argued Coser in "The Functions of Social Conflict (1936)". according to Marx. for it is the social classes formed within a particular mode of production that tend to establish a particular form of state. controls not only material production but also the production of ideas. 2006). Engel argues that when man has become aware of his loss. it thus establishes a particular cultural style and a dominant political doctrine. Rising classes that gain strength and influence as a result of changes in the mode of production generate political doctrines and movements in opposition to the ruling class (Encyciopadia of Bratina. 1967) 2. and in certain periods.

It helps include women's household labour as a productive activity giving due weights in the national accounts. d. banking or other financial services. b. It tells to increase the access of women in the information. That is. Children and Social Welfare provide support to the existing women development cells in the sectoral ministries and help establish such cells in other relevant ministries. Gender Equality Gender Equality institutionalises gender sensitisation programme for the policy makers. reduce gender disparity and improve /reform legal and administrative policy if necessary. thus can be seen as a survival mechanism and perhaps one of the few ways in which the women can achieve some modest means of empowerment. The informal networks in which the women are part of. formal education or even political rights.9 necessary laws as per the need. Protect women's reproductive right assures women of their rights access and control over productive resources. According to Boudville (2004) the women are often marginalised in multiple ways. c. they may have little access to health care. planners and implementers from grass root to national level. Empowerment Empowerment assures women''s empowerment by enhancing the role of women in the policy formulation and decision . It shouts for trengthening the institution capacity of Ministry of Women. Increasing the literacy of women assures the access of women on institution all and alternative credit facilities for increasing the paid and self-employment opportunities. e. Karimi Zahra (2008) said the process . Similarly the policy aims to increase the participation of women in the design of development policy and programmes in all levels. education and communication designed to reduce the workload of women and increasing their productivity. Protect women's reproductive right . The policy equally supports to promote the formal and non-formal education and make the formal education compulsory for women. The government out to undertake necessary administrative measures to institutionalise the women empowerment process.making at the national and sectoral levels. Increasing the literacy of women. Likewise. The policy talks about undertakeing measures to remove structural obstacles that hinder women''s participation in national development.

that can contribute much to the upliftment of the country if organized. It aims at correction certain industrial real adjustment growing out of industrial change.in recent years. (Tylor. very limited research has been published for the favour of carpet industrial labours or owners and very few published literature regarding the condition of employment opportunities of workers in carpet industries. similar situations are reported in various forums in Nepal to. 2. Furthermore. weaving is consistent with the subordinate position of women carpet weavers within the household. The paper reported the findings of an informal survey of carpet weavers conducted in and around the Iranian city of Kashan. Where as the trade unions and the workers are always dominating for full-fledged implementation of the provisions of the labour act 1991. If labours are job satisfied.(Rug mark Bulletin-2005. Carpet production in Nepal takes place on contract basis and no job are fixed as the orders are controlled by the importers.23) The rise and growth of modern industries with a complicated industrial system has given rise to labour problem in various countries. there . In such context no carpet exporters and producer can guarantee the jobs for the workers. However. In every industrial country of the world rights privileges of labour have sought to be secured mainly through labour legislation to promote social welfare is the main purpose of labour legislation. As the production costs of its rivals have fallen. showing how harsh international competition has reduced the weavers' real wages and restructured the labor force of the industry in Iran. pp.2 Reviews of the Previous Studies Main discussion all over the world is that industrial labours have equal rights and responsibility for the development of economic activities. surging international trade has reduced the market share of Iran's labor-intensive products. especially Persian carpets. Some available literatures are reviewed and presented below. and poor Afghan immigrant householders and their children are increasingly taking the place of Iranian weavers. development and motivated properly. They are also ready to take greater challenge in the face of the new millennium.10 of economic globalization has winners and losers. 1953) Labour as only mobile factor of production. No carpet industries will be in a position to provide them an appointment letter. Middle-income families have left the industry. as a form of employment. Iran's carpet industry provides a good illustration of the adverse side of this process. it has hardly affected the social status quo. Literatures related to Female Carpet weavers are far more below.

They are Nepal Factory and Factory Actors Act 1959 and other is Nepal Factory and Factory Workers Act 2016 and Bonus Act 1974 (Nepal Ain Sangra. Increase of national production would not possible by a disgruntled. CWIA). wherever people are at work (pant and Agrawal. 1980). enjoy with poor wage and light work and are unable to bargain for decent wage.11 performance and efficiency would be very high in the industries for the production. The reason why the industry is facing labour shortage is nothing but its poor wage rates (N. Instead. Surprisingly. Labour might play a crucial factor to develop the country's industrialization as it had been seen in developed world. Today few unions are organized uniquely on a craft or industrial basis. a large number of Nepalese youth are flying to the third countries for employment. 1984).P. 2062. 1986). For the protection of the interest of the workers. Labour legislation is essential a social. labour legislation is necessary. It is high time the employers realize or are made to realize. large industrial unions may set up special divisions for particular occupational groups within their jurisdictions. Industry is the second sector to generate national income. or craft unions may become industrial as they organize additional no skilled workers in new industries (Encyclopaedia Britannica. Nepali carpet industry at present is facing the shortage of labour supply. that the welfare of labour is their responsibility in the first place. economic. contributing significantly the process of economic development. to establish the norms of labour management relations to strengthen the place of workers in society and also to promote industrial place. Their often-sluggish moral conscience should be fully awakened to the need of properly observing laws passed by the government of the country (Gupta and Singh. dispirited and indifferent labour forces. the degree and nature of worker participation in decision making. and the patterns of cooperation and conflict resolution that .2031). otherwise there will be lots of problems for employees and employers (Khanal 1996). the role of labour unions and other forms of worker representation. The principle of labour participation in management affords a means of self realization in work and meets the psychological need of men and women at work by eliminating every long extent and sending of fertility insolence and consequence frustration that they face in normal industrial setting (Sthapit. In Nepal there are basically two important acts that guide the norms of industrial relation. political legislation pertaining to various human problem in relation to industry. The gap is fulfilled by the labour forces that are unable to go abroad. Who study industrial relations attempt to explain variations in the conditions of work. 2006). Bhattarai.

it is known as Tripartions system. pp. This study quoting other reports. 2006) Government makes contract work linked with production as a full provision in the labour laws and unorganised sector of the carpet industry will continue to grow. (Rugmark Bulletin. It was established to improve the labour condition based up on social justice. who earn far less than a daily labourer. It is bad situation for carpet weavers. In 1957 the government announced the industrial policy of Nepal.12 occur among workers and employers. which today brings together representatives of government. This will create lose and lose situation for all the stakeholders. employers and workers from 132 countries (Pant and Agrawal. or abandoned by parents or from vary poor economic background (Dipa Regmi-2005). These patterns of interaction are then related to the outputs of organizations. assisting. Nepal. The labour law is completely unimplemented in the carpet industries in Nepal. Carpet workers will loose as it is happening now and will continue to loose more in the future as their salary and wage have not been reviewed for past five to six year in the name of bad market situation and political safety and security issue and unorganised sector. During the late 1940s and early 1950s.2005. 1980) Timilsina (1998) in his Thesis "The women Labours of Patan Industrial Estate" argues that the workers rights and organised labour were in transition in mid 1991. under which it undertook the responsibility of promoting. some labour disputes led to strikes and lockouts and labour unions sprang up in various factories. "The popularity of the Tibeto-Nepalese carpet in the European hand-knotted carpet market created a modern industry in peri-urban Kathmandu. the International Labour Organization ILO was set up to carry out three important factors of industrial relations system. ranging from workers' job satisfaction and economic security to the efficiency of the organization and its effects on the community and society. 23) Many of the child labour that are found working in the carpet industries are either orphans. and regulating industries. Some literatures regarding carpet labours in Nepal were found during the review . "This paper employs Igor Kopytoff’s (1986) . In 1919. Government employees and trade union together for United Nation is the cause of social justice. further said.On the same area . (Encyclopaedia of Britannica. mason and construction workers. where there is no inspection and monitoring continues to thrive. that established the Tibetan refugee population there as well as a new class of Nepalese entrepreneur. Neill (1999) said. These outputs span the interests and goals of the parties to the employment relationship.

