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EDC k Lal Kishore

EDC k Lal Kishore

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Fig 4.77 Photo diode reverse characteristics.

In a photodiode, the current sensitivity is much larger compared to a photoconductive cell. But this
can be further increased by taking advantage of the inherent current multiplication found in a
transistor. Photo transistors have a lens, to focus the radiation or light on to the common base
junction of the transistor. Photo induced current of the junction serves as the base current of the
transistor (I,,).

or

Fig. 4.78 Symbols for Photo transistors

Therefore collector current Ie = ( 1 + h

fe ) 1,,-

The base lead may be left floating or used to bias the transistor into some area of operation.
Symbol for photo transistor:
Ifthe base lead in left open, the device is called photo duo diode.
Symbol is
It has two diodes pn and np. So it is called as photo duo diode.

Fig. 4.79 Symbol for Photo duo diode.

Transistor Characteristics

257

SUMMARY

The relation between Emitter Efficiency y, Transportation Factor 13* and Current
Gain a is,




* .

a=13 xy

Transistor is an acronym for the words Transfer Resistor. As the input side in
forward biased and output side is reverse biased, there is transfer of resistance
from a lower value on input side to a higher value on the output side.

Transitor can be used as an amplifiers, when operated in the Active Region. It is also
used as a Switch, when operated in the cut-off and saturation regions.
The three configurations of Transistor are Common Emitter, Common Base and
Common Collector.

The proper name for this device being referred as transistor is Bipolar Junction
Transistor ( BJT ).

The three regions of the output characteristics of a transistor are

1.

Active Region

2.

Saturation Region

3.

Cut-off Region

JFET is UNIPOLAR Device (Unipolar only one type of carriers either holes or
electrons)

JFET device has Higher input resistance compared to BJT and Lower input resistance
compared to MOSFET.

The disadvantage of JFET amplifier circuits is Smaller Gain -Bandwidth product
compared to BJT amplifier circuits.

avosl

r

ds (ON) = aI

D V", = K

aVDSI

J.l = Amplification factor = av

GS In= K

Relation between J.l, rd and gm for a JFET is J.l = rd x gm
Width of the depletion region W n for n-channel JFET, interms of pinch off voltage V p

is W = {~Vp}1/2

eND

Expression for 1m; in tenns of Inw V GS and V, is In ~ Inss {I -~s r

I
Dss = Satuaration value of Drain current when gate is shorted to source.

258





Electronic Devices and Circuits

For zero drift current in the case of JFET, 0.00711DI = 0.0022 gm
For zero drift current, in the case of JF ETs, IV pi-IV osl = 0.63V

Expression for gm for JFET interms of gmo is, gm = (1-~:s )

The two types ofn-channel or p-channel MOSFETs are
I. Depletion type

2. Enchancement type

In JFET terminology, B V DGO parameter means the value of breakdown voltage V DO
at breakdown when the source is left open i.e., Is = O.

The parameters B Voss stands for breakdown voltage Vos when drain is shorted to
source.

At high frequencies, the expressions for input capacitance C

m of JFET shunting Ro

is, C

m = Cgs + [I + gm (R

L II r

d)] C

gd

The purpose of swamping resistor rs connected in series with source resistance ~ in
common source (C.S) JFET amplifier is to reduce distortion.
Simplified expression for voltage gian Ay in the case of common Drain JFET amplifier

Rs
is A = ----"--

y

1

Rs+-

gm

The distortion caused due to the non linear trarfsfer curve of JFET device, in amplifier
circuits is known as Square Law Distorion.

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

I.

For identical construction, .............................. types of bipolar junction transistors
(BJTs) have faster switching times.

.

2.

The arrow mark in the symbols of BJTs indicates ............................. .

3.

For NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor Emitter Efficiency y = ............................ ..

4.

For PNP Transistor (BJT), the transportation factor 13* = ............................. .

5.

Relation between a, 13* and y for a transistor ( BJT ). a = ............................. .

6.

The expression for a in terms of 13 for a BJT is ............................. .

7.

The expression for 13 in terms of a for a BJT is ............................ ..

