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EDC k Lal Kishore

EDC k Lal Kishore

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(1) Voltage Measurements

(2) Frequency Measurements

(3) Phase Measurements

(4) T.VDisplay

(5) Indicators Diagrams

(6) Computer Monitors, etc.

1.6.1 CURRENT MEASUREMENT USING CRO

The voltage drop (V) across a resistor 'P' is measured using CRO. The current'!' through the
resistor can be determined using the formula I = V / R.

1.6.2 FREQlJENCY MEASllREMENT

By observing the A.C. signal waveform on CRO, the number of divisions are measured, on the
timescale. Time 'T' is determined by mUltiplying No. of divisions with m.sec (or )..t sec) / Div.

1

Frequency f = T

SUMMARY

V

E = _. F = e x E·,
d '

v= ~2X:V ; y=

Transit Time "t = ~ 2m x d

exV

1 eV = 1.6 x 10-19

Joules

ex E x t2

2m

The trajectory of an electron in uniform retarding electric field, when the initial velocity
is making an angle 8 with the field is parabola.

2Vo

X = -

x d x Sin 28·

m

V

'

Force experienced by electron in magnetic field
f = B x I x L Newtons

y

IxD

SE = -; = Electrostatic Deflection Sensitivity, SE = 2s Va

SM= Electromagnetic Deflection Sensitivity,

Electron Dynamics and CRO

37

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

1.

Electric Field Intensity E = .............................. Its units are ............................. .

2.

Expression for the velocity of electron v in terms of acclerating potential
V = ............................. .

3.

Force experienced by an electron in a magnetic field of Intensity B,
fm = .............................. Newtons.

4.

The acceleration of an electron placed in an electric field of intensity & is
a = ............................. .

5.

The trajectory of an electron moving with velocity v in a magnetic field B is

6.

The time taken T for one revolution of an electron in a magnetic field, is
T = ............................. .

7.

Expression for the radius of an electron placed in a magnetic field of intensity B, and
moving with velocity v is r = ............................. .

8.

Expression for electrostatic deflection sensitivity SE = ............................. .

9.

Expression for electromagnetic deflection sensitivity SM = ............................. .
10. Graduated scales on the CRO Screen are called as ............................. .
11. Coating which provides the return path for electrons after striking the CRO Screen

12. Cathode Material used in Cathode Ray Tube ............................. .
13. The nature of signal ( wave shape) of Time Base in a CRO is ............................. .
14. Electrostatic deflection sensitivity is defined as ............................. .
15. Electromagnetic deflection sensitivity is defined as ............................. .
16. The energy acquired by an electron in rising through a potential of one volt is

17. A Conductor of length L consists of N electrons. An electron takes T seconds to
travel the distance L. The total number of electrons passing through any cross section
in unit times is .............................. .
18. The trajectory of an electron in two dimensional motion subjected to an electric field
between two plates of a capacitor is .............................. .
19. Relativistic correction should be applied if an electron falls through a potential of
above .............................. volts.
20. When a current carrying conductor oflength L is placed in a magnetic field of strength
B, the force experienced by the conductor is F m = ............................. .
21. When an electron enters the magnetic field with a velocity v in a direction perpendicular
to the magnetic field, the magnetic force results in .............................. motion of the
electron.
22. The .............................. deflection sensitivity is inversely proportional to the square
of accelerating potential.
23. The .............................. deflection is independent of specific charge (elm).
24. When suitable alternating voltages are impressed against two pairs of deflecting p!ates
in a CRO, the famous .............................. figures are obtained on the screen.
25. The mass of a particle moving with a velocity v in terms of its rest mass mo is given
by m = ............................ ..

38

Electronic Devices and Circuits

ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS

1.

Derive the expression for the velocity acquired by an electron, when placed in an
accelerating field &.

2.

Derive the expression for radius 'R' and time period 'T' in the case of an electron
placed in a magnetic field of intensity B tesla.

3.

Derive the expression for electrostatic deflection sensitivity

4.

Derive the expression for electromagnetic deflection sensitivity.

5.

With the help of a neat sketch, describe principle and working of Cathode Ray Tube.

6.

Give the constructional details of Cathode Ray Tube.

7.

Compare Electrostatic and Electromagnetic deflection mechanisms

8.

What are the applications of CRO? Give the block schematic of CRO and explain.

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. 1 ev = ..... Joules

(a) 1.6 x 1019

Joules (b) 1.7 x 10-9

(c) 6.1 x 10-19

(d) 1.6 x 10-19

2. If the electron starts at rest with initial velocity = 0 m/Sec and is accelerated by
potential +V, volts the final velocity is,

(a) 5.93)( 105

.JV mlsec

(c) 9.53 x 105

.JV Km/sec

(b)

(d)

5.9 x 105

.JV cmlsec

3.59 x 105

.JV mlsec

3. The expression for current I passing through a conductor of cross sectional area

'A'm1

, in time t secs, with electron density N per mJ

, of charge e, is 1=

Ne

Ne

Ne

NA

(a) -t-

(b) t L

(c) t A

(d)

e t

4. The force experienced by an electron in parallel electric field '&' vim and magnetic
field 'B' wb/m1

, with initial velocity zero m/sec, is ...

Be

e. £

B £

(b) m

(c) B rrt

(d)

Zero

em
5. If aL electron is placed in combined '&' and 'B' fields and if '&' and 'B' are
perpe ldicular to each other, and if the initial velocity is perpendicular to magnetic
field IS, the path of the electron is

(a) Common parabola
(c) Prolate parabola

(b)
(d)

Curtate parabola
Trochoid

6. CRT screens with medium persistance will have visible glow on the screen for a

period of

(a) 1 minute

(b) 2 secs

(c) 1 m sec

(d) few minutes

In this Chapter,

The basic aspects connected with Semiconductor Physics and the terms
like Effective Mass, Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Semiconductors are introduced.

Atomic Structure, Configurations, Concept of Hole, Conductivity inp-type
and n-type semiconductors are given. This forms the basis to study
Semiconductor Devices in the following chapters.

After p-type and n-type semiconductors, we shall study semiconductor
devices formed using these two types of semiconductors.

We shall also study the physical phenomena such as corniuction, transport
mechanism, electrical characteristics, and applications of semiconductor
diodes, zener diode, tunnel diode and so on.

40

Electronic Devices and Circuits

In this chapter, we shall first study the basic aspects of Atomic Theory, Electronic structure
of Silicon and Germanium elements, Energy Band Theory, Semiconductor Device Physics, and
then conduction in Semiconductors.

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