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A CASE STUDY IN EFFE'CTIVE COMMAND: AN ANALYSIS OF 'm' "L' nl\{lTA.R·····S-H'Ao·L' R·,·IC.·~IO·. 'FE~ ~'N'·'S'CH.

; '·'A-RA· •• 'C'TE·' '·R~· A'N, n·C.··A··"OE"E'lJ11



F: 1_: . VI l)l'1.n, "_~ , .. 4·· ~~._ ,':_J.l.1.IL.n,_,· - .. , ,_,I '_ .'. ~,' ';. ~, e., 1,. __ '_' I ~ _,,~J '_ " ." "!iJ ~ ,~'\._" __ ' Jl'=

lha German a rmJE)d ~oJces pr,oduoE:id mali'll¥, e'rre~~iv~ command€l,r$ durlnglfl\ie ~a.s:1 world war, some ·of wh'Ofi'! Sil:.llrVifved and madathemsehms mo.~e JamoL::[s, Oillr:l,dfur!lu! ~ erlh<lUloed the~~ reputa:Uoos, by writTi't.QI memoirs •. Ailb~e<lht Kessell ring. H~i!1ll G~d!e·r~~n ~1i!d Erioh VOini Malr!$:teif'l Ihave pfOven mos~ IPopulaJf. Thelr lI!iI!6!meirs: a,mstil~ ~I~able, apl'l'ealin9·~rom Wn~ 110 '~im,e' in neM!' editions;, 'Yet. ~heirpefif~xrnaJf');oe, aUhoug:h, (lonsisterHly giOcx:I ialirJidseld'om PO()~; lin.eve" ma!tched ~h8!1 Q~ vmUmm Fn1lih~rr VOn ,RliC:hi~hoJ~\I'I~ whom I Qonside:r Ihe ,atlf:esl .<lim! IrttoSil coniS[:slenlly erlacfilleoperati,\iwl:a:lciOimma.rtd(l!!r o~ the Seoom:1 Wo~ld War. ,Fi~~t asan air corps ,C()mma'lder and U'i1erlaJs tneie,d Q! ~ EhI:'!!lIre :aJ~ Peel. hEl' p\~d 11 imself ,ao :col:!rageouSl, resoi~l!JIl.e I~adew.a sl:e~Ii'I, rigid 'dl:Sc'Tp~ina.fi'a1li a~diain etilloleil1t a!fld enectu~~ arlm:ill'il~stm~or; ;H'B1 ea:medrne reEJp'~t and~ in: :som~ eases, aHeotiQo of hils men. :~n$pilla Ol! hi$: ~l'rfOgaJnt, bru~u:~ me.nIfi'U9'.r; he was an excellent h~ader and, no ~~ss,limpon:a.rI'Iri alii e,li'Ierge~ic afidr;~trable slJiooroinale., AI aU limes, he skilfllJUy eoop:l:olted hisrofOO.$' ~~m~ted oapa_bmU.es to 1i~G' riLJI~e~~, prodl:!cr:ng~@,1i~fao!():FY r,~uns Ur:ldie'F ~h!3 wofS'l,Qf dre~mstafi1cesaJnd superb, reiS~!ts lU::l;dI~rihe' bes,t. lam not ahJfI,E:i' in tecogl1ising Aichlih;OifensGO:!:lI1lmand exceUeooe.M Ameriooll':! h:Ts!.o:rla.n rece:n~ly C;:;Sllled him ·'Oer!ainly one or Ilt;Jil~' 00$1 tac~rcral1l:S in !he !hlstory ,01' ailrwadfilre~,1 .Another called hirirl ~'e>i:~rr.aordinfllry!'.~E\IIe:n dUringl'irs met[me hJe possesS'ed a. reputaltfon '~or !@il!i~I!le,n.ce.rhI5 repuilat~o,n lexleWiid1a;d beyond .A>;i!l ioroes, the e:rrU$ihA~r Mr~i~try;Jof ~mMaJnc~. ,praislij'd his o!,d,sta!l'lding ablHtfes. n·O'!ing ~n1943 ~ha,t hlil' Wai$ IrEN~olu~e. l:oug.handl 'lll'ii'eClivat. <lIl!'ildlll,.M, "wii~h ihi:s good mill"l'HilaJnd: a:ppe<lir.l.lince, br1.itaJ~ ,energ[y and grea,t perwrlal' ooUiliaige, ~a islhe Giert!'nan idealQr ani AifF'Oroe:

Genef;al."il

If Rh:;h~hoJ'eIl'1~s Ina:mEl doesn't immecii8fleily ring be:ll!l,. il"s probably b~au~ 'Ifle eam,~d hils I~U.fels .primaJrily onth:e Qii!ls\b~ftl'lrro!1t.beca~se 1M ~ wa\$ an aij~mal!1~ WI ot:a sotdlier~ <'lind beC'Olrusa Ille d~ed pr,9,ma~lllrely ,of a branil ~lJmD'l:IJ in 1'945. willl'l,ol!!ll:lia'Vir1iQ fi~,s~ published. his memoirs; or d]a,rrte'S. This all':n;iI~'!f$rl$ has two alms: IksL, to brlngl ~his ,o'Ulsl:a1ndr!1!g blJ~ rel~Uve~y ~krin'-W1il cQii!lm~iflde~ to ~h~ al:~enUo:r:J, oflhe, aI.IId~enoo lbe dese rves; and sli3cond, to examin:~hi!1i careeiF and ctIa;raollS!r~lI"Iorder to dG~ermll"le w~r:ch ·!3i~Uo;!'1l$ and aUribu~e<S f1;CJ.'lQUli!t for his oooslstBnle:)lcell!e:nte. ir,hfs stloui]d, of 1ll0UI'S'El'" prove ~1iI~~JesUng 110~ onw to mmlaJl"llI;~s~c)filarils! bUlt als'o to Ne"",Zeal;;Jjnd ofllc;:el~s!;i'e.eklng keys 10 1~1:!'1'ock their 0'Wt!1, comr1rl;ilndpo~e,n;1ial. ~n o:rder to achieve Ih€ls~ aiims, ~ wlll'9imp!,Ioy Ftr:(;h~hoh~jfll,'$ oWIli, uflpub![she!d dia(ie~ and ,oo.nsuU other $ouro~~haJl ;sI'H~'d ~ighl

on his 'WIT! mall1idstyloand on his dealingsi Wilh boths'u,pe,rj,Oii'S anr:!s;ubotdioa;les. -

Ah:;htho\~~n Wf1I!$ born ~!1I,to an e:r~s~o<cratrcli!!mi~y in Ba'~dorl, SII'leiS.i'iii, 01'1 1 0 OC!!Ob~r1896.~· .As a yOUlrJig ~nsi9n, he ser"ii\f3d ill the 4" IrlJulSsallSF!!9g;rmen[ imm Mall'CfiI '191~3"~liillil Su\pl)l!moa,,, 11917. Hel"l,he,r'ill tra~i5rer,red I);), Ihe II!:illlp>EllriaJ Air SIe\N'[oe.ev;e'JI1ltu~:lly Joining U1!e-mlinQUS RicU1thor~1'1I SitP:lladlRlrl, who!:i!I~< first com!li!'i!aJ[1!di~r ilh!a:d beJ!;l11l hlsoousin Malilfred •. thli)~iegeMary~f!Gd B\aJon". Aifter~hewar he ~~l,!Jdifld 'ia:ii1gi'neering,el,ilenIJI.!'iiitly ga[nllilg a dOC~O~IJe:., Hetr'E:I>Sumad his mumtary mueer ~nl November 19!23.a:ncllU·'1~ougnoul~hEl '1, 9~Os hi~ f1:et'Chswehrs,ervfce lll':!o~~cled time rn ~he cavalry. inranl~y and alrl!Hiery" Fi~oJ:il1 .. Ap~~ 192910 OctQb~r~19G21'1:J3; serv;ed as:aJrailitaoM ln U\~ Ge:rrnan Emh~ssy TI1A~me. \l!'lliere ha berrlooded !lalo 8albo., the Fa:SCilsl hem Ollind 111:alian Minister 01 A,yiaUon,

~ ~ 0I::tober1933 Ric!l1:thofen, joined tne tledgling Aeich Afw M~~r:sllry. whil'c~ ,~I\i'ed ~nlo'I~'l,e lUlllw~He l\!!l(l yea.ws later. Irtl 1936 h~1 sawada5 Chl,ei~ of St<lil'~ tobolJhl :Gieil1!eralmajor HI.II9!O Sper(~e IE1ll1td Ihi$$!JIooe~Ofi Gene:ral'miaJo~'rl'erml,Jth 'VQlkimann, cO'mmand~iI'$ O~1I1GI ~Cond@r Legion" w'h'ldi::leamed ~ame (and infamy; ar-terllhe bombing 01 Gu:erfllj(;!1'!I) dU.ri.r1Jgtne S,panitSh CilIAI War. lin Nlov~mb(l1F 1938, p11o:mollildlo Ge,n;e<altmajQf hirnssir" lie beca:me thel linal co.mmandeil: ~dlh:a~ lI!n~t. [)ufing~hEl Spanish Cf.v:1T War he e)(p~FUMe~t~d wilh close "Ill!' $U1pportlaaUos Md alroraU (inclyding afei,!jl e-arlyJlu 87 8:~lUfka$) land. 100 doubt R~nuQnood bV his ·~peFiience.s as bo~n asd!dier amI pilot duwJnS l~a Gr-e~t WI\lJ, dMloped!a.c~ics;and a 9 ro~nd-·aJir ~I\e,r~on .sy:sll!l'm that improvedE'lTr sllJlP,port (l'iieclive.n,es5.5< .AlIso, his: ~peri,enoo,s iiJ'1 8paJln remo-ved' hi~ earlier doub1s :l;!boutllh,e di\fe·bomb~f. IRealising UI~1 the dive-bomher WelS Iar mOre aCCU1r,a:!e tha'!'I Ou,rrefiit horiZQ,n~al

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bombers - and" !her'sfore, more lJ!lietul ~r lactical purpases - he r,e'll.n;ned 10 Gel1many as one 0'1 its leading !1)d'llOoates_