and class structure of refugee society. and factors . particularly by adults who control their weaving wages. explore the extent of. the collapse of the Nepalese carpet industry—in part due to persistent child labor reports—has meant that wages do not keep up with urban living costs. as well as subsidies to the weaver’s parental household. Puri and Cleand (2007) on their article Assessing the Factors Associated With Sexual Harassment Among Young Female Migrant Workers in Nepal. There are some other literatures which talk more about socio economic problems in Nepal. Easy access to the lucrative ‘middle’ markets of Europe has meant that Tibeto-Nepalese carpets are now standardized to compete with other categories of floor coverings. Foreign consumers exert conflicting pressures for artistic and technical change as well as for the preservation of 'traditional' production and motifs.13 perspective on the social life of things and Keith Hart’s (1982) definition of commoditization to argue that the short career of the Tibeto-Nepalese carpet as an export commodity has been one of increasing homogenization that has transformed the materials. demonstrating that the commoditization of handicrafts has had multiple and contradictory impacts on the culture. and meanings of the carpet. Neill. but working conditions often led to high levels of indebtedness. the persistence of reports about child labor exploitation in the Nepalese carpet industry. increasing weaving debt and undermining the ability to make remittances. economy. Recently. Young Nepalese carpet weavers were victimized not so much by traditional labor practices as by the capricious cycles of global capitalism. Similarly McGuckin (1997) analyzed the Tibetan refugee carpet industry.said. support refugee institutions. and that the unique hand-knotted quality desired by connoisseurs and collectors is slowly being eliminated. Tibetan carpets remain functional objects for their community of origin while they simultaneously advertise Tibetan culture internationally. A study of union and nonunion carpet weavers found that most young weavers were not victims of traditional forms of debt bondage and coercive control. (2004). but some weavers have been able to remain in control of this salary advance system. begs an account of how carpet-weaving labor is recruited. weaving techniques. remunerated. and cater to the tastes of outside consumers. Remittances to families have also been associated with weaving wage exploitation. The 'auth enticity' of Tibetan carpets is thus called into question. Salary advances (peskii) allowed weavers to compensate for cash shortfalls and meet unusual expenses. and reproduced.

The methodology included participatory indicators of children's social. economic. Perpetrators included co-workers. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to identify the factors associated with harassment. boyfriends. The results suggest the need for advocacy and a range of factory-based interventions. Those who were exposed to pornographic movies were more likely than those with no exposure to any kind of movies to report sexual harassment. sexual harassment of young female migrant workers in the carpet and garment factories in Kathmandu Valley. employers. This paper discusses qualitative and quantitative research data generated by a team of Nepali practitioners striving to address child labour issues. and Shrestha (2005) said that in the developing metropolis public perceptions about caste and ethnicity are influenced by historical trends in decisions about occupations. lack of self-esteem.14 associated with. and relatives. Information was drawn from a survey of 550 female workers aged 14 to 19 and 12 in-depth case histories. and other socioeconomic problems made them vulnerable to these abuses. The survey found that 1 in 10 young women had experienced sexual harassment or coercion. Cross . other related and relevant literatures were reviewed before the field work. Case histories revealed that the inability of young women to communicate effectively with their peers and sex partners. Organisations working with Tamang child labourers have predominantly used quantitative research data to construct their intervention strategies. . an ethnic group who represent a small percentage of the country's population. The paper will draw on children's perspectives to highlight the role of ethnicity in opportunity and exploitation. a large percentage of workers are Tamang. job insecurity. This has left many factors unexamined. but what does this mean for children whose families decide they work? In Kathmandu's carpet industry. Sharma . The purpose of their study was to examine the social and cultural factors influencing child migration and the quality of life for children in the carpet industry. physical and psychological well-being. On the light of above mentioned international journals and policy literatures.

& Shaughnessy. They were of different background and age group. Zechmeister. & Festinger.A study without a proper methodology used cannot be called a wild goose chase. It explored and explained the cases from Patan Lalitpur. 2005). to carry out study works smoothly and to visualize all to works clearly. Lalitpur Sub-metropolitan city . to fulfill the aim the researcher applied descriptive and exploratory research design.1 Selection of Research Area Labour and owner are the opposite part of the same coin. . Every study needs a good and proper methodology. Industries were located in Lalitpur district. Major aim of this research was description and exploration of the socio economic aspect of female carpet weavers. quasi-experimental and case designs (Zechmeister. Research method is an important for the all type of research. there are typically four main types of research design: Descriptive and co-relational.15 CHAPTER – III RESEARCH METHODS This chapter details the data generation and analysis procedure that was used in this study. methodology is the body of methods. used in this study is described in this chapter. 3. Carpet industry is the major industrial sector of Nepalese economy and this study is based on five selected industries to find out the conclusion of the research. DeMatteo. rules and postulates employed by the discipline. It has also listed the research design and participant selection procedure in brief as well as the research standardization procedure that was employed for the consistency of data and information.2 Research Design A research design is a planned for answering the research questions. So. experimental. A sketch of method. In sociological research. This research mainly goes to explain the different aspects of relationship between female Carpet weavers and owners. 3. For a researcher. It is a particular procedure or set of procedures which deals with how research is conducted(Marczyk.This study selected 25 carpet weaving women form five carpet industries. 2009).

sociocultural. In these industries some of them partly engaged and some are fully depending in carpet weaving and wool spinning.16 Hence. Primary data is most important for the specific objectives. As whole industries are not a studying area. books. Nepal Rastra Bank. In order to fulfil the special objective of the study.metropolis. It is based on: (a) The descriptive research design and (b) The explorative research design. reports. Most of them are interested to share their problem for research and also interested to help for this researching work. health and cultural conditions of the carpet weaving women . So it would contribute to an appropriate profile of carpet industries in this Sub.3 Source of Data Primary as well as secondary data were used in this study. Besides this. economic. Carpet Association of Nepal. and others sources. Here are two major goals that sampling can achieve: (a) The first is to establish the representativeness and to reduce bias. registered and non registered carpet industries established in different wards. journals. political condition of female carpet weavers. only 25 female weavers were selected for taking interview out of 230 female carpet weavers. the present study is specially designed to describe the social.4 Universes and Sampling Lalitpur sub-metropolis is the main study area. 3. About 90 % of the weavers are female. (b) The second is to be able to make inferences. some specific and valuable secondary data included. census and other related literature. And other important things that. political. Lalitpurar Sub-metropolis. which research wants to get. Primary data were collected from: (a) Observation (b) Interview and (c) Survey Similarly secondary data were collected from related published and unpublished works. 3. the analysis is mainly based on primary data. Past and present condition have been identified and described to dependency condition. There are large scale of small. only 5 (five) industries are selected for study purpose. economic. and educational. More than thousand persons are engaged in carpet weaving and spinner. .

3. Interview has been used for the collection of data form female carpet weavers in carpet industries.1 Interview One of the most common uses of the interview is to collect life-history and biographical data about the research participants (Anastasi & Urbina. It is a direct method of data collection. political and educational condition. which is primary goal of this study. Observation Observation as one of their central data gathering method. Similarly. 3. . Interviews are a relatively common way of collecting data in research and the data they collect and the forms they take are limited only by the requirements of the research question and the related research design( Marczyk.6 Toold of Data Collection Primary data was required for the nature of the study and the researcher collected the required information though different techniques such as interview. purposive sampling.5 Sampling Procedure In this study. is a method of sampling in which the units in a sampling frame are numbered and then drawn in to the sample if they match the purposive numbers which have been selected.6. 2005). 3. It serves most directly the research purpose of description. Purposive sampling method was applied for selecting carpet industries. the interview should be thought out beforehand and standardized so that all participants are asked the same questions in the same order. interview was designed for collection primary data. 1997). Specially. Schwandt defines observation in qualitative research as "direct firsthand eye-witness account of everyday social action". the researchers conducting the interview should be trained in its proper administration to avoid variation in the collection of data.2. observation and survey. In this study. The effectiveness of an interview depends on how it is structured. In this study observation can bring greater clarity in carpet industrial worker's socioeconomic.6. The 25 female respondents of the research were of 3 registered and 2 non-registered carpet industries. In other words. Interview technique is a verbal method of securing data especially in the field of research. Dematto & Festinger. Simple random sampling was used in selecting 25 female carpet weavers as respondents from 230 of their population. In this study group interview and personal interview were used to collect the data. It is a two way purposeful conversation initiated by an interviewer to obtain information that is relevant to research proposal.17 3.

