Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing

Chapter: 1

Introduction

Department Of Mechanical Engineering, BMIT.

Page 1

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing

1. Introduction of Project:
The basic requirement of a railway engine or bogie for its locomotion is the continuity of the railway track which in this form and railway track network which spreads across the country, and in doing so it intersects various cities and towns and thereby also intersects all the roads coming across the railway track. In this project we are concerned with providing an automatic railway gate control at unmanned level crossings replacing the gates operated by gate keepers and also the semi-automatically operated gates. It deals with two things. Firstly, it deals with the reduction of time for which the gate is being kept closed. And secondly, to provide safety to the road users by reducing the accidents that usually occur due to carelessness of road users and at times errors made by the gangman. By employing the automatic railway gate control at the level crossing the arrival of train is detected by the sensor placed 7km before railway gate crossing. Once the arrival is sensed, the sensed signal is sent to the microcontroller and it sends the signal after 2.5 second to motor buzzer indication and light signals on both sides of railway gate crossing provided to the road users indicating the closure of gates. The departure of the train is detected by sensors placed at about 30m after the gate crossing. The signal about the departure of the train is sent to the microcontroller after 1.5 second, which in turn operates the motor and opens the gate. Thus, the time for which the gate is closed is less compared to the manually operated gates since the gate is closed depending upon the telephone call from the previous station. Also reliability is high as it is not subjected to manual errors. As it is to be understood by everyone that the railway being mass transport has to be given priority as compare to personal or road transport which is comparatively smaller one and has to be allowed to be pass first as compare to personal or road transport. Not having a thorough understanding of the above concept and miscalculating often the speed of the train it is that there is collision between the train and
Depart ent echanical Engineering, BMI Page 2

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing

men operated means. As regards to animals stringing on the track this project has a limitation.

The project contains following assumptions:

2. Assumptions:
1. 2. It is a single track route. If it is double track and if train approach on it simultaneously from both the sides then it would require interlocking facility of the signal for the microcontroller to operate the boom which is more complexes in nature hence we have formed this prototype model, assuming it as a single track. 3. The sensors are assumed to be put at a height which coincides with just below the top of the railway boggie. 4. For the sensor not to mal function in terms of picking up astray incident of a bird coming in between its path to encounter this delay time of 2-3 seconds has been purposely kept for the sensor to operate on continuously sensing. 5. Boom of railway gate crossing works when train moves from both the direction. 6. Our project is based on the assumption that the road passengers plying across the road are well aware about traffic rules as well as are also aware about their lives safety norms.

Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering, BMI

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Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing

3. List of Component :
1. AVR iBoard 2. Tsop Sensor 3. Bump Sensor 4. Motors 5. Relay Circuit 6. Power Supply 7. Train Kit 8. Plywood 9. Tool Kit

Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering, BMI

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BMIT. Page 5 .Aut ti B t R il t C i Chapter: 2 Literature Review Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

Broad gauge although forming 64.P Railway¶s First train ever to run on the Indian soil rolled throughout the changed the history of India. 41 per cent of the passenger traffic and 52 per cent of the freight traffic on Indian Railways. Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. 14.699 bridges of which 10799 are major bridges.5 per cent of the route. The network spread and expanded rapidly and has become the principal mode of transport in our country. computerization and overall management.It was single stretch of 34 kilometer from ³Boree Bunder (now become CST) to Tannah (now become Thane) G. forever.896 stations. 53.511 Km covering 6.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4..6 per cent of the passenger output during 1998-99. It also marked the dawn of Railway Age in Asia.730 optical fiber communication route Kms and over 8. The Railways have also been modernized in terms of technology. 21.846 telephone exchange lines.the world¶s largest continent.186 wagons and 40. Operating on three gauges .775 coaching vehicles. This effort has been in tune with the requirement of moving large volumes of passengers and freight traffic. Introduced as early as 1853.1 Introduction to Indi n Rail ay: It all began one fine summer day on 16 April 1853.445 long haul MT Kms.54. Indian Railways has nearly 1.broad gauge (1676 mm) meter gauge (1000 mm) and narrow gauge (762 and 610 mm).5 per cent of the total network and 30 per cent of broad gauge network on Indian Railway is electrified.613 trunk tele channels Kms distinguishes Indian Railway telecom network. generated 96 per cent of freight output and 89. BMI Page 6 .I. 384 bridges were rebuilt or rehabilitated and 270 strengthened or re-girdered. ticketing. Indian Railway network is spread over 81. Indian Railways has grown into one of the largest Railway network in the world. 18.56. 1. Almost all the double/multiple track sections and electrified routes lie on broad gauge. 1.579 route kms constituting over 19. In 1998-99. This carries approx. trains in India carry more than 12 million passengers and more than a million tons of freight every day during the year 1998-99. 2. The transport effort is sustained through the use of 7429 locomotives.