BSCiliuse of his outS'llJJnd1ng suceessss In Sp.!l'i'l1l and his oQmpe~e!nc,~ in ~he use ,or tli1a·dliVllj,.;bomber and new me,tl'lods of (Mlical ,ali:r employment-which had a signililcant effee,t on Ge.rma1n, air jpl:af!!"Ie:rs, R'ichiihofen sool'lround himself ifIal,led <I_S '!he LuUwaHe'$, exp.e:rt in 'Ihis, field. 'I'n July 1,939 he klrmed a special ,oI0!li!i! $upporlfo:rce, Flieg:erriil1ir'er :z.b.V: {Special Purposes Air 'Command), whiclil quickly expanaedll1to (he' powelfu1 F:llegerkorps VIII I('a~ ,Air Oorps). Under his, ccmmand. ~hls$pe:ciaUMd ground attack oo~flS ciislill1l,g,uHs'h:m:I ~~I~ in Poliain,d ~ndl FU;W'lce by iI.s ~~ellant suppcuil ,of adVaJi'i1,dIJ:lgl PaJrn,z,e.r speaJrt'leads. IFor ~h.is ha w.on!he, Knighl's Cross arid promoUonro 'ilene,ro;l de:r FJieger~ His ,sluggish Slukas, onlhe a,the; hand" pl"O\iild so' vulnernble ~o enefl'!¥ 111'gh~ers, frP"P regTo:nswhere, :a:lrr s'ulPerl:01TUly had InOl~ bEH3'n, <f1!l~in8d fh_at he, fe!lt ,ccmpetl!ed '10 pfOVlde! fighter escorts., Even $0" !BriHsli1 'lighm,j"$!!lUII severely mauled the Sluka!'> dUlring 'lIIi,a BatHe 0,' Brilain. forcing Richlhotel"ilQ wl;lhdrawlMm has,fl1y. Howevil(, his, corps, pn)V:ided lexemplary C~O!,le s~pport T~ ~heabsenc:e' of' enemy flghl'efS during (he 18811 krilinS, C'8mpaign Md the al.n:mm>e, IrlrW'a,Sf,o.f1 Oof rCre~e, IEnJoying Ill'ne' IYlIufY 0" ,almoi'l: tQ'1aI air superiority, Ills SlU~ i:niltcted heavy losoos on ,AJlledlroops (I ncl w,oing l1ard'pressed New' Zealmd'e'rs).lmnspcuitS and shipping., F1:N his dynamIc I~darship

hlii received Qa'ilt lrea.vootQ ~he Knlght's Cro~. -

Rfchl'h,O'feris,aiin' corps won ~urlher 'llaJtJ,re~s, in 1hel ei9r$tem cmiI'Ip<aJgn, e6pecially d;Ulriflg the height or till,a '1 '94" 142 winle,! crisis 'when, o;pe,ra1illg by ilS~iI afte,[' the, transfe,r 0'1 Kesselrlng.'t; air unitS, ilJs support Qf the 8l1my'ln the criUc:a1 cenrtral ,;zone before Moscow proved ou~ta1'iding. ~ 11'1 recognUicm o11hese anhievemen15, Hitl'Ei'r p.rQmo~d him 1c GeneraIQbers:~ 0,1:"1 11 Febl'Ulary 194.2., ThiSi 'was a unriQ;ue hornm.illrrof an air G1JWps. oommander: h~ now had the same rank ,as thE! air fl,oot oommanders arnd !he most senlQr luli;waffe sian olncl1IIrs.,suC!1i1 as Hans JeschOil'll:'1;ekarld the 'atel Ernst lU·d:et During ltJe, pN'11imiina,ry' E!IClSOO rncampaliQn.5 or '1942, Hltl8l~ bypassed FreID'hlWIl'InI Goning" Ui€i Luftwaffe's inrompelerU CO.f1lrl1landeiF in Chiet" and org!ilJnlsed the deployment of air units himse'lf7 iiFIe wanted '"massed atrpowef ii'll siJpporl. of grorun.dl force!i'. so he d'mw upon 'lihe ssrvlcas of the mrman he'trusted mcs'l: R['Chlhofe'l1, w'hoom he ca~led back prremalumly frOfJ'ii

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~on:g~rdUG llea'r.l\~;~ IAichlhOJen ciemoostra~ed iSU.Cn e:)!it::etlenl.leadershilP'~rtd pfm!ided 5l1!ctI1i '~Moolive ktctrca:1 alfSl.!p~orl duringihe BalUe.s 01 K.e!)Ch a~d Seva,s!OPQIU1at Hiller ap,poil'ilte!d him l1ie,;ujo~lhe e.l"ltifie! l,Umlbtl:e 4 (Fuurtth Air FI~91~) wirull IrQ.spolilsibirity for all aTraper.liliorlsduri!1lg.0pe.fa!liiotl 8~al.!l (B:lilJ!e). Germa!i!~$ .rwu~jor e;affip~ign. o:Ii '1.94.2.

ThTiS ,campaign inilially went 'very weill, Wti~IhG~nman kJ,l'('Ies· gaJni.ng wcStmOLJT'Its o!oo!rriIDi"Y, pU6ihiiF1{l1 iiil1to ~he Caucasu5~o~afd8Iha, oiI1fiields~ha:l: Hiner despemlteliywanted, and ca!ph.I~lng al~Q$t all·Qf SlIarrngradl. Rich~hQJ~n's: air meet Qcmli!1lbu~~d ~Tg;!'1!mcal1!.t~ l(l,lh>e$!lI $u.cceS$~s, providing grouwtd roroecs wW'I exoeJlent close 'illI~r5!Upporl aJ';u:t<lifibelrli1e ar'I'flY'ssuppl¥ lines became oolligesl:ed and 1illnwiy d~oorio~Jted1,an impressiw ,aJmOlml ,or llog;s~roall :$l,Il1,port. Richlho~1iI d~e:!l¥ed. ,alod feceivacl from HiI!1er, mu:dn@f1hem'ecl'il;lli.e,manSiged In, provide ~tnis, support fiver! afle1rJl.iI'IYI,wh Bin the FilIi'n'rer oommlUed t1~5 majo,nnistall;e 01 ~942. Efllooul'agled by his troopS' ~eiw re 'Cif V>Mt a~,~a;s :€lxld mls:r~a!ding th~s~!Jnill~!f'lcaof Uiililir r,aMU~liY sm~m pd50rmr tna.IJI~, Httler deviail:tld ~rom Siau:5 o~islnaIOO'ncepliio:ri! Ol~ striking lolihe Volga. Rl\I!er, secYf,IWiig tln:a li'ilorlihem fla!l!k and thEl!l plUl1!g~ng inrolhe C~_IllIOOSUS:, Il!'h$l'e,a~, he dMded the campa)I,g,rn, in~o Lwos~muJt1.'lirlie[lli.Jls. ,oill!Bin6~e!S: at'!:aJll1isl: S'laiiflgall'd (previously l1Io,teySIIl;I! mai;nlalrgeL) and agialillls:t tnt:;! (:aY~.!!lu<s.1lhJs dls.sfpated army oodalr fOlfee :stmngtit'l,opened ·ai :Ila~ge and vulnerable 'ga;p ootweenhTs ~.woar,rny Ig~O!l.llP:S, oreatecJ major' ~ogis,tf:cl1!il d:iffh::;UiIU~Si forbolti,gr,oupst :a!l'ild el(paf1ld~d Lurllfl;Qtl!El4rs Gomb~l.mne '00 ;afl l)!l1!rrHitn:a,ge>dble $!~~. FcUcnrthoren ooped exlmmellY 1,I'IlII;!11,. ~rea~nfg f'lew logi$tl~ $~lems :aJi!d lroorgi!lin~s~n:g l1i~s rorma~iol1sto sui!: betl~iI' ~heif loow~Siks; He oo'l.!!ld nO'! cope, howeverl, when Hitilew df!dded~1il Nov;e:Jnber ~o use his ~otally li!lils!:.l!tedair ~Iaet, Wl'!idh W.a!S fll@!j!l dep1eted andl.n:eed~ng rehabil'lta!lij~n" r()r the !i!I.Gfial siupphr oil ~x!h Army; enoll'ared at S~Ung)llf'd.

Rid!thClfenand his C(lmrnaJl'ld sroaiU wl)rlI;~d eil':te~geliioe:l'ly~o efilSllr~ Ula~ aJl~ missi<l'J'ls, aJlirl'ifland reguliilJr co moot. provIdedlhe, b~lpossiblQ If'&$UnS. Ul'1IdElwlt:i13' drcLlmstaJll1oS's, tho~glhI. good ll!eSl(J:l~ -were impo&$lb!~ Oe6:plte R:iiGh~hofel1ls drive alrnd delermina{t'Qn, LuUflolte4 cOIJ!d !'!!o1 o,ve~rCome poor '$Uitabmlyfor its des!gfla~dtas~.. its IO$~ ,~r ~Uibli$hed ,~i meldS! and for08(1 U.se 01 hiilis.wy prepaJred anidi inade~uarue ~.aJl"ldllWi1g' sll1ps, ilS loss of air superiority ,<lind nl:s bigh aUrilion ~<l!I.e (cal:l$edprimf61 ~Hy by b€l"d wealilher but ~Is;o 1tly8ovieit A~l!' foroe~lts;oks and ,shong fl~k) .• A'S a f'a;sUU:, lllrtliatte 4 failed to suslta:ln SiIXI!hii Army !ilind 10 pr~m thli) eJ"lilire· $oulJhem SOOlOr oflih~ EaS1:e:rn ,lRl'Ofll ba~n9 ro1led back bylhe~E)d Army; RJI¢hliilof\e'il received notllame; ol1llhe oonilrary, HUUef pmrn;pdy p~c:mmo,ted him to Gienemtre!dmalFSchadll. The ai rl1'laln wasood mj' tl'!'D1~~!iI prO\i'in:g ihe d~Sie'wed it I iii cr:ooe ,co'iO'p~r.~'Uion aJri:d ca:~efil.:l~ 'oon.rdJfll3JtioT:I: wilh Mlan;sl19il1l,. he oonduoted a nUllst~rill.l11 toU nteronernsiiVe~hat 'gtlNS Ge:rmall1lll ba;cklhest~oog,lc initiatlve and m~ch 'CiflihQ ,I~ tlmr~rory.

,F:igl'lft 2RicbU~o:Jj~n Wli)!r~l)jd cl~I'j'I wJUlI ~~yculIIlllUl'l1.d!!lil'S.lI!el)e .MIl:H$llewl!J (1lIH;Ildmg !ib~llIlg1:! lie!ld gJIMS~)1 ailu!l Rii~!illi'!lfe~ (w!a.·IP~ubdJ~p) obs~nc jo$lIt gpCrRlilMUS 00 GileKe:FcIil &1IIi'rn!w]I!,.

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In June 1943, afl:EiIF ar:mol$l hVQ yeaf'$ o!OOJlltu!'IuO'I.l!$ ·$ervioe on Lhe ~aN;;OO,~l1I Front. :F!ichtholeil"!IHnaUy lertror warma:rsum:mndin;gs. Needling: :somleone comp~!~rd to organise succ~u[lylhill air d~Je'nce:of lih e G , hem Front ';!gall'1st thle expecled ,M,gJo.jl,melrlGi:illri iffil'<lsion, HiIJ!ElI~ Il)am.r.rerll'ed ihim ~oC1Jmm'ir1d ofi.JuWtcLta 2 {Seoond A:ir :F~e:e:I) in in~ly, Ma!o~IJeiI!1!, {hen preparr!1!,gIOp~ra,t~Oin Zilade4ig; (C~md~I), lli1cat ye~.!f'$ l!I'Iul.ior ,e~lelrlfl OUe,~s~.e" W<lS ho,r.rmedi;hl:! neededlRicl'HnorsfI in the EastlO Hmer':s ,e-ar'S remal:n~d de,~I~o l1is pleas, <lJn;d AiC:l1lll1iof:~r'l d!Jly~ oorwUl"!enoed dluiUt!$ ~nn.:~w. Ufd~r!YI'!i1!~eIJlti h~ 1i'l~W ~mm~fI!dr~ced QveMhe~~ingodd:il. ,and proved inc3jpab.te or throwing back A:llied .lan.dings on SitJlI.y <lind ail: SallerJflo.,

AIUmugh Ihe a9aifll clell1i'lo:rl!stra1ec l1iis m~li5~ery o~~acl"cr,a~ ailr SUP,port, earning iKessslring's gratiluda and :plllisilt, l1asimp1v 'I!at:k..ed the ellf'(l~rt and :~e$o~rce$: n~~d~d ~o mma:li1J oompe~[tive. H'~Uer wOi!,lltl d'oubtle~.s hOl!ve~ralr1!il.rem~d tJ im ~o lIlorllnve$:tem. EUlr:O~~()I command l.uil\".i3f;fe (@rml's opposin:glihe No rman.cly II,andiWl!gs, e)toop!! ~h~,tlhaairman ~~~I gflfveiyiU. He Il'adal'l in;opera'b-ll!! brain ~urm:uJr, and ~in~ny transfe rred ~o ~tn~1 Flulnrrer Ae~~M' Tn November': 9~. He swfeiredgrElia:~: paIn ~hroughollJl :hJs !asl: mO:r:Ithsana cued as a pri$o~Elt o~ the Amel1~a~!! O~ ~2 JI.I~Y194:5 ,a!1 8ad Isohl"AuSilria.