To truly understand these interactions requires special attention to the concept of validity. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis is done to check the reliability. Its primary purpose is to increase the accuracy and usefulness of findings by eliminating or controlling as many confounding variables as possible. Quantitative method focuses the statistical tools for data analysis. Survey Survey is a method of collecting data. This thesis used purposive sampling. In this study all the process were used to find out the conclusion. Interview. Coding. which highlights the need to eliminate or minimize the effects of irrelevant influences. were used to to collect data. Multiple methods were used for trangulation process. which allows for greater confidence in the findings of a given study.8 Data Processing and Analysis Data processing mainly focuses the three process: Editing. therefore. On the other sides. 3. Reliability is accuracy or a precision of a measuring instruments and validity is a scale process its validity when it actually measures what it claims to measure. 3. 3. variables. The research tools used here were first practiced in the field and expert judgment was asked to established the validity and reliability. researchers are interested in explanations for the effects and interactions of variables as they occur across a wide variety of different settings.9 Limitation of Study . survey. data analysis process emphasis the data analysis from Qualitative and Quantitative methods. explanation and descriptions are qualitative. Furthermore. This process of collecting data is measure technique during the field works and data collected by this process are analysis using various statistical technique. Observation. Validity is. Statistical comparison and explanation are quantitative and field observation.3. a very important and useful concept in all forms of research methodology. 2004).6. It is claimed that there is reliability and validity on the data. The primary purpose of all forms of research is to produce valid conclusions. and explanations that might detract from a study’s ultimate findings.18 3.7 Reliability and Validity of Data Validity is an important term in research that refers to the conceptual and scientific soundness of a research study (Graziano & Raulin. and Tabulation and Classification of data. In this study it is a systematic study method for collecting primary data from the carpet industry or carpet industrial labours.

polity and others. The study was based on exiting situation observed and general view of the respondents from the carpet industries. and working environment female carpet weavers. This study was only focused on the relationship between female carpet weavers and owners. social security. political securities are the major part of capacity development. especially for industrial workers. Due to the limited excess and limited cost the researcher could not visit the field many times for member checking. who are socially discriminated form economy. dependency condition. Financial security. .19 The study had limited time to conduct field work. So it was not possible to explore detailed condition of the Carpet weaving women of all the carpet industries of Kathmandu valley. This study has focused only those labours who are full time carpet weaving female labours. economic status. Therefore only five carpet industries were selected for the study.

SATA's financial and marketing support enabled the refugees to continue weaving carpet utilizing their traditional hand knotting technique. Wool Sorting and Washing. From the wool of sheep. The art of weaving is an old tradition in Nepal. In Nepal the carpet industry began to grow after China Cultural Revolution. they make different types of flooring rugs like Raadi. The imperial carpet factories were established in Agra. when many Tibetans immigrated to Nepal bringing there skill of carpet weaving with them in 1959 to live as refugees.2007. In habitants of hill and mountains of Nepal have been traditionally producing local variants of carpets called "Radhi" and "Pakhi" -which are even today famous among not only the Nepalese but also quite many foreigners (NCEA News. the first carpet industry in Nepal . It was introduce in India during 16th century by the Mughal emperors. Spinning d. b. was originated in the North of the country which traditionally had direct links with Tibet. SATA started supporting Tibetan refugees for their rehabilitation.N. Lukuni and galaincha as well as Sweaters. In such way.16). Carding c. The production process of Nepalese carpet includes: a. Pakhi. The commercial production of the carpet in Nepal started in Nepal from 1960. The art of weaving is as old as civilization. Socks and Coats and other items (ibid). 47)."The Jawalakhel Handicraft Center" was established in 1960 (CWIN Document: S.pp.IV INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY AREA 4. with the help of International Red-Cross and Swiss government. Dyeing . Delhi and Lahore (Pakistan) during the reign of Akbar and Sahajahan (CWIN. Jackets. This is the year when the Tibetan refuges who fled in to Nepal started making carpets from their livelihood (ibid). In Nepal carpet weaving has a traditional occupation of people living in the Himalayan region for years. 1996).1 Development of Carpet Industry in Nepal Carpet Industry in Nepal.20 CHAPTER.

therefore. However few industries were already existed before that period. Fiscal Year 1995-1996 1996-1997 1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 Quantity (000 Sq. the scale of these industries was very small and quantity of production was also small. Most all the carpet industries have been started only after 2030 B. h.2007) Carpet Industry in Nepal is largest industrial employer and number one earner of foreign exchange. The carpet is the most important export commodity of Nepal. Switzerland and Britain. Early carpet industries were under operation only to meet local demand of the people. g. Packing (NCEA News. Final Finishing i. Nepali carpets are woven by hand.) 2614 2891 2447 2605 2509 2243 1693 1567 1618 1664 1422 1320 1290 Source: NCEA ("Nepal Carpet Exporter's Association" News 2007) Nepalese carpet is mostly exported to Germany.21 e. Knotting (Weaving) f.S. thus it provides vital contribution in GNP. The only material required are raw . Washing and Drying. Table No: 1 Total quantity of carpet. The carpet industrial sector is of recent origin in Nepal. The wool has to be imported from New Zealand to satisfy the shortfall. which exports overseas from Nepal. Mtr. Trimming. larger then readymade garments or agricultural production. hence carpet knotting plays an important role to increase national economy of Nepal.

(Encyclopaedia-2006) The carpet industry is one of the most important economic activities of the country accounting nearly 30 percent of the total export earning and 3 percent of GDP. Carpet industry plays a vital role to increase economic condition of our country. It provides much needed off farm employment to approximately two hundred thousand people. row-by-row as a guide to the weaver. When a row is finished. which are fixed to a horizontal base to keep the loom rigid. A complete handmade status known in the world market.The reason that Nepalese carpet has its place in the world market is its speciality. dye. The knotting starts with the help of a graph. This technique sets the Tibetan carpet apart from all other contemporary hand-woven carpets. mostly deprived rural poor and women. although there are archaeological fragments of a similar technique from Coptic Egypt and Central Asia dating from the first millennium AD. It also promotes and develops tourism industry in our country. The woolen yarn is tied with two warp threads at different positions with the help of a weaving rod. The Nepali carpet is woven in a slit-loop technique in which the yarn is looped under a warp attached to the loom and then drawn toward the weaver and over a metal gauge rod before being returned to the rug and looped around another warp. Adoptability in any size and colour. Nepalese carpets are woven in the Tibetan knotting system. Carpets are woven on vertical looms. Use of quality raw materials. One or more weavers work on a loom depending on the size of the carpet. Good resilient property. Each weaver makes individual knots row after row.2 Carpet weaving Procedure Nepalese carpets are hand-woven. (Carpet Development committee-2061) export of good carpet to the foreign countries has helped to bring good relationship between Nepal and other foreign countries. e. Long durability due to double knotting technique used in weaving (knotting) process. This process is continued breadth-wise from left to right.22 wool. 4. The major specialties of Nepalese carpet are: a. simple spinning machines and wooden looms . a knife is passed along a groove in the gauge rod. c. cutting the loops of yarn and thus forming a pile. b. thread. d. The design of the carpet is drawn on a graph paper and hands downs from the top of the loom. or is unrolled. which may be of wood or iron. The cotton weft is then inserted in between the warp thread . The loom consists of two vertical poles.

