Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing

Chapter: 1

Introduction

Department Of Mechanical Engineering, BMIT.

Page 1

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing

1. Introduction of Project:
The basic requirement of a railway engine or bogie for its locomotion is the continuity of the railway track which in this form and railway track network which spreads across the country, and in doing so it intersects various cities and towns and thereby also intersects all the roads coming across the railway track. In this project we are concerned with providing an automatic railway gate control at unmanned level crossings replacing the gates operated by gate keepers and also the semi-automatically operated gates. It deals with two things. Firstly, it deals with the reduction of time for which the gate is being kept closed. And secondly, to provide safety to the road users by reducing the accidents that usually occur due to carelessness of road users and at times errors made by the gangman. By employing the automatic railway gate control at the level crossing the arrival of train is detected by the sensor placed 7km before railway gate crossing. Once the arrival is sensed, the sensed signal is sent to the microcontroller and it sends the signal after 2.5 second to motor buzzer indication and light signals on both sides of railway gate crossing provided to the road users indicating the closure of gates. The departure of the train is detected by sensors placed at about 30m after the gate crossing. The signal about the departure of the train is sent to the microcontroller after 1.5 second, which in turn operates the motor and opens the gate. Thus, the time for which the gate is closed is less compared to the manually operated gates since the gate is closed depending upon the telephone call from the previous station. Also reliability is high as it is not subjected to manual errors. As it is to be understood by everyone that the railway being mass transport has to be given priority as compare to personal or road transport which is comparatively smaller one and has to be allowed to be pass first as compare to personal or road transport. Not having a thorough understanding of the above concept and miscalculating often the speed of the train it is that there is collision between the train and
Depart ent echanical Engineering, BMI Page 2

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing

men operated means. As regards to animals stringing on the track this project has a limitation.

The project contains following assumptions:

2. Assumptions:
1. 2. It is a single track route. If it is double track and if train approach on it simultaneously from both the sides then it would require interlocking facility of the signal for the microcontroller to operate the boom which is more complexes in nature hence we have formed this prototype model, assuming it as a single track. 3. The sensors are assumed to be put at a height which coincides with just below the top of the railway boggie. 4. For the sensor not to mal function in terms of picking up astray incident of a bird coming in between its path to encounter this delay time of 2-3 seconds has been purposely kept for the sensor to operate on continuously sensing. 5. Boom of railway gate crossing works when train moves from both the direction. 6. Our project is based on the assumption that the road passengers plying across the road are well aware about traffic rules as well as are also aware about their lives safety norms.

Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering, BMI

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Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing

3. List of Component :
1. AVR iBoard 2. Tsop Sensor 3. Bump Sensor 4. Motors 5. Relay Circuit 6. Power Supply 7. Train Kit 8. Plywood 9. Tool Kit

Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering, BMI

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Page 5 . BMIT.Aut ti B t R il t C i Chapter: 2 Literature Review Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

I. computerization and overall management.699 bridges of which 10799 are major bridges. Operating on three gauges .445 long haul MT Kms. 21. 14.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4.511 Km covering 6. Indian Railway network is spread over 81. Indian Railways has nearly 1.5 per cent of the route. 53.186 wagons and 40. This effort has been in tune with the requirement of moving large volumes of passengers and freight traffic.P Railway¶s First train ever to run on the Indian soil rolled throughout the changed the history of India. trains in India carry more than 12 million passengers and more than a million tons of freight every day during the year 1998-99.730 optical fiber communication route Kms and over 8. 1.896 stations.613 trunk tele channels Kms distinguishes Indian Railway telecom network. The network spread and expanded rapidly and has become the principal mode of transport in our country. Indian Railways has grown into one of the largest Railway network in the world.It was single stretch of 34 kilometer from ³Boree Bunder (now become CST) to Tannah (now become Thane) G. Broad gauge although forming 64. 18. ticketing. The Railways have also been modernized in terms of technology. In 1998-99.6 per cent of the passenger output during 1998-99.579 route kms constituting over 19.broad gauge (1676 mm) meter gauge (1000 mm) and narrow gauge (762 and 610 mm).56. Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering..846 telephone exchange lines.1 Introduction to Indi n Rail ay: It all began one fine summer day on 16 April 1853. generated 96 per cent of freight output and 89.775 coaching vehicles. 2. This carries approx.the world¶s largest continent. Introduced as early as 1853. It also marked the dawn of Railway Age in Asia. 41 per cent of the passenger traffic and 52 per cent of the freight traffic on Indian Railways. forever.5 per cent of the total network and 30 per cent of broad gauge network on Indian Railway is electrified. BMI Page 6 . The transport effort is sustained through the use of 7429 locomotives. 384 bridges were rebuilt or rehabilitated and 270 strengthened or re-girdered. Almost all the double/multiple track sections and electrified routes lie on broad gauge.54. 1.