Richlhofefl dea!l'llI p05sEI,s!>IE:ld an 311trilbule !\ih:a:reiCI by moot di!!Ul1guished commOl~derli~ hishinl:emgeooe. His at!aJinm<el1lll, 01 a do~ora,te teslillle~ to' J'!i~ 'c(lgflilive: abil~ljes •. ~I: hlili lu~d l1Iolm,er,~1 inaicq!JiringknoWlledgeJ with 1!'l;Q practical a~pl'i'caJUOii1l. He wanrted to knoW':so thail he (lolJ~d do, IIii'll atnli(;-ipaUo:11I1 of dQSler lil'l!iks belV!feef! G~r,ma.!1!Y af1!d 11aly -~o mentl:olnl perhaps!lhe (tIQ$1t QbViOY:;' ~P:I~ - he learl!'!!led! U,:atlal!"li, all'ld did ~o~ry well, 'qu&ckly becoming thorQUigihly COrlV.l:ItfSiUll lIke~i5e! when he join.ed '~hs COfldorL!~gr'on if! Ja:ru.!ary 1937, hesooinl mastered Spanish .. Not smp:rising~lt, ~he!l;e ei'Fol'lill produoed I!nlel ~esuilt he wall'lllEld: improy,ed ~la~riO:n:s wilil:'i his: new aUi~$, The S:pa::i':i.~$:'l:'I Nati:onJa:lis,t oomrunan:der:s.. [ilIl pa!'~icul!ili~,.re.lt ri'il'lpl:es~edl by :h;is e~fo:rls a!nd l:fu~ s;pei'8d with wh~oh hs ~ea!med th:ei:r 100JliQ;uage.11 O!her Germa:1'I comm~rldelts foo:kedenvL'O'usly l,!I:poo his cl:Qs~, amd ,ed'lecthte 'worldlng' rrelan.o:nshlrp w,Tth SpaWil~~h OOl,Jillterpii;l'rls" yel trffiW seemad to !iea:I~$>er ~hatlh~ ~liI',elflgtl:l QI~h~l 1~.el'aJIiQo~hi~ 'g[aw :rf()m l1iis: WmrnQiFlie-,ssID be!iJJ U~e QJ'lerH'lcffioul:ed ~tal:latns: ~_~d 8\paflishas eqrnat$, wilil1i languages worth ~eaHlrn9\.

lJu ~ing Wo:dd W(ar II: Ille co!'l!ti!J)~edlhispaUem'i' ~eaHlin~ as much AlIml1lfli.:ln!ll,s '!he ci11i!os: of warp!il1rmiUI!ld. He' coiuilEl;quenUyenlloyed dosew 'C(N:lpera'tion and bellter ~Ja~TQnI; wl[hl Rumani.m {l@rnmiilnd~,rrsM1an abost <:'lny O'lhe~ Wehrmachl.leader '(ex:eept. pelFih~ps MlflI~S~e:rnl. who also ~asMd his sharrp m~~d wfr~h le~m[i'!g'the Aum~,mian ~jJ:n,gu:e). til On na~ Eastern Fwnl" wl:ie,e !t~e Rumaniouns gsnemllyproved thems~llvs LJloo1ul !li~lies" these ieiltorlsoe:rl<!jnlll bo.~e f~lJJ1l~ inlh;e torm or filTliP~ov€d 03 (,C"mm'and. (;:o:nm:il ,a~tl Com.munrt;at~QT:!:1i)1 ,!)!_nd combat eifr~cnvene$s,

To ~he Gennaln o:t~ioi3Jr ollass (die G:e<rli~~Ji~a1) j. lln:alnrd1ividua!1 mall~er:ed less ~h01lnlihe sys~em [hal had b~e<n de\l\e~o;ped by sucooosiva great mim~atry 'lhiO~f'$ - ~~dJ'l,!ldHng Sch~mhotS:t. GneiSefla~, Cial,l~ewulz a;i'ild VOI~ Moltke - in Qmarl(loreate ,ii!~mu;IiY ~ood1e:" wilil'lS'tam:lardisea ap,proacl1e$ ~o probllefl'l:-<!!lQh,r~!1Ig', pianrJirll1ig aJlflid n'n~'form~~iUion ,and i'$s'u~nglor oroers;. T:hls cOO'a: had its OWri pa~!eni!'s of boeha.'!Iioura:nd comrruJnicailiio~ <lInd U g!l;l~f1!)ed!lhength Il!"orn: oOU'lsis,tertcy~ coQillfOrmJlty and a~herelloe: to ,pl'Q\lie.nidoctrines. 'ri'e'lthe resl,Iltro.g liilii'lfom1iil.y also l~mJmi~ed indep>Elii1l.dfi!'j1JttMw.gin~. all1lcl discouraged iniliailiVEl. ih~ cal1gQf of iilfo$leriing mOOiocr1ly cOII.lld only be avemlea li~ men or um~sl.lal s~airpness .d mind ,am,dL':llarity of loIlision~ose to the lop..

IFil_[ch~IhJO'I'ern vias such a !IiIlail':l," HiS: in~ell~ct Md'l.em-P!'3.amenlli~ted him ;wO\r(ill1isl!r:aTrninij .~nd ¢\)\p!3:rience as a stai[ 'ofiicerr andl" c(n~pl'e:d will;, his ~magTrilationfllml willingness to E»lperimefll~. enab~ed humntQ emerge as: a tru'~y r,nflova:~Tve and rl'1'~h.u:mtt:a:I, Ngutr,e .. He ,oertaJTnlYOiOrntribulool as: m:J,do'h ~o 1he davelopmerlilaJil.d revenlua:ll ooii'ldUC'I. of B:I1'lzkrieg as 'Gu~@rf~Il, .a_nO/thElr m~n 01' h~gh inll!3mgenc~, whose ideas on ar;molJ ~ed warfare peirteCllyoomplime:nOOd his ldsas O~ tacllo.lI~ak,flowe; ••.

Drawf:ng tlpon his Goo~~ War ~~perier!:ces as a ,ca;M~~rym~nalflid air!lTlaJo, aJnd :hls Reich~'hlr '~parience as a. 'Sc~cje,r and aJr~mllerisl, IFI~ohilJhioif'E1'1'I used his !$me III!'!! Spain to £l\i(perJJnent "",Ull dlt\lle,.bo,mbers, the development of wl,k:h he had o:rJ.glna~1Iy opposed,. He: :PI:O:i'iIr~~~,ed. and! ti1:e'ii"!! persuasively ac:hlOcate.d, 'Iha, t~hl:1!qlU:H taifld '!ac~icsthail rn~de~em, alildi other gmunc:H:aUack a!m~.a~t, reared ami enec~~lJIe weapons ~lJlrjng the .s'lJQCe5Sr~~ ea mpa~gUi!5 Qf1:939, 1'94!0 l!ltnd1'941.

10

in Spain lRichtlnor~n alsQ diMW iLJ,pon his expe riiences if! van:oliJis 6>El'n.!iioa;S ,aJndOl!rms as Iilal experimerllted wilh ways~o ~mproveliMe ~nectivenlil$s of tact[cal al1r supporL Giround troo.p$ were nol yet ~tblelo ·El$lablish dired radio oont!illc~ wiJ.ih aI~cran ovemea.a,. which g:n~.ally 'rOOu:ced ~ha po~en~iaJ for effeclive 311F sLlIppo:rt Ai~!I':thofel'l! p.aril~y oolvoo~hi's prQb.~i!lm .by int~odYo1!'lg ,~ new rn!~r·s~rv~e oo.mm~I1~C4Uon sy.st~m. He .appoirUedi .~Ii~a~rb'JndlJl.f;lg~onlzier (aii lIaison ot\fioer8". or F1livos)', speda'my traJi:netl aiirtoliTCB offiCliJ'I'S· in raJ.dicHlquipped afli'ltolJmd ears, to al~ forwru-d g!'Ql;Jlnd yni~" In constant radio OOl1llml;l.n'lc.etUon wi~hllih~k 8i~rr OO:rps, Pj~vos· :a:pprals~d the eerps of~hesi~ua:~i(m atriIcllhe Iintenlio:ns of the ground IU 1'111~s, advised iarmy (lomrnandi9'rs O"I'lihe most pr:a;oti:Cal ,and ifreclfve IJ~ of .a~rpow~rafild Pra!$sOO: onlihelr relljrUle:S1$ tor aLii .<'llss:islar:loa.

linlTs l1ugl1lly ili'li'1OV1)ltf,vaSY:Sil'ei'il'il I p~:Ofl!eered by Aicliithomn well beromAimElIicaJlll, Brilistli I' lfiremen and A~s;s~an .aM 'ro~s awn seriouslya.ad:ress.ed thei:asue ~f il'i~e:r·iil~rvioo oommur:ll~lkm, worked w~1J when kuUw!:df:e unilSJ were .a!ttaoll\ing dle;a~liy delinecl poslti:onJS du ring slati'C 0 r S~O\'-' mOViirilQ O:P'El'raHonrs.PanZl1ltand 'Q~her armyr(irima~\ms \!Itt!rG' oflenab~e·to OOCeJUv,9 etrecti\1e alrsupporl.!onrrylwe!ilty minutes, after re~yesUng n~Yet IDis: S"YiM~m did not al~5wol1k well w~u:mlh61 silu<'I!tion Cl'U. tna: gr,oii.lm:l was fait mom,~luid. "F~uendly lUre!' Tn:ddenl.6 were !l:urprisilnQ'llow, a~~ things consldered. butst[l!boourred wTr~h distre$5~ng h:~quenQy (and sllil do tQd~YI as aooounls of the GldJlf War Ireveal).

T-o I1lr~n~ these fl'1.ci!d]efli~:S" 'IfHahlhm'en impIQrl'''~n~ed troop' .recog!'Qi~I.o1:') systems l1awJi(~F1g baJd(W tln:O:;;;fl Ihle! had usedl during llh~ Gr'~a!t War. lin ord~r ~oma:kelll'l!e(IITf'BS1e:lves¥i!5iMehO"m the air', ground. unitssp.lyei[id out. whU:e idenllifica!lion panels Mdi,Y!lhe:rll rlJiOOeSs~rry; ~sEJd fl~If1~.s and :';lmO~11I :poo:~$"llhe$e me'asUJr,es pmveds.o sucoess,fullha"t Uney were, soon o~pred by So\llet. :aJnd o~'ha, AII'I~cl aumies, or OOIJ,rse, [he rl1troal.ilclion or rr<lI!c:liOI equilPmelM: ~hi:litaIlO""wad difflC! communTca:Ucm betweenl groJwnd fQl'Qe',s and ~roraJlle,'IfflnkJalrry Ire'ooe!!r19d thesoe me1hodsoDsoleta.

Wllh@ulthiEtse innovaJliol'ils, Panzer and ~Jmy ro~,ce.s certaJnll'!l~!JI~ nOll ih~lffl ~~oei\t~d t~iiI en~ctiy,e air ~upporl·It!.~ $OOfil, ooJ[ne to rely on, ami wou:ld not, as a. reSiu It, ha,ve achlewdlilleirstu:n nlrngl victorias inlhe Wi! r'I;: ~il'St 'years. R~dhl~hQJefil's name wmlro:naver be a.5$oclal1ed willh h~ Sluka. a!i1dla~ic:al<lir su:p,port, .Just as GJ~deri;;ln's: Willi bawHih the Panz:em Md~rmoured Rlrla:re. :Bm:~Zikritilg,tn9 rn.!ltscdtheM rnn\Wat~ve rct~. ushered Tn at 'new ,a~~ in w.artare andlifluiiOilUy gavaGermOliny gr1!llal adv.arnllages In bi31tlla.