BMI Page 7 . During 1998 -99 the revenue earning freight traffic moved by Railways was 420.58 million tons of originating revenue earning traffic which in terms of transport output is 284.9 million tons growing at the rate of 7%.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Indian Railway system has developed a capacity to carry 441. Fig1.1: Indian railway Indian Rail ays is di ided into 16 zones: Northern Railway (NR) Noth Eastern Railway (NER) Central Railway (CR) South Western Railway (SWR) Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR) North Western Railway (NWR) Western Railway (WR) Southern Railway (SR) South Central Railway (SCR) South Eastern Railway (SER) Eastern Railway (ER) West Central Railway (WCR) North Central Railway (NCR) South East Central Railway (SECR) East Coast Railway (ECoR) East Central Railway (ECR) Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering.27 billion NTKms (net tone kilometers). The total passenger traffic in the year 1998-99 was 4411 million tons.

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. Sensors are generally categorized by the type of Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. Coupled light engines dashed with auto rickshaw at gate no 78 at km 14/2-3 of Hyderabad division of south central railway on 10-01-03 (killed 9. The tractor trolley was carrying a marriage party with music on. where 3 people died one person seriously injured. using conversions or calculations to determine results.Gorakhpur) dashed with a tractor trailor at unmanned level crossing near kuian village of balrampur district (up). 4.Nagpur passenger) dashed with dumper at unmanned level crossing gate no. 321 up (Tata . other sensors measure properties indirectly. injured-8) 3. Sensors are particularly useful for making in-situ measurements such as in industrial process control. but they can also be found in many household objects. injured2) 2. 58 people killed.on 30.05.2 ACCIDENT CASES AT MANNED RAILWAY GATE CROSSING: 1.06 kapilvastu express (gonda .5RN passenger train dashed with one tractor trolley on unmanned level crossing at km 1115/3-4. or to a change in chemical concentration. Some sensors measure properties directly. 452 between durg and murlipur station on 28-08-01. 5. 14 injured.rly on 30-03-03 (killed 11. 4. 5027 up dashed with tractor on gate at km 429/10-11 between Bhatpara rani and bhatni station of bsb division of ne. Sensors are electrical or mechanical components that are used to measure a property or behavior of an object or system. such as temperature sensors in an oven to accelerometers in an automobile airbag system. Driver got trapped in the train engine. such as temperature or thermal conductivity.3 Introduction of Sensor : A sensor is a device that produces a measurable response to a change in a physical condition. Sensors are used by scientists and engineers during research and testing activities. BMI Page 8 . The tractor trolley continued to cross the track at high speed. The train driver lost his life and the asstt.