During 1998 -99 the revenue earning freight traffic moved by Railways was 420.1: Indian railway Indian Rail ays is di ided into 16 zones: Northern Railway (NR) Noth Eastern Railway (NER) Central Railway (CR) South Western Railway (SWR) Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR) North Western Railway (NWR) Western Railway (WR) Southern Railway (SR) South Central Railway (SCR) South Eastern Railway (SER) Eastern Railway (ER) West Central Railway (WCR) North Central Railway (NCR) South East Central Railway (SECR) East Coast Railway (ECoR) East Central Railway (ECR) Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering.27 billion NTKms (net tone kilometers).Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Indian Railway system has developed a capacity to carry 441.58 million tons of originating revenue earning traffic which in terms of transport output is 284. The total passenger traffic in the year 1998-99 was 4411 million tons. BMI Page 7 .9 million tons growing at the rate of 7%. Fig1.

5RN passenger train dashed with one tractor trolley on unmanned level crossing at km 1115/3-4. 4. BMI Page 8 . where 3 people died one person seriously injured. using conversions or calculations to determine results. such as temperature or thermal conductivity. Sensors are electrical or mechanical components that are used to measure a property or behavior of an object or system. 321 up (Tata . injured2) 2.rly on 30-03-03 (killed 11.06 kapilvastu express (gonda .3 Introduction of Sensor : A sensor is a device that produces a measurable response to a change in a physical condition. but they can also be found in many household objects. Some sensors measure properties directly.Nagpur passenger) dashed with dumper at unmanned level crossing gate no. other sensors measure properties indirectly.on 30. or to a change in chemical concentration.05. Coupled light engines dashed with auto rickshaw at gate no 78 at km 14/2-3 of Hyderabad division of south central railway on 10-01-03 (killed 9. 14 injured. The tractor trolley continued to cross the track at high speed. Driver got trapped in the train engine.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. 452 between durg and murlipur station on 28-08-01. 58 people killed. The tractor trolley was carrying a marriage party with music on. Sensors are particularly useful for making in-situ measurements such as in industrial process control. Sensors are used by scientists and engineers during research and testing activities. injured-8) 3. 5027 up dashed with tractor on gate at km 429/10-11 between Bhatpara rani and bhatni station of bsb division of ne.Gorakhpur) dashed with a tractor trailor at unmanned level crossing near kuian village of balrampur district (up). such as temperature sensors in an oven to accelerometers in an automobile airbag system. 4. Sensors are generally categorized by the type of Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. The train driver lost his life and the asstt.2 ACCIDENT CASES AT MANNED RAILWAY GATE CROSSING: 1. 5.