A!l<llysts, o~ command ano ~ead',erstnip Ch~fIa~le:r~$~TC$ ~@rtdOO, foo~s· fh~iii" ~nl@ntlo:nl o:nl suoh glamorous personallmils .E'lS in,tell1g,ence, aharisma, resotiv'e!,co:U1ra,Q)e ana paSSion b battle. Aichthcl'ien cerlainly pO$ses,sedlhoi$;e ~raILS.yet aliso pO$$E1s$'ed a 'CIllIeintl{ tli'Iail <llIilanysl.s tend to rglilore or downplay; a qliJltil1ily thallnQt. onlyconhicUlLeo siglllufi'ciilntliylO ,lRlic'hJthofGW1r:Sow~n c(lmm~l1id eH~cl!lve:n€$S:, bUI~a~so l~ thali o~ !iiliIo~l Othi1lfln.ll:Y eU'ec.t[ve I~<;l;ders.. Thal qlJlanity, put silmp~y~. is a c~p.acilyfor ha.rt1wom.

FiglJlre 3,lJ)udUl,!,l ,crllll.c8Wp!.1'rIDods~ :R!lclltl~olft\!:! SpC1lit. more illl!ElD .!In hO.1i!r' ~lIlCh Id~y O~ 1iJ;l, l~lt~mcJ wuil!n:g. il~cljom (01 :g1i01IJ1:I' a:nd Sqll:!8d:roD! leadcn>,. e~m1~ri~gwiith IQC!!I ~mJll ~m.lm!!1!!ld~~ l!]"!d [br:iclID~ttl;@ [.!!IIfhldie I1iglil Con~milfli!l.

At al'molSt all slages 0'1 his m!U!slr[:olUlS career. Ric11llhofen pusli'led himself '1'0 the' limit ot his, :phy,sical And Elm,~lio:nal efidwaJll'lce. 8y' Lhe time'of his proJllmUo,1l to Hauplmann :1 r'l11F'Giblllal)i 1t929 :Iil:el hadtlliwilidy

a reptJIl:a1imil amongl colleagues, as a wofi1;(aiIhOn~ who WOL!~d mmai'irn am his des!k, ponTI'lI,g OIIef pB.p~rwtlrk. [n'lo 'II~!e late ,~nilng er eal1l'y momung,. T1hri~ habit remaIned un<1iI termTn!aJl irI!M!ess ~rnaJlv robbed him of ir'~ ild'i! 1 :943. Even dui'lI1lQI periods of ~elalive ealm on ~he EastemFiront ,duril1lQ' 19141 and 1 '942, he us:ual~y worked lip to Sf!\l;en~eel'l h()u~ eaeh day. lOuring periods of crIsis or il'l'lense aCitivily. he \I;fo.rked tryly punlshing hol.!'~S'

Fo,rr elIlam,ple, du rTl1l'l9 the' iniUalperiod !oI (he :Barl~~e of Swaslapol ~rI JllJlnle' 1 ell~., wh:etr:l his, ,aircorp,s; pro"id'm:! ground klrma[iol'ls '~!j1i1h an unpreoode.n!'ed tavel of ak :suppotl', [he ,s;Tept an ar\l\e~ of ~iuee hOU~5 per ~rS:nt. H'rs dr:ary entry tor~' June oonclud~s~ ~Retun'led ,rio my quarters) to issue ,order!!; ,and wage war aga:rl"iS~ My p~pef'I\\fCI,rli. E;<iliausled, se (ell into bed aJt midi1fglf1lt'"'::J H[s entry '[or the following day r,eveals; the b~evity c,~ ~hat sJeep: '"Up ;;mrJl ,aW8.'1 wtlh [G,eneral~ Ma:rtl:nJ <II 0045 hours., Watchedlhe' firsl wave 01 the attack!, '1ih.i3n direcledfrom my oomma:l':ld post IJ!'I~U' '15m:):.~!~' :1fI~$ day d~d iiIO~ Ie-JfId thEiria: ,h,Ej raw mad to hf$ quaders af'1;d, ,aeidl;l' 'rrom an ~nterl1y,pticm ~o &a~ dinner ,<l:nd aW;aJrd medals~, remejl'lled 'to~d in !':ifs ~paper,~tar" until dose to, mldni;gh'l'Thus, after bav[lil91 S:J~pt Ilefi '1I1al1lfo'ur haL/liS, he w,odced conUII'Iu:ol!J'slV (l:'Jr ,almost twenty.

Ri.chUl'lofen e\!Ie'nl wcrilled at this gr,ue:iUn,g paCEilhroughoul:lihe'.sewnty·one days and nigntsof Ilie' s~allllgmd al:rMn. y-et. dr<~playcll1g tram~J'I.-dO'Uls ~o&si:menc'll'liJi sh,ess, ,Bind genE!raI~hr;p of the highiEliS'l 'orden', he sllil m~nril:ged to o!'Q'lilil''iise and cemmsnd a su,perb ,coul'!~:eronen$i\l"e ,atOO:l'lhat iII·fated :airlil1lg.ro:ul'lld to a ha'it lin ~he 'Iecce of owrw'he'lming odd~, Thts abinty to wolik long houlS ove:r'loiiQ pe'rlods with !'10 ~bvloY$ physical and emotional CQ!SIs: gave him a tremendolisbeneiil: he oQuldldl;l!vo[e sewfi:ll addilion~1 hOiJliS Eielch day~o the maintenance and miiss!l'om:;: ,of his air fleet WI'1IBe' 'oIhEi.i'S sJeopil, Ite, sal hun0,1'Ied o'ller hls desk scrutrnl~[nfll daily ,after·, ,a;clUolll mporl:s, pl'ar:! nlnglhe' file-xl daJ)I's: op i;i'~lions; and w,rV!lng trne' a:p,pr,oprial~' instruotion s and o;rdGt'S. His a:brfitV 'to cop~ wilih long hourn an,d 1i11~es1eep'. 'loon" greaJUy ine.r;l8:asea $iii'S p:roduct~vrlly,

ThQ Gennan airman is nol alone in posseSSing thEs abillily. Numerous 'famous ,commande,rs, including Hannibal; caesar; GIIJSI:a'iJius Adolphus, Napoleon, ILe13', P.l\Itlon, MaJJ'l'slelflil!nd Zhukov, wm'kied I.Inlls;ua~.y lon91 hours, as, dldi thelluee g~al. protagonists 'of Worl'd1 War II: Churchill, Stalfn and HiiUer.1'he' laller's 1101119 day:s ,and sli1.'Or1: ni:gh:ls: a re l~gend:aJry. H~tl!il'r l'ie1irec each In:lgJ':!t alfl:e,r 3, a.m" a:lmoot always taJldng a p!le or documents wili1 him tos:~udy im bed! or at hii;l d@'Sik. Hi'S ,exharu5t}l3d sUDomina/ws and serwnl.s malrl,rell!edat

- his abilily to rise,fresh and r9!!1dVlo ,go, and w~lh Ills paI,pef'l'-Iorik ma,sl'erec and its lkey ,poh"lll$ memotiSla'll, a1ter 'wha:1 ~ee:med II~e only a few Mull'S. Even his 1M aJI'She5t CfUios 'oQlis,iderr thIs one of his, maS'! oulS/landing ,readershjp strElngths.

flich(hoJen's: boundless capaclty f.orwork inspJred hi!! slJbordinSlI~s" as did snolille't hail '!hal dOlJlbtle~ cQliVlributed to his SIUCCeSG, in oombat: aggfessi'oill<,lHis ditary enlll'i,es revetljl 'lha~ he perooivedl warfare in i~s s~mplest and crude!St terJililS. Hils: .i:ob Wb to kill a<s man:y 'EH1:e,liflY pe;l'SQrmel a~ he «ll.lld inlheJ shorl:est lime' and with ~,eaJoolilaJbl~e lassss, ~Unl9Ssl:M 'Wet)lf~her U$eJH stops: U!S~ he blunlj[y wrote, en 9 May Ui4~" silhorily after the :Sa.ftte ,of Keroh commeooed, ~i'lO A~§ie!n will !e<aVelhe Crimea ,a:rlve~'"!~ Iro malke'~mre 'QI' 'Ihls, h~ 'ornered hlis aI'l'crews '10 pOY!1Id It'llll!' Sovi!Jl positions ~mm: dawn '10 du!!k. They complie'd,condUJclingl no rm!ler than 1,7100 $oi'lies lhat day. T1'I<9' Jol!CiWl'ng clB!Y they h~lped ~h€l ali'my trapSovilfJll, formalions MUhl n a steadily tj'ght~f'lj'ng pecket. Flichthoren w,B.itled none to escapelhrough. Lhe! only' gap. '"By 5Yi1~et we' haw rsolated 1efllR,e d dlivllslons~: he pa.n:n:iii d in h~s dia1ry, ".except for a rumow g:ap. n,e; pocket is ,almOSI, closer:l,~l g, ~,e he.'d plaillS 'tor those :strl~ ~rying tornee, ,as his IInal salilt€lnoe, r$VEials;:~ln the mornll11l91 tihe exl:e;rmil1l:B.tBon can b~gin~~ He otder,ed ceaseless ,a;ttadks by ,a:I~ avai~iWle' wrc.raU, including ,"ghlem, Stukas, 91O:I:J]''1d~ attack ground plalies ;e.nd horizonla'il bombers\, They Irained down bomb~ of all $11&S, including ~deiVrI'S eggs·' 8_i'lId OllilaI' anlil·p€i;i'Sonnel projecUles:. These alte:ci!ts pi'OV€!d' dewsta1ingl:Y successlul. Very few Soviets escaped. lEvan R[chlhofen himsen r,e~l: amazed atlih,e Jieval of destruction!. '"!iIVe are inUiC:tnnglihe highest h:,sses Q'I blood Md mat~riE'!li~ h€l wrola Oirn, tie '1 '1 ill, '"SJilodkingl CQr,pse.s.1rewn 1l€llds .... 1 havl3seen nothing like it sO '[all' in Il1ls war.MH Allhougtn ~he:5'e aommenlJS m~ sssm .s8va:ge, Ihey acllJallly resemble '!hose fOund within ,the ,personal pa,pers Qf ,o~h~r prom1nent 'GeliJiNDi oommand~m, including 'lhe "genUlimanly" Rommel, who, de<splte the glOM of Ihi:S:IQ:nl:.ms"whilewash, alSO!!lBW walifare I~ similar tenns.