8.

Expression for Ie in terms of 13, IB and leBO is ............................ ..

9.

Expression for leEO in terms of leBO and a is ............................ ..
10. J3' of a BJT is defined as ............................. .
II. J3' of a transistor ( BJT ) is ............................ ..

12. Relation between J3' and 13 is ............................. .

13. J3' is synonymous to .............................. and 13 is same as ............................. .
14. 13 is .............................. ( for DC Currents ).

15. J3' is .............................. ( for AC Currents ).

Transistor Characteristics

259

16. Base width modulation is ............................. .

17. IGFET is the other name for .............................. device.

18. In JFET recombination noise is less because it is .............................. device.

19. The disadvantage of JFET amplifier circuit is .............................. .

20. The D, G, S terminals of JFET are similar to .............................. terminals of BJT
respectively.

21. The voltage V DS at which ID tends to level off, in JFET is called .............................. .

22. The voltage V GS at which ID becomes zero in the transfer characteristic of JFET is
called .............................. .

23. The range of r

DS (ON) for JFET is .............................. .
24. For low electric fields E of the order of 103

V fcm, /J. ex .............................. .

x
25. Expression for V GS in terms of V P' .............................. .

26. Expression for IDX in terms of IDSS in IDS ............................. .
27. IDSS in defined as .............................. .

28. JFET can be used as .............................. resistor.

29. Relation between /J., rd and gm for JFET is .............................. .

30. The square law device is ............................. .

31. The MOSFET that can be used in both enhancement mode and depletion mode is

ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS

1. With the help of a neat graph qualitatively explain the Potential distribution through transistor (BJT).

2. Explain about the different current components in a transistor.

3. Derive the relation between 13 and 13' .

4. Derive the relation between ex, 13* and y

5. Differentiate between the terms hFE and h

fe. Derive the relationship between them.

6. Qualitatively explain the input and output.

7. Explain the V-I characteristics in Common Emitter Configuration.

8. Describe the V-I characteristics of a transistor in Common Collector Configuration
and Explain.

9. Draw the Eber-Moll Model of a transistor for NPN transistor and explain the same.

10. Compare the input and output characteristics of BJT in the three configurations,

critically.

11. Compare BJT, JFET and MOSFET devices in all respects.

12. Derive the expression for the width of Depletion region' W' in the case of p-channel

JFET.

13. Obtain the expression for the pinch offvoItage Vp in the case ofn-channel JFET

14. Deduce the condition for JFET biasing for zero drift current.

"rl

260

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

Electronic Devices and Circuits

Draw the structure and explain the static Drain and Gate characteristics of n-channel
JFET. Repeat the same for p-channel JFET.

Draw the structure of p-channel MOSFET and Qualitatively explain the static Drain
and Gate characteristics of the device.

What are the applications of JFET and MOSFET devices?

Give the constructional features ofUJT.

Qualitatively explain the static V-I characteristics ofUJT.

What is the significance of negative resistance region? Explain how UJT exhibits this
characteristics ?

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. As reverse bias voltage is increased, for a diode, the base width at the junction

(a) decreases

(b) increases

(c) remains same

(d) none of these

2. Expression for 'a.' of a BJT in terms of I ,IE' I etc is

pc

c

(a) ~

(b) ~

(c) ~

(d) lnE

IE

IE

IE

Ic

*

3. Expression for (3 is,

(a)

I pc

(b) I pc

I pc

I PE

I PB

InB

(c)

IPE

(d)

I pc

4. The relation between I

CEO' ICBO and a. is, I

CEO =

(a) leBO

(b)

ICBO

(c)

I CBO

(d)

I

CBO

a

(1 + a)

(1-a)2

(1-a)

5. For a transistor in C.E configuration to be at cut-off, the condition is,

(a) VSE = -Vss + Rs. ICBO ~ -0.4 (b) VSE = + Vss -Rs. ICBO:S: 0.4

(c) VBE=-VBB+~.ICBO:S:-O.I

(d) VBE=-VBB-RB.ICBO:S:-O.I

6. The condition for test for saturation in a BJT is

7. Expression for satlJrafic»I=resistance Rcs of a transistor (BJT) is ••.

~a)

VCE

(b)

VeE

R-~s= --

R c s = Ic(sat)

.

