1.

The drawing shows part of a cell as seen under an electron microscope.

(a)

Identify structures A to D.
A ................................................................................
B ................................................................................
C ................................................................................
D ................................................................................
(4)

(b)

Describe how a sample of whole chloroplasts could be obtained from leaf tissue.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

Seven Kings High School

1

2.

(a)

(b)

\A

Cell wall

B

Cell membrane

C

Ribosomes / rough endoplasmic reticulum

D

Chloroplast

4

Homogenise;
in ice cold;
isotomic solution;
then centrifuge

any three

3
[7]

3.

(a) Complete each box in the table, which compares a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic
cell, with a tick if the statement is correct or a cross if it is incorrect.
Prokaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cell

Contains ribosomes attached
to the endoplasmic reticulum
Genetic material consists
of linear chromosomes
Diameter of the cell is 1 µ m
(b)

A student was asked to describe the structure of two organelles which were present on an
electron micrograph. From the descriptions below, identify the organelles and, in each
case, name the internal structures underlined.
(i)

This organelle was disc shaped and had an outer envelope of two membranes.
Within it was a series of further membranes which crossed the organelle like
railway tracks. At intervals the membranes appeared to repeatedly double back on
themselves to form stack-like structures. In the spaces between the membranes was
a granular material.
Organelle............................................................................................................
Internal structures .............................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

This organelle had a round shape and had an outer envelope of two membranes,
which was perforated in places. Within it were thin strands which did not appear to
have the width or organisation of membranes.
One large round structure was visible internally.
Organelle............................................................................................................
Internal structures .............................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

Seven Kings High School

2

4.

(a)
X
X
X
(All symbols in a column need to be correct for a mark)
(b)

2

(i)
chloroplast;
grana / thylakoids; 2
(ii)

nucleus;
chromosomes / chromatin / chromatids;

2
[6]

5.

(a)

(i)

Give two ways in which active transport differs from diffusion.

1..........................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
2.........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Sodium ions move from the surrounding solution where they are at a low
concentration into the cytoplasm of a cell where they are at a higher concentration.
Cyanide ions stop the functioning of the electron carrier system in mitochondria.
Use these two pieces of information to explain how the addition of cyanide ions
would affect the uptake of sodium ions by a cell.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

Seven Kings High School

3

........ ............................................................ (1) Seven Kings High School 4 ....... O u ts id e In s id e A R a te of e n tr y in to c e ll X E x te rn a l c o n c e n tra tio n M o le c u le s d is s o lv e in p h o s p h o lip id la y e r O u ts id e In s id e B R a te of e n tr y in to c e ll X E x te rn a l c o n c e n tra tio n M o le c u le s p a s s th ro u g h p ro te in c h a n n e ls (i) Explain why curves are similar up to point X ..... ... by dissolving in the phospholipid layer................................................ These routes are illustrated in the diagram.............................. by passing through channels in protein molecules................................................................(b) Two major routes by which molecules are thought to cross membranes are: 1............ The graphs show the rate of entry of molecules into the cell by these two routes in relation to the external concentration of the molecules..................................................................................... 2......................................................

... 2 (i) greater concentration difference / increased gradient therefore more molecules move in external concentration limiting factor / increased concentration increases rate.................... movement of ions needs ATP... as shown in the diagram................................ 1 (limit imposed in situation B by) limited number of molecules can move through the pores in unit time / pores are full / number of pores is limiting factor........ B and C....... 2 max.................. ATP / production linked to respiration / electron carrier system.. movement is against a concentration gradient........... Three distinct fractions were obtained............................................. (ii) (b) (ii) stops / less movement of ions......... Some animal cells were broken open and the cell extract centrifuged in a sucrose density gradient..........(ii) Explain what causes the shapes of the curves to differ after point X.................................... ..................... 1 [6] 7........... Cell organelles can be separated by centrifuging a cell extract in a sucrose density gradient.................... (a) (i) ATP used.................. The organelles settle at the level in the sucrose solution which has the same density as their own..................... .......... (1) (Total 6 marks) 6..... In c re a s in g d e n s ity o f su c ro se s o lu tio n A B C Seven Kings High School 5 ...................................... ............ A............................

1 mark 1 mark [4] Seven Kings High School 6 . Complete the table by identifying the organelle in each fraction and describing one function of each organelle. 1 mark C Nuclei DNA/RNA synthesis/ controls protein production/ cell activity/ carries genetic information. Fraction Organelle Function A B C (Total 4 marks) 8.One fraction contained nuclei. A Ribosomes Making proteins/ assembling amino acid chain/ protein synthesis 1 mark B Mitochondria Respiration/ formation of ATP/ Krebs cycle/ Oxidative phosphorylation. one contained ribosomes and a third contained mitochondria.