Calibration .The statistical variance about the exact reading.Sensors typically have temperature and/or humidity limits. Electrical and mechanical sensors are widely used to characterize the performance and properties of components and systems.The smallest increment the sensor can detect. BMI Page 9 . but are also found in household objects. Repeatability .   Range .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing phenomenon that they measure.The variance in a sensor's reading when a single condition is repeatedly measured.   Cost Environmental .Required for most measuring systems since their readings will drift over time.   Accuracy . Factors to consider while choosing a sensor.Limits of measurement or the sensor.  Resolution . Application: The sensor is responsible for converting some type of physical Phenomenon into a quantity measurable by a data acquisition (DAQ) system Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. rather than the functionality of the sensor itself.

Velocity 4.5 General Description of Tsop sensor Fig1. Sound 11. 2. Pressure 9. Acceleration .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. Magnetic Fields 8. Angular / Linear Position 3. BMI Page 10 .2: Tsop Sensor Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. Proximity . Chemical/Gas Concentration 4.Spatial Presence 10. Flow Rate 6. Force 7. Temperature 12. Humidity 5.4 USES OF SENSORS: Sensors are used to measure basic physical phenomena including: 1.Shock & Vibration.

BMI Page 11 . Here we use it for collision detection. The output of TSOP is high whenever it receives a fixed frequency and low otherwise. Due to this. It gives a digital output and false detection due ambient light is low. The on-board LED indicator helps user to check status of the sensor without using any additional hardware. Application Ideas ‡ Obstacle detection ‡ Shaft encoder ‡ Fixed frequency detection Pin No.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing The TSOP-OBSD±Single is a general purpose proximity sensor. errors due to false detection of ambient light are significantly reduced. Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. The power consumption of this module is low. Normally the switch will be held open by an internal spring. making an electrical connection. working in astable multivibrator configuration. The module consists of an IR emitter and TSOP receiver pair.6 Bump Sensor : A bump sensor is probably one of the easiest ways of letting gate Boom know it's collided with something. The simplest way to do this is to fix a micro switch to the pillar of gate in a way so that when it collides the switch will get pushed in. Connection Description 1 Output Digital Output (High or Low) 2 VCC Connected to circuit supply 3 Ground Connected to circuit ground 4. The high precision TSO receiver always detects a signal of fixed frequency. The module consists of 555 IC.

They usually implement a mechanical button to short the circuit.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Fig1. as shown above. but the circuit itself also works fine for user buttons and switches as well. pulling the signal line high or low. Bump Sensor Circuits: Voltage goes high Voltage goes with contact low with contact More efficient switch for 3 lead switches Depart ent Of Mechanical Engineering. There are several versions below. But the circuit remains the same. often depending on the design and goals of the robot itself. Tactile switches only work if you¶re motor can stop instantaneously (like when moving slowly). An example is the micro switch with a lever attached to increase its range. For the resistor use a very high value.3: Bump Sensor Tactile Bump Sensors are great for collision detection. depending on how you plan to use the circuit and your available switches. such as 40kohms. There are many designs possible for bump switches. BMI Page 12 .

Aut ti B t R il t C i (use for mi ro swit hes) The followi di ram shows a t i al circuit for a micro switch bump sensor.4: Bump Sensor Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Fig1. The resistor is important because it holds the si nal line at ground while the switch is off. Without it the signal line is effecti el 'floating' because there is nothing connected to it and may cause unreliable readings as the processor tries to decide if the line is on or off. BMIT. Page 13 .

BMI Page 14 .7 The AVR iBoard : y Includes ATMEL ATMega 16 (Also supports ATMega32) Microcontroller with 16kB flash memory working at 16 Mips y y y y y y y y In system programmable On board programmer On board regulated power supply On board motor drivers with current capacity of up to 600mA per channel Power indicator LED 2 on board Dual full H bridge motor driver for 2 stepper or 4 Dc motors Separate ON/OFF switch for power & motor drives 3 LEDs for external inputs/interrupts On board LCD connector (multipurpose port.5: AVR iBoard Maximum Input voltage = 16V Minimum Input voltage = 7V Department Of Mechanical Engineering. which can be used for other applications also) Fig1.Aut ati n of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4.