Je(sat)

(c) R~-=;;:;

VCE (sat)

(d)

Y

CE

Rc s=~-

Ie

Ic

Transistor Characteristics

261

8. The symbol shown is V is that of a .....

(a) DIAC

(b) GTO

(c) SCR

(d) TRIAC

9. DIAC is a ..... layer device

(a) 4 layer

(b) 3 layer

(c) 6 layer

(d) Two layers

10. The forward break over voltage is symbolically represented as, (For SCR)

(a) V

BO

(b) V

BOO;

(c) V

BR

(d) V

FBO

"

..

11. Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor (IGFET) is a ...

(a) Normal JFET device

(b) n-channel J FET device

(c) p-channel JFET device

(d) MOSFET device

12. Compared to BJT, JFET is

(a) Less noisy

(b) more noisy

(c) Same noisy

(d) can't be said

13. At pinch off voltage in a JFET device,

(a) Channel width is zero and 10 becomes zero

(b) Channel width is zero, but 10 is not zero

(c) Vos becomes zero

(d) None of these

14. For high eletric field strengths E > 104

V/cm, mobility of carriers is proportional to

(c)

(d) None of these

15. The pinch off voltage Vp in the case of n-channel JFET is proportional to

1

(a) N 2

0

(b)

No

(c)

~No

(d) No

16. Expression for In in the case of JFET is,

(a)

( V" ]
loss 1-Vp

(b)

Vgs

( )'

loss 1-Vp

(c)

Vgs

( )'

loss 1 + Vp

(d)

VgS

( r

loss V

p-1

17. The condition to be satisfied for zero drift current is,

(a) 0.007 1101 = 0.0022 gm

(c) 0.7 1101 = 0.0022 gm

(b) 0.071101 = 0.022 gm

(d) 0.007 1101 = 0.022 gm

262

Electronic Devices and Circuits

I

1

:
I

1

I

I

I

i

I

I
I

1

I

i

!

!

i

i
I

!

:

1

,
,

!

I

!
!

18. The relation between J.1, rd and gm for JFET is,

19.

(a) Il=rd/gm

(b) rd=Il.2gm

(c) Il=rd.gm (d) ll=rd2

.gm

Typical values of Il' r d and gm for JFET are,

(a) 1l=5,rd=100n,gm=100mV (b)

(b) Il = 6, rd = 1 Mn, gm = 10K V

(d)

Il= 1000, rd = 10 n, gm = 0.1 mU

Il= 7, rd = IMn, gm = 0.5 mAN

20. The resistor which is connected in series with source resistance Rs to reduce
distortion in JFET amplifier circuits is called

(a)

(c)

SI.No.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

Swamping resistor

(b) swinging resistor

\

bias resistor

(d) distortion control resistor

Specifications of a Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

~.~

~ .~

. ~

Symboi

Typical value

Parameter

Collector-Emitter Voltage

VCE

40

Collector-Base Voltage

V

CB

60

Emitter-Base Voltage

V

EB

6

Collector-Current

Ic

500

Total Power Dissipation

Po

0.4

Operating Temperature

Top

25-80

Collector-Emitter Break down

voltage

BV

CEO

40

Emitter-Base Break down

voltage

BV

EBO

50

Current -Gain Bandwidth product

fT

250

Output Capacitance

Co

8

Input Capacitance

Chi

20

Small Signal Current gain

h

re

100

Output admittance

hoe

10

Voltage feedback ratio

h

re

8 x 10-4

Input impedance

hie

3

Delay time

td

10

Rise time

tr

20

Fall time

tr

50

Storage time

ts

200

Noise Figure

NF

4

~~ .

~ ~.

Units

V

V

V

rnA

W

°C

V

V

MHz

I

Pr

1

Pr

I

-

i

mU 1

-

kn

nSec.

nSec.

nSec.

nSec.