(1) (ii) molecules of enzymes are synthesised (B)....9.... Magnification... (1) Seven Kings High School 7 .. (2) (b) Use a guideline and the appropriate letter to show... a site in this cell where (i) the enzymes controlling glycolysis are found (A)....... on the diagram. The diagram shows an animal cell. Use this to calculate the magnification of this diagram..... Show your working... 20µm (a) The scale bar on the diagram represents a length of 20 pm.

........................................................................... rather than a prokaryotic cell................................................ (2) (Total 6 marks) 10.............. Metabolism requires energy input/ATP............................................................................................. Explain why............................................................ One mark if answer obtained by dividing actual length by 20 m................................................................................................ 1 Letter B indicating ribosome...........(c) The number of cristae in the mitochondria of a cell with a high metabolic activity is greater than the number in a cell with lower metabolic activity......... .. (2) Seven Kings High School 8 ......................... The diagram shows the structure of part of a cell as seen using an electron microscope................................................... C B E A D (a) Name two features shown in the diagram which indicate that this is a eukaryotic........................................................ 2 ....... (b) (i) (ii) (c) 2 Letter A indicating cytoplasm...................................... ............................... max 2 [6] 11.............. .......................................... (a) Two marks for correct answer of 3000................... 1 Cristae are site of ATP synthesis/oxidative phosphorylation......................................... ........ 1 ...... by electron/hydrogen carriers.............................................................

...... (ii) D/mitochondnon................. ..................... would you expect each of the following to be produced in the greatest amount? (i) proteins _______________ (ii) carbon dioxide _______________ (iii) mRNA _______________ (3) (c) This cell was supplied with a radioactive isotope which specifically labels thymine............... (2) Seven Kings High School 9 .......................................... 3 A/Nucleus........ Suggest an explanation for this difference............................................ (1) (ii) A human liver cell contains several hundred mitochondria.... A to E.............. .................. (a) presence of nucleus / nuclear membrane.. presence of named organelle (not ribosome) (Features must be named ...............................................................(b) At which of the lettered sites................................................................... In which part of the cell would this label be most concentrated? (1) (Total 6 marks) 12.............................................................disallow letters) (b) (c) (i) 2 C/ribosome........................... A cell from a plant root has only a small number......................................................................................................... The diagram shows a mitochondrion................. (iii) A/nucleus................................ ... R ib o s o m e s D N A lo o p X (a) (i) Name the part labelled X.......... .. 1 [6] 13............................................ ..........

..................................................................................... ..................g............ ................................................ ribosomes produce proteins / allows replication of mitochondria........................................................ ........... .................................................................................................. ................................................................................................e............................. (a) (ii) (iii) (b) (i) Crista 1 (Mitochondria) provide energy / ATP.............................................. ...................... During this process the cells must be kept in an isotonic solution........ ........................................... ... 2 Maintain concentrations/water potential same inside & outside (cells / mitochondria) / prevent osmosis............................................................... (2) (b) Mitochondria may be separated from homogenised sells by differential centrifugation.............................. synthesis of (respiratory) enzymes / growth / repair / replication.................................... glycogen synthesis or deamination (not just: active transport/ growth) 2 Principle ...................................... Suggest the function of these....................................................... the eukaryotic cell ribosomes sediment more rapidly than bacterial ribosomes........ or: DNA has genetic information.................................................................................................................................................. Explain why........................ (1) (Total 8 marks) 14..............................................................(iii) Mitochondria contain some DNA and ribosomes........................................................................... eg..........protein synthesis............................................. (2) (c) Ribosomes in bacterial cells differ from those in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.................................................. Explain what this tells you about the difference between bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes ........................ Prevent bursting / shrinkage of mitochondria/organelles (not cells) Seven Kings High School 2 10 ............... liver cells have high energy requirement for metabolism.... When centrifuged at high speed....reactions specific liver function.................................. Function of protein in mitochondria ..... ..........

................................................... .... The diagram shows a cross-section of a typical red blood cell.................................... .............................................. draw on the diagram how you would expect ten phospholipid molecules to be arranged on the water surface................................................. Give one function that red blood cells are therefore unable to carry out.. C o n ta in e r W a te r (2) Seven Kings High School 11 ........................................ ...................................................... (1) (c) In an experiment........................... (a) Explain one advantage of the shape of red blood cells............. ................................ Red blood cells can carry both oxygen and carbon dioxide........................................ 1 [8] 15....................................................................... the phospholipids were extracted from the surface membrane of a single red blood cell........ ....................................... (i) Using ### to represent a single phospholipid molecule...... (2) (b) Red blood cells do not have a nucleus or rough endoplasmic reticulum........................................... Each cell has a thinner central area as shown in the diagram............................................................(c) Eukaryotic ribosomes denser/ heavier (not just ‘larger’).................................... They were placed on the surface of water and allowed to spread out......................

