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A1

O1

A2
A4
O3
E21
A3
F1

E35
P2
E22
ENGLISH-BASED
E1 Bahamian CE P3 E23 F7 E25
E2 Caymanian E See map 2 E24 E26
E3 Jamaican CE P4
E4 Belizean CE
E5 Bay Islands E P1
E6 Miskito Coast CE
E7 Providencia and San Andrés CE
A5
E8 Costa Rican CE
E9 Panamanian CE
E10 Samaná E
E11 Virgin Islands CE
E12 Dutch Windward Islands CE
E13 Leeward Islands CE
E14 Barbadian CE
E15 Commonwealth Windward Islands CE
E16 Trinidad and Tobago CE
E17 Guyanese CE
E18 Sranan CE
E19 Saramaccan CE ENGLISH-BASED cont. SPANISH-BASED
E20 Ndyuka CE E34 Norfolk Islands CE S1 Palanquero CS
E21 Gullah CE E35 Hawaiian CE S2 Papiamentu CS
E22 Gambian Krio CE PORTUGUESE-BASED S3 Philippine CS
E23 Sierra Leone Krio CE P1 Popular Brazilian P DUTCH-BASED
E24 Liberian CE P2 Cape Verdean CP D1 Negerhollands CD †
E25 Nigerian PE P3 Guiné-Bissau CP D2 Berbice, Skepi CD
E26 Fernandino CE P4 Gulf of Guinea CP D3 Afrikaans
E27 Cameroonian PE (São Tomé Angolar FRENCH-BASED
E28 Chinese PE † Príncipe, Annobón CP) F1 Louisiana CF
E29 Tok Pisin PE P5 Indo-Portuguese F2 Haitian CF
E30 Torres Strait CE P6 Sri Lanka CP F3 Lesser Antillean CF
E31 Australian CE P7 Papia Kristang CP F4 Grenada CF
E32 Solomon Islands PE P8 Macanese CP F5 Trinidadian CF
E33 Vanuatu PE P9 Malayo-Portuguese † F6 Guyanais CF

Map 1. Pidgins and creoles (from Holm 1988–9: xviii–xix)

xviii
O2

O5

A15

A15

A13 E28
P8
O4 P5 F13 S3

A7 P6 P7
A6 A14
A8
E27 E29
A9 F11 F12
A10
A11 O6 E32
P9 E30 A16
F10 A17,
E31 E33
A18
F9
F14
F8 F15
A12
D3 E34

FRENCH-BASED cont. A4 Delaware Jargon † BASED ON OTHER LANGUAGES


F7 West African PF A5 Lingua Geral O1 Pidgin Basque †
F8 Réunionnais A6 Sango P/C O2 Russenorsk †
F9 Mauritian CF A7 Juba Pidgin Arabic O3 Lingua Franca †
F10 Rodrigues CF A8 Nubi Creole Arabic O4 Eritrean Pidgin Italian
F11 Seychellois CF A9 Lingala O5 Chinese Pidgin Russian †
F12 Diego Garcia CF (Chagos Arch.) A10 Kituba O6 Unserdeutsch
F13 Vietnamese PF† A11 Swahili P/C
F14 New Caledonian PF† A12 Fanakalo
F15 Tayo CF A13 Naga Pidgin † Extinct
AFRICAN-,ASIAN-,AUSTRONESIAN- A14 Baba Malay Semi-creole
AND AMERINDIAN-BASED A15 Pidgin Japanese †
A1 Eskimo Trade Jargon † A16 Hiri Motu Italics Spoken over a wider area
A2 Chinook Jargon † A17 Pidgin Fijian Shown on map 2
A3 Mobilian Jargon (†) A18 Pidgin Hindustani

xix
FL
BAH
AM

OR
A
I

IDA

SL
AN
DS
E1
Gulf of Mexico

C
U
B
A
Cayman
O Islands E2
C
I JAMAICA
M E X E3
BELIZE
E4 Bay Islands
E5
GUATEMALA CARIBBEAN
HONDURAS

EL SALVADOR
Providencia
NICARAGUA E7
E6 San Andrés

COSTA E8 S1
RICA
PA C I F I C E9 M A
A
P A N
O C E A N

ENGLISH-BASED ENGLISH-BASED cont.


E1 Bahamian CE E17 Guyanese CE
E2 Caymanian E E18 Sranan CE COLOM
E3 Jamaican CE E19 Saramaccan CE
E4 Belizean CE E20 Ndyuka CE
E5 Bay Islands E SPANISH-BASED
E6 Miskito Coast CE S1 Palenquero CS
E7 Providencia and San Andrés CE S2 Papiamentu CS
E8 Costa Rican CE DUTCH-BASED
E9 Panamanian CE D1 Negerhollands CD (†)
E10 Samaná E D2 Berbice, Skepi CD
E11 Virgin Islands CE FRENCH-BASED
E12 Dutch Windward Islands CE F2 Haitian CF
E13 Leeward Islands CE F3 Lesser Antillean CF
E14 Barbadian CE F4 Grenada CF
E15 Commonwealth Windward Islands CE F5 Trinidadian CF
E16 Trinidad and Tobago CE F6 Guyanais CF

Map 2. Caribbean creoles (from Holm 1988–9: xx–xxi)

xx
AT L A N T I C
O C E A N

VIRGIN Anguilla
ISLANDS St. Martin
E10 E11, D1
HAITI DOMINICAN E12 Antigua
F2 E13
REP. Saba Montserrat
PUERTO St. Kitts
RICO Guadeloupe
Nevis
LEEWARD Dominica F3
ISLANDS Martinique
SEA WINDWARD St. Lucia
St. Vincent Barbados
ISLANDS E15 E14
F4
S2 Grenada
Aruba Bonaire
Tobago
Curaçao
Trinidad
E16, F5

VENEZUELA E17
D2
E18
GUYANA F6
E19
E20 FRENCH
SURINAME GUIANA
BIA

† Extinct 0 500 1000 km


Semi-creole
0 500 miles
Italics Spoken over a wider area

xxi