MAX232: This chip takes care of the voltage conversions needed to communicate with the PC¶S RS232 (serial/ COM) port. 8 individual sensor modules can be connected to this port. the beeper can easily be used to get audible feedback from the controller. Beeper: Connected in the active low mode. y Switch array: four general purpose switches are connected in the active-low configuration. y DB 9 connector: This is a 9 pin connector used to the PC¶S COM port during programming or for general UART communications. y ADC Test: Short the two pins of the jumper next to the potentiometer & the potentiometer gets connected to the port A 7. y Motor Enable switch: This switch is used to enable/disable the motor driver chips hence in turn enabling/disabling the motors. BMI Page 15 . y y Crystal: A crystal sets the microcontroller¶s clock frequency to 11. y L293D: It is a 4 channel motor driver with 600mA of current per channel & has inbuilt clamp diodes. Department Of Mechanical Engineering.0592MHz. y Sensor port: At a time. The port provides 5V supply needed driver sensors. IC 7805: It¶s a three terminal linear 5 volt regulator used to supply the microcontroller & other peripherals. y y Reset Switch: This switch is used to reset the microcontroller. The board contains two such chips. y Potentiometer (pot): The potentiometer is used to vary the contrast of the LCD.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Parts identification: y y Power on switch: It¶s a basic push to on ±push to off type switch.

3 Motor Drivers 4 5. 7 6 Port C O 1 2 3 4«7 Port D 0 1 2.7 sensor connector Port B 0«. BMI Page 16 ..Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Board connection Details : Port A 0«.7 Motor drivers A Department Of Mechanical Engineering. 3 USART RXD USART TXD + LED D3 Switch 2. 3 LCD Control pin LED D1 (Active high) LCD Control pin Buzzer (Active high) LCD Data pins Switch 1 (Active low) programmer LED D2 (Active High) 4«.

10-bit ADC ‡ Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescalers and Compare Modes ‡ One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescalers. BMI Page 17 .8 Introduction to at mega 16 Microcontroller : Features: ‡ Advanced RISC Architecture ‡ Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz ‡ 16K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash ‡ 512 Bytes EEPROM ‡ 1K Byte Internal SRAM ‡ 32 Programmable I/O Lines ‡ In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program ‡ 8-channel. Compare Mode.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. and Capture ‡ Four PWM Channels ‡ Programmable Serial USART ‡ Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface ‡ Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface ‡ Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator ‡ External and Internal Interrupt Sources Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

even if the clock is not running.6: pin Diagram of At Mega system Micro-controller Detail Pin Descriptions VCC: Digital supply voltage. When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low. Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing PIN CONFIGURATION: Fig1. they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. (0 V) Note there are 2 ground Pins. (+5V) GND: Ground. Port A (PA7 . if the A/D Converter is not used.PA0) Port A serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. BMI Page 18 .

the pull-up resistors on pins PC5 (TDI). A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset. Port C (PC7 . XTAL1: External oscillator pin 1 XTAL2: External oscillator pin 2 AVCC: AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter. even if the clock is not running. it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter. If the ADC is used. PC3 (TMS) and PC2 (TCK) will be activated even if a reset occurs. AREF: AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter. It should be externally connected to VCC. even if the ADC is not used. RESET: Reset Input. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega16 as listed on page 58 of datasheet.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Port B (PB7 .PD0) Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit).PC0) Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). Port D also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega16 as listed on page 63 of datasheet. BMI Page 19 .PB0) Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). If the JTAG interface is enabled. Port D (PD7 . Port C also serves the functions of the JTAG interface and other special features of the ATmega16 as listed on page 61 of datasheet.