fliof1JlhQrell's comba!t. phi~o:sophy ¥r.I55illt!p!~: a.ooep~ nolihing less U"~!"l vJdalry; 3!1ild s'pam ne er:roUIO a:lta,[!il iU Agcordil1!9il'Y.~:o: wn as· working exlrem~~y hard 111ms~lf. Ilf:! d,e,lflawltie!d Ine maximum ~1~J(lrl f:rom<lU h~s men, ~otJliIne!.ly on:J:ering ,every aiMorl~y p~8ine ll'l~o 'bi3!IHe <md iordl1lg iPfiots loil,y virtuaUy Irorll ~1.J!!1!lrri!';;e to SU.!1liS!1!t. pausrl'lg only Jong enough ~o rofu~~ ;[IilIOI raalFrTiiI b~rOflll ~aking ~o ~he ski~~ '~9air!. His S~uka. CfElVllS, fQI'~n5LaJli'lce. almost ~'al:J~led (he rm"elves tlyi~g mu~!ip!e mlssrolils <Igii3Jlnsi Sta:lingl<lid eadil dlaylhrolugJl:"loul Siliptembeir 1'942. On iii'! a 15", H:auplmii.!!':I1[ii :Pab~l" corrunam:l~f Qf a StUK;;tj sQ!JI~uj:rQrI, dlimJbed clewnlro.m, h~stookpi~ .a!ner seven hours, duri!'!g. which t[me he h\i,!l.d .c.aJri~ ,o,u:~ nveslJ~l~ined arnd dinioult miss tons ,aJg:i!!in~t the dty. ~~ Tha:I: wa~:",),r'Qb9ib~y a lYlplc~~ day for hlrn, Maior Pal:lj.Wer:ne~ HOiUe~. oommander 01 ~he 2i'!II ~Immelm,anri~ SM:.a. Wing and one oflihe mO$ts'l!C(:~S$f!,l1 ,an.d aoolai:med SU,Jlk~ puto1s: Oi~Uh;e \!l!ar, desc::~ibes l'I<ow his wing was ab~e to 'carry out so manY' m:Jssiofl;seach day. HisliJrlits olPe,rated (Irom airU~I~ds wlllhinrorly MI:orn(1i,toos ~mm the cirl,y., "ihis: .mea_llt,'" he ~~arned!,

that w>e !"IEted'ed (or each sorlie ill chO<dk.·~o,cl'nockl11i1f1!j1 of not mo~S

than 45 roinule<S. which ~.ndl'u:dedtiilr:!(mutg tQthe sti:lir!',[a.l<eoiU, approach n[g]IM:, the cl~mbln.m a~~nlJce of 4,000 m eters;, t~lgel pfCKt.lp,j' dlve

bcirrlbing ,~l!I,taick. ~GW r,eve~ tl~hl d~p<lr~Umi'. h;mdlinlg, ~:ax.iing to ~he apron. l~ac.h~u'mafOIl;J!ld - a new loading, a, shon, lec:i:1111Tcall ,o¥ai~hia~II. cheokoullllok 1,1$ another 15 mt(lllJltes. We' \~ere ccnsistenUyai:!II!l' 1:0 lIy willil 'eacih plane;jjbou~ eigtu ·oort~M frQmS'Yil)l~i?iEl' ll;)$u.n!:N~~. ~9

or oourse;slJI\piply; ma:~~!:ei1~ce aM 'Iil.irlie:~d oo!1'!l~roIl· peW$ormeJI had '1:0 ma~ohlhelr enorts~ wOJ!~ing Iir~lessly to keep ~hejr ,a:rrcra:rt opere.!ional !Jl"ldltisJr tu rnOliroum:i limes 10'0';. flichlhoren p\i!sh~d th~rn ]YSiaJ$, hard as a1rormN',s~nyll:"lgfrom airflie{ldi to al!1~e~d 'Til order ~CI prai!SE! those who, \IVO:r,~ed hard and 8.dmonishlhose who didn't,

Aliithoughlil1T5 regT!1I'I.9 ,seemsexoe'$sl¥~ty h:t1lj]:\d, U: ~l'odJu:ced the de;sired re$il:I~L. R:tiC:tuhorelil~ air IlLInil:s ~O'liIlSist!3nUy perto!~mled well, achievill'lg pleasing resl.l~~s in coml:i.l~, whiich kept mlO'liil'e high and ,earned bQUMi alm:rmlllS :and ,ground per$cmne~ a, high 'r'i1:p~l!atf:O:rJi throughout lih,i1:' Welumadmt ~s we!lla5.l:!iIolf'E! tangible rewams: med\aJl~ .• ~aa\ll~, ,exira, mso1Jl.fcesIlililid pf.alsefrnmfhe highest !avels.

ftich~ho''en ,backed ~p his: e~to;rla,liId aggrBssTo:r:l wnh g;r~:atco:u,rag;.e. He rear~d f~ Ip43QPf.i3' ,aJl;d Jewthlli1Qs • . Al~hough hie was i!'I ioyal SiuIbQrdr!f!;~~~.a!Ii1Jd n~l" mhlsed a!'il, ord,ewlrom Hilife:r. 10 whom he ~el1i1i1ia~ned commJtl!ed ~nlilililis unIT.rrullly dea~~, orl~'om G:Or[n.g, whom he obey~d only be~a~se o1Ir,~pe~. kli~' ~h~ 1~liIaJr:!1 or .il'lIU~horlity, he n~1' he:;;ita:OOdi to ,et!1al!enge ej~h:er I] he ·conSi!C';£lif\ed an o~de!r o'~ actto!i'l otherwise.

For i!1lste:nce, in1i1l:EiJ Urs:t week$alrter Hill!e~ ordared tn.eI StaJl1!1!rgrad ah1ilt, he oop!11)I£IJtedly. but t!~$IlI,ccliess,~ully:. lir,l,ed to lI':{mlltrlncE! both Ina Fillinrer Md th~ ReichsmafSIChf.l!U 'Ililat ~.~ ~s a !CIIlIl::y id~~.~ Ar~er~~11! ,ai~iiR:ra!ned, ,ne M$~fjdli'lo ti~IiH~!~n 'oo$lIIs,ili!g them ~ Ithe two m06! powiEl~ul men fn wes'ter!fl Eumpa- [ha~ they alo:r1;~ rt)ore ~pcnsrbilJty r~rtM !oaU1I!!iUophe,A;1 Hille~ .h;ei:l.dquarlers on, ·11 .f\~bro;alrv 1, 943, h)eI5~ndentl;yreftiJllld 6.t)..rlng'$"lame ,e;o;)ClllS~ U'ua:I: ha had be:Qr! !:JJiffl!1l InlJe ehelcs, Thiel· FCi31wer, GOring :said, ;~ad ClI'e:ail'ly wa~led ~", lkeep '11'iIe g~:dh A!limy tm U'I$ Volg~,a:M exp!3c~e:d ln~ Luf!waH~OO' l<eep'ith!I:lyopeltlti<l:r1I!aJI~ ,rrl,e: ·o>O'I;I:l'd ndt llti:iili\I'e ref;usoo,A!trliyway, at tilEd time he el<peclted U1el enckol'emenllo be ~emporary, III pm'ba:bl~ '1iI/.ould haVill ~u!1ll'1ed ollllfii,ll;e. he ch~;lm~d, had: 'Ih.e! Ital'[all1!sElction of the line lllotclOllaJ,psed, an~(~gihe RU$sla,ns tomU bac~ the GSlrmarnrllOril and d~prNellle lunwaH~ '01 itsro~ml airfle~chs. RichllnQfe<n ~n~ppedb~L;)k ~hat 1he d1lsallter began wel~ before Ih~ ili!l1Oll:r1 line collapsed, and IlfHlt1" liin, ;my evenli,~heRiEl\lc~;smarscha!l~ woul~ Ikn@'W monij'~bou~ e~ru:s and cQndilions: ,al the 'h(l~llf he had ~U7tIUa:ny risked! g~ing there in persQn. ~I~ you lI':an't trns~ your~liJ)cky s1a.t [or YOllr pewonaJ~s:aJfel1A~ he Il9;ctl!lred, 'lIhen yoU! Ih;ave ino tlgiM to believ·e: ~hat de:.sl~n,y huc~jiedl you r~lr gr,eSlle,r thing&.~i A h!eated aJrgLilment er!!Suedl, d~I',II'!.g whldlh 'GOring im.is,ted thai he~riedll!O reasen privfJ!te~y w~~h IIFIij.Ue.r on m~nyQC~:sioos. 'bl;l~ OO!iJI~'Il1C11 (;h~ll~e i'ikg~ him: plltllllc~y:, because Ih:Ei!it w"Quld "el1idi;llng6ir"~he Fatuer's alU.thori~y. R:icnlho1:en - "mo lale'~ :ad'mii~ed to '·pl1l!yin,g!hesltroI'llQ man~ - repllied!i1i.t 1::!1~$!\lW th~rlgs dJltreren~liy;~zTI1.e ~8\l'ch$m<lrscl:"!Ia:1l !!Ilid not chalte.l'lge Hiller, but al.v~Y$!1Igreied wilh; him, be@1iI!!Ise he waS sCiajJ',e<ii or~he IFuhrer's: WlaiLI'iI. Na~u_rany. Gorlil1lS' M,e.nargelJiaa;lly denied UUS!'.

lBle'r Ihat d~y. RiCt'lilthc::lfe11l!spo!keas brl;lt"llUY00' lJhe IFOIuer, He slaJted e<rn,phaI1lca1lly thtat ~ocal cOlmmaodew$ '"ITI1!J!St be givllnl:acllcai freedom to aQI .: as tI1e~u' own ,I!cfcal expellienoe dictates,"2J l~king a swipe 3!t IHi~ler's ~3

own lead:lim;fhip slyle, tie boldly insJis1edihatll was"worol1g to "ileadl!l'Iem by Ute' S'CmU of hli neck as 'Ihoi.tgh they"",~ere children". Hitler indIr,gJnanllly replied '!h~U.ha:d nEll'ilOt ~e:p~ hi's g:e:!'1I,erall ul1der diose guIde [1

wo uld 'be f:ighl,iililg, In Germany!~ noW·. !Flichl!hoferll rlilut:ed Ihis, $lati;n9~ "ii' you Cain,'[ UuSlYQI,U most III ,Ifigures, yOll musll'ie:pl'ace them." F1l:ll'haps l'€!fe!l'I'iIl9laga:i'fl, t'O theablin. H,iller siho,utl'Yalilerwards complained 1halt he was C'Onstiilnlily ~e'~ down by his, cI:O$~st Q4v~sers', who ,rr1E'poriiad 'd~shonestliy and ,did ,~tu.11l! e:rse. 'Cr,ea(~.y wilhlM aJrllifl iin miM, F.!idh'lhoreo repliedlihat "this TiS 0'1' no 'i'!1'temS'l, eilliler ~o us at ~he front or to 1'lJlu~'e hist,orians," As Oomman,dJer·;in·Chlei, he poil'l'led out, ,tlii e FOhrer alone ~, res.ponsibill' fOf the SU(lCess or failure ,01 ope'rallons. TI'I~jSi was no point in cursing OJ bl~.liIinig his a~1;I'Isern~ Hitler how.n.oo di~app;rov;iJl'l,glly but ~ern'a:jn,Bd quiel, ilil'Wam~y ~dmkil'1Q lhe air [eader'sliraJn1<ness, :and lU~elQ ,challenge 1he 'truth 01 h[:s oomm€!l'IIts.

Indeed, Ihe' F[iilref iII~e:d mefill ~I' RTc'l1ilhoJen's il'k; ,commil!ted NaUonal Soc[alis~s\ .ag,9~esslve, OomllTlamlern, ililspifTmg lead~rs" l'Odnrighl achltSlei,rrS, I:oyal rolkrwers. AlthclI.l!;jn he had !Wlom neller to create 8'niOthe:rUe,ld mElJrsha~i Hitler alflnoooced on 1,~ February, IrOu'r days aliter !Richtholerl had b'llI!1ItlylQld him Ilha,f he DOl"e um:ma..ta~e5iponsibllily for SlJalllflgrad~ ~nal he was, 'prorn.ottnEl liI~eairma1i'l ro GeneralfeldmmschaU.