............. Arbitrary value ............... The surface area of an intact red blood cell was measured on the same scale......................... Explanation .............. (2) 16....................... . Large / big / increased surface area / shorter pathway for gas exchange / Hb not too far from membrane..(ii) The area of water covered by the phospholipid molecules was calculated................. What would you expect the arbitrary value of the red blood cell surface area to be? Explain your answer............. To pass through capillaries.. (NOT completely submerged or floating in air) 2 0.......................5 / ½. (NOT more / bigger / greater / easier / more efficient) OR Increases flexibility................ (b) (a) Faster gas exchange / diffusion............. This area was given an arbitrary value of 1.... Phospholipids are arranged in a bilayer..................... (NOT Meiosis) 1 (c) (ii) (i) Monolayer.. 2 Protein synthesis / Cell division / Mitosis.................................... 2 [7] Seven Kings High School 12 ...................... Tails up / heads in water......................

....... B .. C ..................................... A ....................... (3) Seven Kings High School 13 ............ The diagram shows part of an animal cell as seen through an electron microscope...17................................................................................... B and C....... X A B Y C (a) Name organelles A...................................

..........................................µ m....... ................................ 1 B nucleus.. (2) (c) The actual diameter of organelle Y is 0........................................................... (linked to previous mark e.............................(b) Describe the function of organelle X... Show your working....................................0005 mm) gains 1 mark [7] Seven Kings High School 14 .............................................. (a) A mitochondrion..................... (reject smooth ER......................... (2) (Total 7 marks) 18..................... ref to fate of proteins / glycoproteins / enzymes / lipids / hormones..... Calculate the magnification of the diagram.................... ............................................... ............... ........................... vesicles / exocytosis / packaging / synthesis / processing modifying) If neither of these: reference to vesicles / exocytosis / packaging / synthesis processing /modifying gains 1 mark (Max 1 mark if incorrect function given) 2 30 000 .......................... Magnification .g...............................34 000 gains 2 marks............................................... 1 C endoplasmic reticulum rough ER / ER..5 pm......... ribosomes neutral ) (b) (c) 1 ref to proteins / glycoproteins / enzymes / lipids / hormones.................... 2 If neither of these: evidence of sensible measured diameter ÷ actual (0................

.............. (1) Seven Kings High School 15 ............................. 2 ... ................. Active transport Diffusion 1 ........................................................................................................................................ A ............................................................................................................................. B ............................................... ....................... (3) (ii) Describe the role of phospholipids in controlling the passage of molecules through the cell membrane..................................19........................... ................. ............ .................................. ............. (a) Complete the table to give two ways in which active transport differs from diffusion.................................................. A B C (i) Name the parts of the molecule A.............................................................................................................................. ..................... C ........................................................................................... B and C............................................ (2) (b) The diagram represents a phospholipid..................................... .

.................. (1) (Total 8 marks) 20.... Use arrows to show the net direction of water movement between all three cells................. Does not require ATP / energy.. what effect would this have on the water potential within the cell? .... Requires ATP / energy......................... More negative All arrows in correct direction 1 1 1 [8] 21..... Requires membrane proteins / carriers....... (a) Max 2 Active transport may move substances against concentration gradient......(c) (i) The diagrams show the water potentials (ψ ) of three cells in contact with one another.......... (b) (i) (ii) B Glycerol C Fatty acid Phosphoric acid / phosphate 3 Prevent passage of water-soluble molecules / ions / named molecules OR allow passage of lipid-soluble molecules OR retain water-soluble substances (c) (i) (ii) A Diffusion Substances moved down concentration gradient. The diagram shows the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure.......... Does not (necessarily) require membrane proteins / carriers.............. ψ = –230 kPa ψ = –214 kPa ψ = –135 kPa (1) (ii) If solute were added to a cell......... P ro te in m o le c u le s Seven Kings High School 16 ....

...................... .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (2) (d) (i) The diagram shows the water potentials ( ) of three cells in contact with one another................. 2.............................................. Seven Kings High School 2 17 .................................................................................................... ....................... (2) (c) Explain how hydrophobic areas in the membrane are important to its function................................................................... 1.......................................... ................ ............................................... ........................................................................ ......................................................................................................... ψ = –230 kPa ψ = –214 kPa ψ = –135 kPa (1) (ii) If solute were added to a cell what effect would this have on the water potential within that cell ? .......................... ..................................................................................... (2) (b) Give two functions of the protein molecules in the cell membrane............................................... ............................................................................... mixture of phospholipid and protein / arrangement of protein.............................................(a) Suggest why this model is known as fluid mosaic........................................................................................................... ............................................................................................ Use arrows to show the net direction of water movement between all three cells....... ............................. ............................................................................................................................................................ (1) (Total 8 marks) 22.................................................. ....................................... (a) Molecules within the membrane able to move.........................................................................................................................................................