Repeatability .  Resolution .   Range . BMI Page 9 . Electrical and mechanical sensors are widely used to characterize the performance and properties of components and systems. Application: The sensor is responsible for converting some type of physical Phenomenon into a quantity measurable by a data acquisition (DAQ) system Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering.   Accuracy .The smallest increment the sensor can detect.Sensors typically have temperature and/or humidity limits.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing phenomenon that they measure. rather than the functionality of the sensor itself.The statistical variance about the exact reading.The variance in a sensor's reading when a single condition is repeatedly measured.   Cost Environmental . Factors to consider while choosing a sensor.Required for most measuring systems since their readings will drift over time. but are also found in household objects.Limits of measurement or the sensor. Calibration .

Proximity . Velocity 4. Angular / Linear Position 3.2: Tsop Sensor Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. Force 7. Pressure 9.Shock & Vibration.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. BMI Page 10 . Acceleration . 2. Temperature 12. Humidity 5. Magnetic Fields 8.Spatial Presence 10. Sound 11.4 USES OF SENSORS: Sensors are used to measure basic physical phenomena including: 1. Chemical/Gas Concentration 4.5 General Description of Tsop sensor Fig1. Flow Rate 6.

Normally the switch will be held open by an internal spring. Due to this. The simplest way to do this is to fix a micro switch to the pillar of gate in a way so that when it collides the switch will get pushed in. making an electrical connection. Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. The power consumption of this module is low.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing The TSOP-OBSD±Single is a general purpose proximity sensor.6 Bump Sensor : A bump sensor is probably one of the easiest ways of letting gate Boom know it's collided with something. Connection Description 1 Output Digital Output (High or Low) 2 VCC Connected to circuit supply 3 Ground Connected to circuit ground 4. BMI Page 11 . The high precision TSO receiver always detects a signal of fixed frequency. Here we use it for collision detection. The output of TSOP is high whenever it receives a fixed frequency and low otherwise. working in astable multivibrator configuration. The on-board LED indicator helps user to check status of the sensor without using any additional hardware. It gives a digital output and false detection due ambient light is low. The module consists of an IR emitter and TSOP receiver pair. Application Ideas ‡ Obstacle detection ‡ Shaft encoder ‡ Fixed frequency detection Pin No. The module consists of 555 IC. errors due to false detection of ambient light are significantly reduced.

There are many designs possible for bump switches. Bump Sensor Circuits: Voltage goes high Voltage goes with contact low with contact More efficient switch for 3 lead switches Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. BMI Page 12 . But the circuit remains the same. as shown above. often depending on the design and goals of the robot itself. Tactile switches only work if you¶re motor can stop instantaneously (like when moving slowly). An example is the micro switch with a lever attached to increase its range.3: Bump Sensor Tactile Bump Sensors are great for collision detection. pulling the signal line high or low.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Fig1. For the resistor use a very high value. There are several versions below. They usually implement a mechanical button to short the circuit. depending on how you plan to use the circuit and your available switches. such as 40kohms. but the circuit itself also works fine for user buttons and switches as well.

Fig1. Without it the signal line is effecti el 'floating' because there is nothing connected to it and may cause unreliable readings as the processor tries to decide if the line is on or off. BMIT. The resistor is important because it holds the si nal line at ground while the switch is off.Aut ti B t R il t C i (use for mi ro swit hes) The followi di ram shows a t i al circuit for a micro switch bump sensor.4: Bump Sensor Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Page 13 .

Aut ati n of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4.7 The AVR iBoard : y Includes ATMEL ATMega 16 (Also supports ATMega32) Microcontroller with 16kB flash memory working at 16 Mips y y y y y y y y In system programmable On board programmer On board regulated power supply On board motor drivers with current capacity of up to 600mA per channel Power indicator LED 2 on board Dual full H bridge motor driver for 2 stepper or 4 Dc motors Separate ON/OFF switch for power & motor drives 3 LEDs for external inputs/interrupts On board LCD connector (multipurpose port. BMI Page 14 .5: AVR iBoard Maximum Input voltage = 16V Minimum Input voltage = 7V Department Of Mechanical Engineering. which can be used for other applications also) Fig1.