4. 01 02 03 04 05 20 20 9 9 17 Designer Rugs Newraj Carpet Industry PL Carpet Industry Nepal Carpet Khamsung Karpet Registered Registered Registered NonRegistered NonRegistered Source: Field Work 2011 There were five carpet industries selected after consulting the managers of the industries. male Weavers of Sample 9 2 4 .17 and 20 . a woolen pile is formed. Lalitpur sub-metropolish. It is then beaten with an iron hammer and the wool around the iron-weaving rod is cut with a blade.NO. Designer Rugs Newraj Carpet Industry PL Carpet Industry Number of Weavers 90 20 40 Number female Weavers 89 16 30 of Number of Weavers 1 4 10 Female Sample 9 2 4 Total No.N.23 alternatively. War Name of Carpet Industries Remarks Table No: 3 List of selected carpet industries and its labours number S. Establishment of the carpet industry in Lalitpur has got a historic background. Ward No.9. The Tibetan refugees brought the skill along with them when they were kept near Jawalakhel. Name of Carpet Industries 1. This process of knotting is continued until the entire carpet is woven. 3. 2. Table No: 2 List of selected carpet industries are presented below S. d No.3 Profile of Carpet industry in Lalitpur Sub-metropolis Present study was cantered mainly in five carpet industries located at Lalitpur district. Both the male and female weaver work together . Thus.

which is more than 10 % of the population. As the research was focused on the socioeconomic status of carpet weaving women. Nepal Carpet 60 5. 230 of them were female and 20 of them were male. 25 female weavers were taken as sample. the sample was drown from 230 female weavers.24 4. Out of 250 weaving labours. found in 5 industries which made a sample frame. . Khamsung Karpet 40 Total 250 Source: Field Work 2011 55 40 230 5 0 20 6 4 25 6 4 25 Table No 3 identifies that 250 labours were the weavers.

The analysis of the chapter is based on the Interview .V DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS This chapter is mainly based on primary data. Survey. Table No. analysis and interpretation of data in term of caste. 5. 35 to 45 5. 2011 No 15 5 3 2 25 Age Group No of Respondents ntage No 60% 20% 12% 8% 100% Perce religious composition. S.25 CHAPTER. 15 to 25 3. monthly income. Observation.1. are presented and explained to attain the objectives of the study. and others related areas. No 1. educational status. 2011 Source: Field Survey. marital status.1 Socio-Cultural Aspect of Respondents Socio-cultural aspect of data mainly focused on the age composition. 25 to 35 4.1 Age Composition of Female Weavers Age composition is dividing in different age group and these groups represent the actual condition of labours on the basis of age. Given below is the information collected on the age group of female weavers presently working at carpet industries. family structure. status. which is collected from study area. residential . 5. The data are shown in different table in order to present the socio economic characters of carpet weaving women and attitude of them towards their works. family size etc. Below 15 2. labours duty hour. Only 25 Female Carpet weavers are taken to obtain the information for this study from the industries in sample fram. Above 45 Total Source: Field Survey. 4 Age wise composition of Female Carpet Weavers. educational level. marital status.cast composition. In this chapter.

2011 The above data shows that 9 respondents i. Which indicates . The distribution of the female weavers by age group shown that there is no one below age 15.1. 2. 14 respondents i. 12 percent are from 35 to 45 age group and 8 percent female weavers are from above 45 age group.e. one respondent i. It could be due to easy entry in the Carpet weaving.e. 1. The above data distinctly reveal that the highest number of workers at carpet industry comes from the age group of 15 to 25. The data inferred that young adults female are involved in carpet weaving. so different age group were found among the carpet weaving female. Hence the majority of the weavers were young adults. After the interview it is also clear that must of the Buddhist and Christians. 5. Out of 25 weavers 60 percent are from 15-25 age group. celebrate Dashain and Tihar . Total Religious Group Hindu Buddhist Christian Others No of Respondents 9 14 1 1 25 Percentage 36% 56% 4% 4% 100% Source: Field Survey.e.e. makes clear that all of the weavers are in between 16 to 50 years age group. Table No. 36 percent of the total are from Hindus. 5 Religious belief of the weavers in carpet industries. 56 percent respondents are from Buddhist. 4 percent of the total was from other religion (Kirat). Traditionally some religions restrict their followers to enter into some kinds of vocations. This study showed child labour was not permitted. female population enters into the labour market quite earlier.No. To find out such facts the data below is presented. The weavers from 15 to 50 years of age groups are engaged in carpet industries. religion is associated with job type. 4.26 Age is not obstacle bar for doing job for survival.2 Religious Composition of Female Weavers In Nepalese social system. 3. 4 percent is from Christian and one respondent i. The table presented above. 20 percent are from 25-35 age group. S.

1. Total Cast Group Brahmin/ Chattri Magar Tamang Rai Others No of Respondents 5 4 11 2 3 25 Percentage 20% 16% 44% 8% 12% 100% Source: Field Survey. 4. The sample of the study shows that majority of the female weavers were from the ethnic group of the Nepalese society. The research tried to figure out caste wise distribution of the female carpet weavers. Although it is a caste based society. Among others the socially deprived castes (Dalits) were there. creed and subcastes. In the course of research an attempt was made to find out the percentage of workers employment on the basis of caste or ethnicity. Due to this reason our society is divided into different castes. Table No. There were 20 percent Brahmin and Chattri. who did not like to expose their cast.N. 6 Caste composition of carpet weaving women S. Carpet weaving was adoped by various religious people. In addition. They all are integrated with each other and happily celebrate each other's festivals. it indicates that workers of various caste and ethnic group have been working in the carpet industrial sector of Nepal. The data from the field showed that there was no problem with the different religions to go for this job. The females . 1. which consist 44 percent of the total labours. 3. Nepal is multi-religious country where people representing various religious groups are found. 2. 16 percent Magar. It is concluded that majority of the labours are Buddhist and the second is Hindu . 2011 The above table shows that the highest numbers of Female weavers are from Tamang ethnic group. 8 percent Rai and 12 percent others.3 Caste Composition of Women Weavers Our country consists of various ethnic groups or caste groups and several religious practices. 5. 5.27 and most of the Hindus celebrate the Christmas and Loshar. Religion plays major role in labours life. Labours with different religions do respect each other's.

1. Factory wise effort may support for literacy campaign. Another indication of the data was that girls were getting basic education in recent years. First table or table no 7 (Seven) represents the literate and illiterate rate of female weavers and second table or table no 8 (Eight) expose the educational qualification of female carpet weavers.1. 3. Educational No Respondents 20 5 25 of Percentage 80% 20% 100% Table No. 8 Educational qualification of Weavers S. A unique type of uniformity and harmony was observed among the carpet weaving female population in the field. Total Educational Qualification Under S.L.L. This educational section of study is divided into two tables. This classification has done in order to find out the educational status of them.C. Status 1. Passed Intermediate No Respondents 15 4 1 20 of entage 75% 20% 5% 100% Perc .28 of so called high caste (Bramin and Chhetri) also have been working in carpet industrial sector. 7 Educational Status of Weavers S. From this situation we conclude that majority of the female weavers are literate and small numbers are illiterate.4 Educational Status of Weavers Educational status is a major part for the situational analysis of female carpet weavers. 5. Which was remarkable.No.No. Total Literate Illiterate Source: Field Survey. S. 2. Table No. 2.C. 2011 The table showed that 80 percent of female weavers were literate and remaining 20 percent of them were illiterate.