Rl'Ohlnorel'll, was; atsc, physLcOlU,y oo\Ji'ra.geou~. a, naii thaI. his Imen admired as mucli, as his bold!'ile.ss w,!1h supe riors. Throughoul his: tWo years on thl[i EasterliT ,p(,g,n:!. he' travell~d constaoUy from base 'to base iill hl$ IIgo11 Fieseler Fl~156 Sloiroh ailrcnd1. wh.loh ofiten came under 'e'rnemy I'l're and oc:easioniilility had 'i.o, make, ,crash landvlfIgs.ll1elook: these; risks in crder'pElrsol'ially ~o briellhis willig ,and grol.llP commanders andl 'llak batla'iion leaders, and, '1,0' 'e",horl them to rncrease their pe!1liormall1lOElI. 'Beli,e¥tl!'lg 'Ihat commomdie:!i'S are on'!,y as goodl :as 'Ilite menll1,e¥ commaod" ,01'1 many Occa_.511ons: he ackir,essed n(l~ only' oHI~!i'5i. but als!) Itlli'ge gmlJps 01 a,ssembled Lurtwaftea'lTrcrews;" gro'llliid su,ppo'rt baJtalions, and flak ~roops:. He spok'Ei' hankily, dem andvll'li;!. hard W(ll'rk and a.g,g,n!3;s;s~oU!, but promising h~sawii'i total CQimmltme!1lt, enor:1 and ,51!p'Port His Icouragiil. WoroeluJ personality and constantl. pms'ence a'i the' trcml created a. deep Impre$siol"! 'on mmy 101 Un,esellJ'Oops, who, rtils,ponded with a 1~lLy akin tolha~. of Guderian's Panzer IrojJ!p$,

F!idh'lI1,o~ern also lijked t'o cir,cle all low amWde in 'lliie' skli,e~ Qver ba:l!lle~ie!lids, mQfi!iloFing prow,ess onlhe g,rolJnd and .sending Iradio InsUuQtiollsiJacl< 1:(1 I1ls headQlJeiJrlers, SOm(i,tlmes: he was mmarkabl,Y lucky to surviVe theSE! d!liring !lights;, Sov:i€!,t nail! giJlI1ll'1ars, rmed his plane with red·hot s'nmpnell. He W01ISI U'1iEl targe'l net only O'f Soviet g;u ITlIlilers., bL:Jl. 'Wil!1"11 disuoo~ll1g,II~RqlJiel'l.cy,als:o of Gei'm'<lJl'lI gunnefl;i •. Raj' i n::siance, WhlI€i' inspecting AKis posItions on 25, JlIIJ'1,e 1942, 'troop.$ :cd' the G(lrman ,SSP' :Inrantry OiVi:Sfon m'lslQke!1i,Y open (Ire 'on his lillie alrcrafl, WOUli'l.clrl'1g lils co.p,l'lo~. punoturllnglhe fiU:el taTnikE!illd filling his pi!a.m,e wJth 'holes. Ar1err mali1iog an emerg,€ ney landing!, lila sent U:1 a: commandero'!' the di".:isfo,n invomed a ~eUer '''I!hMlking" ,hiis!lill!GrI f,or their eUo'Fi!s. M 'VIIhils:l it is a dle:lighl: to ,see U',lii< il'ighting spirit or the German g,round ~roQPS ,i!ligaln!l-~ :airc'raft,;; he saroa,sUc",I(y 'Wl'Ot,e. "may I requesllhalllh€iSle 1roops, direc:t [lieir l1I,ghtilllg S!pil'il at '!tile Red Air fo,res.N Alterr :pointi.f'iig mJillhal VisLbTIUy wasexc~ICMI and I:h~a:t hisaJlJcmU vms cl,aa~liy maJl'k.ed. he ,added thaJl wpei:naps: their gunfire was: inlsnded 1.0 be <!In ovaUo11l or greelJll119, in which c:a~ep~rm~t 'Ilhe oomrru~Jldel' o~ VIU. Fli,egerkor;p~ 'tp express hIs gr'<ltilude 'lor II and, at the same 'lime enoo1J,iiaga them ~hailsimllar gr,eeUngs tnl'ulure :should be canieci oul wilh bl~flj.r (lariddig,€s:His diary entry 1'01' 1hat day is r'ili' mote Ibll~liit. Well ".I!W'CI,re 'Iha~ he'd: escaped diS!a1h byllhs closest SihaNe; Iillli' angrily seraWJied::: "o.a_f'!'IJ'ied dogsn They don't fire allhe Ru~siarlis, biiJl ,at ,om Sl:o,rc'h!~

lib 'e'I'kS!Jf;tli efleOllve al1my"al~IIJ'ce C(H.i',pelraUon, Aiicl'lilhcll'envlsitOOi not oll'lly 'luUwaHe command poslS and alr UuldS., but .also 'Ihe' commalfld :posls (If local, aJI'm!( format! ens, Aii'irOen and so'lid:le'l1Si alike 'm'8IJvelied ,alillile sight of his light St'or,ch bobbing arid weaving alOOve ~tHill battlefield or landing, sometimes riddled wilh ,slliltlOapllei. 'on uflprrepamd and uneven "lield$ beside command ,centfe$, A.gain,lihlls fr'E!quen.Uyplaced him 111 grave ,dang:er.lflorder '1.0' pli1lJ:'l jOin,t opemli'or'JiS in fhe CaJuca$1.II$ on 25 OCiDber 19t42" 'fo:r 'Instance'. haftew ~,o' 'Ilh.e 'forwalrd command 1'05'1 O'~ G.a tilJi;)'rru de Kavill~lel'i,e· von Ma.c~ensen, 'oo:mmam:ier ,or U1a Thi:~d ~PMiZ'9r Corps, Th!5 ~c;ommand posl'" was realty lillie mere than a dieep' Iwle in the ground pro~ected in front by s:an.d:bags" General:obers'~ von Kleisl: Ipined Ak:hltlof:enand MaQk'8ll$en to plan lJh:e baUla's next :st01llge; 'Their meeliingl oollCllided prematurely, i'lQWG'Ver, whe[J"l aUI,1'ir'R' ~(lmmandi;re :scrrambted rtM cove1r,lihe,ir unikmtls :sprayed 'l!'iIilhl dlr~ anij fl.yln:gl debricS, as Sovie[ aflUliery shells c:r,Ol.c5hed around tJrI!~M.ulrol'lica'lly, de<5pil,e :almoiSt los1ng his lIfa, on Ihis occasion Alcl1lhorel1l's d~ols1'c'l1l 10 join !!he army .af ~he f1l'oma;c,tually saved' h1s fife. Even as be' brushed lihe' dirtlfmm~h'is hmk::, Savuet btl:mbers pollndedand gulled his OW(l headqt.lar[ers back in ElaksM .•

14

RlChlhofani'.s w:i~lin9ness to nisk Ihis me lin ord's~to ~ea;dfforn tha hO~J!: pr~d as ~nslp:iirin;Q1 '1:0 hls men as A!exar'tderthe G rears, NapQ[ieo!i1fCS Qr e,Wln Rommel's did to ~h:E:!ilr$" His om,lrage ..aliso impressed the anlilY oommanders ~a \I'IlOi.rlfrnd wilh, pair~lcullarly MaFl's~~il1, who. ended h13~m willhll'lEt ,re'p~!atfion a~ HiliGt-:s bast litrllily ocmm,lu'!de:r~ MOf'!:s;t~i~ later recaUed: "Baron Aiohlhofen was (t€lrL:ajr!lythe rnootO!.a~~I:aJnd~ng",1ir force ~ead~r we had im World War II'I~P 'iHi,e made 9 real ,dem<ali1:ds on 1M'S IJlfiIits:'t~e ge1i1JQi'3JI con~ifl1ued.

but'al'Wal}l'S we:n~ lip himself ~filarn a:rrcrniflJ~Q {)limffifHl' impo:rlan~. atlao'ks. M!oreov,er" [I was al~si m.eo~li!1g hlm attlth:l frol'ltwhe[~ he WQutdvJslt E)v.m the ,most fOf'i.!ll'alrd ul1iltSto gel a clear piclutre of ~l'Ie pOS$ibnll~ii!"ls of provLdrn;g air ,s!Up:portkJr SiI1'li,Y Q,pe~lions:.

Mle:ns~llnr"$ reJ'eren:ce to ~Udhthcden'$ desire forma elesast wooong mlillltilJ:rns~ip be,t.weelil groL1nd and air ro:rnlitaHoos leads thistiisoossiorl of lh~ Illatru€1r's oommal1o style ,onllo fl!!lo,l!heJr ,cd his: eliiooUervi tmlt$: his abhorl1e;n:o€l of in~el'"seliVJoe rivalry. w,hlofFl, ReS snOWn above.~dID si:9lnmcantirllnovalicns in ~n~area o~ 1:acI!laa~<liir slI,PPOl't Rich~hoJt:m was an ,a.rrogflll1t Md .ag9~stve mM,whoS!ec:U~Jies ar'e~LJ11 of harSnli'lind of len urMalir (lri~lci;sm5 of roth :supa:r'[iQm 3.111dl ·S!IJtlcrd~in8Jte5. ~t ail: all thll;e;S. he re:rnOlline,d ii~ask~fooused~aJnd !il~~r let personaili~i~s: ow Sie'MOO r!wlries i!l'ioo1rtere wm~lhe tS!!ilk :e'~ handl. Hewotrnedl well wl~h all oln6r airmen, ,jl!'lcllu:din,9 90rinl). woom I'H" ,deoosl:edl and oo:nsp!:flil<rie;d worlhlesS,.alnd G!i!lnera~obefst lLi~h'r. his Immedr!a:le:!!'!,.!jj~(rior :JQrliPle,tl rst two lf~a~s 'elf waJI", ~.om he a;llSlQ disliked :pe~s()nally. Yet, !~ore i.mperlal'll, ,he Worked well W~lhml ~'oo.m_m.mdet$., e:venlholSElha~1edpoo~lv,s.'Uct'l as Gel1eraIQbei'$~ P~u!us:,. whose weak oommanoin theSta!lingmd seotor 'I!ecl~o SilX~h Annis ,en.dtlcemerilaM aJl1Irllhilalion.

FilJ1r!hermore, he even worked comfon"il~blly aJl1dami~blly 'lli!i~hl army oomlTl:2lJ1di31rs 01' obvious ~;iliIMl afld hlgh n:::puta;Uon,. $ijchia$ M!'Iin$~etnl hf:t1!1seIlf, .. IDespite Um, poten~aI Jow a.ma,jor eg,o cllash belweern these lWO brillJant bLd cOlllceltea pa~oflaUlies~~hia,y~nteF8J::roo in a 1'11ghiV piFO'l~sioflal maii'ln~r, 'M~~ou~the, ~etaJlousily arid ~l1te:r"'Sef'i,!'loo rri\i:<l!irrylhalt malnY observers,. ~ncluding HI~I'e!r hlms'9lt'i.1'l1nliolpatad. Infacl:,ihe parlneirship oflhe~ men.probab~ the lmoilit ta~enl'€ld opera!Uonail commandSf$, 'QrUlie Seoond Worild W8Ir (and certalf:!'I'ly Gle:rrnarliY~ be.slt)t. was newr eq}ua!lled: during ~ha!1 grea~C()nflllctlhe Sipoollr~or P~litY lli:valry re'l,llUI'ed~l$elf extremely !1!IiI.reiy; ,Sind even then itappeallled onl.y ililtM ~.ges~f Ihelr pril.lal:el dili1lluies. No opefil squOlII:ib'les or insi!ances ,of lii!'l!:!!,jOf s~~egic o~tacl!ical driSSenSrO!il '~isteod ,d.wing the: maJi1I:yb!'l1lJ1!e:s tlney J,01f1!ttyfoughL II'!1 the ,e.ast Om;ll:ld'i!'lg' Keroi'1:, Bevasl:Opoli, SI:a~if1gra.dand Kharkolill.