y Switch array: four general purpose switches are connected in the active-low configuration. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Beeper: Connected in the active low mode. y L293D: It is a 4 channel motor driver with 600mA of current per channel & has inbuilt clamp diodes. y ADC Test: Short the two pins of the jumper next to the potentiometer & the potentiometer gets connected to the port A 7. y Motor Enable switch: This switch is used to enable/disable the motor driver chips hence in turn enabling/disabling the motors. MAX232: This chip takes care of the voltage conversions needed to communicate with the PC¶S RS232 (serial/ COM) port. y y Reset Switch: This switch is used to reset the microcontroller.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Parts identification: y y Power on switch: It¶s a basic push to on ±push to off type switch. 8 individual sensor modules can be connected to this port. BMI Page 15 . y Sensor port: At a time. y y Crystal: A crystal sets the microcontroller¶s clock frequency to 11. y Potentiometer (pot): The potentiometer is used to vary the contrast of the LCD. IC 7805: It¶s a three terminal linear 5 volt regulator used to supply the microcontroller & other peripherals. The port provides 5V supply needed driver sensors. The board contains two such chips.0592MHz. y DB 9 connector: This is a 9 pin connector used to the PC¶S COM port during programming or for general UART communications. the beeper can easily be used to get audible feedback from the controller.

7 6 Port C O 1 2 3 4«7 Port D 0 1 2. 3 USART RXD USART TXD + LED D3 Switch 2.7 sensor connector Port B 0«.3 Motor Drivers 4 5.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Board connection Details : Port A 0«. 3 LCD Control pin LED D1 (Active high) LCD Control pin Buzzer (Active high) LCD Data pins Switch 1 (Active low) programmer LED D2 (Active High) 4«.7 Motor drivers A Department Of Mechanical Engineering. BMI Page 16 ..

8 Introduction to at mega 16 Microcontroller : Features: ‡ Advanced RISC Architecture ‡ Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz ‡ 16K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash ‡ 512 Bytes EEPROM ‡ 1K Byte Internal SRAM ‡ 32 Programmable I/O Lines ‡ In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program ‡ 8-channel. Compare Mode. 10-bit ADC ‡ Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescalers and Compare Modes ‡ One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescalers. and Capture ‡ Four PWM Channels ‡ Programmable Serial USART ‡ Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface ‡ Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface ‡ Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator ‡ External and Internal Interrupt Sources Department Of Mechanical Engineering.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. BMI Page 17 .

The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. even if the clock is not running. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. (0 V) Note there are 2 ground Pins.PA0) Port A serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter. (+5V) GND: Ground. BMI Page 18 . Port A (PA7 .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing PIN CONFIGURATION: Fig1. Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port.6: pin Diagram of At Mega system Micro-controller Detail Pin Descriptions VCC: Digital supply voltage. they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. if the A/D Converter is not used. When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low.

If the JTAG interface is enabled. BMI Page 19 . even if the clock is not running. AREF: AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.PC0) Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). It should be externally connected to VCC. Port D (PD7 . it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter. If the ADC is used. Port C also serves the functions of the JTAG interface and other special features of the ATmega16 as listed on page 61 of datasheet. Port C (PC7 . even if the ADC is not used.PD0) Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). XTAL1: External oscillator pin 1 XTAL2: External oscillator pin 2 AVCC: AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter. PC3 (TMS) and PC2 (TCK) will be activated even if a reset occurs. Port D also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega16 as listed on page 63 of datasheet. Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega16 as listed on page 58 of datasheet.PB0) Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). Department Of Mechanical Engineering. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset. the pull-up resistors on pins PC5 (TDI).Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Port B (PB7 . RESET: Reset Input.