... Calculate the rate of uptake of potassium ions by the control plants over the same time period..3 1...g...6 3... vitamins...3 2. (d) (i) (ii) max...9 60 6... receptors / antigens / reference to recognition. enzyme.4 2....... The roots of two groups of pea plants were placed in solutions containing radioactive potassium ions. The control plants had no respiratory inhibitor added. At regular intervals the solutions surrounding the roots were tested for radioactive potassium ions.. 2 (c) Selectivity....... stops the loss of water soluble / polar molecules from inside the cell.......5 7.3 30 6. 1 Water potential is lower / more negative ...g... For the experimental plants a respiratory inhibitor was added to the solution.... 1 [8] 23.......3 0........ enzyme. max. e. (1) Seven Kings High School 18 .. 2 Arrows from high to low water potential.2 240 6... Rate of uptake by control plants = ... OR converse allows movement of lipid soluble / non polar molecules..4 120 6.06 units per minute. e. Time from placing roots in solution / minutes Concentration of radioactive potassium ions in the solutions surrounding the roots / arbitrary units Experimental plants (a) Control plants 0 7.6 (i) The rate of uptake of potassium ions by the experimental plants in the first 15 minutes was 0... The table shows the results of this investigation..(b) Carriers / reference to transport role..5 15 6.

..................................................................................................................... The diagram shows a section across the stem of a pea plant................................................................................................. (2) (b) At the end of the investigation sections were cut across the stems of the pea plants and the amount of radioactivity in each tissue was measured............................................................................................................. ............... ................ Suggest why................... ... ............. ................................. (1) Seven Kings High School 19 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................ .......(ii) Suggest an explanation for the difference between the rates of uptake by the experimental and control plants in the first 15 minutes..................................................................................................... ......... .... (i) Give one feature by which this section can be recognised as a stem..................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................... (2) (iii) The rate of potassium ion uptake by the control plants in the first hour was faster than in the second hour...............................................................................................................

Protein molecules in the cell surface membrane are involved in the active transport of glucose molecules into the cell.(ii) Using a guideline. more potassium ions so more chance of collisions with carriers max 2 (i) (ii) (i) cylindrical arrangement of vascular bundles/in vascular bundles correct label to xylem. active transport involves carrier/membrane proteins. R a te o f u p ta k e g lu c o s e C o n c e n tra tio n o f g lu c o s e in s u rro u n d in g m e d iu m Seven Kings High School 20 . (a) (ii) (iii) (b) 0. max 2 concentration falls so rate of diffusion falls.28. 1 uptake by active transport. 1 1 [7] 25. (1) (Total 7 marks) 24. (a) The graph shows how the uptake of glucose by red blood cells varies with the glucose concentration of the surrounding medium. label and name the tissue in which you would expect to find the greatest amount of radioactivity. use energy / ATP from respiration. amount absorbed by experimental plants is due to diffusion.

..... Factor............................................................. (3) (b) The table shows the results of an investigation into differences in the rates of uptake of different sugars by red blood cells..................................................................... ............................................ ................................................... (2) (ii) Use your knowledge of protein molecules in cell surface membranes to suggest why the rate of uptake of these sugars differs..................................................................... In second part number of proteins/carriers limiting/working at full capacity........ All carriers occupied................................................. (a) In first part of the curve concentration of glucose in surrounding medium limiting/rate of uptake dependent on glucose................................. ......................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... More glucose molecules............................................................................................. Explanation............................................... ................................................................................................... more protein carriers occupied............ (2) (Total 7 marks) 26.................................... ..... Sugar (i) Relative rate of uptake Glucose 100 Galactose 13 Xylose 7 Give one factor............ ..... Describe and explain how variation in this factor would affect the rate of uptake......... Seven Kings High School max 3 21 .............................................................................................................. ......... which should have been standardised in this investigation... ..................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................................................Explain the shape of the curve........................................................... other than the concentration of sugar in the surrounding medium.............................................................................. ........................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................

Some varieties of apple remain green when fully ripe. This can be demonstrated by adding a few drops of acid to the water. or Number of red blood cells. 2 max 2 [7] 27. This barrier will allow certain molecules to pass through but not others. More carriers for glucose.(b) (i) Temperature. (ii) Concept of shape of different molecules/receptor site. Most fruits are green when unripe because they contain a number of chlorophyll pigments. however. Unlike carotenoids and chlorophyll which are located in organelles in the cytoplasm. Seven Kings High School 22 . or Oxygen. It can be extracted by boiling a piece of apple skin. Concept of fit determining specificity. Denature protein carriers. More information can be obtained by watching the process more closely. Read the following passage. These carotenoids are located in the same organelles as the chlorophyll molecules. The yellowing of apples is mainly due to the disappearance of the chlorophyll allowing other pigments called carotenoids to show their colour. The red colour. Would increase the rate of movement/kinetic energy of molecules/ gives more chance of colliding with carrier. It will immediately turn red because anthocyanin turns red in the presence of an acid. Linked to ATP/energy/respiration and active transport. In a living cell there must be some form of barrier between these different parts. This and similar observations show that different parts of the cell have different characteristics. is due to the formation of a new pigment called anthocyanin. the red colour of the skin starts to disappear because the pigment is being released from the cells into the water in which the skin is boiled. Since alkalis turn anthocyanin purple. some turn yellow and others go red. If another piece of skin is dropped into boiling water. the anthocyanin must have momentarily encountered alkaline cytoplasm during breakdown of the cell. As the water boils. it will be seen to turn briefly from red to purple before the colour fades away. or Temperature/pH. More uptake because greater surface area/more carriers. anthocyanin is dissolved in the cell sap inside the vacuole of the cell.