The ICs are almost identical. and it does not provide a serial/parallel conversion. and the MAX232A only needs external capacitors 1/10th the capacity of what the original MAX232 needs.9.g. by a 16550 UART Department Of Mechanical Engineering.1 The MAX232 & MAX232A: Figure 1. it does not decode the RS-232 signal.g.7 MAX232 Integrated Circuit A MAX232 integrated circuit The MAX232 from Maxim was the first IC which in one package contains the necessary drivers (two) and receivers (also two). to adapt the RS-232 signal voltage levels to TTL logic. All it does is to convert signal voltage levels. Circuitry designers no longer need to design and build a power supply with three voltages (e. It should be noted that the MAX232 (A) is just a driver/receiver. BMI Page 20 . and +12V).g. Generating serial data with the right timing and decoding serial data has to be done by additional circuitry. with the help of a simple 78x05 voltage converter. the MAX232A. This greatly simplified the design of circuitry. the MAX232A is much more often used (and easier to get) than the original MAX232. e. however. because it just needs one voltage (+5V) and generates the necessary RS-232 voltage levels (approx. It became popular. It does not generate the necessary RS-232 sequence of marks and spaces with the right timing. e.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. -10V and +10V) internally. -12V. The MAX232 has a successor. but could just provide one +5V power supply. +5V.

-|3 C2+ -|4 C2. e. E. It is also more difficult to get the MAX233 than the garden variety MAX232A. The MAX232 and MAX232A need external capacitors for the internal voltage pump. BMI Page 21 .R1in 12|-R1out 11|-T1in 10|-T2in 9|. but today they are cheap.g. too) offers a large series of similar ICs.R2out +------- Department Of Mechanical Engineering.e.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing or one of these small micro controllers (e. Microchip PIC) getting more and more popular. Sipex).-|6 T2out -|7 R2in -|8 16|-Vcc 15|. It has also helped that many companies now produce clones (i. builtin or external capacitors.g. These clones sometimes need different external circuitry. voltages. MAX232 (A) DIP Package +---v---+ C1+ -|1 V+ -|2 C1.-|5 V. with different numbers of receivers and drivers. The MAX232 and MAX232A were once rather expensive ICs. the capacities of the external capacitors vary.g. The MAX233 is also between three and ten times more expensive in electronic shops than the MAX232A because of its internal capacitors. while the MAX233 has these capacitors built-in. The original manufacturer (and now some clone manufacturers.GND 14|-T1out 13|. etc. It is recommended to check the data sheet of the particular manufacturer of an IC instead of relying on Maxim's original data sheet. Atmel AVR.

high current four channel driver designed to accept standard DTL or TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads (such as relays solenoids.8 L239D Circuit     600mA OUTPUT CURRENT CAPABILITY PER CHANNEL 1. BMI Page 22 . DC and stepping motors) and switching power transistors.5 V (HIGH NOISE IMMUNITY) INTERNAL CLAMP DIODES DESCRIPTION The Device is a monolithic integrated high voltage.2 PUSH-PULL FOUR CHANNEL DRIVER WITH DIODES: Figure1.2A PEAK OUTPUT CURRENT (non repetitive) PER CHANNEL ENABLE FACILITY OVERTEMPERATURE PROTECTION LOGICAL "0" INPUT VOLTAGE UP TO 1.9. A separate supply input is provided for the logic. allowing operation at a lower voltage and internal clamp diodes are included. Department Of Mechanical Engineering.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 4. To simplify use as two bridges each pair of channels is equipped with an enable input.

Fig1. but other operating principles are also used.3 RELAY: A relay is an electrically operated switch.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing This device is suitable for use in switching applications at frequencies up to 5 kHz.9 Simple electromechanical relay Types of Relay o o o o o o o o o o Latching relay Reed relay Mercury-wetted relay Polarized relay Machine tool relay Contactor relay Solid-state relay Solid state contactor relay Buchholz relay Forced-guided contacts relay Page 23 Department Of Mechanical Engineering. BMI . The L293D is assembled in a 16 lead plastic package which has 4 center pins connected together and used for heat sinking. The L293DD is assembled in a 20 lead surface mount which has 8 center pins connected together and used for heatsinking. Relays find applications where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal. 4. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism.9. or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.