It does not generate the necessary RS-232 sequence of marks and spaces with the right timing. It became popular.7 MAX232 Integrated Circuit A MAX232 integrated circuit The MAX232 from Maxim was the first IC which in one package contains the necessary drivers (two) and receivers (also two). It should be noted that the MAX232 (A) is just a driver/receiver.g.1 The MAX232 & MAX232A: Figure 1. by a 16550 UART Department Of Mechanical Engineering. This greatly simplified the design of circuitry. e. because it just needs one voltage (+5V) and generates the necessary RS-232 voltage levels (approx.9. the MAX232A. The ICs are almost identical.g. with the help of a simple 78x05 voltage converter.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. e. BMI Page 20 . and the MAX232A only needs external capacitors 1/10th the capacity of what the original MAX232 needs. The MAX232 has a successor. Generating serial data with the right timing and decoding serial data has to be done by additional circuitry. -10V and +10V) internally. however. All it does is to convert signal voltage levels. Circuitry designers no longer need to design and build a power supply with three voltages (e. to adapt the RS-232 signal voltage levels to TTL logic. the MAX232A is much more often used (and easier to get) than the original MAX232. +5V. and it does not provide a serial/parallel conversion.g. but could just provide one +5V power supply. -12V. it does not decode the RS-232 signal. and +12V).

The original manufacturer (and now some clone manufacturers. the capacities of the external capacitors vary. These clones sometimes need different external circuitry. builtin or external capacitors.-|5 V. while the MAX233 has these capacitors built-in.R1in 12|-R1out 11|-T1in 10|-T2in 9|. The MAX232 and MAX232A need external capacitors for the internal voltage pump.e. etc. but today they are cheap. It is also more difficult to get the MAX233 than the garden variety MAX232A. It has also helped that many companies now produce clones (i. It is recommended to check the data sheet of the particular manufacturer of an IC instead of relying on Maxim's original data sheet.R2out +------- Department Of Mechanical Engineering. The MAX232 and MAX232A were once rather expensive ICs. with different numbers of receivers and drivers. Atmel AVR. E. Microchip PIC) getting more and more popular.-|3 C2+ -|4 C2. MAX232 (A) DIP Package +---v---+ C1+ -|1 V+ -|2 C1. Sipex).GND 14|-T1out 13|.-|6 T2out -|7 R2in -|8 16|-Vcc 15|. The MAX233 is also between three and ten times more expensive in electronic shops than the MAX232A because of its internal capacitors.g. BMI Page 21 .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing or one of these small micro controllers (e. e.g. too) offers a large series of similar ICs. voltages.g.

2A PEAK OUTPUT CURRENT (non repetitive) PER CHANNEL ENABLE FACILITY OVERTEMPERATURE PROTECTION LOGICAL "0" INPUT VOLTAGE UP TO 1. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. allowing operation at a lower voltage and internal clamp diodes are included.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4.5 V (HIGH NOISE IMMUNITY) INTERNAL CLAMP DIODES DESCRIPTION The Device is a monolithic integrated high voltage. BMI Page 22 .8 L239D Circuit     600mA OUTPUT CURRENT CAPABILITY PER CHANNEL 1.2 PUSH-PULL FOUR CHANNEL DRIVER WITH DIODES: Figure1. To simplify use as two bridges each pair of channels is equipped with an enable input. A separate supply input is provided for the logic. high current four channel driver designed to accept standard DTL or TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads (such as relays solenoids.9. DC and stepping motors) and switching power transistors.

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing This device is suitable for use in switching applications at frequencies up to 5 kHz. The L293D is assembled in a 16 lead plastic package which has 4 center pins connected together and used for heat sinking. The L293DD is assembled in a 20 lead surface mount which has 8 center pins connected together and used for heatsinking. Fig1.9 Simple electromechanical relay Types of Relay o o o o o o o o o o Latching relay Reed relay Mercury-wetted relay Polarized relay Machine tool relay Contactor relay Solid-state relay Solid state contactor relay Buchholz relay Forced-guided contacts relay Page 23 Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Relays find applications where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal. but other operating principles are also used.9. BMI . 4. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism. or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.3 RELAY: A relay is an electrically operated switch.