The following table provides the marital status of the respondents.29 Source: Field Survey. SLC passed female weavers revealed that they had no other option to continue higher education. Some respondents remained quiet about status and others responded. 1. Some of them are saving money to go foreign country to earn money. 3 Total Marital Status Married Unmarried Divorced No of Respondents 18 5 2 25 Percentage 72% 20% 8% 100% Source: Field Survey. The ratio of married women to unmarried was very high.L. majority of female weavers (out of 20) are under S.5 Marital Status of the Respondents Marital status also reflects social role of the female weavers.. Table No. So it is clear to say that majority of labours are literate but they have not got higher level of education. In this regard. an attempt has been made to see their marital status. 2011 The above table showed that 72 percent of the weavers were married and 20 percent were unmarried. 2011 From the above table. Higher number of married women involvement in carpet weaving indicates that they either do not have other jobs of this job is easy to find. 2. 9 Marital status of Weavers S. Similarly. 20 percent are SLC passed and 5 percent are intermediate passed.1. There were significant number of divorced weavers too. unmarried female weavers were also contributing . Not only married. They also support their family.No. Among them 75 percent are under SLC. 8 percent of the female weavers were divorced (single woman). Some are saving money by reducing their expenses to start another business to live a better life in future.C. Unmarried weavers have ambition in their life. 5.

1.6 Family Structure of Weavers Family structure is a major part for the socio-political. 3. 92 percent of the total sample lived in unclear family. They were opportunity seekers. 11 Family size of Weavers S. Nuclear 2. The finding revealed that the workers with unclear family were happier than others with joint family. Joint Total Source: Field Survey. the family structure in total might have changed.30 running their family. and cultural analysis of carpet weaving female labours. 2011 Most of female weavers i. No 1. 2. First table or table no 10 (ten) represents the family structure of workers and second table or table no 11 ( eleven) expose the family size of female carpet weavers. No Family Structure No Respondents 23 2 25 of age 92% 8% 100% Percent 1. economic. Being 92 percent of the weavers from nuclear family means. Total Family Size Below 4 4 to 6 Above 6 No of Respondents ntage 15 8 2 25 60% 32% 8% 100% Perce . The females in such family might have more freedom to choose the occupation or they might need to work for supporting their own family. Table No. The family structure of study is divided in to two tables. Given below is the information collected on the family size of worker presently working at carpet industries. Table No. 5. 10 Family structure of Weavers S. 8 percent of them lived in joint family.e. They felt that they were empowered by the job but the job was not prestigious.

3.8 Distribution of the Female Weavers on the Basis of Residence Following residence were collected the study was carrying out to find out the living condition of the respondents. No foreign were involved. only 8 percent of them were the resident of Kathmandu Valley and rest of the 92 percent of them were from different districts of the country (outside the valley). Total Residential Status From Valley Out of Valley Others Country No Respondents 2 23 0 25 of age 8% 92% 0 100% Percent Source: Field Survey. the weavers who have permanent home inside the Kathmandu valley.31 Source: Field Survey.1. 12 Weavers' residential backgrounds S. Since the study was carried out in the urban setting. the female weavers seemed conscious about their family size. The statistics shows that temporary residents were more attracted in carpet weaving sector. They said that they adopted the family planning methods. The weavers residential backgrounds are divided in to three parts. 5. Table No. 2. It revealed that carpet weaving is not the choice of the permanent residents of Kathmandu valley. Table No. 13 . 2011 The above table showed that small number of female carpet weavers. The findings have been shown in the table below. They were conscious that larger family means more problem. 5. other 32 percent had the size of 4 to 6 members and rest of the 8 percent had more than 6 members in their family.1.7 Residential Status of Weavers Following data was received from the study of respondent on the basis of residents. No 1. weavers who have come from outside the Kathmandu valley and the weavers who are not Nepali nationals. 2011 The table above makes clear that 60 percent of the weavers had less than 4 members in the family.

This study was based on study of economic status of the female weavers in carpet industry. 6 females work below 8 hours. The table below represents the duty hour composition of respondents of the study. The respondents who were not in the quarter also had joint family structure. No 1. All the industries provided them industrial quarter if they want to stay in there. which was 24 percent of the respondents. Table No. where as 28 percent of respondents lived in the rental house and 8 percent were in their own house. 3. 15 of them worked 8 to 12 hours per day. which is the 60 percent of the . Those respondents were only in rent house whose husbands were either out of the country or in other jobs who earned much.1. 4. 2011 Table showed that majority of respondents 64 percent lived in the industry quarter. Working hour is unequal of many respondents. 2011 Out of 25 respondents. No 1. 14 Per day working hour of female carpet weavers.9 Weavers' Duty Hours per day Weavers and their work is a central point of the carpet industry. S. 2. 3. 5. The weavers who were single preferred the factory quarter. Choosing of factory quarter by the female weaver was concerned with their security too. 2. Total Residential Status Rental House Own House Industry Quarter No of Respondents ntage 7 2 16 25 28% 8% 64% 100% Perce Source: Field Survey. In fact the respondents worked in flex time (flexible time).32 Residential Status S. Total Labour's duty hours 8 hours 8 to 12 hours 12 to 16 hours Above 16 hours No Respondents 6 15 4 0 25 of age 24% 60% 16% 0 100% Percent Source: Field Survey.

Satisfaction is an important factor for good production and improving the economic condition of weavers. Table No. 3. But in complex case there are no any help for workers from . Know Total 25 100 Level Satisfied Unsatisfied Do not Number 5 14 6 Percentage 20% 56% 24% Source: Field Survey. The study inquired about the satisfaction level of workers. They thought they did not have other skills and at least they were earning some. exactly 16% of the respondents working for up to 16 hours a day. Non of the weavers were engaged in other jobs. Job satisfaction helps workers to create opportunity. Whatever is shown in the table. 5. facilities.1. They were working under their parents or guardians wish.1. many weavers had worked more than 16 hours a day too to meet the need of money during festival seasons. job guarantee. 15 Level of job satisfaction S. These points were revealed from the unsatisfied weavers. The data about job satisfaction is presented below. 20 percent were satisfied because they had the job . There were 4 respondents. No 1.33 respondents. When the weavers were in general health problem the owners economically help them to solve the problem. 2011 The above table showed that majority or 56% weavers were unsatisfied with their job. A significant number of female weavers. In fact the pay. 24% were not decided whether they were satisfied or not.10 Satisfaction of Job Job satisfaction is a complex concept. 2. 5. Carpet weaving women were busy all the time for taking care of their children and kitchen work. They were trying to change the job. or good well. nothing was satisfactory. They revealed that they hardly get 5-6 hours per day to sleep. They were confused about the job. their living and many other things.11 Medical Facility for Weavers This study is based on five carpet industries and there were two types of problem founded in health sectors.

This had caused low quality of life of female weavers. Limited income caused no saving and low capacity to spend for food. which is not sufficient to maintain their family in a proper manner. there were no child care centre to care the child of workers in working period. No 1. and their children was found very much poor and unsuitable. There was not any support system to provide the money to solve the complex health problem.2 Economic Status of Respondents Economic factor is most important part to run their family. Most of the weavers were trying to maintain their economic condition and living standard. 5. 16 Monthly income S. Many sick females were on the job since they were paid per square meter. 5. They were of small size and were dark. Unhealthy toilet facility and unavailable water facility in toilet brought the disturbance for work and health. Children were not enjoying child right and the mothers were deprived from the basic human right.1. There were no medical units in the industries. shelter and entertainment. it is clearly found out that the physical condition regarding health of the weavers. Weavers were fully depended on their wage to run their family. There was no good and pure drinking water for workers.34 industrial administration and owners.2.1 Monthly Income of Weavers The study has drawn following information about respondents monthly income of the respondents . There was no proper(cross) ventilation system in order to get natural air. The biggest problem of carpet weaving mother was to balance time for the child and the work. Industry providing quarters were not in good condition.12 Physical Environment of Carpet Industrial Area From field survey and observation it is found out that the physical environment in carpet industrial area was not satisfactory. Monthly income Below Rs. There were majority of female labours and they had child. Which brought the problem in workers health. From the study area. Their small kids were around there and the environment was not good for them. Table No. Most of the industrial area. 3000 No of Respondents 5 Percentage 20% . 5. which were the major problems for carpet weaving women's life.