ThiSOOlr1lWl besald' or the prores$l(mar re!'a,t!onstllips off manY' tQ'P A~lieci lield ,Qommanders, ~noTlJdling 'Ihose now oo11i5iclered m.ooells at' goodg~ner:alship, whose 8910 cloof'te.sand $I!ra~eg~cal diUerEli1CE1'S o[len caused !;O!Tgnificant problems and sQ'Q:Ju"lTmes adrvemeilty inflw:lnood the oUlto,orne 01 oer!ta:iFlenga:gJements. and' battles. The caoo of Mon~gomerY ,and PaUo!'l in 'ltn~ Med~ooWlrall1J~a:rI and Ii'! no:rlihwe.soom ~urQpe $pring\$~o mim1. Yet Q~eh~a;s tQ search Mrdror evidenoo ~hat llie~!lOGelimans cpemltW lii1J illlril'YlhlngbLJ~ootal: ~,misoo. Even ~Ii'IBirwo~,r dlls~greeme1i1illnvolv,edonly a .minor bmi!llng. af ego<lnd had nc mmsequencas, On 21:1 .AprH ~j 9'42- ~lJ' shO'itv how ii!1islg!1J'1fr~ant his "~iff~waSl-Flr'Chthort1!!l reooJ'd~din his dl~!Y that ih~ 'r~n Si!1ubbed that day by Manstei!l'l: '"V!iaited for GEl n!El,ra~'el:tllmnaJrSehrul 'von Bock I[OOimm31fi1CSr oI'Army Group, SOlJ!th). I sald IGUI.IeinI Ta!;1" ~o Ihlm,af!er whk':h M~u1!5'I.ein aiP,pa~en~ytrledro' I~~,evenlt me meelIng' Ilul"lihle:r will; nirTfl.il2~ Despile, r~elirng 31'i1lrloyed Uiiilil iMans;tein w.a:~I)3d to ,~ctude: I'iIlmfl~om his, bnetfn.g With ~OCk, IA~¢'hthCl'en ;said a~d did! nathing ~o tnin~me the silua,tton, bl:Jll',~ few d:ay;s iater took !!;I!roo;~' de!lilgltt inbetlilifilg1 M;alfl;slsin ln iii!: deba,te over m>c,tr:CaJII d~rtere:!"i;C\i!s :air (he JCP! Army c.orp~' oommMdi Qe.nlre. "Victmy.I.~ he jui:lifiaJI'1IUy' penned tha!trlli,gt1t '''rrt':spaJlhietk:w.say, but 11'1m 'lOp genem~~"Zi'TIlus\ ha k;1~ha had "~,e,pai\1' Mansl~inforh'ls illseJ':Hg,lUv~W (wlilictil he proM~ry never' realised hie had shown)VIIm'mul eve:r 'lleMif1lgil beeome a poillt ,of oo:ntenlian between them.

In ol.os€! ,ooli!$~l'tatlo!"l, !Fr!~oh(;llhfe1'1' aind hi!!' am'lY ,O()u,nte:rparls, meUlmJilollsly oo-oFdina:led tti;e<i r opel<llli@ns and! ,c!I"ealea ]OIT1~ Sc,ll,werpunk.te (points o~ ffiaXllmumt eff,ort).They !t!m~lned in cme= OO:ii1tact dynllilg al I stag@$ of com't)at" whic1h, 1IJ!5uaily ~neant, as nOi~ed ahovtl',lhare RichUliofelillOOk gtrave r'.isk1i eadl"ii dlay as l1ie' new in his light, iLlJi'laJrmed :a,i!l(;mU lQlihe mostroM:a:rd army oommaml PQ$'!s<' ,1f'I,~ ofl~n cursed In his d"ia:ry some of ff1ils armyooUl~!el'i,parlE\,. Wihlosa ideas, aeliens and: decisions [ne may h!l.ve f01.ifild ~npa1alta!bl~, but his: 1~~laUonsl'ilip 'wi!hlhem~~mal!1tOO p.rQJes5'IO'.r:!~1 at aU limes, . .Ailthough he ajtcSQ ri~eq~et"1lUy'rell husllaledl by

15

the oosponsiblliliies and l"e$trlcliotiSlilssocialed wilh his iOJ'oo"S ta,cthoaJ $IU,PFlort onienh\'Iion {and once dasoriood the lurt.warlfe ~$ ~the ~J!'m)i''S whme~, he never ,tos'l sight of 'Ihe, Iac'lihat close and i.!!1hEl m iol,G:r,-:service, ce operaI'iO'fl - now retem3dlCi as 1ointe:ry"'- reswtedin imp~O\i'l!ld combat ,e;lrectll.itln "'~ 'I'ndeed, Ricnltlotecn lis a iplan~r oI jointl.ery, lIIIf-tooecaJreer c-cotaIJf1<S mal'lY lessons; for those, inta i\esled in the subjeOl.

So, ~he!il,w~s RI:chLhOf'€l1il' a !perieot COIDmandeF1The ,S!,t)SW.ar j!s, $lm,pl"e: No. Uke all ,cQmmallders-ifideed, liks all peopla-he reamined mO'~NreJed by subje.ctlveJa.c'tors Qi greaJt comple:xity1 and was occasion~11y prone, 11I(i[l ITIany'of us, to ambiUofl., ~ealoll!s~. al1ga1r alf1ld impaftenC:e,. nlil3<Se 'l!lclQt'S sel!cfom .awei'Sely inllYenoed l1is d'ecfislon-meldngl and, leadership' er1e>ctiveness, a:l~hol.lgh a[ ~urrm:lS, lh~y rn!il.de him a prickly dh,ar,aiCfer whom colleauges, Whilslt. respeGliliQ his obvious, abmUes, f.ound hard to g,et on w~h. His 'WOrs1: [auTr1..as a commande,f, ,ait ie:asl-was his reluct~lI'lCe totrustSUjbordina~e<s with k"eY acticl1lsand decistiOoo • . As noted abo~, h[~ cs,pacilyrorhatd work doubtless contributed te his o·vera'" ~rlfectlveness. oot it probSiO'ly stem,med from a 'oharacterhail tha,t occasionally dimini~hoo hils e[1iool:iveTle~s. PoweJ1iulleaders o1il'el"l find d-a1Ieg,:a:Uon dflmcUlil; m~lnly beca!JlSi!i they mar being tet dow,l1l, b)' staff OflilceFS who, th.ef beUeve, prnb'<lbiy won't pertl;ml'r1 ~ tasks, as 'Wen a,s they "muld ~ha.mselyes" Richtn-ofen, 'i1ikal Na,J)Oleoi'i" Lee, Miiistein and otIrlEir~" I1k'&d to' O'!iiernlElS 01T 11 Flvcl'M'e himsel~ tnl ~" aSipecls of oombai ope:r:atfoM, and ,consequently pmveda [pOOl' dGilegator.

This usuiillI¥ Cr'el'lillld no prob'tems (aUI'1Qugh it: doubth~§ pardy ,~p'laJlI1S why tn(! wol'ired :sucf1l1.anglltoUJfS)" but laccasiomlli~v .!nils mabUfly fo i"€Ileaselh~' n3'lns c~UJsed dlfiijcwJt~. D u,rh'lg OOth the Battle ,ot Kei'ich and 'Ine BeU1a' ai' Sev,aslnpo1i (May ;£lJlIld June- 1942 reSiJOeelive'ty); he Ir~rl!l$'ed laplace his poweliful:Hak units e'llsn'lempowlty under the ,ope;al!lonw ,command of IEI&ilel'llih Army's adl1lery ,o!fioe:rs, insisting instead on d'ir~clingl 'their use "rmself. Additionally, lrather thai'! di~petsing his ~Iak unlils amol'ligst army dMsiofls\ ,a;slhe,,;Mtill:ery OfliO:iUS Ir€'l:ll1E!sted', liIe insli$ii!1!dltlay remain IQog:e,ther:so ~hat ~hell' gl.mliirecQuid be con~r!tf'ailied at 'CHI,c.ial points as the flood ,arose. Rich~hofel'is aClions wem 1}01 based 00 iogioal OIfgum.etl1$" blJ~ on !rillS {war Q"ooing oonlrot They ceJuiSsd 110 major problems on the baHI€I:"e~d. bu1 a greal deal of intef~seNioo 'frIction. He admlt1.ed In.h~s diar~ on 13 June· 19.if21hW hts il'l~b1lity to delegate aiUthorilyov~r his fl1JJk guns had caused, MEli. gl'Elat sq;uabbllEl 'Wi!ha.r~ commands.:al He lame'ly Uiad teO blame the army's, arUlIery of'licef'S. woo wanta<dLO "Irilter a~H' his guns. The!( wele ",senil~·. he, IUTIfail"iy dlalime:d. and !Named to deplOY (helm ,acoording to ~h:e 'laC'lics ur Wallemsterln" leader 01 fh~ Haib!1lI:)!,ng forces i;n '!he ThirlY Years War or Ihe seventeal1th, oe:ntury.

lI'kewlse, ,(:Inel' assuming ,command of LufWcUG 4 (4:m Air Fleet) in Jluly11942, he ofttlni round ii diiificlJil ~o delegate ,elfectivel!(' 10 !'lis two ail' OOiips oommalid~m. Generals F,le,bfg and P,flug,beil, who, were ac!ll.lalill very capable men. Durln91 ,;;Jlmosl,evel'Y temporary' lull ~'rIlighllnga'l: SlaJiilgrad" he fl91N soulh t.o the 'CaucS!$us 'to' direcl pe:rsollall!¥ the m'issicllll!S ,of IP'llug'bei I's ,air corps, wh1ch ope~8itGdI a,gainst SovteJl:gr,ound 'Jonna1iol'!,s and Blaok Sea ports {but flot. oeCOO5e of Hitle'FS poor prloritisil'lg, against the Ca_uc-aSius oil ~t~1d$. wlrltch might well have, deaJ1t ,St~11n a ma]ori:[low)'. R ichlhofen's freq,lJenr Ilights, so'Utfi ,not only' pm,ved exhau:9,til'lE,l, be~ausE! ,of their lengllhl 811d diooomforl, but they also .anooyed Pllugbeil. who rwel1i1ed hIs -meddling" and felt 'that he, had rro'l been ~ro$ted. O;rdJfliaJFwly. th}O'u,g;h~ RicrnthoFen':s dlsllke of deleg~UolJ1 caused no,grave p~ob'll3ms <lind $hould,i'l.ot be :seen ii,liS, evidence of il'lmll1lor oo:mmand :skills. As noted abOlile, 'I3\!en Napo.leon haI'e;d trusUng 'o1hers 'Wif!rl 'what he Qonsidered umporlant tasks; UUll h" almost everything!.

1'0 su m up, then, '!his slud,Y II'Elllfeaiis that Rlchlio1'en da:serWllsool1~demtl.o;r:las a 'OOll1memder of ootstarid:ing aptitude, certainly ont:l afllhe bl3$'l Qf ~he Second 'World 'War. lrie possessed a oombiU'lSlllion of traits and tQ'l.af!lls mat OOIl1ln'iibut'ed d'iltI&QUy Ito his elev.aLiol1! ~o ~he 'In,ig,1iesl rank in 'Ilw Wehfimacht aJrLdi. m,O'I'e impolitan't~ to hIs c()l'1Isi.stEintly high peri,orIDaIflGe in ba'We. He was ill1LelllgeM, iflnovati<ve", stJ"(l1i9-wm~c1. ~ggmsg;lve almil l!'igoro'U!s, and a,ta!erFIted and !li:l<ilhJI p:lanrH~lr 'Wilh a S'LlN3 grasp ,of tactics, and sllial:egy. He also coped marwllolJlsl(Y 'ifflfh ~1.m$5 and a punishing, albe:lt selr-iirnfli.med I' work ro!.Rline. A;lthougha hard taskimils,ter and stern diiscipllnariiati" hie ,qu~ckly 'W,on and nev.er LO::M ~l'Ie Ir,~spacl ,and Uus,t 0' botn slLlperi.cm and suborrd!n:a.1S$I, who feoo9nils~d fr.om h~s oons't~n'l presenoe S.t '~he h:on~.lreqlleflt expo5ure,lo danger and ceaseles$ e::HoM 'to ;litlsln ~lC'I;Ory that he ~ked In:othing from (hem that he wauld Inot offer himself.