producing electrical energy from mechanical energy. Traction motors used on vehicles often perform both tasks. or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid. They may be powered by direct current (for example a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle). as in some types of modems or audio amplifiers. as in the starter solenoid of an automobile. blowers and pumps.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Applications Relays are used to and for: y Control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal. very typically through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors. power tools. household appliances. and disk drives.9. y Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening and closing circuit breakers (protection relays) 4. BMI Page 24 . machine tools. y Control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal.0 Types of Motors An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy. is accomplished by a generator or dynamo. and vice versa.4 Electric Motor: Figure2. Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans. The reverse process. The Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Many types of electric motors can be run as generators.

The ability to operate on AC is because the Department Of Mechanical Engineering. by their internal construction. or by the type of motion they give. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships. some types of motors are more suited for certain applications than other motor types are. The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. This document will hopefully give some guidance in selecting these motors         AC Motors DC Motors Brushless DC Motors Servo Motors Brushed DC Servo Motors Brushless AC Servo Motors Stepper Motors Linear Motors DC Motor A series-wound motor is referred to as a uni ersal motor when it has been designed to operate on either AC or DC power. but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks. Naturally. These variations are suitable for many different applications. BMI Page 25 . by their application. Types of Motors Industrial motors come in a variety of basic types. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power. and for such purposes as pipeline compressors. with ratings in the millions of watts.

5-12 Volt Supply Required Department Of Mechanical Engineering. The DC motor is one of the earliest motor designs. Why to use DC motor y y y y Easy to understand design Easy to control speed Easy to control torque Simple. cheap drive design Specification of Motor:    DC Motor 10 RPM 1. Today. it is the motor of choice in the majority of variable speed and torque control applications. BMI Page 26 . and hence the resulting mechanical force will occur in a constant direction.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing current in both the field and the armature (and hence the resultant magnetic fields) will alternate (reverse polarity) in synchronism.

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Chapter: 3 Description of work & Implementation Details Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Page 27 . BMIT.

whose glowing indicates that the train approaching on the railway gate and giving priority everyone has to keep away from the track and help it pass first. Department Of Mechanical Engineering.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 5. Detection of a train approaching the gate can be sensed by means of tsop sensors placed on 7km before the railway gate crossing. Two Bump Sensors placed at Pillar of boom Mechanism to Stop the Motor action. The detailed description of the working of the above model can be explained under various heads. Departure of train detected by sensor place 30 meter after the gate. BMI Page 28 . The buzzer also in turn alerts the other road users not to enter in to the area between the two booms on either side. The boom does not operate from top to horizontal position at one action but it descends very slowly. LEDs are placed on the pillar. Detail Working of Project: The first Tsop Sensor is placed before 7 km from the railway gate crossing to detect the train arrival and another Tsop Sensor is placed at about 30m after the railway gate crossing to detect the train departure. 1) Initial Signal Display: Let R1=first Tsop Sensor R2= second tsop sensor The road user signals can freely move through the gate as buzzer is made µOFF¶ since there is no approach of train and road users need not be warned. As long as if there is no LED and the buzzer the road users are free to use the railway gate crossing. which in turns placed on both sides of railway track. Playing a sound buzzer housed at the control room just adjacent to the railway gate and sound of buzzer will help the road users who is in between the two boom to take motion of the boom down process which has been automated and to quickly there by move outside the range of the two booms.