2. 32 percent were earning Rs. 2011 It is clear from the table that largest number of workers of carpet industry 40 percent fell in the category of earning Rs 3000 to 5000 per month.e. 3000 per month were the trainee workers or who have to work much at their homes. 3000-5000 Rs. 5000 to 7000. Total Rs. and need .7000 Above 7000 10 8 2 25 40% 32% 8% 100% Source: Field Survey. The major entertainment activity was gathering.e. The weavers and other labours were frustrated by this. clothes and other basic needs. 8 percent workers were earning above 7000 Rupees. The female weavers who made more than 7000 Rs per months were experienced weavers who worked for longer hours . the weavers can ask for an advance. In emergencies. 20 percent respondents were earning below Rs. Masters were mainly their male counter parts. They were paid less. house-rent. There was no worker to open the bank account to save the salary. There was no any profit sharing process for workers.3 Timely Payment by Owners When a carpet weaving is completed.4 Bonus System and insurance in Industry Bonus system in industrial sector is an important factor to empower the labours.2 Monthly Expenditure and Saving of Weavers Non of the weavers told that they had any savings. the weavers got payment. These persons were those groups who helped their family.35 2. The weavers were creating their own culture and trying to build the hope. no bonus system was found out.2. Only 2 respondents i. from observation and survey. which helps to increase the high level of production and also improves living standard of workers. 5. 5. They revealed that the total earning was spent on food.2. watching films and celebrating festivals. The labours that earn below Rs. no thing is improved in carpet industry. Very few of them spent time and money for entertainment. Bonus system helps workers to satisfy the basic needs. 3. Some weavers left certain amount with owners to save the salary. 4. Without restructuring. . 5. This study. 5000. Trainee weavers had to pay some to masters. 3000 per month and 8 respondents i.

observation and survey method. there were no any roles of trade unions to raise the issue of insurance of workers. They are from different cultural groups and owners neglect the labours cultural values and also make the obstacle for cultural practices.From the interview this study found out the following relationship with labours and owners. In the carpet industrial sector. 5. economic. most of the owners had life insurance but no workers had life or health insurance. All of these caused conflict between two groups which were unsuitable activities for the development of carpet industry. The observation finds that there are conflicting relation between owners and workers. 5. 5.3. non-discipline activities and using of trade unions to threat the owners. Owners were angry for labour's non-commitment. owners gave low salary which was not sufficient to maintain their general economic status. . Labours wants to join the Trade unions and others organization but owners make the obstacle for them.2 Owner Counterparts Treat The female weavers reflected their relationship in the way presented below. owners timely salary. and the labours are the periphery in industrial sector and they have always-conflicting relationship. cultural situation of carpet industry which is based on interview. The conflict was high in economical status.3. The respondents had no any ideas or knowledge about insurance. On the other side there is politically conflicting relation. lock out and other revolutionary work.36 Similarly. Major issues of conflict were low salary.3 Other Situational Analysis of Carpet Industrial Labours Situation is a broad area of the study of industrial sector and this research is only limited on the socio-political. industrial unhealthy physical infrastructure and owners-labours misunderstanding. unhealthy environment and others. At the same condition labours were unsatisfied with owners because of low labour cost.1 Conflicting relation of owners and workers: Economy based inequality in carpet industrial sector puts labours at high risk and they become more frustrate. political involvement and cultural practices. unpaid activities. From economic point of view. So the labours involve in strike. Owners are the cores.

2. 24 percent of the weavers perceived their owners respectful and 8 percent of the weavers perceived their owners as harassing people. wage problems. 48 percent of them perceived the owners dominating.37 Table No. The relationship in totality did not look good. 5. rather the problems were prolonged. Total Owner role Friendly Dominating Nature Respective Nature Harassing Nature No Respondents 5 12 6 2 25 of ntage 20 48 24 8 100 Perce Source: Field Survey. Harassment was a serious issue. and others socio. 4. When it is difficult then they went to trade unions and others administrative office to solve them. The labours had no consciousness about the political parties' manifestos and parties' ideology. political involvement problems. 20 percent of owners were perceived friendly . Political leaders involvement hardly solved the problems of the weavers life. 2011 The table showed the perception of weavers about their owners. 5. Majority of the owners played masculine or patriarchal role. When problems arises the workers went to owners and tried to solve it. Worker even revealed that their owner harass them. Political parties were playing both sides. 17 S.4 Role of Political Parties This study further produced some interesting facts regarding political parties. .3 Problem Arises for the Labours Most of the female weavers face the economic problems.3. The table opened up a dark part.cultural problems. No 1. They were frustrated that the had never got satisfactory treatment and justice. They were used by different political fractions different times.3. Other side they face the health problem. 3.

it is concluded that labour forces of carpet industrial sector had come from low economic status. Labours were organised and give the pressures for to solve problems.38 5. This study could not find the role of labours to formulate the industrial plan. 5. The world market affects Nepalese carpet industry because here are no good exporters and export mechanism and also high government supports and this all effects related day to day life of workers. 5. foreign investment. Owners in carpet industry wanted to earn much more money so they tried to exploit the labours. They were poor and they had no ideas and knowledge about the labour's laws and other constitutional system. Nepal is one of the three major carpet exporters of the world. 5.3. global marketing and other complex international phenomena have led to the globalisation of carpet industrial production.3.3. owners and national economy. This part was denied by the owners.8 Involvement of female weavers in disputes All of the labours were involved in disputes. 18 Involvement of workers in disputes: S. Nepal joint the WTO at this may lead to restrictions on type of government support instruments that can be used to supports the carpet industry in the future. No 1. Table No. environment and support.5 Weavers Role for Formulation the Industrial Rule Weavers were completely kept apart during formulation of industrial plan and the rules. The owners said that the weavers themselves did not try to contribute.7 Effect of Globalisation Increased trade. The weavers need to produce the material of global quality but they are not getting basic facilities. Trade union and others organisation mobilized the labours including female weavers for disputes. The owners said that they were uneducated and they had no any ideas to contribute. Involvement Strike No of Respondents 15 Percentage 60 .3. Nepal stands third after Iran and India as far as the export of the carpet in concerned. training and support.6 Exploitation and Knowledge From the field survey. They were only used for work. The Nepalese carpet industries have lately initiated product diversification process to enhance the market base. Owners mostly exploited by not paying suffient payment. Now days there are facing some problems to globalise the carpet production.

Total Lockout Others industrial action 6 4 25 24 16 100 Source: Field Survey. History of Nepal and its underdevelopment process started by its ties to British India during the Rana regime and how capitalism gradually spread in to Nepal bringing more negative impacts than positive. . This study is to visualize the concept of centre (capitalist) and periphery (female carpet weavers). human rights(women right).1 Summary The carpet industry is one of the most important economic activities of the country accounting nearly 30 percent of the total export earning and 3 percent of GDP. Lalitpur sub-metropolish. From the data it can be concluded that the weavers forces were not satisfied with counterparts. 60 percent labours were involved in strike and 24 percent of respondent's involved in lockout of industries. education and skill for prestigious job. This study is based on five carpet industries located on Lalitpur district. The labours(weavers) are the backbone of the industry. They are far away from the knowledge of economic rights. 3. Study wanted to show the dominant-dependent relationship between centre and periphery classes. Carpet weaving diffused from Tibet origin is a traditional art of Nepali cottage industry. The study revealedthat the majority of the carpet weavers are women. The female weavers in carpet industry. But female weavers were the most neglected factor of production because of the weak bargaining power. training. 2011 Table above represents the labours involvement in disputes. It provides much needed of farm employment to approximately hundred thousand people.39 2. equal rights and other rights of labours. Some of them were even harassed and abused. It is cultural heritage and tradition of craft making. 16 percent of weavers involved in other activities. CHAPTER-VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 6. had lack of knowledge.

