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Published by: truptidandekar on Apr 25, 2011
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SERVQUAL is a predominant method for measurement of Service Quality. It is a 22 item scale, which measures consumer¶s perception regarding service quality. This scale was coined by (Parasuraman et al 1988). Previous research (Parasuraman et al. 1985) had given 10 dimensions, which consumer use for assessing quality of service. These 10 dimensions are: 1. Reliability - consistency of performance, doing it right the first time. 2. Responsiveness - willingness or readiness of employees to provide the service. 3. Competence - possession of the required skills and knowledge necessary to perform the task. 4. Access - approachability and eye contact. 5. Courtesy - politeness, respect, consideration and friendliness of contact personnel. 6. Communication - keeping customers informed in a language they can understand. 7. Credibility-trustworthiness, believability, honesty, and maintaining the customers' best interests at heart. 8. Security - freedom from risk, danger or doubt. 9. Understanding/knowing the customer - making an effort to know the customers' needs. 10. Tangibles - the physical evidence of service such as the appearance of the personnel. These 10 dimensions was found to be overlapping and then after doing testing and scale purification (Parasuraman et al in 1988) had suggested 5 dimensions of service quality. Which are: 1. Tangibles: The physical surroundings (for example, facilities, equipment and appearance of employees). 2. Reliability: The service provider¶s ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. 3. Responsiveness: Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. 4. Assurance: Knowledge and courtesy of the organization¶s employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence. 5. Empathy: The service organization¶s caring, individualized attention to its customers. According to Parasuraman et al (1985, 1991, 1994a, 1994b), expectations are one of the most widely used comparison standards in the measurement of service quality. Customers judge service quality by comparing their expected level of service performance with the perceived performance. Above mentioned 5 dimensions could be measured through 22 item scale- SERVQUAL. This scale can measure gap between expected service and perceived service, so each of this 22 items are recast in to two statement first identify what customer expect on that dimension and second identify what customer actually received on that dimension. These 22 items are measured through a seven point likert scale from ³strongly agree´ to ³Strongly Disagree´ Parasuraman et al. (1988) had done analysis of SERVQUAL scale in five service firms from different industries: bank, repair and maintenance service, credit card, values negotiation, and long distance telephone service. The reliability and validity of this scale was reconfirmed by Parasuraman et al. (1991) in five additional companies: one Telephone Company, two insurance companies and two banks. The authors concluded that the SERVQUAL scale can be applicable across a broad spectrum of services.

Lamb1991.. Lam 1997. Direct Questioning and Policy Capturing method are also discussed in studies. Orwig et al.. According to Genestre and Herbig (1996) limitation of SERVQUAL is its total reliance on service oriented questions and its consequent lack of replication due to the intrinsic heterogeneous characteristics of services. Harwood. hotels (M. Ibrahim Yilmaz. retail (James m. 1990.2007. Several statistical shortcomings of the SERVQUAL model are addressed by Brown. Some authors (Lewis and Mitchell. Alternative Scales Since the SERVQUAL scale was coined many studies are undertaken for testing its reliability. FAIRSERV.2008.2007).2000).2000). Sadiq sohail. K. tourism (Alberto A. TOPSIS. Carman. several authors have criticized this scale. 1995.2009). REFERQUAL. they suggest that because performance and expectations are positively correlated. then the SERVQUAL gap measure will display poor reliability.2010). Finn and Charles W. Lemay. police service. airline (Kevin M. shipping (Leon Crosby and Stephan A. travel agents (Zhou Ruiqi and Pritchard Adrian.Criticism of SERVQUAL Although the SERVQUAL scale has been high in popularity and being used by researchers widely. Churchill and Peter (1993). Teas (1993a. Brown et al. Fatma Pakdil & Timothy N. 2010). 1994). David W. Simon s. Price et al. 2009). Bick et al.. Pal and Koushiki Choudhury. 2005. Elliott. Indeed.. Alain Genestree and Paul Hersbig 1996). Wilkinson and Romaniuk (1995) reinforce the arguments of Cronin and Taylor with respect to performance ratings and the performance gap measure as a result of studies carried out in the Australian advertising industry. . some authors indicated that its structure neglects somewhat critical facets of quality in the service sector (Peiro et al. 2009). 2005. 1993) have raised questions about the appropriateness of using a discrete 7-point scale. Carman (1990) suggests that the SERVQUAL instrument provides a good starting point for analysis but may need modification in any specific context. library (Coleen Cook and Bruce Thompson. G. BANKSERV. banking (Manabendra N. Lo pez-Toro et al. consistency and applicability to different service industry many studies are also undertaken for finding alternative scale than SERVQUAL and many alternatives like SERVPERF. Sa nchez-Herna ndez et al. Cronin and Taylor (1992) suggest that there is no real evidence to support the concept of the performance minus expectations gap as a basis for measuring service quality. information services(Christopher L.. websites(Josvan Iwaarden et al. Carr.2008.2007). 2009) etc. 1993b) also provide support for Cronin and Taylor's view on the theoretical and operational ambiguity of the expectations element of SERVQUAL. Application of SERVQUAL SERVQUAL is having wide application in service industry. education (Aditya Chatterjee et al. 1997). hospital (Emin Babakus and W Glynn Mangold. 2006). 1992. Chinonye Ugboma et al. Don Cock et al. public sector (Robert A. But still SERVQUAL is most used method for measuring service quality gaps. 1990. validity. they claim that using performance scores alone (SERVPERF) gives a better measure of service quality Quester.1998. Riadh Ladhari.

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