...........(a) Suggest how you could use chromatography to separate and identify chlorophyll pigments present in the skin of different varieties of apple............... (4) (b) Using the information in the passage......................... ................................................................................................................ ... (ii) those parts of the cell that are acidic and those parts that are alkaline............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. carotenoids and anthocyanins..................................................................................................... complete the diagram of the cell from the skin of an apple to show (i) the location of the chlorophylls.................... .............. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... C e ll w a ll V a c u o le (2) Seven Kings High School 23 ................................ ......... ........................................................................................ ............................................................... ..........................................................

.......................................................................................(c) Suggest an explanation for each of the following observations....................................................................................................................... Mark solvent front................................................................................................................................................................ ...................................................... (a) Make extract of pigments by grinding................................. ................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................... .............................. (3) (Total 12 marks) 28.................. .............................................................................................................. .................................................... Load onto chromatography paper with reference to position........................................................................... ......................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................. (b) max 4 Diagram showing (i) carotenoids and chlorophyll in cytoplasm and anthocyanin in cell vacuole........................................................................................ Small droplets/number of drops to concentrate.................................................................................................... (i) The volume of the vacuole increases if the cell is placed in distilled water........................ Calculate Rf value/use standards......................................................................... ........................ .............................. ................................... ..... (3) (ii) Enzymes which are normally found in cell sap would be unable to function if they were in the cytoplasm................................................................................................................. 1 (ii) Vacuole acid and cytoplasm alkaline.................................. ........................................................................... ................................................... Run with paper dipped into solvent.. ........................................ 1 Seven Kings High School 24 .

..... m u c o s a l s u rfa c e o u tsid e in te stin a l s a c (a) Suggest why....................... A piece of small intestine was turned inside out............................. the solution in which the sac was placed was (i) oxygenated......................... .................. in order to investigate active transport............... The ends of the intestine were tied to form a sac......... The sac was placed in an oxygenated........ Substrate will no longer fit/bind.... (3) Seven Kings High School 25 .. ................................................................................................................................................ 3 [12] 29........................................................................... so that the surface with the villi was on the outside. ........................ .................................. Vacuole surrounded by partially permeable membrane...................................... .... max 3 (ii) Difference in pH....... (ii) buffered................... The diagram shows how an experiment was set up to investigate absorption by active transport and diffusion in the small intestine.................................. Vacuole has lower/more negative water potential......... Affects tertiary structure of/denatures enzyme/charges around active site/ shape of active site.................................................................. buffered solution at 37°C............................................... Water enters by osmosis................................ Substances which were transported through the villi in the normal direction became concentrated within the sac..............................................(c) (i) Concentration of vacuole contents/solute greater than surrounding medium....................... ...........

..................................................... .................. ............................................................ ........................ providing ATP..............................................................................................................(b) Using this technique........ ..................... absorption rates similar in normal and poisoned gut................................... (4) (Total 7 marks) 30.................................................................................................. the following data were obtained about the absorption of sugars from small intestine which had been treated with a respiratory inhibitor and from untreated small intestine................................................................... .........................................................active transport................. (ii) (b) to prevent denaturation of / provide optimum pH for enzymes/ protein carriers 3 Glucose ................. ................... ................... (a) (i) to allow aerobic respiration/respiration in mitochondria............................................................... Fructose ............................................................................................................................................. 4 [7] Seven Kings High School 26 ............................................................ ....................... R e la tiv e r a te s o f a b s o r p tio n f r o m s m a ll in te s tin e S ugar G lu c o s e F ru c to s e tre a te d w ith re s p ira to r y in h ib ito r u n tre a te d 30 31 100 30 Explain what the table suggests about the ways in which glucose and fructose are absorbed from the small intestine.. absorption much less in poisoned gut.............................................................................................diffusion........................................................................