cultural situation of women weavers. were analyzed descriptively. In industrial area physical environment is not good and industry provides dark and small size of rooms. Among five selected carpet industries. then Brahmin/ Chattri. Rest of the 8 percent followed other religions. others and Rai. untimely salary . In the selected industries. This study was designed to explore the status of carpet weaving female labours. Most of the weavers were not satisfied and their life was not found to be qualitative. which was 56 percent. However. 94 percent weavers were from out of valley and 8 percent were permanent resident of Kathmandu valley. Observation and interview were extensively used to collect the necessary information. Magar. 20% weavers earned below Rs. Owners were blamed for neglecting the weavers health. 36 percent were from Hindu. Most of the weavers were from Tamang community. economic. 92 percent of the total sample lived in unclear types family and 8 percent are in joint. 8 %. Majority of the weavers have skill to do their work. Wage payment system was different in different industries. There were no any bonus system. Survey. The educational status table showed 80 % of respondents were literate and 20 % were illiterate. The study was concentrated on the socio-political. Sixty percent of the respondents were of age of 15 to 25. who were the major respondents of this study.e. Majority of the workers followed the Buddhism. The weavers are fully depended on their wage to run their family. Hence primary data was obtained. and 12%. Health of children is found very poor. for reliability and validity of the research various method were applied. Informal interview with the owners and factory managers was also done during the data collection process. three were registered and two were nonregistered.40 Primarily. the interview method was applied to fulfill the objectives of the present study. insurance system and other facilities. Eight percent of them were of age above 45 but no female worker above age 50 was found out. descriptive statistics such as percentage table was used. 20%. Among 250 weavers 230 were female. where the 250 labours engaged in carpet weaving. 16%. because of labour cost. where is not chance to maintain their family in a proper manner. 7000. There were no special changing rooms or facilities for female workers. For analysis. Most of weavers i. 3000 and only 8% earned above Rs. 72 percent of the weavers were married. 20 percent of them were unmarried whereas 8 percent of the respondents were divorced. 68 percent weavers lived in industrial quarter. They were unsatisfied with owners. which represent serially 44%. The result of the data collected through various techniques in the field. Out or 230 female weavers' sample frame 25 weavers were selected as sample.

trading is second involvement of the Nepali people. The labour forces are heterogeneous.The main source of foreign currency earning are merchandise exports. Most of the female workers come to cities to find safe shelter and save their lives.41 payment. tend to come to Kathmandu city where most of the carpet factories operate. The growing trend of carpet exports to the overseas market leads to the high expansion of carpet industries in our country for the increase trend of carpet exports promote to development economical activities and also minimize deficit trade balance. The weavers had no chance to formulate the industrial rule and regulation. 6. . So it helps to transfer the surplus time of workers from agricultural field. Carpet industry is a labor intensive sector where most of the dominated ethnic. service. Carpet weaving do not require heavy physical labor. Because of the type of work and its informal nature carpet industry has always been an easy entry point for female. The work in carpet industries is of temporary nature. Foreign trade is characterized mainly by import of manufactured products and export of agricultural raw materials. The high mass of farmers engaged in this field. The weavers had no consciousness about labour law but owners had all the ideas in different aspects. unemployed and illiterate people are engaged.2 Conclusion Nepal is a developing country with an agricultural economy. Commerce has been a major occupation in Nepal since early times. Female weavers were harassed for the involvement too. In recent year there has been expansion of the manufacturing industries and others technological sectors have achieved much progress . Majority of the displaced people. It is good source to earn foreign currency. tourism. unhealthy physical infrastructure and misunderstandings. Being situated at the crossroads of the ancient trans Himalayan trade route. so it is so suitable work for rural people in urban area and also for women workers. 82 percent of the total respondents involved in strike disputes to solve the problems but in very few cases they got success. and remittances. composed of different castes and family background and with level of skill and earnings.

There are no labour welfare provisions. weavers found between ages of 15 to 45. Class-consciousness as the crucial mechanism for changing social system. Working place is found to be quite polluted and unhealthy. Many female weavers complained about harassment but they were not conscious about their right. Female weavers were far more marginalized. Most of the married female weavers said that their husbands spend the earning of their on entertainment (drinking alcohol). These weavers were found to be abused at home and in the industry both. carpet weaving job is attractive for illiterate female labours. Generally the major cause of conflict was for the system of industrial rules and regulation and the dominated nature of owners. . It was the benefit of their urban life . But in real sense labours were already a periphery gropes dependent economically and politically on the capitalist (owners). Labour consciousness plays the vital role for change in social system and structure. The modern concept of health. Only drinking water and toilet are available but very tightly. Now a day's trade union also play to create the conflicting role in carpet industries. even if in low wages women are continuing their works and cannot leave the job. Therefore. which makes and brings more opportunity for their life. There was conflicting relationship between owners and female weavers. They are fully dependent in market system and also going to follow the modernize process and capitalism from feudal economy in rural economy. In this field. The responsibilities of whole family was on the respondents (female weavers). But very less number of the female weavers got such trainings. because they don't have other skill and do not have education so there is no option for their living without the present job. Their male counterparts were more privileged to get it. There is interrelationship between employers and women weavers. due to inadequate ventilation. The working condition was very bad in most of the carpet industries. The labors work in a small place where large number of looms and spinning wheels are located. Trade union helped labours to fight for rights and they also gave the political and labours rights training for labours. family planning etc have found in all places in these respondents. Which means they were informally conscious about the need of small family size. But child labors below 15 years were not found in carpet industries that are registered in RUGMARK foundation. Labours consciousness brings the voice of labours rights.42 Formal education is not needed in this field only skilled training required.

Similar situation was observed in the field. They were not very much separate from other Nepalese women. government and labours. The labour law is completely unimplemented in the carpet industry in Nepal. Major factor that are responsible for the alienation of labours from the owners are always discriminatory labour laws. Carpet weaving labours. including female. In conclusion. They are struggling for uplifting their social and economic status. cultural. It is bad situation for carpet weavers . communication gap between trade union leaders and labours. And should advise the factory owners to employ the labours on permanent basis and also . mason and construction workers.3 Recommendation Based on the finding of the present study the following recommendations are made on the basis of the study. 6. Despite of all the difficulties the female weavers were hopeful that their children will go to school and do a better job in future. They spent some hardly saved money for entertainment. Carpet weaving female community is one part of the Nepalese working class female community. who earn far less than a daily labourer . owners and labours. On the other side owners also invested high amount of money in the industry. political and economic case. buying new clothes and feasting some days. owners and labours. (a) Most important think that the Government. In this study no doubt to say that there were conflict between labours and labours. NGOs/INGOs and other organisation have to take initiative to look after the facing problem of women weavers in those industries. in their regional. it can be said that world capitalist system is a final cause of economic and political domination and this system is very powerful because of the world wide division of labours. government and labours. There is more effect of globalisation. None of the provisions made by government of Nepal to uplift female status were applied in the case of female weavers. Female weavers felt a lot of bias and stereotyped behaviours. which conflicting relation brings unsaved situation of investment and many types of disputes creates unhealthy situation in carpet industrial sector. Unmarried female weavers were happy to earn a little than their friends in the village. are not getting basic pay which is guaranteed by the labour law of Nepal. They were somehow free and living a hard but sort of free life.43 As that matter of fact. modernisation and liberalization in carpet industry and it brings the effects for workers and her day-to-day life.

Give most priority to develop the economic condition of labours and improve their living standard. The concern authority should implement the labour law. For the encouragement of good workers. (g) (h) (i) (j) Arrangement should be made in morning or evening for the education of these workers who have low level of education. Trade union should be involved to solve the dispute. (c) (d) (e) (f) Training programs should be made to the workers to develop their skill. . Clean spacious and airy place should be made available for work. emergency fund. child care centre.44 minimize hours. insurance should be introduce. medical facilities. (b) Physical condition of working place of the factory are must be improved. At least the weavers should get the pay guaranteed by the labour law. Communication brings the respective relationship and tries to reduce the crises. Break the communication gaps between owners and women weavers and makes the lovely environment for work. Generating awareness and social mobilization. The workers must get regular medical facilities. otherwise the prevailing unhealthy and unsuitable atmosphere of working place would have certainly bring adverse effect on the health condition of labours including women. they should provided with insentive and reward.