After 2.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 2) Train Arrival Detection: When train arrival is detected by R1 it does not send the signal to microcontroller unless it checks for 2. after 1. After train passes the sensor wait for 1. 4) Train Departure Detection: When train departure is detected by R2 . BMI Page 29 .5 sec it sends the signal to microcontroller to open the boom 5) Gate Opening: When the train departure is sensed by the sensors. 3) Warning for Road Users: At the moment the train arrival is sensed at railway gate crossing. after 1. road users are warned about the train approach by RED signals placed to caution the road users passing through the gate.5 sec because of any misuse. A buzzer is made ON as a precautionary measure for the road user and that nobody should enter the gate at that moment. RED signal appears for the road user once the train cuts the tsop sensor placed 7Km before the gate.it does not send the signal to microcontroller unless it checks for continuous detection of train. and microcontroller closes the boom as soon as the boom press the bump sensor the motor action is off.5 second signal is given to the Microcontroller which operates the motor action in reverse direction and the gates are opened.5 sec because of any misuse. Department Of Mechanical Engineering.5 sec it sends the signal to Microcontroller.

BMI Page 30 . Department Of Mechanical Engineering. STEP 7: Check for the train departure by the sensors. STEP 12: Stop. STEP 5: Make the warning signal for the road users. If the train is sensed go to step 5 otherwise go to step 4. STEP 6: Close the gate and stop the buzzer warning.1 ALGORITHM : STEP 1: Start.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 5. STEP 3: Make initial settings of the signals for the train and road users. STEP 2: Set the variables. STEP 4: Check for the arrival of the train in either direction by the sensors. STEP 11: Go to STEP 3. STEP8: Open the gate.

BMI Page 31 . Diagram: Department Of Mechanical Engineering.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 6.

Page 32 .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Chapter: 4 Advantages & Limitations Department Of Mechanical Engineering. BMIT.

It requires sensor to be kept at larger distance away from gate crossing and proper wiring has to be provided to reach the signal till the railway. 3.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 7. Reduces the waiting time of road passengers.1 Advantages: 1. 2. which will cost more. Improvement in safety of road passengers who use railway gate crossing. Maintenance probably may be high. 3. 7. The project provides encountered safety of animal who accidently stray across the railway gate crossing.2 Limitations: 1. BMI Page 33 . Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Reliability of boom operation on account automation is high as its manually operation is eliminated 2.

Page 34 .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing C APTER: 5 Conclusion Department Of Mechanical Engineering. BMIT.

This project is not completely applicable to current Indian railway system as of now. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. By the atomization of the boom it can be operated with optimum efficiency in terms of open and closure thereby cutting down on the passengers waiting time and thus contributing towards the nation¶s human resource hours every time the boom is in action. hence certain conditions are assumed as specified earlier. BMI Page 35 . The automatic operation of the boom at such places contributes in leaps and bounds to road passenger¶s safety system. Conclusion: It is recommended that such a type of automatic functioning of the boom at the railway gate crossing be implemented at each and every railway gate which will definitely improves the road passenger¶s safety system against railway accident.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 8. on which basis this project will work. This project is more useful at un-manned railway crossing where the road passengers are left to their soul judgment to guard for their safety against railway accidents. Current manual operation for the boom close-open system may be subjected to manual errors on part of the gangman whose effects may be disastrous and also has the possibilities of gangman letharginess in manually operating the boom with optimum efficiency which directly has an effect on the road passenger¶s unnessesarily waiting time on either side of the railway gate.

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Chapter: 6 References And Bibliography Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Page 36 . BMIT.

http://www.co.shtml 5. http://robotiks4u.html 3.atmel. by CD of technosolution Pvt Ltd Mumbai 2.html 4.pdf 9.com/sensors_tactbumpswitch.1 Bibliography 2.com/2008/06/bump -sensor. A complete reference of at mega 16 Micro Controllers. BMI Page 37 .php/sensors/sensormodules/single-tsop-sensor-module. http://robosoftsystems. http://www. Railways overview. References: 1.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc2466.societyofrobots.in/roboshop/index.blogspot.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 9.Book of Central Railway Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

BMI Page 38 .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Appendix Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

rameshwar@gmail.com maheshmnnl@gmail. Munnoli Mahesh 4.com satishmundkar@gmail.in sunilbajarangmishra@yahoo.in akkalkote.com Guide: Prof S. Mundkar Satish 3.1 Projectile: Name 1. BMI Page 39 .Jinde jinde_19@yahoo.co.Mishra Co-Guide Prof A. Mulla Umer Q 2.com Department Of Mechanical Engineering.com ramdasbochare@yahoo.B.co.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Appendix: A: 10. Akkalkote Rameshwar Email Id umer_mulla@rediffmail.R. Bochare Ramdas 5.