I

dB

,

Transistor Characteristics

Nomanclature used for Transistors (BJTs)

BC107

Silicon Device

(NPN Transistor)

B

C

107

A

Audio Amplifier application

Type Number (No Significance)

Germanium Device

AF 114

F

High Frequency Applications

114

Type No.

2N 2222

2

Two Junction semiconductor device

(NPN Transistor)

AC 128

Germanium Audio Frequency range BJT

Silicon Audio Frequency range Transistor

NPN RF Power Transistor, 5W, 30V O.4A.

NPN High power, 115W, 45V, 15A.

BC 147

2N 3866

2N6253

2 N 1481

NPN 5W, 40V, I.SA

c

. '.,

"w:;:e

B. EeB

f;lE

E

C

Fig. 4.38 Transistor terminal identification

,,&

,~

,

./ '

Gare-Cathode

Anode

Cathode" Gate

Gate

Cathode

(a)

Anode~

. Anode

(c)

263

Fig. 4.39 SCR case construction and terminal identification {(a) courtesy general electric
company; (b) and (c) courtesy international rectifier corporation}

264

Electronic Devices and Circuits

Type Numbers of JFETs

2 N 4869

BFWIO

BFW 11

N -channel Silicon JFET

N -channel Silicon JFET

N -channel Silicon JFET

2N5457

Case 29-04, Styles
T0-92(TO-226AA)

1 Drain

3 Gate

JFElS 2 Source
General purpose
N-Channel-Depletion

Fig. 4.40 Identification of JFET leads

2N4351

Case 20-03, Styles 2
TO-72(T0-206AF)

3 Drain

!

a-J

Gate .. _J ~ -4 Case

i

I Source

MOSFET
Switching
N-Channel-Enhancement

Fig 4.41 Identification of MOSFET leads

Trans istor Ch aracteristics

SI.No.

1

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Specifications of JFETs (Typical Values)

Parameter

Symbol

Typical Value

Drain-Source voltage

Vos

25

Drain-Gate voltage

VOG

25

Reverse Gate -Source voltage

V GSR

-25

Gate Current

IG

10

Junction temperature range

1]

125

Gate source Breakdown voltage

V (BR)GSS

-25

Type No. 2N5457 n-channel JFET
Type No.2 N 4351 n-channel Enhancement type MOSFET
MOSFET

265

Units

V

V

V

rnA

°C

V

SI.No. Parameter

Symbol

Typical. Value

Units

1.

Drain-Source voltage

Vos

25

V

2.

Drain-Gate voltage

VOG

30

V

3.

Gate-source voltage

V

GS

30

V

4.

Drain current

10

30

rnA

5.

Zero gate voltage drain current

loss

10

nA

6.

Gate threshold voltage

V GS (th)

1

V

266

Electronic Devices and Circuits

UJT

SI.No. Parameter

Symbol

Typical Value

Units

1.

Power Dissipation

P

D

300

mw

2.

RMS Emitter current

IE (rms)

50

rnA

3.

Emitter reverse voltage

V

ER

30

V

4.

Inter base voltage

V B are (inter)

30

V

5.

Intrinsic stand off ratio

11

0.5S

-

6.

Peak Emitter current

Ip

0.14

f.lA

7.

Valley point current

Iv

4

rnA

8.

Emitter reverse current

lEO

1

f.lA

Specifications of Light Emitting diode (LED)

SI.No.

Parameter

Symbol

Typical Value

Units

1.

Average forward Current

IF

20

rnA

2.

Power Dissipation

PD

120

mw

3.

Peak forward Current

i f(peak)

60

rnA

4.

Axial luminous Intensity

Iv

1

mcd milli candelas

5.

Peak wavelength

A Peak

600

nm

6.

Luminous efficiency

nv

140

Im/w

In this Chapter,

The need for biasing and its significance in amplifier circuits is explained.
The Quiescent point, or operating point or 'Q' point is explained.

Different types of biasing circuits are given and the expressions for stability
factors are derived.

Variation of 'Q' point with temperature and temperature compensating
circuits are given.

268

Electronic Devices and Circuits

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