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"Gender Descrimination.S. Nepal.). USA. UNDP. 1 21-38.1177/135918359700200302 MOL&J (2047 B. (1999).M. Nepal. Intersperse Violence November 2007 vol. MOL&J/HMG. DeMatteo. Kirtipur. pp. Unpublished M. (2007). MOL/HMG. D. . Working Papers Series. T. 3 291-310. Look at the World Through Women's Eyes.S. Kathmandu.(2008) The Effects of International Trade on Gender Inequality: Women Carpet Weavers of Iran (July 25. UNDP. (2038 B. Kathmandu.. 1177/0886260507305524 Ruth. MOL. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. (1998). Kathmandu.com/abstract=1162172 Maharjan. Beijing. Prem Bahadur. G. (1997) Tibetan Carpets From Folk Art to Global Commodity Journal of Material Culture November 1997 vol. 211 . MOL. (1999). Grove Weindenfeld. Kantipur Publication. Inc. ( 2005). Nepal. D. Profile on Manpower Working in Manufacturing Industries of Kathmandu Valley. T. Sitoshna." Kathmandu Post. (2000). Neill. Nepal. Labour Act 2048. Marczyk. Essentials of research design and methodology. J. DeMatteo.A. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Newyork. 22. of Sociology. (1992). Human Organization 63 (2). CEDECON. Assessing the Factors Associated With Sexual Harassment Among Young Female Migrant Workers in Nepal.1177/135918359900400102. T. T. doi: 10. Timilsina. and Festinger. D. Essentials of Research Design and Methodology.46 Kantipur Publication. of Labour.).220 NGO Forum on Women Beijing'95 (1995). Journal of Material Culture March 1999 vol. Job for Women in Rural Industry and Services. MOL/HMG. 4 no. McGuckin. Indebtedness. doi: 10. Inc Marczyk. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn. The Constitution of Nepal 2047. doi. ( 2005 ). Dissertation. Levy Economics Institute. and Remittances in the Nepalese Carpet Industry.A. Final Report. G. Dept. National Labor Policy. E. Neill ... MOL. The Lives of the Tibetonepalese Carpet. Unpublished M. 2 no.. 2008). Karimi. Human Development Report 1998. Rural Women Laborers in Carpet Industries in Nepal. Zahra. & Festinger. Women Labors of Patan Industrial Estates. New York. (1998). & Cleland. Weaving Wages.U. Nepal.O. D. Dept. Nepal. Dixon. Nepal.(2004). Dissertation. Kirtipur. Puri. O.. Kathmandu. B. (1998).U. (1979).

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S. Rai e. Educational Qualification: a. 12-24 hours c. Address: a. Passed c. b. Joint b.48 Appendix A Interview Schedule for weavers 1. Buddhist c. Magar c. Educational Status: a. 14. Literate: b. Tamang d. Name: 2. Others 7. Nunclear 12. Which of the following place do you a. Brahmin\ Chhetri b.48 hours d. Wrong c.C. Age: 3. To help family. Permanent: b. Married b. Christen d. above 48 hours 15. Hindu b. c. d. Others 13. Unmarried 11. Illiterate: 5. Under SLC. Female: 6. a. Poor economic condition. Marital Status: a. b. Valley industry. Intermediate belong to? job? a. Temporary: 4.L. Sex: a. 12 hours b. Family Structure: a. Others 9. Ignoring. Above Intermediate . Male: b. a. e. To be self-reliant. Religion: a. How much time you can you give to your family in a week. Reason for seeking work in carpet d. Caste: a. Self satisfaction. Right b. Ethnicity: 8. 24. How do your family perceive about your 10.

Unskilled a. Do you have any other part time jobs? What are/is? 17. industry? a. Above 5000 21. c. 18. Above 16 hours b. Yes b. Do you get the payment in time? b. Skilled c. Rental house c. Friends and relatives or others 22. arise? a. Rs. Industry owner b. Psychological. c. 12-16 hours b. Factory. Yes a. Below Rs. 7000 20. Rs 5000 to 7000 d. Labour organization/ trade unions. Bank. Rs. Below 8 hours c. Where do you complain if problem . Who advised you to choose your carpet industrial service? a. a. b. Is any training given to you? 32. Others (Police and administrative office) b. b. What is your duty hour? a. Yes working? 27. c. Do you face any type of problem while a. d. d.49 b. No 19. Below Rs. Out of valley. Health and b. with you? a. Harass c. Friendly. c. Are you satisfied with your job or earning? a. Industry Quarter. Dominating nature. 3000 to 5000 c. Respecting nature. Specify 31. Monthly income of respondents: a. Where do you keep your saving? 30. Is there any conflicting relation between labours and owners? 29. Other countries. You live at: a. 24. Yourself. Other b. As a labour. Semi skilled d. Parents. How do your owner counterparts treat b. 3000 b. Monthly expenditure of the respondents. c. No 23. Self interest. 25 Is there any medical facility in your 16. others 28. Own home. In your job what kinds of problem have you faced? a. 8-12 hours d. 3000 to 5000 c. 3000 b. Yes c. No b. No 26. Physical. Above Rs. Economic. what describes you the best ? a.

4 to 6 b. No 39. Yes b. Above 6 46. socio-cultural problem arise? 36. No b. Have you taken any role to formulate the b. Others industrial action. Others 37.50 41. Socio cultural 45. What is the role of trade union for wevers? a. Helpful role status? 38. Have you ever felt that owners exploit you? What kind of exploitation. Politically d. Is there any bonus system in your b. Social status b. Where do you apply when health a. Are you dependent any aspect in your owners? a. Yes industry? a. a. Are you satisfied with your owner's role for you? a. Are you involved in any disputes. No b. Lockout c. No labours laws? 42. 44. Economic b. Yes problem arise? 35. No 40. Is any insurance given? . Political c. Below 4 c. How are you managing your economic 43. Economically c. Strikes b. a. All b. Where do you apply when political. No 34. Have 33 Do you see future in carpet industrial work? a. Family size: a. Yes you got any knowledge about b. Yes a. Yes industrial plan? a.


No c. Introduction about industry a. . Established year i. Any protection is needed for labours? a. Registered 4. Female 2. Are you facing any problem from the labours? 3. Industry Name c. Explain 6. Non-registered a.Appendix B Interview Schedule for Owners/Managers 1. Male ii. Owners d. Governments b. Your industry is: b. Trade Unions and Others. Family c. Where do you sale your product? a. If yes who is responsible ? a. Number of labours b. Yes b. Overseas 5. Local Market b.

assumption. and welfare of labour will be implemented according to the situation (3) (4) (5) (6) of the country. attempts shall be made to bring in balance the relation between the demand for and supply of labour by making human resources full of technical skill. mobilization of labour of the country to develop human resources according to the demand of labour market by the expansion of technical and vocational training including industrial and apprenticeship training etc. special attempts shall be met to make dynamic and firm the bilateral mechanism. The provision to employ the native labour in the national enterprises to the extent possible shall be implemented effectively. (8) For the industrial development of industrial relationship and human resources. local bodies and employers and government sector shall be encouraged. shall be conducted for the trilateral participants associated to labour administration on the subject like labour . capable. different programs of research. value. Encouragement shall be providing to operate the activities that help to increase reputation. (2) Labour standard determined by the international labour organisation. domestic and foreign NGOs.Appendix-C National Labour Policy-1999 Objectives (1) By developing the industrial relation as a complement of liberal and open market economic policy. (7) For the promotion of labour welfare activities the united co-operation of trade union. productivity of labours. The entrepreneurship and enterprises that help to in case the employment of women and handicapped persons shall be encouraged. which are stabilized to develop continues unity between labour and management. training seminar labour education etc. social security. In contest to increase national income and productivity. which respect to the health. competitiveness absorbent. absorbent and mult-skillful for the maximum.

By providing continuity to foreign employment service profession. special attempts shall be made for its institutional developments.administration industrial relationship increment and management of labour productivity etc. . employment exchange services shall be activated. (9) The institutional development of labour market communication system shall be doing research of the national and international labour market and in addition. (10) (11) Bonded labour and child labour eradication programme shall be conducted as moment.

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