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The very first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult parent cell was a sheep named Dolly. Dolly was cloned on 5th of July 1996 and has been called ³the world¶s most famous sheep´ by a source including Scientific American and the BBC News. The brilliant scientists who made Dolly were Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and their colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland. Dolly¶s birth was announced seven month later and this news stunned the world. Unfortunately, Dolly did not survive long enough. She died in the year 2003 due to premature death.
Dolly attracted millions of column inches throughout her life and led to long running debates about the ethical issues of cloning, which became louder with news of her death in the year 2003. Sheep usually can live to twice her age but she suffered from a type of lung disease usually seen in much older animals.This is because;during nuclear transfer process, scientist uses aged parent chromosomes.
The result of her death was predictable to some critics as cloning is a relatively new thing and it is difficult to get the technology right. In fact, in over 250 attempts at cloning a sheep, only Dolly was successfully cloned.
. Scientist at the Roslin Institute had attempted 277 times to clone sheep from adult parent cells and Dolly was the onlysuccess over this hundreds attempt. the creation of a viable clone of a complex mammal was unexpected. they introduced this into an oocyte( an unfertilized egg) that had it nucleus removed. a jolt of electricity was used. They removed all the cellular machinery to leave all the genetic material and nucleus containing DNA to create life.Process The cloning of Dolly was not known by the world until a year after its birth. a Scottish Blackface ewe. Nucleus was taken from a Finn Dorset sheep. and the donor cells were reprogrammed to keep them alive but the growing process was ceased. they implanted it into a surrogate. When the hybrid cell began to divide mitotically it develops into a blastocyst and were then implanted into a surrogate mother. The process of introduction is known as somatic cell transfer and to kick start the fertilization. Dolly's birth There were two most important main reasons the stunned the scientific community. Her named was taken after the singer Dolly Parton. First was that Dolly existed at all. Secondly. After the egg cell was cultured for a week. Then the cells were fused by using electricity. The cells were then injected into an egg cell withouta nucleus. An adult mammary cell needs to be taken from the udder of another sheep in order to create Dolly. Then.
but Dolly only manage to live about six years of age. Dr Harry Griffin. She was diagnosed to suffer from arthritis and scientists had put her on anti-inflammatory drugs. According to the Acting Director of Roslin Institute. and lung infections are common in older sheep. The cause of Dolly suffering from arthritis was never discovered and there is . ³Sheep can live to 11 or 12 years of age. Later then. Dolly began to have difficulties in walking. A Finn Dorset sheep has an average life expectancy around 11 to 12 years. H years later. she developed a progressive lung disease and a decision was made to have put her down. Dolly had leaded an excellent health and becamea mum when she was bred with a Welsh Mountain Ram. She were allowed to breed with a ram and she had six lambs. Dolly was been put to death because she no longer has any quality of life due to her suffer of progressive lung disease and severe arthritis. Life Dolly spent her entire life under the observation of scientists at Roslin Institute. particularly those housed indoors. There is no evidence that cloning was a factor in Dolly contracting the disease.For most of her life. The first lamb was born in year 1998 and was named Bonny. On 14th February 2003.´ A post-mortem test was made and the results shows that Dolly had a form of lung cancer called Jaagsiekte. Dolly gave birth to a set of twins and then another year later she had triplets. All of her off springs lead a normal life. One year later. Dolly's death Dolly started to suffer from health problems in year 2002 when she was diagnosed with a form of arthritis.a fairly common illness of sheep which is caused by a retrovirus JSRV.
they found that the structures in her cells called the telomereswere slightly shorter than it would be expected in a sheep of her age conceived naturally. it shows that Dolly¶s DNA was µolder¶ than her body and this made scientists realized that Dolly might die young. The technology used in cloning her showed us that our cells are capable of doing much more things that benefits our body. Legacy Dolly¶s creation leaves our world a long lasting legacy. So from this. where new healthy cells can be created from differentiated cells that have been wound back to their embryonic state. It holds out hope for the process of therapeutic cloning for treatment of cancer and degenerative cell illness for example. It also shows us the capability of our body to repair its own damage through its own specific repair mechanisms. Dolly¶s success had made cloning technology continues to improve and provides the scientific world with a better understanding of cloning technology. This had led to a further study of Dolly¶s genetics. .still a long ongoing debate about whether Dolly died prematurely as the result of being clone. From their findings.