16

He, pe:rsonally dimctedma!.~r aI~r al[ai()ksi'lll~er consulttng IC\~llr!l3illJ!ny wilih his: ,ait !corpscommiuld>ers: amd. without $uccl.un'bfng 'to ifl~er'5eMCle bias, alsQ' 'Wi~h ~,el!e¥aliit army gene,raJls, bel~e" W~106e headqu[l:rle rs or command pesls he fle'iAl' each dav in tJls~ulnemb~e StorCh. lHe~ook care o~ aU imjJortarn dle:cis~ons 2ilr'ld iiil;OUOn!; him>selr, e\!\e<n j( U~js m etanlexlendlng' his w()rk~ng d81Y aMlid redl!ciV'lg his~Jie,ep,. 1'0 (lIr~er to' ,a;!;Iold dLiSslpaUngl tJi:sstr'efllg'th. ,M cQnoenlraled l.iI~ltQ in Ililass are certalnl Scinwerpunkte (poln~s of IDiliXlim!!!ITI e:rforit). ~ih:l(lh l':!<ElaJllll\iIays seJec~~d in cr,ose consultation and care~ul Cii;,N:lrdinaliiolil w~th ~he ~Hmy" and he olte:n deploy€Jd !every ~~illa;h1e<li~r'asoo'taga.rr:Jsl single ~arg6~sl~ he ccnsid'e:~d ilnElceSlSaJry;ihis pmd~ed! dava$'latl~g IirefRlwer" W\hic.h,fIP~qju!~n:HY Q~!Wh.~lm.~d I!ll<i'l~ml~$s,o, g~aJllylh~t II Jied, d.lre~U.y to the sllIDooss(iuill QUi!oome gt b!3!lt~esa:!:"Id ca;mpaigns.

:RichlJhcdelil"III1E1F'1, Gerilainly wa1l'lranl~d thEl pmisEl an.d p:r:omoluo!tiI ~ ~ .n~ceavoo du~if!gll1j$ ~~etlme~ bl.lll1lol the lack or CO'IIer,aglll he Ii1:M$~lb$eqw~'i'!tly 1~f;llOeived JirQ!iWi! h~s,torial"1ls., mmtary oo:mme:nt<lll:o;~.s and sl.lUdenl:s o~' :wa~ in gene,rat I hope thi:sstudy h€llps:llOCOirii<edlihJ91 rmOaIMCG.,

FiI. Muner, The Getm9.J1 Air war m ,l1tl.rss/a {Balmm.@~: NauitcalsJN .Avr<JitTon P\!li1[:shilm91 Co., ~:9a!2h pI13?',

NoJes em· ths G~<lmilflAft fiorofl; A,tlr Mll1l~~ pubrlcali(ll1 1926, 2r<! :~dmQi1, April '1 g.m. IflI·'76.

[)€ItB1ils or :Rlcl'iilhore:m'5 lif,e ,and ,c;;uee.r.pruS hls peiFSOimru paper.s and drEl~ie$; hm 1 !lG1 'Ii", ~ 944, ~:an ba,fQundi il"llthe N:a~laB D~. Wo1i'r,aJlI1 Flh~. \1', Rlch1hoJenl, herd In!he 16u:n[Jie'.5archi'rloMltimMrchlv:, freibliilrg 1m, 8relsg<tu, 'S~emll"la.ny (ci:le~ !below as BAJM!A;~" f11~ N,67l • FOCI hlslLme inl Spall!'!', SEie Vol&. I, III Wld III~. Hils .a'bbre'!.l'ila~edsef'l;'lce, Il':ecordl is lnl IBA.lMA MSG 1/'1124.8.

~'

Hi, Coruml,. "Tliilill: liLli~twIliUa'~ Army Sup pari. Ooolrrne.m~B.18:t11'~, The Jaumsl of MjNta'fll His~ory:, 59, 1 i(JeiWlll!ary UI95}, P'P,SS'7a,

BNMA RLe1l19~ VIII ~ F'Jlagi8Mkol1P$, li'Iural~!'1d.F€ll'ilzU9~ MUllll~_hsc'hl'!lH;, II,. la311941 ,

OIl:.! 2'8,9.4'1, ,~I,I~liI1malilgcDs'~ElIIl \!OIilIIFl.W: Diifmhm1!hfl, o'l;u:usll a.D., ~arn!lnlg:Q~ AO]LlI~nit d~s VII,!. IFl"JI<. al'1. ~Md vorl Au(~eicMl,lngen, Um1mg:en eng r~ge,bUC~"JWI.l~ichnulil!lietl deS' 'G,an!, FElI{lilila[l'iclleC ell:, Il'Ig. IFm~. 'l, Arch1ho'el:1l.

l!J.S(. NOllionruArchivas: nml/l Sl97S,OOl: 'OKL,. Char Ge!"l<!lt 7G44142Che'fsache

" !'!Jotl! Oher die 8esprechufill belm FCiihrer·am 17.1'I .• 1!1l<12, be<.;:CgI~ EI~s",ll! ,tiler Lu~no~~e

II

F. HaJd\al~, Krrij;!Jstllg~buch: T!i011t:IiQ .Auf:zjt£hl1l,l:mgeifld'e:s Chld~ dl;i:s GanQ~~~~bllsd~ ~e>Elres.1939" 194.2, VOlume ~ II, pA2~ (,enlJy for .28 Mam'h1 9412.),

8NMA N67~19t. Or WoIl'mm Flilu 1i', Aichtihofel'l" IG§iI'Iemtre~dmersctia:ll. :PeiFSOnll~hies KJriegetagebudh: 8and 9: U . .031.12.19>12 ~cl~ed below as fiilicliiilihofen lEl),enltry foil' 18 .Apr~ll 942'.

HLPlodu~~, ThQ G!}ft:lii!i;i'l AIr F,~tii VimU$ FWssfA "943 'US,ii\F' IfIr$lI,Q:rloo~ S~!i No; 155 (~ew YOrk; ,At.rilQ PmsS!, 1:900)1, p, 7~n.

M~I:Cl1am, p, 41.

Cj'. 'SJe_Flierallleu1na!r:ltFleblgls commentG M FlI~hlhor:e-n:s ;e/!atlons wllh Rumanr:a:n ~ crommEl!l1ti1e:rs: Unl'llea SlailleG A~r r:'c:roe H~51)):rioa1111i~5e.E1n::h AQ~n'cy (c'l~:e,~ Ii:l elow as USAIFHIA.A~. FJla 168. 715EH3$: T~gebuch·~~.fla'[;;lIJe4,Itnan.t Ffeb1g (S!:aIirtgl\'Otd), 25.11.194:2,2~2. 1943. !3rnnykn :2 D€I~embfl[1 !M.2.

~NMA NEiC71:fflt: Rlaillbar.en' ra antJryicf 2 Ji:Jf'!£iI 1942.

l!1ld" en'try!Or ~U,m!l ]942:.

Ibid., ,efl'try!or9 Miay l,942.

Ibid., entry '!Or 10 Ma¥ 1942.

Ihld, ,entvytor 11 MOl)' '~942,

USArHRAK113.ao9~3 Vh1. 5; ~uptrnan..i:i l1e:(/iJ!!J.t1 P.ID;S\~, S!'tltffiliapflm tI, efi:lpp8n~:m.1eu,r!fiainet 5flJrzk8mp~~{lel~ Salrleh~B ,BUS R,~(JJB:nr:J"t9:42: entry .~~. 16 Septe~be~ ~942.

I~

,.~ I~

18 '11 II

;~

USAFH RA K2:m.0512·~ 8:38: Us. Air Foros' Or.l~ History P'r<¥Jltl'l1i iK2SlJ.05t2·t 8-3S:~ 8ft!}. ,S'en, PaiI)'·.w~El'fHOZZeJ, Germa_n'JUr.forc~ N~miJijt Ul7IJ, pp.127-12:8.

J. iFllI.ywaJ'd. '·Slalfflgrad: An EmmirriaJllol'l1 o,f HllIer'S Dec::l$foolo AITllft,~ Airpolll e.r Journal, XI, 1 IISpl'illg 1$7). pp, 21-31.

J. Hs.ywam, Stopped at Stallngla'd: The LultwaJIB and Hltkir's DfJfett!' in f1le' Easl, 1942· 1943 (lawr,em::el; Unlv,el1Slly Press of Ksrn;<lS. '1998'), p. 320.

Ibtd., p,,321.

IlbTd.

Thls rasCllflaUnlJ reporl to 'nJl181 3B~ InfanlryDJ'I.I'lslnn Is :app'9'ooed to his diary (BNMA Nan 19: Richtho~ m. ElQlry tor :2iii ·June 194'2),

Ibld., enlry '!Q~:2a Ji!.ma 1~"l2.

Ibld" anlfJl' 1l;1r25' Oal®a~ ~9'42.

E. VOIll Mansl:eilil, !l(e.rlcrooe Ste,ga (Boon: A;lhen~um.l9S5). :p. 25ft BJv:MA ~.U~,71;/9: RI'chtM[all' TB;elllry /0" 28 AprlI1,S42,

Ibld\ .• entryl.or 2 May 1942:" .

USAFHRA 5191.,619.7 €; Ii August 11945): HC:, US Stl'aJte,!l[c ,AJr Forces il'l Eur0lJ'9 'tRIe-Sir), ()mOO ,m tbe HiSlor!Wl. AAr Sla 390. APO 4'13, IJSAIrmy. '''iQuesliomaim on GAP Doctrine and Policy. MSWllI'"S by Gen. M~. W!'I Rohdslil (P.W,) and Col. Kriesche (P,W.) to, Qiili1'5I1l0ns 8ubml,tledi by fNjw IEl1gtilmwf.

SAlMI!. N67119; Rie'hllJolo\1i.rl ria; BriltFy I'Ilt13 J~I'H~ Ul42..

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Dr Joel Haywa.rd i!sa LeCh.if'er in Defence ami SI1rateQlfc S~udies: Sit Massey University. He s,p!N:ialises in el~rman his lory. parLlcu!a.rly thal of Ihe Ttl1l'd Retch, ,and leachEliS various (;th'B" asp'eC'!s and epochs 0:1' mililary !listelr),: He' has puiblis-Md widely '011 ~he WeltnrmaCiht's operatto.l'ls du ri!\9 Ule g.econd World War. He iSlih III aubJ r or ~ new book,. :81opp.e.d at Stalin,grad: ,he Lu"hwalffj ,and Hitlflr'SD(fJ~a.t in the East 1942- nus r(la.wenl:rl-ce: Ul'1lversily P.r''*iS 01 Kansifls" 1~998') and a ru!ml:::i'er of art[c:tes·'lhat have 3ppe·ared In 'The Jo.umaJ of StJlategic Studies, Atl'pClW8r ,fflstory. Afrptlwer ,Jcum~J; 'Th'a .)()!lfn'm 0>1 H.fstorf(Jf{;l.i Rmile,wand The Journal G't Slavic MNnary SturRes.

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