producing electrical energy from mechanical energy. Many types of electric motors can be run as generators.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Applications Relays are used to and for: y Control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal. BMI Page 24 . as in the starter solenoid of an automobile. machine tools. y Control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal. blowers and pumps.0 Types of Motors An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy.4 Electric Motor: Figure2. The reverse process. household appliances. y Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening and closing circuit breakers (protection relays) 4. is accomplished by a generator or dynamo.9. or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid. and disk drives. The Department Of Mechanical Engineering. very typically through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors. Traction motors used on vehicles often perform both tasks. as in some types of modems or audio amplifiers. They may be powered by direct current (for example a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle). Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans. and vice versa. power tools.

These variations are suitable for many different applications. Types of Motors Industrial motors come in a variety of basic types. The ability to operate on AC is because the Department Of Mechanical Engineering. or by the type of motion they give. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power. The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. and for such purposes as pipeline compressors. by their application. some types of motors are more suited for certain applications than other motor types are. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks. This document will hopefully give some guidance in selecting these motors         AC Motors DC Motors Brushless DC Motors Servo Motors Brushed DC Servo Motors Brushless AC Servo Motors Stepper Motors Linear Motors DC Motor A series-wound motor is referred to as a uni ersal motor when it has been designed to operate on either AC or DC power.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. BMI Page 25 . by their internal construction. Naturally. with ratings in the millions of watts. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships.

cheap drive design Specification of Motor:    DC Motor 10 RPM 1. and hence the resulting mechanical force will occur in a constant direction. Why to use DC motor y y y y Easy to understand design Easy to control speed Easy to control torque Simple. The DC motor is one of the earliest motor designs. BMI Page 26 .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing current in both the field and the armature (and hence the resultant magnetic fields) will alternate (reverse polarity) in synchronism. it is the motor of choice in the majority of variable speed and torque control applications.5-12 Volt Supply Required Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Today.

BMIT.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Chapter: 3 Description of work & Implementation Details Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Page 27 .

1) Initial Signal Display: Let R1=first Tsop Sensor R2= second tsop sensor The road user signals can freely move through the gate as buzzer is made µOFF¶ since there is no approach of train and road users need not be warned. Departure of train detected by sensor place 30 meter after the gate. which in turns placed on both sides of railway track. BMI Page 28 . Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Playing a sound buzzer housed at the control room just adjacent to the railway gate and sound of buzzer will help the road users who is in between the two boom to take motion of the boom down process which has been automated and to quickly there by move outside the range of the two booms. whose glowing indicates that the train approaching on the railway gate and giving priority everyone has to keep away from the track and help it pass first. The detailed description of the working of the above model can be explained under various heads. Detection of a train approaching the gate can be sensed by means of tsop sensors placed on 7km before the railway gate crossing. LEDs are placed on the pillar. The buzzer also in turn alerts the other road users not to enter in to the area between the two booms on either side. As long as if there is no LED and the buzzer the road users are free to use the railway gate crossing.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 5. Two Bump Sensors placed at Pillar of boom Mechanism to Stop the Motor action. The boom does not operate from top to horizontal position at one action but it descends very slowly. Detail Working of Project: The first Tsop Sensor is placed before 7 km from the railway gate crossing to detect the train arrival and another Tsop Sensor is placed at about 30m after the railway gate crossing to detect the train departure.

BMI Page 29 . A buzzer is made ON as a precautionary measure for the road user and that nobody should enter the gate at that moment.5 second signal is given to the Microcontroller which operates the motor action in reverse direction and the gates are opened. 3) Warning for Road Users: At the moment the train arrival is sensed at railway gate crossing. after 1. After train passes the sensor wait for 1.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 2) Train Arrival Detection: When train arrival is detected by R1 it does not send the signal to microcontroller unless it checks for 2. 4) Train Departure Detection: When train departure is detected by R2 .5 sec it sends the signal to microcontroller to open the boom 5) Gate Opening: When the train departure is sensed by the sensors. after 1.5 sec because of any misuse. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. and microcontroller closes the boom as soon as the boom press the bump sensor the motor action is off. RED signal appears for the road user once the train cuts the tsop sensor placed 7Km before the gate. road users are warned about the train approach by RED signals placed to caution the road users passing through the gate.5 sec it sends the signal to Microcontroller.After 2.5 sec because of any misuse.it does not send the signal to microcontroller unless it checks for continuous detection of train.