............. ...................................................................................... .................. (i) It is sometimes suggested that this moist surface makes gas exchange more efficient.................................................................................................................. (2) Seven Kings High School 27 ................................................................ .................................................................................0 Water 3............. Use the information in the table to explain why this suggestion is incorrect................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................... The table shows the relative rate of diffusion of oxygen through three different media................... (2) (b) The lung alveoli have a moist surface...................................... ...................................... ........................................ (1) (ii) Explain how diffusion results in the alveoli having a moist surface..........................................................................................................................4 × 10–5 The measurements in the table were all made at the same temperature.. .......................................................................................................... .................................. Explain how an increase in temperature affects the rate of diffusion............... .......................................................................................................................................................... Medium Air (a) Relative rate of diffusion 11.......................................4 × 10–5 Muscle tissue 1............................................ ....31.......

....................................... T ra c h e o le s M u s c le This insect has more than 1...................... Seven Kings High School 2 1 max 2 28 ........ (ii) Alveolar epithelium/surface is permeable to small molecules................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................................................................ ...................................... The distance between the ends of the tracheoles in the muscle is approximately 4 pm............................... Move faster............................................................... .........................5 million tracheoles........................................................ Explain how these features allow efficient oxygen supply...................................................................................................... ....... Water diffuses from blood/cells into alveoli........ (a) Molecules will have more (kinetic) energy.................. Water is a small molecule... ...(c) The diagram shows the position of the tracheoles which supply oxygen to the muscles of an insect......................................................................... Reject references to vibrating in this context (b) (i) Oxygen diffuses faster/has a higher rate of diffusion in air than in water............... (3) (Total 8 marks) 32..... Higher concentration of water in cell/blood than outside......... ................

.......................................0 1............0 Ion (i) By how many times have the potassium ions been concentrated in the cytoplasm compared with the pond water? .......... .................................... (2) (c) The table shows the concentration of three ions inside and outside a cell of an alga that lives in pond water.................................................... (a) Give two differences between active transport and facilitated diffusion....1 Sodium 51.................................................................... 1 .............................. (1) Seven Kings High School 29 ........................................... 3 [8] 33......................................... . Movement/diffusion through muscle is slow.................................................................................................. ................................................................................................... For diffusion....................................... Short distance between tracheoles gives short pathway.............. (2) (b) Describe how ions are transported through a cell surface membrane by active transport................ ....0 1... 2 ..................... .........................................................................................................................................0 0............. Concentration of ion in cytoplasm / mmol dm–3 Concentration of ion in pond water / mmol dm–3 Chloride 58..........................................................................3 Potassium 93........................................................................................................................................................... .................... Reject references to muscle simply being close to tracheoles............................................(c) Large number gives large (total) surface area............................................................................... Must convey idea of short pathway to gain credit for third point..............................................

. After weighing........ What does the information in the table suggest about the active transport of these three ions through the cell surface membrane? Explain your answer............( not just ‘ATP provides energy’) (c) (i) (ii) 930 max 2 1 Carrier proteins different or specific / ref to potassium (or other) carrier / ions moved independently....................................... They were then reweighed........ and one 27cm3 cube was placed in another beaker................ twenty-seven of the 1cm3 cubes were placed in one beaker of distilled water.................... ....1cm3 (1cm x 1cm x 1cm) and 27cm3 (3cm x 3cm x 3cm)....75 52...... (2) (Total 7 marks) 34.... more potassium than other ions transported..................................31 53. The results are shown in the table............ ........... (b) 2 Carrier protein (in membrane)................................97 Total mass after 1 hour in water / g 55........................................................... moves substances against concentration gradient.56 0.....change shape............................... ion transported by change of shape / ‘flipping’ of carrier protein............. ... reject: extrinsic protein...............58 Surface area : volume ratio of one cube Percentage increase in mass Seven Kings High School 30 .....(ii) The ions enter the cell of the alga by active transport.................. ............ One hour later the cubes were removed and their surfaces carefully dried................ (not just ‘moved against concentration gradient’) max 2 [7] 35... Peeled potatoes were cut into two sizes of cubes .................... (accept: channel/pore/intrinsic proteins.....55 Increase in mass / g 2......................... Small cubes Large cube Volume of cube / cm3 1 27 Surface area of cube / cm2 6 54 Number of cubes in beaker 27 1 Total mass of cubes at start / g 52.............. energy used to attach ion to carrier protein /.............. different degrees of concentration of ions................. or just ‘protein’)........ (a) Active transport requires energy / uses ATP...........................