CLEARBIT(PORTD.6). Department Of Mechanical Engineering.5).h> #define CHECKBIT(x.5).7). SETBIT(PORTD.b)x^=(1<<b) void close(void) { CLEARBIT(PORTD.4).4). CLEARBIT(PORTD. } void stop(void) { CLEARBIT(PORTD.5).Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 10.6). CLEARBIT(PORTD.7). } void open(void) { SETBIT(PORTD.b)x|=(1<<b) #define CLEARBIT(x.b)x&=~(1<<b) #define TOGGLEBIT(x. b)x&(1<<b) #define SETBIT(x.h> #include<util/delay. CLEARBIT(PORTD.2 Program code: #include<avr/io. CLEARBIT(PORTD. SETBIT(PORTD.4). BMI Page 40 .

BMI Page 41 .6). Department Of Mechanical Engineering. CLEARBIT(PORTD.6). SETBIT(PORTD.5).5).7).4). CLEARBIT(PORTD. } void one(void) { do { close(). CLEARBIT(PORTD.4).7).2))). SETBIT(PORTD.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing SETBIT(PORTD.7). } void dleft(void) { SETBIT(PORTD. stop(). SETBIT(PORTD. } void dright(void) { CLEARBIT(PORTD. }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA.6). CLEARBIT(PORTD.

BMI Page 42 . if ((CHECKBIT(PINA. _delay_ms(2500).4))) { do { _delay_ms(150). } } } } void two(void) { do Department Of Mechanical Engineering.6))). }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing while(1) { if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA. }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA.4))).4))) { do { open(). stop(). return(0).

_delay_ms(2500). if ((CHECKBIT(PINA. BMI Page 43 .2))).1))) { do { open(). while(1) { if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA. }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA. stop(). stop(). } } } } Department Of Mechanical Engineering. }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA.6))).Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing { close().1))) { do { _delay_ms(150). }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA.1))). return(0).

CLEARBIT(DDRA.4).3). CLEARBIT(PORTD.5). Department Of Mechanical Engineering.4).4).7). SETBIT(DDRD.4). CLEARBIT(PORTC.6). SETBIT(DDRD. CLEARBIT(DDRA. CLEARBIT(DDRA.6). SETBIT(DDRD.6). SETBIT(PORTA. CLEARBIT(DDRA. SETBIT(PORTA.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing int main(void) { int j=0.3).5).2). SETBIT(DDRD. CLEARBIT(DDRA.7).1). CLEARBIT(PORTD. SETBIT(PORTA. SETBIT(PORTA.2). CLEARBIT(PORTD.1). CLEARBIT(DDRA.5). BMI Page 44 .5). SETBIT(PORTA.

} if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA.4))) _delay_ms(2500).1))) { one(). Department Of Mechanical Engineering. if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA. while(1) { if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA.1))) _delay_ms(2500).Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing SETBIT(PORTA. BMI Page 45 .6). } } return(0).4))) { two(). if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA.

No Item Cost (Rupees) 1 AVR iBoard 1600/- 2 Tsop Sensor 300/- 3 Bump Sensor 250/- 4 Power Supply 275/- 5 Tool Kit 300/- 6 Other 2000/- TOTAL 4725/- Department Of Mechanical Engineering.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 10. BMI Page 46 .3 Expenditure: Sr.

4.4 PHOTOS: 10.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 10. BMI Page 47 .1: Amdar Praniti Sushilkumar Shinde and our College Secretary Mane Madam 10.4.2 Our HOD Prof Chipade Sir and Our Group Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

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