STEP 3: Make initial settings of the signals for the train and road users. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. STEP 5: Make the warning signal for the road users. STEP 11: Go to STEP 3. STEP 7: Check for the train departure by the sensors. STEP 6: Close the gate and stop the buzzer warning. If the train is sensed go to step 5 otherwise go to step 4.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 5. STEP 12: Stop. STEP 2: Set the variables. STEP8: Open the gate.1 ALGORITHM : STEP 1: Start. STEP 4: Check for the arrival of the train in either direction by the sensors. BMI Page 30 .

Diagram: Department Of Mechanical Engineering.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 6. BMI Page 31 .

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Chapter: 4 Advantages & Limitations Department Of Mechanical Engineering. BMIT. Page 32 .

2 Limitations: 1. which will cost more. The project provides encountered safety of animal who accidently stray across the railway gate crossing.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 7. 7. BMI Page 33 . Improvement in safety of road passengers who use railway gate crossing. Reduces the waiting time of road passengers. Reliability of boom operation on account automation is high as its manually operation is eliminated 2. It requires sensor to be kept at larger distance away from gate crossing and proper wiring has to be provided to reach the signal till the railway. 2. 3. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. 3. Maintenance probably may be high.1 Advantages: 1.

BMIT. Page 34 .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing C APTER: 5 Conclusion Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

hence certain conditions are assumed as specified earlier. Current manual operation for the boom close-open system may be subjected to manual errors on part of the gangman whose effects may be disastrous and also has the possibilities of gangman letharginess in manually operating the boom with optimum efficiency which directly has an effect on the road passenger¶s unnessesarily waiting time on either side of the railway gate. This project is not completely applicable to current Indian railway system as of now. The automatic operation of the boom at such places contributes in leaps and bounds to road passenger¶s safety system. Department Of Mechanical Engineering.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 8. on which basis this project will work. This project is more useful at un-manned railway crossing where the road passengers are left to their soul judgment to guard for their safety against railway accidents. Conclusion: It is recommended that such a type of automatic functioning of the boom at the railway gate crossing be implemented at each and every railway gate which will definitely improves the road passenger¶s safety system against railway accident. BMI Page 35 . By the atomization of the boom it can be operated with optimum efficiency in terms of open and closure thereby cutting down on the passengers waiting time and thus contributing towards the nation¶s human resource hours every time the boom is in action.

Page 36 . BMIT.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Chapter: 6 References And Bibliography Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 9.1 Bibliography 2.pdf 9.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc2466.co. BMI Page 37 .shtml 5.atmel.Book of Central Railway Department Of Mechanical Engineering.com/sensors_tactbumpswitch.com/2008/06/bump -sensor. by CD of technosolution Pvt Ltd Mumbai 2. A complete reference of at mega 16 Micro Controllers.php/sensors/sensormodules/single-tsop-sensor-module.html 4. http://robotiks4u. http://www. Railways overview.html 3. References: 1.in/roboshop/index. http://robosoftsystems. http://www.blogspot.societyofrobots.

BMI Page 38 .Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Appendix Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

Mundkar Satish 3. Munnoli Mahesh 4.in akkalkote.R.com ramdasbochare@yahoo. BMI Page 39 .com maheshmnnl@gmail.Jinde jinde_19@yahoo.com satishmundkar@gmail.co.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing Appendix: A: 10.in sunilbajarangmishra@yahoo. Bochare Ramdas 5.com Department Of Mechanical Engineering.rameshwar@gmail.co.B.com Guide: Prof S.Mishra Co-Guide Prof A. Mulla Umer Q 2.1 Projectile: Name 1. Akkalkote Rameshwar Email Id umer_mulla@rediffmail.