... ................ (1) (ii) Explain.......................................................................................................................... why the potato cubes increased in mass when placed in the distilled water......... ...................... ................9 and 1.........(a) Complete the table to show (i) the surface area : volume ratio for each size of cube..... .......................................................... 1 [6] Seven Kings High School 31 ......................................... ................reject 6 and 2) 1 4........................................................................................................ (1) (Total 6 marks) 36..........1 1 (i) 1 Same volume of potato / only surface area different Potato (cubes) have lower/more negative water potential............................. Explain the difference.................................................................. (ii) the percentage increase in mass after 1 hour in water............................................................................ (2) (b) (i) Why did the experimenter use twenty-seven small cubes? ........................................................ (2) (iii) The percentage increase in mass of the smaller cubes was greater than the percentage increase in mass of the large cube............................................. so water enters cubes (by osmosis).................. 2 Larger surface area (: volume ratio) of smaller cubes (for osmosis)........85 / 4............................................................................ in terms of water potential............................................................09 / 1.................... .............................................................................. ........................... (ii) (b) (ii) (iii) (a) (i) 6 : 1 and 2 : 1 (Accept 54:27...........

................................................................................................................................................................................... (5) (ii) facilitated diffusion of glucose ......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................ (9) (Total 14 marks) Seven Kings High School 32 ...... .............................. ............................................... (a) Describe the fluid-mosaic structure of a cell surface membrane................................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................ ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... ........... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (5) (b) Explain each of the following processes by which substances pass through a cell surface membrane............................................ ................................................ . ............................................................... (i) diffusion of oxygen ................................................................................................................. ...................................... ................................................................................................... .......37..................................................... .................................................................................... (iii) active transport of sodium ions ...........................................................................

............ Arrangement of phospholipid molecules ‘Tails to tails’...... (a) Give two ways in which osmosis differs from facilitated diffusion...... (iii) Movement against concentration gradient....................................... (a) Phospholipids and proteins... Protein specific (to ion)................... 1 ........ Phospholipid bilayer.........38....... ............................................. (Net) movement from high to lower concentration. Explain why bacteria that cause decay do not grow in jam... to intrinsic and extrinsic........................... Ions moved through membrane as proteins change shape / position.. Extrinsic proteins in outer layer only.. Energy used to change shape of proteins / attach ion to protein..... (b) 5 (i) Random movement of oxygen molecules. ............. 2 ........ Use of carrier / channel / intrinsic protein.......................................................... ............................................... ................ max 9 [14] QWC Award 1 or 0 according to criteria 39.................. Proteins specific (to glucose)........ gains 1 mark)............................................................................ unqualified................................... ...... (3) (Total 5 marks) Seven Kings High School 33 ................................... Rate dependent on concentration gradient........... ‘Floating’(protein) molecules / molecules can move in membrane......... Presence of cholesterol..................................................... .................................................................................................... (2) (b) Jam contains a high concentration of sugar..... (ii) Movement from high to lower concentration.................................. No energy/ATP needed............... Changes shape of protein and passes through channel / membrane........................................... Intrinsic proteins extend through bilayer............ Use of carrier/channel/intrinsic/pump proteins.................................................................................................................................................... Detail of channel proteins / protein shapes / glycoproteins....... (Ref................................................................. Molecules can pass between phospholipid molecules / through bilayer.................................................... Energy / ATP required......................

........................... The graph shows the results of this investigation..................................................................................................................................................................... ..........................................9 1 ......................................0 C o n c e n tra tio n o f su cro se / m o l d m –3 D e c re a se –10 Seven Kings High School 34 ........ Proteins / carrier molecules not used / occurs through phospholipid bilayer......................... 3 [5] 41................................................................... (5) (b) Cylinders of potato were cut using a cork borer.............................................................................................8 0 ............................................40.......... ...................................3 0 ...................................6 0 .......................................................................... .............7 0 .................................................2 0 ..................................1 0 ......................................................... The mass of each cylinder was recorded before and after immersion.......................... Effect (of water loss) on bacteria e......................................... .....................................................................................................................................4 0 .................................................................................... .................................................... ...................... (a) Explain the biological importance of water for living organisms...................... 2 Jam has a lower (more –ve) water potential than the bacterial cytoplasm............ ........................................... .................................... (b) (a) Osmosis transports water.............................................. killed / chemical reactions cannot occur................g................................................... ................................. The cylinders were left for 6 hours and then removed from the solutions.............................. Each cylinder was placed into one of a range of sucrose solutions of different concentrations......................... Water leaves the bacteria..... ............ .........................5 0 .............................................. ................................ +10 In c re a se P e rc e n ta g e c h a n g e in m ass 0 0 ..

............................... A –510 kPa B C –550 kPa Seven Kings High School 35 ........ ...... ..................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................... ................................................................................................................... (2) (c) The diagram represents three plant cells and shows the water potential of two of these cells.................. ............................................... ...............................1 mol dm–3................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (2) (ii) Explain the shape of the curve as the concentration of sucrose decreases from 0......................................................(i) Explain why the change in mass was given as a percentage change............................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................3 mol dm–3 to 0...... (4) (iii) What concentration of sucrose solution is equivalent to the mean water potential of the potato cells? Explain your answer................................................................................................... ............... ........................................................................ .................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................. The arrows show the direction of water movement between these three cells........................................................................................................................................................................... ............................. ...........