5). CLEARBIT(PORTD. CLEARBIT(PORTD. CLEARBIT(PORTD.h> #define CHECKBIT(x.4).4). Department Of Mechanical Engineering. SETBIT(PORTD.6). CLEARBIT(PORTD.7).7). BMI Page 40 .5). } void stop(void) { CLEARBIT(PORTD.b)x|=(1<<b) #define CLEARBIT(x.h> #include<util/delay.b)x^=(1<<b) void close(void) { CLEARBIT(PORTD. b)x&(1<<b) #define SETBIT(x.6).b)x&=~(1<<b) #define TOGGLEBIT(x.4). SETBIT(PORTD.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 10. CLEARBIT(PORTD.2 Program code: #include<avr/io. } void open(void) { SETBIT(PORTD.5).

6). }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA.4). CLEARBIT(PORTD. } void one(void) { do { close(). CLEARBIT(PORTD.6). } void dright(void) { CLEARBIT(PORTD.4). CLEARBIT(PORTD.5).7).6).7).7). SETBIT(PORTD.5). BMI Page 41 . SETBIT(PORTD.2))). SETBIT(PORTD. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. stop().Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing SETBIT(PORTD. } void dleft(void) { SETBIT(PORTD. CLEARBIT(PORTD.

4))) { do { open(). }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA.6))).4))) { do { _delay_ms(150). _delay_ms(2500). if ((CHECKBIT(PINA. stop(). } } } } void two(void) { do Department Of Mechanical Engineering.4))). return(0). BMI Page 42 . }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing while(1) { if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA.

}while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA. while(1) { if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA.1))). stop().1))) { do { _delay_ms(150).2))). }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA.1))) { do { open(). }while(!(CHECKBIT(PINA. return(0).Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing { close(). } } } } Department Of Mechanical Engineering.6))). BMI Page 43 . _delay_ms(2500). stop(). if ((CHECKBIT(PINA.

4).6). SETBIT(PORTA. SETBIT(DDRD.4).5).2). SETBIT(DDRD. CLEARBIT(DDRA. SETBIT(DDRD.1). SETBIT(PORTA. CLEARBIT(PORTD.7). SETBIT(PORTA. CLEARBIT(DDRA. Department Of Mechanical Engineering. CLEARBIT(DDRA.3).Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing int main(void) { int j=0. CLEARBIT(PORTC.6).5).2).7). SETBIT(DDRD.3). BMI Page 44 . CLEARBIT(PORTD.4).5).4). CLEARBIT(DDRA. CLEARBIT(DDRA.6). SETBIT(PORTA. CLEARBIT(DDRA. SETBIT(PORTA.5).1). CLEARBIT(PORTD.

BMI Page 45 . while(1) { if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA. } if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA. if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing SETBIT(PORTA.6).1))) _delay_ms(2500). } } return(0). if (!(CHECKBIT(PINA.4))) _delay_ms(2500).1))) { one().4))) { two(). Department Of Mechanical Engineering.

Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 10. BMI Page 46 . No Item Cost (Rupees) 1 AVR iBoard 1600/- 2 Tsop Sensor 300/- 3 Bump Sensor 250/- 4 Power Supply 275/- 5 Tool Kit 300/- 6 Other 2000/- TOTAL 4725/- Department Of Mechanical Engineering.3 Expenditure: Sr.

1: Amdar Praniti Sushilkumar Shinde and our College Secretary Mane Madam 10.4 PHOTOS: 10.4.4. BMI Page 47 .2 Our HOD Prof Chipade Sir and Our Group Department Of Mechanical Engineering.Automation of Boom at Railway Gate Crossing 10.

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