................ So mass increases......................... 2 From 0......................... To be able to directly compare the results........... Explain your answer fully............. so must be lower than –510 and Water moves from B to C.................. Less dense when frozen so ice floats and insulates... pond skaters...................... ..................................... so must be higher than –550...................... ...........g............ Allows transport/secretion/excretion/dispersal of substances.............. .1 mol dm–3 water moves into potato cells................ (b) (ii) (iii) (c) 5 (i) Initial mass of cylinders not identiical............... 4 0...................................................................................... Transparent e.... ......................................................... 2 Range from –511 to –549 kPa.................... High latent heat of evaporation so cooling effect of sweat/transpiration...........g.....35..........g.......................................... Provides external support e. .... By osmosis................ ........ Reactant e........................ (3) Seven Kings High School 36 ............. Provides internal support e..... Water moves from A to B............................................ allows light penetration for aquatic organisms......................... hydrolysis/photosynthesis.......... (a) Chemical reactions occur in solution.................................................................................. Reason e...g....................... (2) (Total 15 marks) 42........................... aquatic organisms....... .......................................Suggest the range of possible values for the water potential of cell B.. High specific heat capacity (e.... ..3 mol dm–3 to 0............................................. hydrostatic skeleton/amniotic fluid/turgidity.....g.............. More water has entered potato cells 0............................................................... Lubricant e............... No mass change/no net osmosis/ volume of water in = volume of water out....g........................................................................ (a) Describe osmosis in terms of water potential.................. cohesion-tension...........1 mol dm–3 / converse... synovial fluid/pleural fluid/mucus..g..................................... 2 [15] 43.......................... ................w..............................................) so minimises temperature fluctuations............. High surface tension e.................

2 R a tio o f in itia l le n g th to fin a l 1 .. Calculate the final length of this cylinder.. Final length ... cm (2) (ii) On the graph 1 mark with a T a point on the curve where the potato cells are turgid..4 C o n c e n tra tio n o f s u c ro s e s o lu tio n / m o l d m 0 ..1 le n g th o f p o ta to c y lin d e r s 1 .. (from less negative Ψ ) to more negative Ψ / (from higher Ψ ) to lower Ψ .3 1 .5 –3 The initial length of the potato cylinder in 0.9 gains 1 mark 2 Seven Kings High School 37 ... (b) 3 (i) 5. (allow 5... through a partially-permeable membrane.2 0 ...(b) In an experiment..5 or 5.... The cylinders were measured before and after immersion in sucrose solution... Show your working.0 cm.55 cm gains 2 marks. (2) (Total 7 marks) 44..3 0 ..6 only if supported by correct working) else evidence of 5.0 0 . 2 mark with a W a point on the curve where the potato cells have the same water potential as the sucrose solution.. 1 ..1 mol dm–3 sucrose solution was 5.0 ÷ 0..1 (i) 0 ...9 0 .. cylinders cut from a potato were placed in sucrose solutions of different concentrations..8 0 . The graph shows the effect of the sucrose solutions on the length of the potato cylinders. (a) diffusion / movement of water.

..... Maltose ............ W at 0....................3 M................. V illu s E p ith e liu m B lo o d c a p illa r y L a c te a l C ry p t o f L ie b e rk ü h n M ic r o v illu s M ito c h o n d rio n P a rt o f e p ith e lia l c e ll M u s c le la y e r (a) Describe one function of the muscle layer in the wall of the small intestine......................(ii) T anywhere to left of 0............................... 1 1 [7] 45..................................... .. .................................................................. ...3 M........... and ........................... (1) (b) Complete the table about enzyme action in the small intestine.............................. (4) Seven Kings High School 38 .................................................... Enzyme Substrate Products Amylase ........................................................................................................................... Peptides Dipeptides Lipase ........................ The diagrams show part of the wall of the small intestine and part of an epithelial cell.

.................................................................................................................. (a) (b) e....................................................(c) Describe the function in the small intestine of: (i) the blood capillaries........................... ................... .............................................................. (1) (Total 9 marks) 46................................................................................................................... .. Exopeptidase............... 4 (i) 1 (c) (ii) Absorption of lipid constituents (d) (i) (ii) Absorption of monosaccharides / named or amino acids Increased surface area for absorption Provide energy for active uptake 1 1 1 [9] Seven Kings High School 39 ....... .................................... (i) Microvilli ...... ........................................................................................................................ Lipids / fats / triglycerides.................................................................................................................. moves along contents of gut / peristalsis 1 Starch..... ................. Fatty acids and glycerol..................................................................... (1) (d) Explain how the following features of the epithelial cells increase the rate of absorption of digested foods.................................. (1) (ii) Large numbers of mitochondria ......................................................... (1) (ii) the lacteals....................................g........................................................................................

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